Charles [Karl] Follen, by Wikipedia

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Charles [Karl] Follen, by Wikipedia

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Charles Follen
by Wikipedia

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Frontispiece of 1841 edition of Collected Works

There were more radical, conspiratorial, and revolutionary groups within the Urburschenschaft, such as the Unbedingten (Unconditionals) and the “Giessen Blacks” – Karl Follen (1796-1840) and his protégé, Karl Sand (1795-1820) were amongst its leaders. Sand would politically assassinate the conservative dramatist August von Kotzebue in 1819, which led to the Carlsbad Decrees and the repression known as the Demagogenverfolgung. Follen was suspected of being involved and he eventually fled to Chur, Switzerland. “None of Follen’s political associates in Jena had the slightest doubt that he was a ‘German devil’ and a ‘bloody revolutionary.’” Prussian historian Heinrich von Treitschke would famously describe Follen as a “petty Robespierre … endowed with great terroristic powers.”

A recent remarkable biography of Karl Follen consolidates and assesses the scattered, but increasingly voluminous research into his life and times. Follen et al. – the Giessen Blacks and the Unconditionals – it turns out – were akin to terroristic nihilists. On July 1st in the same year as the Kotzebue assassination there was a failed attempt on the life of Karl von Ibell (1780-1834) by a Giessen Black and Follen associate, Karl Löning (1791-1819). Löning was arrested, imprisoned, and committed suicide by swallowing broken glass. Löning was practically brainwashed, much like Sand, by the rhetoric of the radicals in Jena and Giessen. Reminiscent of the all-too-familiar Muslim Jihadists, Löning was convinced he was doing “something good, which pleased God and humanity.” Friedrich Münch (1799-1881), a friend of both Karl and his brother Paul Follen, wrote that Karl Follen wished “to intimidate government authorities” and make them think “that his secret conspiracy of political murderers could strike anytime and anywhere they chose to.” Löning’s justification for the attempted assassination was in whole the doctrine of Karl Follen, Jakob Fries, the Giessen Blacks and the Unconditionals. “Follen may not have directly ordered Sand and Löning to murder specific individuals,” writes Spevack; “he did, however, explicitly recommend murder to them as a political tool as often as he could.”

In Spevack’s book the doctrine espoused is described as the “principal of conviction,” while Treitschke calls it a “cult of personal conviction”:

It was bluntly declared that for the righteous man no law was of account. What the reason recognises as true must be realised by the moral will, at once, unconditionally, uncompromisingly, even to the point of annihilating all those who hold different opinions; there cannot be any talk of a conflict of duties, for the realisation of the reason is a moral necessity. This proposition was known simply as “the principle,” and it was on its account that Follen’s confidants termed themselves the “Unconditionals.” To the members of this sect it seemed that anything was permissible for the sake of popular freedom -- lying, murder, or any other crime -- for no one had the right to withhold freedom from the people.

Thus did the evangel of the overthrow of all moral and political order make its first appearance in Germany, that terrible theory which, under many different cloaks, was ever and again to disturb the century, and which was finally to receive its extremest development in the doctrine of the Russian nihilists. But Follen draped his nihilism in a Christian mantle: Jesus, the martyr of conviction, was the Unconditionals’ hero; their association-song declared “A Christ shalt thou become!”


In 1819 the assassinations of the Duchess Dowager of Russia, as well as Czar Alexander I, were also contemplated by the Follen Unconditionals. Russia was, after all, integral to the Holy Alliance and the Metternichian suppression of real and imagined revolutionaries. Kotzebue was assassinated because of his ties to the court of Russia, as well as his vilification of various radical factions within Germany.

The Kotzebue assassination had an “electric effect on wavering revolutionaries,” wrote James H. Billington. [29] Chief among them was the Filippo Buonarroti (1761-1837) accomplice – Mason and Carbonaro, Philadelphe and a Sublime Maître Parfait – Joachim Paul de Prati (1790-1863). To Prati, this was a striking example of the “power of fanaticism,” and an inspiring “signal for a general combat.”

…from that moment all my mind became as it were inflamed for political strife; from that moment I plunged headlong in a continual series of conspiracies and revolutionary commotions.


It was while in exile in Chur that Karl Follen had met Prati,

and, together with Wilhelm Snell (1789-1851) committed to forming a conspiratorial triumvirate-junta, in April 1820.

Twelve men, from different countries, should act as leaders. Each of the twelve were entitled to form as many secret societies as they thought proper, in order to associate the army, the nobility, the students, the craftsmen, and others, whilst the political creed was adapted according to their peculiar notions, but leaving them in the dark as to the first and more secret union. Thus the mysterious “Männerbund” was established with the aim to unite and republicanise Germany, whilst for the students the “Jünglingsbund” was organized. It was planned to recruit political associates in Italy, France and Germany. Snell left for Germany, Follen for Paris, Prati for Italy. Follen was in Paris from May-July 1820, where he met Voyer d’Argenson and Joseph Rey, who had founded in 1816 at Grenoble a secret society “Union”, of which in Paris Lafayette and Voyer d’Argenson were members. Implicated in the conspiracy of Nantil, 19th August 1820, Rey fled to Switzerland. There, at the end of that year, he met Prati and Wilhelm Snell, and then discussed plans to internationalize “Union” and the “Männerbund”. The “Männerbund” was dependent, as was stated in the “mémoire” for Metternich “on that secret centre which has secretly directed the greater part of the secret societies of Europe for years”. In other words: on Buonarroti.


Follen’s Jünglingsbund (Youth League) seems to have been formed, but the directing body, Männerbund (League of Men) was not.

The 1820s were a prime time for secret societies of all stripes. Follen’s exploits and connections enabled him – however briefly – to rub shoulders with the “crème de la crème” of the European-wide revolutionary movement. He stayed in Switzerland until 1824, escaping the authorities in Germany and Prussia for five years. Finally, he realized it wasn’t safe any longer and fled for good to the United States. Through the aid of Lafayette, Karl Follen was accepted into the faculty at Harvard, becoming the University’s first professor of German.

-- The Influence of the Illuminati and Freemasonry on German Student Orders (and Vice Versa), by Terry Melanson


Charles Follen (September 6, 1796 – January 13, 1840) was a German poet and patriot, who later moved to the United States and became the first professor of German at Harvard University, a Unitarian minister, and a radical abolitionist.

Life in Europe

He was born Karl Theodor Christian Friedrich Follen at Romrod, in Hesse-Darmstadt, Germany, to Christoph Follen (1759–1833) and Rosine Follen (1766–1799). His father was a counselor-at-law and judge in Giessen, in Hesse-Darmstadt. His mother had retired to Romrod to avoid the French revolutionary troops that had occupied Gießen. He was the brother of August Ludwig Follen and Paul Follen, and the uncle of the biologist Karl Vogt.

He was educated at the preparatory school at Giessen, where he distinguished himself for proficiency in Greek, Latin, Hebrew, French, and Italian. At the age of seventeen, he entered the University of Giessen to study theology. In 1814 he and his brother August Ludwig went to fight in the Napoleonic Wars as Hessian volunteers; however, a few weeks after enlisting, his military career was cut short by an acute attack of typhus fever, which seemed for a time to have completely destroyed his memory. After his recovery he returned to the university and began studying law, and in 1818 was awarded a doctorate in civil and ecclesiastical law.[1] He then established himself as Privatdocent of civil law at Giessen, studying at the same time the practice of law in his father's court. As a student, Follen joined the Giessen Burschenschaft whose members were pledged to republican ideals.

A recent remarkable biography of Karl Follen consolidates and assesses the scattered, but increasingly voluminous research into his life and times. Follen et al. – the Giessen Blacks and the Unconditionals – it turns out – were akin to terroristic nihilists. On July 1st in the same year as the Kotzebue assassination there was a failed attempt on the life of Karl von Ibell (1780-1834) by a Giessen Black and Follen associate, Karl Löning (1791-1819). Löning was arrested, imprisoned, and committed suicide by swallowing broken glass. Löning was practically brainwashed, much like Sand, by the rhetoric of the radicals in Jena and Giessen. Reminiscent of the all-too-familiar Muslim Jihadists, Löning was convinced he was doing “something good, which pleased God and humanity.” Friedrich Münch (1799-1881), a friend of both Karl and his brother Paul Follen, wrote that Karl Follen wished “to intimidate government authorities” and make them think “that his secret conspiracy of political murderers could strike anytime and anywhere they chose to.” Löning’s justification for the attempted assassination was in whole the doctrine of Karl Follen, Jakob Fries, the Giessen Blacks and the Unconditionals. “Follen may not have directly ordered Sand and Löning to murder specific individuals,” writes Spevack; “he did, however, explicitly recommend murder to them as a political tool as often as he could.”

-- The Influence of the Illuminati and Freemasonry on German Student Orders (and Vice Versa), by Terry Melanson


Though he did not attend himself, Follen was a major organizer of the first Wartburg festival of 1817.[2][3]

Wartburg Festival
by Wikipedia

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Students marching to the Wartburg in 1817

The first Wartburg festival (German: Wartburgfest) on 18 October 1817 was an important event in German history that took place at the Wartburg Castle near Eisenach.

After the war of liberation against France and Napoleon, many people were bitter about dreams of German unity shattered after the Congress of Vienna. Democratic reforms were stalled, and governments had cracked down on press freedom and rights of association.

In 1815 the students of Jena founded the youth organization Teutonia in order to encourage German unity at the university. Many of them had participated as voluntary soldiers on the fields against Napoleon, e.g. in the Lützow Free Corps with its black-red-gold colour scheme that was adopted as the Flag of Germany. The German students demonstrated for a national state and a liberal Constitution and condemned reactionary forces in the newly recreated German states.

1817: The Thing at the Wartburg

What no one could forget were the bells. Joyously ringing their welcome to the young men who had come from afar, the bells of Eisenach would be forever etched in their memories. [6] Having gathered just outside the red-tiled buildings of this medieval German town, the young men lit torches and began their solemn procession up to the castle, yellow and red autumn leaves blanketing their path. Some of the young men referred to this congregation at the Wartburg castle as a Thing -- what the ancient Germans called their annual tribal gatherings. Some of the young men were in ancient German dress, but most wore the Trachten, or traditional folk dress, of their native regions. They were urged to do so by the event's organizers, one of whom was Friedrich Ludwig Jahn, the famous "Turnvater Jahn," best remembered for founding gymnastics societies (Turnvereinen). There was no Germany in 1817, only several dozen principalities united by language, culture, and their common history of being recently overrun by Napoleon's armies. Jahn's gymnastics societies were designed to kindle the sparks of German nationalism in a defeated, fragmented, and often sleepy population. (Many of the foreign travelers through these lands in the nineteenth century described the Germans as rather indifferent, dreamy folk, all too glad to share their bread, wurst, and beer -- not as seething tribes of warriors.)

Many of the young men marching with torches to the Wartburg castle that day were members of these proud gymnastics societies. The rest belonged to student fraternities, some of them secret known as Burschenschaften. Most were from the university in Jena. These student fraternities had only just come into being, but they would play an important role in German cultural life in the nineteenth century. [7] Some of them were also affiliated with an older secret society, the Freemasons, for whom the rose and the cross were blended into a meaningful occult symbol. Some of the participants at the Wartburg festival wore cloth bands around their torsos in the colors that comprise the flag of today's Germany -- black, red, and gold.

It was no coincidence that these rituals of nascent German national fervor played out in the shadow of the mighty Wartburg fortress on an October night. It was here that Martin Luther gave Jesus a German accent. Luther's translation of the New Testament into German catalyzed nationalist sentiment and revolutionized the German world of letters. Heinrich Heine captures so many of the contradictions in the German soul in his often quoted description of Luther as "not merely the greatest but also the most German man in our history, so that in his character all the virtues and failings of the Germans were united in the most magnificent way." Luther was "the tongue as well as the sword of his age ... a cold scholastic word-cobbler and an inspired, God-drunk prophet who, when he had worked himself almost to death over his laborious and dogmatic distinctions, in the evening reached for his flute and, gazing at the stars, melted in melody and reverence." [8] For many of the young men, the commanding walls of the Wartburg fortress rose above them like the brooding, corpulent specter of Martin Luther himself.

In October of 1517 a defiant Martin Luther hammered his theses of protestation to a church door. October also was celebrated as the anniversary of the defeat of Napoleon at Leipzig in 1813. The feeling of being German swelled whenever these victories of the Volk were recounted.

"Feelings" of being German were all that one could have, for "Germany" was a word for an ideal, not a reality. German-speaking peoples lived in a loose confederation of dozens of autonomous states of varying sizes and significance bound only by a weakly ruled political entity called the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation. They shared no common currency or legal system, and travel and commerce between many of them was a gauntlet of complex taxes, customs fees, and unanticipated local restrictions on personal freedoms.

At the foot of the Wartburg, the men built a huge, blazing bonfire and other pillars of fire that could be seen by the people of Eisenach. Encircling the central fire, with an excitement driven by a sense of the sacred and the dangerous, the men sang the traditional hymn "Eine Feste Burg" ("A Mighty Fortress Is Our God"). One of the leaders then offered a few inspirational remarks about justice and invoked the important symbol of the German forest of oaks. The mighty oak was sacred to the ancient Teutons and indeed was the "cross" upon which Wotan (Odin) underwent his revelatory self-sacrifice. Nostalgic references to it recur throughout more than a century of German spiritual longing.

More songs were sung and a patriotic sermon was delivered. Then, before a final hymn to end the formal segment of their ritual, the young men joined hands around the fire and took a collective oath of allegiance to one another and to their group (Bund). They also pledged to preserve the purity of the Volk. Before the Wartburgfest concluded, for the first time in recorded German history "un-German books" were denounced and burned in the great central fire.

Karl Gustav Jung -- the grandfather of Carl Gustav Jung -- considered his participation in the Wartburgfest one of the purest and most meaningful experiences of his life. He was twenty-three. He carefully preserved his black, red, and gold wrap from his days of student activism, and it became one of his grandson's most cherished possessions.

-- The Aryan Christ: The Secret Life of Carl Jung, by Richard Noll


On the occasion of the three-hundredth anniversary of Martin Luther's nailing of his theses and the fourth anniversary of the bloody Battle of Nations at Leipzig, the student groups organized a festival at the Wartburg. This castle had been a refuge for Martin Luther. As he translated the bible there and thus set a standard for the German language, it became a symbol of German nationalism.

Accordingly, it must and dare not be considered a trifling matter but a most serious one to seek counsel against this and to save our souls from the Jews, that is, from the devil and from eternal death. My advice, as I said earlier, is:

First, that their synagogues be burned down, and that all who are able toss in sulphur and pitch; it would be good if someone could also throw in some hellfire. That would demonstrate to God our serious resolve and be evidence to all the world that it was in ignorance that we tolerated such houses, in which the Jews have reviled God, our dear Creator and Father, and his Son most shamefully up till now, but that we have now given them their due reward.

Second, that all their books their prayer books, their Talmudic writings, also the entire Bible, be taken from them, not leaving them one leaf, and that these be preserved for those who may be converted. For they use all of these books to blaspheme the Son of God, that is, God the Father himself, Creator of heaven and earth, as was said above; and they will never use them differently.

Third, that they be forbidden on pain of death to praise God, to give thanks, to pray, and to teach publicly among us and in our country. They may do this in their own country or wherever they can without our being obliged to hear it or know it. The reason for this prohibition is that their praise, thanks, prayer, and doctrine are sheer blasphemy, cursing, and idolatry, because their heart and mouth call God the Father *Hebel Vorik* as they call his Son, our Lord Jesus, this. For as they name and honor the Son, thus they also name and honor the Father. It does not help them to use many fine words and to make much ado about the name of God. For we read, "You shall not take the name of the Lord your God in vain" [Exod. 20:7]. Just as little did it avail their ancestors at the time of the kings of Israel that they bore God's name, yet called him Baal.

Fourth, that they be forbidden to utter the name of God within our hearing. For we cannot with a good conscience listen to this or tolerate it, because their blasphemous and accursed mouth and heart call God's Son *Hebel Vorik,* and thus also call his Father that. He cannot and will not interpret this otherwise, just as we Christians too cannot interpret it otherwise, we who believe that however the Son is named and honored thus also the Father is named and honored. Therefore we must not consider the mouth of the Jews as worthy of uttering the name of God within our hearing. He who hears this name-from a Jew must inform the authorities, or else throw sow dung at him when he sees him and chase him away. And may no one be merciful and kind in this regard, for God's honor and the salvation of us all, including that of the Jews, are at stake!

-- On the Jews and Their Lies, by Martin Luther


A key event was a book-burning of reactionary literary works, and symbols of Napoleon like a corporal's cane. This act was used in 1933 as a justification for the Nazi book burnings.

The event itself was also used as a justification for further suppression of liberal forces, like the Carlsbad Decrees of 1819.

In 1832, the Hambacher Fest was held in similar manner. A second festival at the Wartburg was held during the Revolutions of 1848 in the German states.

Some works burned during the book burning

• Jean Pierre Frédéric Ancillon: Ueber Souverainitaet etc.
• F. v. Cölln: Vertraute Briefe. Freymüthige Blätter
• August Friedrich Wilhelm Crome: Deutschlands Crisis und Rettung im April und May 1813.
• Dabelow: Der 13e Artikel der deutschen Bundesacte
• Karl Ludwig von Haller: Restauration der Staatswissenschaft
• August von Kotzebue: Geschichte des deutschen Reichs
• Ludwig Theobul Kosegarten: Rede gesprochen am Napoleonstage 1800, Geschichte meines fünfzigsten Lebensjahres, and Vaterländische Lieder
• Carl Albert Christoph Heinrich von Kamptz: Codex der Gensd'armerie
• W. Reinhard: Die Bundesacte über Ob, Wann und Wie? deutscher Landstände
• Schmalz: Berichtigung einer Stelle in der Bredow-Venturinischen Chronik; und die beyden darauf
• Saul Ascher: Germanomanie
• Zacharias Werner: Martin Luther oder die Weihe der Kraft, Die Söhne des Thals
• K. v. Wangenheim: Die Idee der Staatsverfassung
• The Napoleonic Code
• Justus Friedrich Wilhelm Zachariae: Über den Code Napoleon
• Carl Leberecht Immermann: Ein Wort zur Beherzigung, 1814, (gegen die Burschenschaft zu Halle)


Early in the fall of 1818, he undertook the cause of several hundred communities in Upper Hesse which desired to remonstrate against a government measure directed at the last remnant of their political independence, and drew up a petition to the grand duke on their behalf. It was printed and widely circulated and aroused public indignation to such a pitch that the obnoxious measure was repealed. However the opposition of the influential men whose plans were thereby thwarted precluded any thought of a career in Follen's home town, and he became a Privatdozent at the University of Jena in October 1818.[3]

At Jena, he wrote political essays, poems, and patriotic songs. His essays and speeches advocated violence and tyrannicide in defense of freedom; this, and his friendship with Karl Ludwig Sand brought him under suspicion as an accomplice in Sand's 1819 assassination of the conservative diplomat and dramatist August von Kotzebue. Follen destroyed letters linking him with Sand. He was arrested, but finally acquitted due to lack of evidence. His dismissal from the university and continuing lack of opportunity prompted him to move to Paris.[2] There he met Charles Comte, the son-in-law of Jean Baptiste Say and founder of the Censeur, a publication which he defended until he chose exile in Switzerland instead of imprisonment in France.[4] He also became acquainted with Marquis de Lafayette, who was then planning his trip to the United States.[3] Follen came under suspicion again after the political assassination of Charles Ferdinand, duc de Berry in 1820, and fled from France to Switzerland.

In Switzerland, he taught Latin and history for a while at the cantonal school of the Grisons at Coire. His lectures having given offence by their Unitarian tendency to some of the Calvinistic ministers of the district, he asked a dismissal and obtained it, with a testimonial to his ability, learning, and worth. He then became a lecturer on law and metaphysics at the University of Basel.[1] At Basel, he made the acquaintance of the theologian Wilhelm de Wette and his stepson Karl Beck. Both Follen and Charles Comte were forced to leave Switzerland.[5] In Follen's case, demands were made by the German governments for his surrender as a revolutionist. These were twice refused, but on their renewal a third time in a threatening form, Basel yielded, and a resolution was passed for Follen's arrest,[1] and in 1824 he and Beck[2] left Switzerland for the United States of America via Havre, France.

Life in the United States

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Follen Community Church

Arriving at New York City in 1824, Follen anglicized his name to "Charles." Lafayette was then visiting the United States and sought to interest some people of influence in the two refugees, who had moved from New York City and settled in Philadelphia. Among those Lafayette contacted were Peter Stephen Du Ponceau, a prominent lawyer, and George Ticknor, a Harvard professor. Ticknor in turn interested George Bancroft.[3]

With the help of these sympathetic people, the refugees established themselves in Massachusetts society. Beck quickly secured a position at Bancroft's Round Hill School in Northampton, Massachusetts, in February 1825. Follen continued to study the English language and law in Philadelphia, and in November 1825 took up an offer from Harvard University to be an instructor in German.[3] In 1828 he became an instructor of ethics and ecclesiastical history at Harvard Divinity School, having in the meantime been admitted as a candidate for the ministry. In 1830 he was appointed professor of German literature at Harvard.[1] He became friendly with the New England Transcendentalists, and helped introduce them to German Romantic thought. In 1828, he married Eliza Lee Cabot, the daughter of one of Boston's most prominent families.

Follen also gave demonstrations of the new discipline of gymnastics, made popular by “Father Jahn”. In 1826, at the request of a group in Boston, he established and equipped the first gymnasium there and became its superintendent. Follen resigned this position in 1827, and the responsibilities were taken over by Francis Lieber.[3] With the assistance of Beck, Follen established the first college gymnasium in the United States at Harvard in 1826.[6]

The Follens had a house built on the corner of Follen Street in Cambridge. Their family Christmas tree attracted the attention of the English writer Harriet Martineau during her long visit to the United States, and the Follens have been claimed by some as the first to introduce the German custom of decorated Christmas tree to the United States. (Although the claim is one of several competing claims for the introduction of the custom to the United States, they, together with Martineau, were certainly early and prominent popularizers of the custom.) His brother Paul Follen emigrated in 1834 to the United States, settling in Missouri.

In 1835, Charles Follen lost his professorship at Harvard due to his outspoken abolitionist beliefs and his conflict with University President Josiah Quincy's strict disciplinary measures for undergraduates. A close friend and associate of abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison,[7] Follen's outspoken opposition to slavery had incurred the hostility and scorn of the public press. Like most of the early radical abolitionists, Follen at the beginning was censured by public opinion even in the locality which later became the centre of the abolition spirit. The good beginning that had been made in the study of the German language in New England was totally discontinued. The cause of German literature had still a friend in Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, who in 1838 began his lectures on Johann von Goethe's Faust.[8]

Follen's friendship with the prominent Unitarian minister William Ellery Channing drew him to the Unitarian Church. He was ordained as a minister in 1836. He had been called to the pulpit of the Second Congregational Society in Lexington, Massachusetts (now Follen Church Society-Unitarian Universalist) in 1835, but the community was unable to pay him sufficiently to support his family. Follen took other employment; Ralph Waldo Emerson supplied the pulpit from 1836-1838 at the church. In 1838 Follen became the minister of his own congregation in New York City, now All Souls, but lost the position within the year due to conflicts over his radical anti-slavery views. He considered returning to Germany, but returned in 1839 to the congregation in East Lexington, Massachusetts. He had designed its unique octagonal building, for which ground was broken on July 4, 1839. Follen's octagonal building is still standing, and is the oldest church structure in Lexington. In his prayer at the groundbreaking for the building, Follen declared the mission of his church:

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Memorial to Charles Follen in the churchyard

[May] this church never be desecrated by intolerance, or bigotry, or party spirit; more especially its doors might never be closed against any one, who would plead in it the cause of oppressed humanity; within its walls all unjust and cruel distinctions might cease, and [there] all men might meet as brethren.

Follen broke off a lecture tour in New York and took the Steamship Lexington to Boston for the dedication of his new church. Follen died en route when his steamer caught fire and sank in a storm in the Long Island Sound. Due to Follen's abolitionist positions, his friends were unable to find any church in Boston willing to hold a memorial service on his behalf. Rev. Samuel J. May was finally able to hold a memorial service for Charles Follen in March 1840 at the Marlborough Chapel.

Works

• Psychology (1836)
• Essay on Religion and the Church (1836)

In 1841, Follen's widow Eliza, a well-known author in her own right, published a five-volume collection containing his sermons and lectures, his unfinished sketch of a work on psychology and a biography she wrote.

References

1. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: "Follen, Carl". The American Cyclopædia. 1879.

2. Kuno Francke (1959). "Follen, Charles". Dictionary of American Biography. III, Part 2. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. pp. 491–2.

3. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Fred Eugene Leonard (1923). A Guide to the History of Physical Education. Philadelphia and New York: Lea & Febiger. pp. 227–233, 235–238. http://www.archive.org/details/guidetohistoryof00leon.

4. Alan Barrie Spitzer (1971). Old hatreds and young hopes: the French Carbonari against the Bourbon Restoration. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. pp. 203 ff.. ISBN 9780674632202. http://books.google.com/books?id=Te07Ek ... &lpg=PA203.

5. Charles Dunoyer And French Classical Liberalism

6. Feintuch, Burt; Watters, David H., eds. (2005). The Encyclopedia of New England. Yale University Press. p. 282.

7. "Follen, Charles Theodore Christian". New International Encyclopedia. 1905.

8. Faust (1909), v. 2, pp. 216-217.

• Thomas S. Hansen, Charles Follen: Brief life of a vigorous reformer, 1796-1840, in the Harvard Magazine (September-October 2002).
• Unitarianism in America: Charles Follen (1796-1840)
• "Follen, Karl". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911.
• "Follen, Charles Theodore Christian". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. 1900.
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Re: Charles Follen, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Thu Jun 25, 2015 8:53 pm

August Ludwig Follen
by Wikipedia

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August (or, as he afterwards called himself, Adolf) Ludwig Follen (21 January 1794 - 26 December 1855) was a German poet.

Biography

He was born at Gießen, in Hesse-Darmstadt, Germany, to Christoph Follen (1759-1833) and Rosine Follen (1766-1799). His father was a counselor-at-law and judge.

In 1814 he and his brother, Charles Follen, fought in the Napoleonic Wars as Hessian volunteers. Before joining the volunteers, he had studied theology and philology at the University of Giessen. On his return, he studied law at University of Heidelberg for two years, and after leaving the university in 1817 edited the Elberfeld Allgemeine Zeitung. Suspected of political agitation and connection with some radical plots, in 1819 he was imprisoned for two years in Berlin.

When released in 1821, he went to Switzerland, where he later became a citizen of Zurich. He taught in the canton school at Aarau, farmed from 1847-1854 the estate of Liebenfels in Thurgau, and then retired to Bern, where he lived till his death.

Works

Besides a number of minor poems, he wrote Harfengrüsse aus Deutschland und der Schweiz (1823) and Malegys und Vivian (1829), a knightly romance after the fashion of the romantic school. Of his many translations, mention may be made of the Homeric Hymns in collaboration with R. Schwenck (1814), Tasso's Jerusalem Delivered (1818) and Siegfrieds Tod from the Nibelungenlied (1842); he also collected and translated Latin hymns and sacred poetry (1819).

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The Argument about Atheism in Zurich: (left to right) Arnold Ruge, A. L. Follen, Karl Heinzen, F. W. Schulz

In 1846 he published a brief collection of sonnets entitled An die gottlosen Nichtswüteriche (To the godless nothing maniacs). This was aimed at the liberal Hegelian philosophers Arnold Ruge and Karl Heinzen, and was the occasion of a literary duel between Follen and Ruge where Follen fronted for a belief in God and immortality. Follen's posthumous poem Tristans Eltern (1857) may also be mentioned, but his best-known work is a collection of German poetry entitled Bildersaal deutscher Dichtung (1827).

Family

He was the brother of Charles Follen and Paul Follen, who both emigrated to the United States. Biologist Karl Vogt was his nephew.

References

• "Follen, August". New International Encyclopedia. 1905.
• "Follen, August". The American Cyclopædia. 1879.

Attribution

This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Follen, August Ludwig". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
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Re: Charles Follen, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Thu Jun 25, 2015 8:53 pm

Paul Follen
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Paul Follen (also Follenius; May 5, 1799 – October 3, 1844) was a German-American attorney and farmer, who had founded the Gießener Auswanderungsgesellschaft (Gießen Emigration Society).

He was born at Gießen, in Hesse-Darmstadt, Germany, to Christoph Follen (1759-1833) and Rosine Follen (1766–1799). His father was a counselor-at-law and judge. He was the brother of August Ludwig Follen and Charles Follen, and the uncle of the biologist Karl Vogt. During his studies at the University of Gießen he became friends with Friedrich Muench and in 1825 married his sister Maria.

Naturalist Gottfried Duden, a German attorney, settled on the north side of the Missouri River along Lake Creek in 1824. He was investigating the possibilities of settlement in the area by his countrymen. In 1827 he returned to Germany, which he felt was overpopulated. There he published Bericht über eine Reise nach den westlichen Staaten Nordamerika's ("Report of a journey to the western states of North America") in 1829.

The description of the free life in the US motivated the Protestant minister Friedrich Münch and the attorney Paul Follen to found 1833 the Gießener Auswanderungsgesellschaft. Both had participated in the outlawed republican and democratic movements in Germany in the wake of the French July Revolution of 1832. As there was no immediate hope for success, they intended to establish a "new and free Germany in the great North American Republic" to serve as model for a future German republic.

Already in 1834 they led 500 German settlers into Missouri. They soon realised that the plan for a separate federal state would remain an Utopia. They settled in the German populated Dutzow in Warren County, Missouri not far from the former farm of Gottfried Duden.

Follen died in Dutzow. His son Dr. William Follenius (1829–1902) married Emilie, a daughter of his friend Friedrich Muench. His brother Karl had emigrated to the US already in 1824.

References

• Paul Follen und Friedrich Münch: Aufforderung und Erklärung in Betreff einer Auswanderung im Großen aus Teutschland in die nordamerikanischen Freistaaten.
• Don Heinrich Tolzmann, ed., Missouri's German Heritage. Second Edition. Milford, Ohio: Little Miami Publishing Co., 2006. ISBN 10932250-22-0
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Re: Charles Follen, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Thu Jun 25, 2015 8:55 pm

Karl Vogt
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Carl Vogt (1817-1895)

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Karl Vogt during his career.

Carl Christoph Vogt (5 July 1817 in Gießen, Grand Duchy of Hesse – 5 May 1895 in Geneva, Switzerland) was a German scientist who emigrated to Switzerland. Vogt published a number of notable works on zoology, geology and physiology. All his life he was engaged in politics, in the German Frankfurt Parliament of 1848-9 and later in Switzerland.

Biography

Academics


In 1847 he became professor of zoology at the University of Giessen, and in 1852 professor of geology and afterwards also of zoology at the University of Geneva. His earlier publications were on zoology. He dealt with the Amphibia (1839), Reptiles (1840), with Mollusca and Crustacea (1845) and more generally with the invertebrate fauna of the Mediterranean (1854). In 1842, during his time with Louis Agassiz in Neuchâtel, he discovered the mechanism of apoptosis, the programmed cell death, while studying the development of the tadpole of the midwife toad (Alytes obstetricians). Charles Darwin mentions Vogt's support for the theory of evolution in the introduction to his The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex (1871).

Politics

Vogt was active in German politics and was a left-wing representative in the Frankfurt Parliament. Karl Marx scathingly replied to slanderous attacks by Karl Vogt in his book Herr Vogt (1860). Marx's defenders pointed to the fact that, years later (1871), records published after the fall of the Second Empire of Napoleon Bonaparte III indicated that Vogt had been secretly in the pay of the French Emperor.

Polygenism

Karl Vogt was a proponent of polygenist evolution, he rejected the monogenist beliefs of most Darwinists and instead he believed that each race had evolved off different types of ape.[1] Vogt believed that the Negro was related to the ape. He believed the White race was a separate species to Negroes. In Chapter VII of his lectures of man (1864) he compared the Negro to the White race whom he described as “two extreme human types”. The difference between them, he claimed are greater than those between two species of ape; and this proves that Negroes are a separate species from the Whites.[2]

Polygenism is a theory of human origins positing that the human races are of different lineages (polygenesis). This is opposite to the idea of monogenism, which posits a single origin of humanity.
-- Polygenism, by Wikipedi


Works

Works

• Im Gebirg und auf den Gletschern (In the mountains and on the glaciers; 1843)
• Physiologische Briefe (Letters on physiology; 1845-46)
• Grundriss der Geologie (Outline of geology; 1860)
• Lehrbuch der Geologie und Petrefactenkunde (Textbook on geology and petrification; 2 vols., 1846-47; ed. 4, 1879)
• An English version of his Lectures on Man: his Place in Creation and in the History of the Earth was published by the Anthropological Society of London in 1864.

References

• Untersuchungen über die Entwicklungsgeschichte der Geburtshelferkröte. (Alytes obstetricians), Solothurn: Jent und Gassman, (1842), pp 130
• Fredrick Gregory: Scientific Materialism in Nineteenth Century Germany, Springer, Berlin u.a. 1977, ISBN 902770760X
• Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Vogt, Karl Christoph". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.

External links

Short biography and bibliography in the Virtual Laboratory of the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science
1. Colin Kidd, The forging of races: race and scripture in the Protestant Atlantic world, 1600 - 2000, 2006, p.58
2. Gustav Jahoda, Images of savages: ancients [sic] roots of modern prejudice in Western culture, 1999, p. 83
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Re: Charles Follen, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Thu Jun 25, 2015 8:57 pm

Karl Ludwig Sand
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Karl Ludwig Sand

Karl Ludwig Sand (Wunsiedel, then in Prussia, 5 October 1795 - Mannheim, 20 May 1820) was a German university student and member of a liberal Burschenschaft (student association). He was executed in 1820 for the murder of the conservative dramatist August von Kotzebue the previous year in Mannheim. As a result of his execution, Sand became a martyr in the eyes of many German nationalists seeking the creation of a united German national state.

Biography

Karl Ludwig Sand was born to Godfrey Christopher Sand and Dorthea Jane Wilheltmina Schapf on October 5, 1795. His siblings were George, Fritz, Caroline and Julia.

Education

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Students marching towards the Wartburg, of which Sand was one.

In 1804 he attended the Lateinschule (Latin school) in Wunsiedel and in 1810 he moved on to the grammar school (Gymnasium) in Hof, living with the school's rector, Georg Heinrich Saalfrank, a friend of Sand's Enlightened Protestant family. Following the closure of the Hof Gymnasium on the institution of Montgelas's Reforms, Sand followed his teacher to the Neues Gymnasium (New Grammar School) in Regensburg, completing his studies in September 1814. In November 1814 Sand matriculated at the University of Tũbingen.

In 1815, Sand volunteered under Major von Falkenhausen, participating in the Battle of Waterloo in June and in Paris by July. He returned from the war disillusioned with its results and fell into a deep depression. In 1816, while at the University of Erlangen, Sand formed Burschenschaft Teutonia with his friend Dittmar, meeting at castle ruins near Erlangen which they had named Ruttli. They built a meeting house for their group of 80 students. Sand's depression was further intensified by the destruction of Ruttli by the competing political group the Landmannschaft and the drowning death of Dittmar in 1817. Starting in 1817 he studied at the University of Jena, attending the lectures of Jakob Friedrich Fries, Heinrich Luden and Lorenz Oken and joining further Burschenschaften. Sand was among the nationalist students who gathered at the 1817 Wartburg festival, in which Kotzebue's History of the German Empires was one of the books ceremoniously burned.

Murder of August von Kotzebue

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Illustration of Sand's attack on Kotzebue.

Sand already contemplated the murder of August von Kotzebue in a diary entry of 5 May 1818. He called him a "traitor to the nation" and a "deceiver of the people" and characterized him as an enemy of the Burschenschaft.

On the morning of 23 March 1819 Sand, using the pseudonym Henry, visited Kotzebue in his Mannheim house. Refused entry to the house and told to return in the afternoon, Sand returned just before five o'clock. Having exchanged just a few words with Kotzebue, Sand produced a dagger and with the words "Here, you traitor to the fatherland!" and stabbed him repeatedly in the chest. Surprised by Kotzebue's four-year-old son witnessing the event from the nursery, Sand lost his wits and stabbed himself. Leaving the house, he handed a servant a piece of writing he had prepared ("Death to August von Kotzebue"), and stabbed himself again in the street. His suicide attempt failed, and he was taken to hospital.

Aftermath

The Mannheim Hofgericht (court of law) sentenced Sand to death on 5 May 1820. He was executed by beheading. Sand was beheaded by Franz Wilhelm Widmann, who was the executing official at the time.

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The execution of Karl Ludwig Sand.

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His grave in Mannheim

Sand's murder of Kotzebue was a catalyst for government restrictions on liberal and German nationalist thought. On September 20, 1819, Prince Klemens Wenzel von Metternich called a meeting of representatives from across the German Confederation to create the Carlsbad Decrees which outlawed the Burschenshaften and put limits on freedom of the press and the rights of members of such organizations, banning them from public office, teaching or studying at universities.[1]

Alexandre Dumas, père wrote about Sand's life and published excerpts from his journals and letters in Karl Ludwig Sand,[2] part of Celebrated Crimes.[3] Prior to writing his story, Dumas visited Widmann's son in Mannheim in 1838 to gather information about Sand's character. Alexander Pushkin also memorialized Sand in his poem about assassins entitled "Kinzhal" (The Dagger).[4] In Germany three films have been made concerning the events of Karl Sand's life: Karl Sand in 1964, Sand in 1971, and Die Unbedingten in 2009.

Writings

• Gründung einer allgemeinen freien Burschenschaft, 1817
• Teutsche Jugend an die teutsche Menge, zum 18. October 1818
• Todesstoß dem August von Kotzebue, 1818/19, published posthumously.

Bibliography

• Friedrich Wilhelm Carové: Ueber die Ermordung Kotzebue’s. Eisenach 1819
• Authentischer Bericht über die Ermordung des Kaiserlich-Russischen Staatsraths Herrn August von Kotzebue; nebst vielen interessanten Notizen über ihn und über Carl Sand, den Meuchelmörder. Mannheim 1819 (Nachdruck Berlin 1999, hg. v. Antonia Meiners)
• Die wichtigsten Lebensmomente Karl Ludwig Sand’s aus Wunsiedel. Nürnberg 1819
• Nachtrag zu den wichtigsten Lebensmomenten Karl Ludwig Sand’s aus Wunsiedel mit der vollständigen Erzählung seiner Hinrichtung am 20. Mai 1820. Nürnberg 1820
• Ausführliche Darstellung von Karl Ludwig Sand’s letzten Tagen und Augenblicken. Stuttgart 1820
• Charles-Louis Sand. Mémoires avec le récit des circonstances qui ont accompagné l’assassinat d’Auguste de Kotzebue, et une justification des universités d’Allemagne. Trad. de l’anglais, Paris 1819
• [Karl Levin] von Hohnhorst (Hrsg.): Vollständige Uebersicht der gegen Carl Ludwig Sand wegen Meuchelmordes verübt an dem K[aiserlich]. Russischen Staatsrath v. Kotzebue geführten Untersuchung. Aus den Originalakten ausgezogen, geordnet und hrsg., 2 Abthn., Stuttgart, Tübingen 1820
• Carl Courtin: Carl Ludwig Sand’s letzte Lebenstage und Hinrichtung. Geschichtlich dargestellt. Franckenthal 1821
• [Robert Wesselhöft]: Carl Ludwig Sand. Dargestellt durch seine Tagebücher und Briefe von einigen seiner Freunde. Altenburg 1821
• Noch acht Beitraege zur Geschichte August von Kotzebues und C. L. Sands. Aus öffentlichen Nachrichten zusammengestellt. Mühlhausen 1821
• Friedrich Cramer (Hrsg.): Acten-Auszüge aus dem Untersuchungs-Process über Carl Ludwig Sand; nebst anderen Materialien zur Beurtheilung desselben und August von Kotzebue. Altenburg, Leipzig 1821
• Sand [Zu Kotzebues und Sands Tat], o. J., [um 1820], Sammelband (ohne Titelblatt, vielleicht „Actenmäßige Untersuchung ... des Falles Sand“ 1820/21, Flugschriften), darin: 1. Die Bildung des Zeitgeistes, 2. August von Kotzebue nach der Geschichte seiner Schrift „Bahrst mit der eisernen Stirne“, 3. August von Kotzebues Autorenverhältnisse, 4. Kotzebues politisch-literarische Bulletins 1818, 5. Sand’s That nach dem Acten-Inhalt, 6. Sand’s Zustand nach der That, 7. Actenmäßige Notizen über Sand’s Person und frühere Lebensgeschichte, 8. Sand’s Gesinnungen über und gegen August von Kotzebue, 9. Sandische Aufsätze: Todesstoß und das Todesurteil über Kotzebue, 10. Sands Verhältnisse zu Andern, zur Burschenschaft, zu einem lit. Verein, zum Turnwesen u. dgl., 11. Sand über sich selbst, seine Grundansichten, seine That, nebst Urtheilen Anderer über ihn, 12. Gerichtliche Vertheidigung für Sand. Urtheilsgründe als Bericht
• C. T. Riedel: Galerie der Verbrecher, Bd. 3: Sand, Louvel, Grandission, Ponterie, Damiens, Low, Angiolino, Sondershausen. Nordhausen 1822
• C[arl]. E[rnst]. Jarcke: Carl Ludwig Sand und sein an dem kaiserlich-russischen Staatsrath v. Kotzebue verübter Mord. Eine psychologisch-criminalistische Erörterung aus der Geschichte unserer Zeit. Neue, aus ungedruckten Quellen vermehrte Bearbeitung. Berlin 1831
• Friedrich Münch: Follen, Sand und Löning. Neues Licht in altes Dunkel. Aus den Erinnerungen von Friedrich Münch. In: Die Gartenlaube. 20/44/1872, S. 722–725
• Julius Busch: Karl Ludwig Sand. Nach einem am 7. April 1902 im Altertumsverein gehaltenen Vortrag. In: Mannheimer Geschichtsblätter. 20/1–3/1919, S. 3–11
• Karl Alexander von Müller: Karl Ludwig Sand. München 1923, 2. Aufl. 1925
• Max Doblinger: Tagebucheintragungen des Erzherzogs Johann, des späteren Reichsverwesers, über Karl Ludwig Sand und die Karlsbader Beschlüsse. In: Herman Haupt (Hrsg.): Quellen und Darstellungen zur Geschichte der Burschenschaft und der deutschen Einheitsbewegung. Bd. 8, Heidelberg 1925, 2. Aufl. 1966, S. 151–153
• Heinrich von Stein, Reinhard Buchwald: Karl Ludwig Sand Scherer 1947
• Ernst Cyriaci: Die Coburger Familie von Sand 1275–1940. Coburg 1941 [überarbeitet und verbessert 1970 ff., Manuskript im Stadtarchiv Coburg]
• Peter Brückner: „Bewahre uns Gott in Deutschland vor irgendeiner Revolution!“ Die Ermordung des Staatsrats von Kotzebue durch den Studenten Sand. Berlin 1975, 2. Aufl. 1978 (Wagenbachs Taschenbücherei, Bd. 6). ISBN 3803120063
• Ernst Wilhelm Wreden: Karl Ludwig Sand – „Mörder aus Vaterlandsliebe“. Eine biographische Skizze. In: Horst Bernhardi, Ernst Wilhelm Wreden (Hrsg.): Jahresgabe der Gesellschaft für burschenschaftliche Geschichtsforschung 1975. o. O. 1975, S. 5–7
• Ernst Abbühl: Karl Ludwig Sand. Sein Bild in der historischen Forschung und in der Literatur. Eine vergleichende Analyse. Diss. phil. masch., Bern 1978
• Günther Heydemann: Carl Ludwig Sand. Die Tat als Attentat. Hof 1985 (Oberfränkische Köpfe, [Bd. 3]). ISBN 3921615666
• Günther Heydemann: Der Attentäter Carl Ludwig Sand. 20 Briefe und Dokumente aus den Erlanger und Jenaer Studienjahren. In: Christian Hünemörder (Hrsg.): Darstellungen und Quellen zur Geschichte der deutschen Einheitsbewegung im neunzehnten und zwanzigsten Jahrhundert. Bd. 12, Heidelberg 1986, S. 7–77
• Renate Lotz: Bildnis und Erinnerung – Carl Sand. Ausstellung 3. April–31. Oktober 1985. Fichtelgebirgsmuseum Wunsiedel, Wunsiedel 1985 (Begleitheft zu Ausstellungen des Fichtelgebirgsmuseums, Heft 2)
• Hagen Schulze: Sand, Kotzebue und das Blut des Verräters. In: Alexander Demandt (Hrsg.): Das Attentat in der Geschichte. Köln 1996, S. 215–233
• Harald Neumann: Carl Ludwig Sand. Theologiestudent und Attentäter. Wissenschaft & Praxis, Berlin 1997. ISBN 3896730258
• Klaus Beyersdorf: Der Burschenschafter und Kotzebue-Attentäter Karl Ludwig Sand 1795–1820. Ein Mitglied der alten Coburger Familie von Sand. In: Coburger Geschichtsblätter. 6/3/1998, S. 87–90
• Antonia Meiners (Hrsg.): Authentischer Bericht über die Ermordung des Kaiserlich-Russischen Staatsraths Herrn August von Kotzebue. Berliner Handpresse, Berlin 1999. Nachdr. der Ausg. Mannheim 1819
• George S. Williamson. What Killed August von Kotzebue? The Temptations of Virtue and the Political Theology of German Nationalism, 1789-1819, in The Journal of Modern History (2000).
• Sabine Bayerl (Hrsg.): Authentischer Bericht über die Ermordung des Kaiserlich-Russischen Staatsraths Herrn August von Kotzebue. Universitätsverlag Winter, Heidelberg 2005. Beigefügt: Acten-Auszüge aus dem Untersuchungs-Process über Carl Ludwig Sand. Nachdr. der 2. Aufl. Mannheim 1819 sowie Altenburg 1821. ISBN 3-8253-2005-7

References

1. Full text of Carlsbad Decrees
2. Karl Ludwig Sand by Alexandre Dumas, père
3. Celebrated Crimes, Alexandre Dumas, père
4.Terras, Victor, Handbook of Russian literature By Victor Terras page 96
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Re: Charles Follen, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Thu Jun 25, 2015 8:58 pm

Charles Ferdinand, Duke of Berry
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Image
Charles Ferdinand d'Artois, miniature of Jean-Baptiste Jacques Augustin

Charles Ferdinand of Artois, Duke of Berry (Charles Ferdinand d'Artois, fils de France, duc de Berry; 24 January 1778 – 14 February 1820) was the younger son of the future king, Charles X of France, and his wife, Princess Maria Theresa of Savoy. His maternal grandparents were Victor Amadeus III of Sardinia and Maria Antonietta of Spain. She was the youngest daughter of Philip V of Spain and Elisabeth Farnese.

Biography

He was born at Versailles. As a son of a fils de France not being heir apparent, he was only himself a petit-fils de France, and that is how he was known in emigration. However, during the Restoration, he was given the higher rank of a fils de France (used in his marriage contract, his death certificate, etc.).

Since he was already dead when his father became king, he always had "d'Artois" as his surname.

At the French Revolution he left France with his father, then comte d'Artois, and served in the émigré army of his cousin, Louis Joseph, Prince of Condé, from 1792 to 1797. He afterwards joined the Russian army, and in 1801 took up his residence in England, where he remained for thirteen years. During that time he had a relationship with an Englishwoman,[1] Amy Brown Freeman, by whom he had two daughters whom he only recognized on his deathbed: Charlotte Marie Augustine de Bourbon comtesse d'Issoudun (13 July 1808- 13 July 1886), by marriage in 1823 to Ferdinand de Faucigny-Lucinge, princesse de Lucinge, and Louise Marie Charlotte de Bourbon comtesse de Vierzon (29 December 1809- 26 December 1891), by marriage in 1827 to Charles de Charette, baronne de la Contrie.

In 1814, the duke set out for France. His frank, open manners gained him some favor with his countrymen, and Louis XVIII named him commander-in-chief of the army at Paris on the return of Napoleon from Elba. He was, however, unable to retain the loyalty of his troops, and retired to Ghent during the Hundred Days war. In 1816 he married Princess Maria Carolina Ferdinanda Luisa of Naples and Sicily (1798–1870), oldest daughter of the Duke of Calabria (heir to the Neapolitan throne), following negotiations with the Kingdom of Naples and Sicily by the French ambassador, the Count (later Duke of Blacas) of Blacas.

Three children were born before the duke's death: the last and only surviving one, Louise d'Artois, born in 1819, later married Charles III of Parma.

On 13 February 1820 the Duke of Berry was stabbed and mortally wounded, when leaving the opera house in Paris with his wife, by a saddler named Louis Pierre Louvel. He died on 14 February. Seven months after his death, the duchess gave birth to a son, Henri, who received the title of duc de Bordeaux, but who is better known in history as the comte de Chambord.

The Duchess of Berry was compelled to follow Charles X to Holyrood after July 1830, but it was with the resolution of returning speedily and making an attempt to secure the throne for her son. From Britain she went to Italy, and in April 1832 she landed near Marseille, but, receiving no support, was compelled to make her way towards the loyal districts of Vendée and Brittany. Her followers, however, were defeated, and, after remaining concealed for five months in a house in Nantes, she was betrayed to the government and imprisoned in the castle of Blaye.

Here she gave birth to a daughter, the fruit of a secret marriage contracted with an Italian nobleman, Count Ettore Lucchesi-Palli (1805–1834). The announcement of this marriage at once deprived the duchess of the sympathies of her supporters. She was no longer an object of fear to the French government, who released her in June 1833. She set sail for Sicily, and, joining her husband, lived in retirement from that time until her death, at Brunnsee in Austria, in April 1870.

Issue

• Princess Louise Élisabeth of France (13 July 1817 – 14 July 1817)
• Prince Louis of France (born and died 13 September 1818)
Louise Marie Thérèse d'Artois (21 September 1819 – 1 February 1864)
• Henri Charles Ferdinand Marie Dieudonné de France, Duke of Bordeaux and Count of Chambord (29 September 1820 – 24 August 1883)

Notes

1. It has been claimed that he married her, but that is highly unlikely and in any case was never proven: see Christophe Brun, Descendance inédite du duc de Berry: documents et commentaires, Paris 1998.

References

This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
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Re: Charles Follen, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Thu Jun 25, 2015 9:01 pm

George Bancroft
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GEORGE BANCROFT, President of The Century Association, 1864-1867
-- The Century Association Year-Book 1960, by The Century Association


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17th United States Secretary of the Navy

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Bancroft's bookplate and signature. "Eis phaos" is Greek for "Towards the Light"

George Bancroft (October 3, 1800 – January 17, 1891) was an American historian and statesman who was prominent in promoting secondary education both in his home state and at the national level. During his tenure as U.S. Secretary of the Navy, he established the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis in 1845. Among his best-known writings is the magisterial series, History of the United States, from the Discovery of the American Continent.

Early life and education

His family had been in Massachusetts Bay since 1632, and his father, Aaron Bancroft, was distinguished as a revolutionary soldier, a leading Unitarian clergyman[1] and author of a popular life of George Washington. Bancroft was born in Worcester, and began his education at Phillips Exeter Academy and entered Harvard College at thirteen years of age. At age 17, he graduated from Harvard and went to study in Germany. Abroad, he studied at Heidelberg, Göttingen and Berlin. At Göttingen he studied Plato with Arnold Heeren; history with Heeren and Gottlieb Jakob Planck; Arabic, Hebrew, New Testament Greek and scripture interpretation with Albert Eichhorn; natural science with Johann Friedrich Blumenbach; German literature with Georg Friedrich Benecke; French and Italian literature with Artaud and Bunsen; and classics with Georg Ludolf Dissen. In 1820, he received his doctorate from the University of Göttingen.

In 1776 Adam Weishaupt confided to one of his students, eighteen year-old Franz Anton von Massenhausen, that he was thinking of creating a secret society (at the University of Ingolstadt) to combat the influence of both the Jesuits and the Rosicrucians. Massenhausen had told Weishaupt that this was good idea, and that he already had some experience in this area. Before matriculating at Ingolstadt, [b]Massenhausen informed his teacher, he had been a member of a student secret society in [size=120]Göttingen; he went on to describe the manner in which they operated, its statutes, and the attire they wore. Taking this as a model, then, on May 1st 1776 Weishaupt, Massenhausen and three others, formed the Order of the Perfectibilists.[/size][/b] [1]

It is ironic that such should be the case, for afterwards the Illuminati, in turn, had not only infiltrated various educational establishments but student societies as well. As Klaus Epstein explains it:

The famous Karlsschule in Stuttgart (Schiller’s alma mater) had several Illuminati on its staff. The educational movement headed by Basedow taught Illuminati principles, though Basedow himself apparently never joined the order. The University of Göttingen had several Illuminati among its professors, which led Weishaupt to exclaim with surprise that Ingolstadt was giving the law to its far more distinguished North German rival. Tutorial positions offered excellent leverage for working for the future triumph of the Aufklärung: the prominent Illuminat Leuchsenring served, for example, as tutor to the Prussian crown prince who became Frederick William III (though the later conduct of his pupil must have disappointed him). [2] The two leading student societies (Studentenorden), the Konstantisten and the Schwarze Brüder, were both infiltrated by Illuminati. The actual influence of the order upon the education of Germany’s youth obviously cannot be quantitatively defined, and statistical calculations of the infiltration of the professorate are equally impossible to make. [3] These examples suffice to explain, however, the fact that Conservatives called for a drastic purge of educational institutions. [4]


There’s a description of the German student orders, in an 1859 book by Karl von Raumer, which specifically mentions both the Konstantisten and the Black brothers (or the Black Order):

[The Students' Orders] arose about the middle of the eighteenth century. The first prohibition of them appeared at Göttingen, in 1748, and was repeated in 1760 and 1762. In the latter year appears the first trace of the same at Erlangen, in 1765 at Tubingen; in the same year, 1765, appeared the first prohibition of them at Jena, and another in 1767. A third came out in 1795, in connection with an imperial edict against secret societies; and a similar one was then issued in the Prussian universities and at Altdorf. In 1802, Meiners announces, with satisfaction, of Gottingen, that “it is now some years since the strictest inquiry could detect any of the orders at our university;” although he naively adds, in a note, that “within a very short period traces of an order have been discovered.” An accident, as I myself remember, led to this discovery. A student was drowned, and in sealing up his effects, a list was found of names of members (Konstantisten). Thus the orders lasted until the first years of the nineteenth century. At the time of the rise of the Burschenschaft (1816), they seem to have disappeared. I find no record of any contest of the Burschenschaft with the orders, but only against the Landsmannschaften.

What distinction existed between these Orders and the Landsmannschaften or Nations? There must have been one, because they were always at enmity. Meiners says that they had much in common in their organization, and that the orders differed from the Landsmannschaften “only in that they admitted members without regard to their nationality.” This was, it is true, one distinction, but not the only one; a second was, the adoption by the orders of symbols analogous to those of the Free Masons. Thus, there were found, in 1765, “traces of a lodge of Free Masons among the students at Tübingen.” Klüpfel says, “most of the orders in the universities were off-shoots of Free Masonry.” In like manner, Englehardt says that the Order of the Cross, founded in 1762, was organized throughout in the forms of Free Masonry. “In the place of assembly of the order, there was a basin with water, whose symbolic meaning was explained to those initiated; a statue of friendship, and one of virtue, skulls, a cross of the order, with sun, moon, and stars, and a crucifix.” The university senate reported, in 1767, that it had taken away some insignia of an order from some students, and that the orders, in spite of prohibitions, were universal, both in Erlangen and the other German universities, and that scarcely a student could be found who did not belong to an order.

In 1770 the Order of Coopers was discovered, which held lodges, had degrees, and had a destructive influence. The Black Order, or Order of Harmony, arose in 1771, at Erlangen, and had members in Nuremberg and Coburg. Its grand lodge was in Brunswick. In 1797 were found in the papers of this order catechisms of the first, second, and third grades, with symbols having an ethical signification. “The ceremonies of admission were adopted from the Free Masons, with whom the Black Order seems to have maintained very friendly relations. The statutes of this order named Pythagoras as their first known master.” So much will serve to describe this order as such; and it also appears that they were not confined to the universities, nor to students. The same was the case with the Constantists, who existed at Halle in 1786, and had afterward (about 1798), members in civil and military stations at Berlin. Their laws seem to have included the reckless Jacobinical religious and political opinions; and the Prussian ministry believed “that the revolutionists sought to make use of the students in their designs.”


What I find interesting about the above account is not only had the student orders cribbed from the Masons for their initiation ceremonies, but in Tübingen there was even a Masonic lodge discovered at the University. The Black brothers, it was mentioned, were also said to have “maintained very friendly relations” with the Masons. This happens to coincide with what Illuminati historian René Le Forestier had written as well.

The four major student orders during the time of the Illuminati were the Amicisten (or Amizisten), Constantisten, Unitisten and the Harmonisten. According to Le Forestier, the Amicists were formed in 1771, at Jena, by a few members of an even earlier society called the Mosellaner (or Moselbund), and had formed lodges or cenacles in Giessen, Marburg, Göttingen, Erlangen, Erfurt, Tübingen, Leipzig, Wurzburg, Frankfurt an der Oder and Vienna. In 1779, the authorities in Jena had relegated a number of Amicists and dissolved their lodges. They reformed in 1784, but the dissolution of the Mosellaner in 1792 signalled the beginning of the end (though some Amicists were still operating in 1811 at Leipzig, Jena and Halle). The Constantists, founded at Halle in 1777, established themselves at Jena in 1783 and spread to Giessen, Erlangen, Leipzig, Heidelberg, Frankfurt an der Oder and Vienna. Their appearance at Jena, Wittenberg and Göttingen had caused strife with other already-established student orders; quarrels and duels quickly ensued. The Constantists, writes Le Forestier, had disappeared by 1803. In the same year the Unitists had gone extinct as well. They were formed in 1771 at Halle, had rites composed of three degrees, and founded lodges at Jena, Göttingen, Leipzig, Erlangen and Frankfurt an der Oder. The Order of the Black Brothers was created by former members of the Amicists in 1781. They had adopted the Scottish rite degrees in 1785, and thenceforth took the name of the Order of Harmony – thus it would seem that they maintained more than just “friendly relations” with the Freemasonry. One of their lodges, “Christian among the Seven Golden Stars” [Christian zu den sieben Goldenen Sternen], was suppressed in 1796, and they were the subject of an inquest in 1797. The Lodges of the Black Brothers/Harmonists still existed in 1799 at Heidelberg, Giessen, Marburg, and Göttingen; and in 1804 they had voluntarily dissolved. [5]

Perhaps Le Forestier was mistaken about the date, place and founding of the Constantists, for it seems there was a Constantisten Order at the University of Göttingen in 1770, where, according to Arnold Brügmann, none other than Illuminatus Baron von Knigge (1752-1796) was a member. [6] Knigge had indeed been studying at the University of Göttingen from 1769-1771, and an account in Steven Luckert’s invaluable thesis lends further support to the notion.

During his years of study at Göttingen, Knigge had been a member of the so-called Constantists (one of the popular student secret societies). Right from the start, he exhibited great skills as well as his ambition to rule. Within a short time, he made himself known in the order, and even proposed a new plan, that was eventually accepted, which extended beyond one’s years of study – for one’s lifetime. This change in statutes, however, brought with it new responsibilities. Knigge expected that each member, following graduation, would continue to submit monthly reports detailing his circumstances as well as information taken from government cabinets. While his plan failed because many students, having attained a post, ceased to send in their reports, the article’s author emphasized that this example showed that a student order could even be manipulated to commit acts of espionage, if a “wily man” stood behind it. But failure in no way hindered Knigge – he continued his personal odyssey in search of the ideal clandestine organization, until he found in Weishaupt a worthy companion, equally determined to rule the world. [7]


Luckert’s source was the counter-revolutionary journal Eudamonia oder Deutsches Volksglück: Ein Journal für Freunde von Wahrheit und Recht [Eudamonia or the Happiness of Germany: A Journal for the Friends of Truth and Justice], extant from 1795 to 1798. (If Luckert had doubts, however, the paragraph cited above would have included cautionary prepositions such as “according to,” “it is claimed” or “we are led to believe,” etc.) The “Eudamonists” were reactionary ex-Illuminati/Masons-turned-conservatives. Authors such as L. A. C. von Grolmann (1741-1809), J. A. Starck (1741-1816), H. A. O. Reichard (1751-1828) and L. A. Hoffmann (1760-1806) – all former Illuminati except for Starck. [8]

One of Knigge’s friends and defenders, the revolutionary activist and widely-read liberal journalist, G.F. Rebmann (1768-1824) was known to also have been a member of a student order – the Black Brothers. (And he’s listed in Schuttler’s Die Mitglieder des Illuminatenordens, but with an asterisk i.e. not confirmed). [9] Rebmann was a supporter of the French Revolution, once praised the Illuminati as the precursors of the Jacobins, and was a favourite target of the Eudamonists.

In 1792/93, apparently the Erlangen authorities were after Rebmann for incendiary writings. “According to one published report,” wrote Luckert:

during the course of his flight to asylum, he stopped off in Göttingen, where he was given a hearty reception by his “brothers,” the members of the Black order, as a “martyr for the order’s principles.” During the course of the festivities, Rebmann regaled the audience, which also included non-members, with the tale of his flight to freedom. He succeeded in escaping with the aid of two accomplices – a “black brother” and his wife who lived in a neighbouring city. The couple drove up in a carriage to his hideout in Erfurt and Rebmann was able to escape by concealing himself under the woman’s skirts. [10]


Another link between the student orders and the Illuminati concerns the activities of Illuminatus J. L. J. Greineisen (1751-1831). [11] Greineisen was arrested for giving “Jacobin” speeches at the University of Giessen and for “participating in an illegal student order.” The Eudamonist Grolmann was directly involved in Greineisen’s persecution and subsequent conviction, and recounted that “the authorities found in his possession some papers that not only contained what they determined were many principles of Illuminatism, but a completed new grade for a student order. In addition, Grolman cited one of these confiscated documents, which urged members to seek out and make friendly contact with the Illuminati.” [12]

German idealist, philosopher J. G. Fichte (1762-1814) was another target of the counter-revolutionaries. He was accused of being an atheist, an Illuminatus (though he wasn’t), [13] and a corruptor of youth. Fichte’s unwavering support for the French Revolution, even during the Great Terror, hardly helped the situation. (The Eudamonists didn’t know it at the time, but Fichte became a member of the Rudolstadt Masonic Lodge ‘Günther zum stehenden Löwen,’ in 1794. The Master of the Lodge was none other than F. W. L. von Beulwitz (1755-1829), the head of the Rudolstadt Illuminati since 1784.) [14]

Fichte was appointed professor of philosophy at the University of Jena in 1794, where he was “a sensational lecturer, attracting streams of students who became his personal devotees. He eloquently preached the liberty and equality of all men, lectured on Sundays, became involved in the affairs of the student orders, and engaged in journalistic controversy on the nature of God.” [15] This conforms to what the Eudamonists wrote, that Fichte “held secret meetings at night with students.” [16] In addition, it is now known that Fichte, while a student at Leipzig, became a member of the Black brothers/Harmonists (c. 1781/82). [17] They were still active at the University of Jena while he was there. In fact, the Harmonists’ Lodge ‘Christian among the Seven Golden Stars,’ mentioned above (which was suppressed in 1796), was in Jena. [18] In 1795, however, Fichte criticized the student orders for “encouraging drunkenness, debauchery and duelling,” which resulted in a disruption of his lectures followed by insults and the stoning of his house. [19]

-- The Influence of the Illuminati and Freemasonry on German Student Orders (and Vice Versa), by Terry Melanson


Bancroft capped off his education with a European tour, in the course of which he sought out almost every distinguished man in the world of letters, science and art, including Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Wilhelm von Humboldt, Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Lord Byron, Barthold Georg Niebuhr, Christian Charles Josias Bunsen, Friedrich Karl von Savigny, Varnhagen von Ense, Victor Cousin, Benjamin Constant and Alessandro Manzoni.

Career in education and literature

Bancroft's father had devoted his son to the work of the ministry. While the young man delivered several sermons shortly after his return from Europe in 1822 which produced a favorable impression, the love of literature proved the stronger attachment.

His first position was that of tutor of Greek at Harvard. Instinctively a humanist, Bancroft had little patience with the narrow curriculum of Harvard in his day and the rather pedantic spirit with which classical studies were pursued there. Moreover, he had brought from Europe a new manner, imbued with ardent Romanticism and this he wore without ease in the formal, self-satisfied and prim provincial society of New England; the young man's European air was subjected to ridicule, but his politics were sympathetic to Jacksonian democracy.

The Congress of Vienna in 1815 had an indisputable and decisive influence on the Germans' decline. Had this assembly never taken place, National Socialism would probably have never come into being. Never had the Germans been closer to conducting a republican revolution on the American model, and never had they reached a higher moral level, than they were during the 1812-15 Wars of Liberation. These wars were not merely a republican uprising against Napoleon's imperialist occupation of the greater part of Germany; above all else, they were spearheaded by a flourishing constitutional movement.

The movement was led, of course, by the Prussian reformers vom Stein, Humboldt, and Scharnhorst, but it drew its vitality from the countless common citizens who were filled with patriotism and inspired by Schiller's dramas and other republican writings. Even at the Vienna Congress itself, vom Stein still cherished hopes that the negotiations would result in a united, sovereign German nation. But that was precisely what the international oligarchy conspired to prevent. With the intrigues and machinations of the English, French, Venetians, the Russian nobility, and especially the wretched Metternich (the man whom, not surprisingly, Henry Kissinger admires the most) arrayed against them, the German republicans did not stand a chance. Cloaked in hypocritical fundamentalism, the Holy Alliance snuffed out each and every shining idea, introducing instead an era of brutal oppression and surveillance. The German population, unable to understand why their heroic and victorious struggle against Napoleon had not led to a nation-state, lapsed to an ever greater degree into an other-worldly Romanticism during the years following the Restoration, drifting later on into outright demoralization. It is only from this standpoint that the influence wielded by Nietzsche and the other demagogues of cultural pessimism becomes comprehensible.
...

The Vienna Congress marked the end of republican turmoil in Germany. The oligarchy of England, Russia, France, Switzerland, Venice, and Austria had regrouped their forces, and were determined to leave no openings for the German negotiator, vom Stein. Following 1815, and with a vengeance in the wake of the Carlsbad Decrees of 1819, there began a long phase of gloomy reaction, with devastating effects on the population. Most citizens were unable to reconstruct in their minds precisely why and how they had been robbed of the fruits of their struggle. As the bigoted narrowness of the Holy Alliance increasingly made itself felt, the clear mind of the world citizen and patriot shrank into the limited purview of the Burschenschaften (student dueling societies) and maudlin German chauvinism. Clear conceptions yielded to romantic Schwarmerei [enthusiasm, passion, rapture], and the disappointed hopes lapsed into latent cultural pessimism.

This paradigm shift from classicism to Romanticism, however, was no more a "sociological phenomenon" than was West Germany's turn from a belief in progress during the "economic miracle" of the 1960s, to the 1970s' zero-growth ideology and hatred of technology. The subversion, sabotage, and final defeat of the hopeful republican freedom movement at the start of the nineteenth century was the result of the same shift; and all the weapons directed against the humanist conception of man can be summed up under one modern concept: the "Conservative Revolution."


Under that title, Armin Mohler wrote the standard work on this theme -- first published in 1949 -- in defense of the Nazi regime. According to Mohler, the Conservative Revolution has been an ongoing process ever since the French Revolution. He explains that:

Every revolution brings along with it a counter-force which attempts to reverse the revolution. And with the French Revolution's victory came a world which the Conservative Revolution regards as its mortal enemy. For the time being we would like to describe their world as one which revolves not around that which is unchangeable in man, but which believes it can alter man's nature. It therefore proclaims the possibility of stepwise progress, considers all things, relations and events to be accessible to comprehension, and attempts to consider every object in isolation and understand it in and of itself alone.


Mohler's book is only worthwhile reading for clinical purposes. He leaves no doubt about his constituency for the Conservative Revolution, frankly admitting -- in 1949! -- that this notion is synonymous with fascism. (His description "conservative" is actually ill-chosen, since with its implied notions of "preserve" and "maintain," it is always associated with the idea of influencing the whole, whereas for the Conservative Revolution the whole always remains the same.) The implicit notion in all ideas of progress, that man is fundamentally good, that he can gradually perfect himself unless hindered by adversive circumstances, is entirely foreign to the thinking of the Conservative Revolution. The idea that man is equally disposed to good and to evil lends it a decidedly gnostic and Manichean character, a feature which later made its way into Nazi ideology.

Mohler describes the paradigm shift in the following terms: "In a broad sense, the term 'Conservative Revolution' includes the common basis of all completed or incipient transformations in all areas of life, in theology as well as in physics and music, or the planning of a city, structuring a family, or the care of the body or the building of a machine." It is therefore an "alternative movement," with all the essential features of that movement today.

The reversals in Germany were only one part of a trend which swept through virtually every European country and permeated all areas of life -- a trend represented by Dostoevsky and the Aksakovs in Russia, Sorel and Barres in France, and Pareto and Evola in Italy, to name a few examples.

In theology, the Bishop of Mainz, von Keneler, developed the counterrevolutionary idea of solidarism as a bludgeon against the Augustinian tradition; in physics, Cauchy and Laplace sabotaged the work of Monge, Carnot, and Legendre at the Ecole Polytechnique, breaking with the Leibnizian tradition in mathematics (especially the calculus) and re-establishing mathematics along Cartesian lines.

In music there was a break between those composers who had been educated in the pre-1815 tradition of Bach, and whose compositions were based on the necessary progressions of well-tempered counterpoint -- the first generation of Mozart and Beethoven, the second generation of Schumann and Schubert, and Brahms in the third generation -- and those trained after 1815, who dwelled on the instability of chaotic progressions, such as Wagner or Hugo Wolff, not to speak of our present so-called modern composers.

Romanticism was consciously promoted by the European oligarchy as a movement which advocated the total rejection of reason and humanism, upon which Weimar classicism was based. One of the oligarchy's most influential agents, who supported the young Romantics with body and soul, was Madame de Stael, daughter of the Swiss banker Jacques Necker, who as French finance minister had ruined France for the sake of the Swiss banks. Heinrich Heine has pointedly described how Madame de Stael and her circles were angered that the "republican" culture found in the Weimar classics, in musical soirees at home, or in the great theater houses had begun to spread through large portions of the population. In a blue rage, she attempted to regain her own control of culture by luring young artists into her own salon. These recruits threw themselves into action with the same abandon as today's "beautiful people" or the nobility's "Jet set." Not only did this romantic movement produce the organized terrorism of Giuseppe Mazzini's "Young Europe," but it also spawned the tendency stretching from the turn-of-the-century youth movement to today's counterculture "alternative" movement, along with its ideologues Friedrich Nietzsche, Paul de Lagarde, Julius Langbehn, Alfred Rosenberg, and so forth. The Nazis too drank out of this "alternative" trough.

-- The Hitler Book, edited by Helga Zepp-LaRouche


A little volume of poetry, translations and original pieces, published in 1823 gave its author no fame.

At Kandersteg
by George Bancroft

Father in heaven! while friendless and alone
I gaze on nature's face in Alpine wild,
I would approach thee nearer. Wilt thou own
The solitary pilgrim for thy child.

While on the hill's majestic height I trod,
And thy creation smiling round me lay,
The soul reclaimed its likeness unto God,
And spurned its union with the baser clay.

The stream of thought flowed purely, like the air

That from untrodden snows passed coolly by;
Base passion died within me; low-born care
Fled, and reflection raised my soul on high.

Then was thou with me, and didst sweetly pour
Serene delight into my wounded breast;
The mantle of thy love hung gently o'er
The lonely wanderer, and my heart had rest.

I gazed on thy creation. O! 'tis fair;
The vales are clothed in beauty, and the hills
In their deep bosom icy oceans bear,
To feed the mighty floods and bubbling rills.

I marvel not at nature. She is thine;
Thy cherished daughter, whom thou lov'st to bless;
Through thee her hills in glistening whiteness shine;
Through thee her valleys laugh in loveliness.

'Tis thou, when 'oer my path beams cheerful day,
That smiling guid'st me through the stranger's land;
And when mild winds around my temples play,
On my hot brow I feel thy lenient hand.

And shall I fear thee? -- wherefore fear thy wrath,
When life and hope and youth from thee descend?
O! be my Guide in life's uncertain path,
The pilgrim's guardian, counsellor, and friend.

***

The Fairy of the Wengern-Alp
by George Bancroft

On Wenger's verdant height I stood;
Rapt in delight I gazed around
O'er mountain, glacier, valley, wood,
The "Virgin's" own enchanted ground.
By Fancy's strangest phantoms led,
My spirit wandered far and high;
I longed on hills of snow to tread,
And o'er the seas of ice to fly.

Hope whispered, Nature could unbind
The heavy chains of earth, and give
Wings to the ransomed soul that pined
With beings of the air to live,

Who rule each mighty element,
(As well is sung by bards of old)
And oft, by mightier spirit sent,
Earth's mysteries to man unfold.

Or are the days of marvel past?
Does Magic wave no more her wand?
Has wondering Faith retired at last?
And leads no path to fairy land?

But if e'en now as bards believe,
Still roams and rules the fairy race,
Then, Spirits, bid me cease to grieve,
And soar the Genius of the place.

I turned to where the Virgin rose
In still communion with the sky;
Eternity hath heaped its snows
Round her in unstained purity.
O'er her fair features gently hung
The morning's thin transparent cloud;
While round her breast was rudely flung
The vapours' denser, darker shroud.


But near the "Silver Peak" was seen
With his fair snow-heaps, like a gay
And gallant page beside a queen,
That frowns in armour's stern array.
His sides, that like the cygnet's breast
Were white and crisped, beamed afar;
The sun but touched his topmost crest,
That sparkled like the evening star.

Right glad such beauty to behold,
Plead thou for me, sweet star, I cried;
For 'tis thy light that makes me bold;
Oh loveliest star! be thou my guide.
Then toward the Virgin's form I knelt;
"O spotless Virgin! hear my prayer;
Command this earthly flesh to melt;
My soul would wander free in air."


And as I still admiring bowed,
And hoped a kind reply to hear,
From the deep bosom of the cloud,
A gentle voice fell on my ear.
"Like mountain air would'st thou be free,
Be pure as is the mountain air;
Mortal! from vice and pleasure flee,
And gladly will I grant thy prayer."


"Then, Virgin, deign my wish to grant;
Though but the meanest of thy train,
This lovely spot I'd rather haunt,
Than o'er the world beside to reign.
My heart like thine is pure and chaste;
On nature's bosom oft I've leant,
And oft the morning wind embraced;
But ne'er my neck hath pleasure bent.

To thee a virgin heart would bear
Its earliest fruits. Unveil thy brow;
Thy holy love I long to share,
O! take me to thy bosom now." --
See, the dark clouds asunder roll,
And yon tall form sublimely gleams
In dazzling beauty; on the soul
Burst life and rapture with its beams.


Is it the sun, that gently checks
His fiery steeds o'er Alps' fair child,
Gilding with glory all her peaks?
No! 'twas the Virgin queen that smiled.
O'er me her hallowed light she throws;
She blends with majesty divine
Mildness, and whispers from her snows;
"Come thou to me, for thou art mine."

Farewell, thou lower earth, farewell!
I haste to rush in foaming floods,
Where elves and fairies roam to dwell,

To woo the nymphs of tannen woods,
With Iris watch the waterfall,
And smile and shine in glittering spray,
To heed the Virgin's beckoning call,
And haste o'er earth her will to obey.

An eagle passed; I cried aloud,
Away swift bird, I'll soar with thee.

Rushing we pierced the lofty cloud,
Beneath us waved the tannen tree;
E'en to the glacier's tallest height,
We soared o'er fields of icy blue;
Long round its gay transparent light,
Pleased with the novel scene, I flew.

"Blue is the light of beauty's eye;
And blue the waves where swells the sea;
And blue at noon my native sky;
But nought is fair and blue like thee,
Thou lovely pyramid of light!

Thou graceful daughter of the snows!
Thy sire the sun is ne'er so bright,
As when his beams on thee repose."

From rock to rock the ice to dash,
That tottered on its base, I sprung;
Now tumbling with a fearful crash,
To every peak it lends a tongue;
'Tis dashed to dust; the frozen spray
Sweeps onward o'er the precipice
Resplendent in the eye of day,
A sparkling cataract of ice.

And where it stood there opened wide
A chasm of azure, dark and deep;
'Tis there the mountain spirits glide,
To where their court the fairies keep.
I did not fear, but ventured too
Along the glittering icy walls,
Full many a fathom downwards flew,
And came to Nature's inmost halls.

A Paradise of light I found,
Where Nature builds of vilest earth
Her crystal home, and under ground
Brings all that's beautiful to birth
.

And o'er her ever youthful face
Wisdom hath spread a light serene;
While round her throne the fairy race
Are floating in unearthly sheen.

Some hearkened to their mistress' call;
Some sported mid the heaps of snow;
Some glided with the waterfall;
Some sat above its glittering bow,
Seeming o'er Nature's works to muse;
And some their little limbs arrayed;
These dew-drops for their mirror use;
Of light and air their robes are made.

And others bent with serious look
To prove the new made crystals' light;
While earth's dark substance others took,
And changed the mass to diamonds bright.
But as I gained the fairy ground,
They ceased awhile from toil and sport,
And the young stranger gathering round,
Cried -- "Welcome, youth, to Nature's court."

A fairy then with accents bland
Gently, as fairies wont to do,
Came near and said, "This wondrous land
Of airy sprites I'll lead thee through."
Guided by her I dared to gaze
Where Nature's servants restless toil
The rocks of sand and chalk to raise,
The granite's tall, unyielding pile.

And oft a narrow space they leave,
Where vitriol's azure drops to pour,
Or thinnest threads of silver weave
In baser metals' glittering ore.
And when they mingle air and light
With iron black or sluggish lead,
Eye hath not seen so fair a sight,
Such brilliant hues, green, white, and red.


I saw the home of every wind;
And where the ocean's base is laid;
And where the earthquake sleeps confined
,
Till Destiny demands its aid;
And where from magazines of snow
The mighty rivers foaming well;
And more than mortals e'er can know,
And more than fairy's tongue can tell.

Long did I stand enraptured there,
Nor ceased to gaze in full delight.
Mother of beauty, thou art fair!
O Nature, lovely is thy might.
Forever would I dwell with thee!
Forever to thy train belong.
Then she that led me, smiled to see
My admiration deep and strong,

And thus in kindest mood began;
"O! wouldst thou Nature's love return,
Remember that thou once wast man,
Young elf; to heal man's sorrows learn;
Spread calmness round the couch of pain;
Comfort the mourning; sooth disease;
Support the wavering; and sustain
The form that shrinks at winter's breeze;

A guardian power, o'er virtue bend;
Shed round the young sweet influence;
To the lone wanderer vigour lend;
And anxious watch o'er innocence;
From pleasure's wiles preserve the fair;
Then shall the Virgin love thee well,
And haply trust to thee the care
Of vales, where peace and virtue dwell.

And now thou'st one of us; canst roam
In fire, earth, air, o'er ocean's wave;
Canst fly to bless thy ancient home,
From age and pain thy parents ave;
And rest awhile delighted where
Thy youthful sisters harmless play,
Nor deem their brother hovering near,
To drive each guilty thought away.

For know, we bless the infant's head;
We guard the fair; the good we shield;
We teach the young, to virtue bred,
Her arms victoriously to wield;
We paint with light the opening flowers;
Of every herb we know the name;
The sea's ours; the earth is ours;
We rule the air; we rule the flame."

The social fairy ceased to speak.
There's many a joy, that mortals know;
But oft when pleasure's flower they seek,
The leaves conceal the worm of woe;
"Tis sweet to watch the kindling eye
Of parents, kin, or friends, or wife;
But sweester 'tis in air to fly,
And happiest is the fairy's life.


-- Poems, by George Bancroft


As time passed, and custom created familiarity, his style, personal and literary, was seen to be the outward symbol of a firm resolve to preserve a philosophic calm, and of an enormous underlying energy which spent itself in labor. He found the conversational atmosphere of Cambridge uncongenial, and with Joseph Cogswell he established the Round Hill School at Northampton, Massachusetts. This was the first serious effort made in the United States to elevate secondary education to the plane on which it belonged.

In spite of the exacting and severe routine of the Round Hill School, Bancroft contributed frequently to the North American Review and to Walsh's American Quarterly; he also made a translation of Heeren's work on The Politics of Ancient Greece. In 1826 he published an oration in which he advocated universal suffrage and the foundation of the state on the power of the whole people. In 1830, without his knowledge, he was elected to the Massachusetts legislature, but refused to take his seat, and the next year he declined a nomination, though certain to have been elected, for the state senate.

In 1834 appeared the first volume of the History of the United States, which would appear over the next four decades (1834–74) and established his reputation. In 1835, he moved to Springfield, Massachusetts, where he completed the second volume of his history. The year of his move, he also drafted an address to the people of Massachusetts at the request of the Young Men's Democratic Convention.

Family

His first wife was Sarah Dwight, of a rich family in Springfield, Massachusetts; they married in 1827 but she died in 1837. His second wife was Mrs. Elizabeth Davis Bliss, a widow with two children to add to his two sons; she bore him a daughter.

Historian

Bancroft, having trained in the leading German universities, was an accomplished scholar, whose magisterial History of the United States, from the Discovery of the American Continent covered the new nation in depth down to 1789.[2] Bancroft was imbued with the spirit of Romanticism, emphasizing the emergence of nationalism and republican values, and rooting on every page for the Patriots. His masterwork started appearing in 1834, and he constantly revised it in numerous editions.[3] Along with John Gorham Palfrey (1796-1881), he wrote the most comprehensive history of colonial America. Billias argues Bancroft played on four recurring themes to explain how America developed its unique values: providence, progress, patria, and pan-democracy. "Providence" meant that destiny depended more on God than on human will. The idea of "progress" indicated that through continuous reform a better society was possible. "Patria" (love of country) was deserved because America's spreading influence would bring liberty and freedom to more and more of the world. "Pan-democracy" meant the nation-state was central to the drama, not specific heroes or villains.[4]

Vitzthum argues that Bancroft was the historian as artist and philosopher. He used past events to exemplify his moral vision, based on his Unitarian faith in progress. The history of America exemplified the gradual unfolding of God's purpose for mankind -- the development of religious and political liberty. The tone of moral certainty made his volumes popular, in combination with their grand artistic sweep, intensity, and coherence.[5]

Bancroft was an indefatigable researcher who had a thorough command of the sources, but his rotund romantic style and enthusiastic patriotism annoyed later generations of scientific historians, who did not assign his books to students.[6] Furthermore, scholars of the "Imperial School" after 1890 took a much more favorable view of the benign intentions of the British Empire than he did.[7][8]

Career in politics

Image
Bancroft in 1846

His entry into politics came in 1837 with his appointment by Martin Van Buren as Collector of Customs of the Port of Boston. In this position, two of Bancroft's appointees were Orestes Brownson and Nathaniel Hawthorne. In 1844, he was the Democratic candidate for the governorship of Massachusetts, but he was defeated. In 1845, in recognition for his support at the previous Democratic convention, he entered Polk's cabinet as Secretary of the Navy, serving until 1846, when for a month he was acting Secretary of War.

During his short period in the cabinet, he established the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis, gave the orders which led to the occupation of California, and sent Zachary Taylor into the contested land between Texas and Mexico. He also continued his pleadings for the annexation of Texas as extending "the area of freedom," and, though a Democrat, opposed slavery.

The Naval Academy was devised and completely set at work by Bancroft alone, who received for the purpose all the appropriations for which he asked. Congress had never been willing to establish a naval academy. Bancroft studied the law to ascertain the powers of the Secretary of the Navy, and found that he could order the place where midshipmen should wait for orders. He could also direct the instructors to give lessons to them at sea, and by law they had power to follow them to the place of their common residence on shore. With a close economy, the appropriation of the year for the naval service met the expense, and the secretary of war ceded an abandoned military post to the navy.

So when Congress came together they found the midshipmen that were not at sea comfortably housed at Annapolis, protected from the dangers of idleness and city life, and busy at a regular course of study. Seeing what had been done, Congress accepted the school, which was in full operation, and granted money for the repairs of the buildings. Bancroft introduced some new professors of great merit into the corps of instructors, and he suggested a method by which promotion should depend, not on age alone, but also on experience and capacity; but this scheme was never fully developed or applied. Bancroft was also influential in obtaining additional appropriations for the United States Naval Observatory.

He likewise made himself the authority on the Oregon boundary dispute, with the result that in 1846 he was sent as minister plenipotentiary to London, where he lived in constant companionship with the historian Macaulay and the poet Hallam. With the election of Zachary Taylor his post was not renewed; on his return to the United states in 1849 he withdrew from public life, residing in New York and writing history. While in New York, Bancroft acted as a founding member of the American Geographical Society and served as the society's first president for nearly three years (Feb. 21, 1852—Dec. 7, 1854).[9]

Image
George Bancroft in his office (c. 1889)

In April 1864, at Bancroft's request, President Lincoln wrote out what would become the fourth of five known manuscripts of the Gettysburg Address. Mr. Bancroft planned to include this copy in "Autograph Leaves of Our Country's Authors," which he planned to sell at a Soldiers' and Sailors' Sanitary Fair in Baltimore.

Bancroft was elected an Associate Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1863.[10] In 1866, He was chosen by Congress to deliver the special eulogy on Lincoln; and in 1867 he was appointed minister to Berlin, where he remained until his resignation in 1874. Then he lived in Washington, D.C., summering at Rose Cliff, Newport, Rhode Island.

His latest official achievements are considered the greatest. In the San Juan arbitration he displayed great versatility and skill, winning his case before the emperor with brilliant ease. The naturalization treaties, named the "Bancroft treaties" in his honor, which he negotiated successively with Prussia and the other north German states were the first international recognition of the right of expatriation, a principle since incorporated in the law of nations.

Works

• Bancroft, George. History of the United States of America, from the discovery of the American continent. (Boston: Little, Brown, and company, numerous editions in 8 or 10 volumes 1854-78). online edition
• Bancroft, George; Dyer, Oliver, 1824-1907. (1891) History of the battle of Lake Erie: and miscellaneous papers (New York: R. Bonner's sons) 292 pp. at American Library Association.

His minor publications include:

• An Oration delivered on the 4th of July, 1826, at Northampton, Mass. (Northampton, 1826)
• History of the Political System of Europe, translated from Heeren (1829)
• An Oration delivered before the Democracy of Springfield and Neighboring Towns, July 4, 1836 (2d ed., with prefatory remarks, Springfield, 1836)
• History of the Colonization of the United States (Boston, 1841, 12mo, abridged)
• An Oration delivered at the Commemoration, in Washington, of the Death of Andrew Jackson, June 27, 1845
• The Necessity, the Reality, and the Promise of the Progress of the Human Race
• An Oration delivered before the New York Historical Society, November 20, 1854 (New York, 1854)
• Proceedings of the First Assembly of Virginia, 1619; Communicated, with an Introductory Note, by George Bancroft
• Collections of the New York Historical Society, second series, vol. iii., part i. (New York, 1857)
• Literary and Historical Miscellanies (New York, 1855)
• Memorial Address on the Life and Character of Abraham Lincoln, delivered at the request of both Houses of the Congress of America, before them, in the House of Representatives at Washington, on the 12th of February, 1866 (Washington, 1866)
• A Plea for the Constitution of the United States of America, Wounded in the House of its Guardians
• Veritati Unice Litarem (New York, 1886)

Among his other speeches and addresses may be mentioned a lecture on “The Culture, the Support, and the Object of Art in a Republic,” in the course of the New York Historical Society in 1852; and one on “The Office, Appropriate Culture, and Duty of the Mechanic.”

Bancroft contributed a biography of Jonathan Edwards to the American Cyclopædia.

Namesakes and Monuments

Image
Bancroft Tower

The United States Navy has named several ships USS Bancroft, as well as the fleet ballistic missile submarine USS George Bancroft (SBN-643), after Bancroft, and the mid-19th century United States Coast Survey schooner USCS Bancroft also was named for him. The dormitory at the United States Naval Academy, Bancroft Hall, is named after him as well. Bancroft is one of 23 famous names on the $1 Educational currency note of 1896.[11]

The name of Bancroft is found atop one of several marble pillars in the Thomas Jefferson Building of the United States Library of Congress in Washington, DC. It is believed this is attributed to George Bancroft.[12]

In and around Worcester, Massachusetts, Bancroft's birthplace, many streets, businesses and monuments bear his name:

• Bancroft School, Worcester MA.
• Bancroft School of Massage Therapy, Worcester, MA.
• Bancroft Hall at Phillips Exeter Academy, Exeter, NH.
• Bancroft Tower, which was erected in honor of him on Bancroft Tower Road Worcester, MA.
• Bancroft Commons, an apartment building in downtown Worcester, MA.
• Bancroft Motors, now owned by HARR Motor Company.
• Bancroft Street, Gardner, MA.
• Bancroft Street, Worcester, MA.

Notes

1. He served as president of the American Unitarian Association from 1825 to 1836.
2. Harvey Wish, The American Historian: A Social-intellectual History of the Writing of the American Past (1960) ch 5 online
3. See for online editions
4. George Athan Billias, "George Bancroft: Master Historian," Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society, Oct 2001, 111#2 pp 507-528
5. Richard C. Vitzthum, "Theme and Method in Bancroft's "History of the United States," New England Quarterly, Sept 1968, 41#3 pp 362-380 in JSTOR
6. Vitzthum, "Theme and Method in Bancroft's "History of the United States," p 362
7. N. H. Dawes, and F. T. Nichols, "Revaluing George Bancroft," New England Quarterly, 6#2 (1933), pp. 278-293 in JSTOR
8. Michael Kraus, "George Bancroft 1834-1934," New England Quarterly, 7#4 (1934), pp. 662-686 in JSTOR
9. Wright, John Kirtland 'The Years of Henry Grinnell', Geography in the Making: The American Geographical Society 1851-1951 (1952) p. 17-18. — George Grady Press
10. "Book of Members, 1780-2010: Chapter B". American Academy of Arts and Sciences. http://www.amacad.org/publications/Book ... apterB.pdf. Retrieved May 17, 2011.
11. "United States Bank Notes". 2009-12-27. http://www.tomchao.com/na/na43.html.
12. "United States Library of Congress, Thomas Jefferson Building". 2010-01-18. http://www.loc.gov/loc/walls/jeff1.html.

References

• Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Bancroft, George". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
• Samuel Austin Allibone (1900). "Bancroft, George". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography.
• Dawes, N. H., and F. T. Nichols. "Revaluing George Bancroft," New England Quarterly, 6#2 (1933), pp. 278-293 in JSTOR
• Kraus, Michael. "George Bancroft 1834-1934," New England Quarterly, 7#4 (1934), pp. 662-686 in JSTOR
• Handlin, Lillian. George Bancroft: The Intellectual as Democrat. (New York, 1984).
• Nye, Russel B. George Bancroft, Brahmin Rebel (New York, 1944).
• Stewart, Watt. "George Bancroft Historian of the American Republic," Mississippi Valley Historical Review, 19#1 (1932), pp. 77-86 in JSTOR
• Wish, Harvey. The American Historian: A Social-intellectual History of the Writing of the American Past (1960)] ch 5 on Bancroft online

Primary sources

• Howe, M. A. Dewolfe The Life and Letters of George Bancroft - Vol. 1 (1971 reprint)
• Cornell University, Guide to the George Bancroft papers

External links

• George Bancroft Papers, 1823-1890 Manuscripts and Archives, New York Public Library.
• Obituary at New York Times site
• George Bancroft at Find a Grave
• Works by George Bancroft at Project Gutenberg

___________________________________________________________________________________

George Bancroft, American Historian
by The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica
Accessed: 8/1/18

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George Bancroft, (born October 3, 1800, Worcester, Massachusetts, U.S.—died January 17, 1891, Washington, D.C.), American historian whose comprehensive 10-volume study of the origins and development of the United States caused him to be referred to as the “father of American history.”

Bancroft’s life presented a curious blend of scholarship and politics. Although he was educated at Harvard and several German universities, he initially eschewed an academic career for an eight-year experiment in elementary education at Round Hill, his private school for boys at Northampton, Massachusetts (1823–31). He then turned to anti-Masonic and Democratic politics in Massachusetts. He received his first patronage post as collector of the Port of Boston (1838) and became U.S. secretary of the navy (1845–46) and minister to England (1846–49). Though not an abolitionist, Bancroft broke with the Democrats over the slavery issue in the 1850s and shifted his support to the Republican Party. As a result, he served as minister to Prussia (1867–71) and to the German Empire (1871–74). While in Germany he became closely identified with the German intellectual community.

Throughout his lifetime he fitted his research and writing around his political requirements, so that the compilation of his 10-volume History of the United States extended over a period of 40 years (1834–74). With a few exceptions, earlier American historians had been collectors or annalists, concerned chiefly with state or Revolutionary War histories. Bancroft was the first scholar to plan a comprehensive study of the nation’s past, from its colonial foundations through the end of its struggle for independence. Influenced by the nationalistic German school of historians, he approached his subject philosophically, molding it to fit his preconceived thesis that the American political and social system represented the highest point yet reached in humanity’s quest for the perfect state. He placed great emphasis on the use of original sources, building a vast collection of documents and hiring copyists to translate materials from European archives.

Many critics thought that, in the first three volumes (1834–40), the writer was too strongly influenced by the political attitudes of President Andrew Jackson. Nevertheless, Bancroft’s reputation as the country’s leading historian was firmly established by 1850. Seven succeeding volumes were published between 1852 and 1874. A revised centenary edition (1876) reduced the number of volumes to six, but the author’s basic approach to American history remained unchanged. A still later edition (1885) included a two-volume study, The History of the Formation of the Federal Constitution (1882).

Although Bancroft neglected economic and social forces and wrote what are essentially political and military narratives, he was nevertheless the first to recognize the importance of the colonial period, foreign relations, and the frontier as forces in the history of the United States.
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Re: Charles Follen, by Wikipedia

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Wartburg Festival
by Wikipedia

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Image
Students marching to the Wartburg in 1817

The first Wartburg festival (German: Wartburgfest) on 18 October 1817 was an important event in German history that took place at the Wartburg Castle near Eisenach.

After the war of liberation against France and Napoleon, many people were bitter about dreams of German unity shattered after the Congress of Vienna. Democratic reforms were stalled, and governments had cracked down on press freedom and rights of association.

In 1815 the students of Jena founded the youth organization Teutonia in order to encourage German unity at the university. Many of them had participated as voluntary soldiers on the fields against Napoleon, e.g. in the Lützow Free Corps with its black-red-gold colour scheme that was adopted as the Flag of Germany. The German students demonstrated for a national state and a liberal Constitution and condemned reactionary forces in the newly recreated German states.

1817: The Thing at the Wartburg

What no one could forget were the bells. Joyously ringing their welcome to the young men who had come from afar, the bells of Eisenach would be forever etched in their memories. [6] Having gathered just outside the red-tiled buildings of this medieval German town, the young men lit torches and began their solemn procession up to the castle, yellow and red autumn leaves blanketing their path. Some of the young men referred to this congregation at the Wartburg castle as a Thing -- what the ancient Germans called their annual tribal gatherings. Some of the young men were in ancient German dress, but most wore the Trachten, or traditional folk dress, of their native regions. They were urged to do so by the event's organizers, one of whom was Friedrich Ludwig Jahn, the famous "Turnvater Jahn," best remembered for founding gymnastics societies (Turnvereinen). There was no Germany in 1817, only several dozen principalities united by language, culture, and their common history of being recently overrun by Napoleon's armies. Jahn's gymnastics societies were designed to kindle the sparks of German nationalism in a defeated, fragmented, and often sleepy population. (Many of the foreign travelers through these lands in the nineteenth century described the Germans as rather indifferent, dreamy folk, all too glad to share their bread, wurst, and beer -- not as seething tribes of warriors.)

Many of the young men marching with torches to the Wartburg castle that day were members of these proud gymnastics societies. The rest belonged to student fraternities, some of them secret known as Burschenschaften. Most were from the university in Jena. These student fraternities had only just come into being, but they would play an important role in German cultural life in the nineteenth century. [7] Some of them were also affiliated with an older secret society, the Freemasons, for whom the rose and the cross were blended into a meaningful occult symbol. Some of the participants at the Wartburg festival wore cloth bands around their torsos in the colors that comprise the flag of today's Germany -- black, red, and gold.

It was no coincidence that these rituals of nascent German national fervor played out in the shadow of the mighty Wartburg fortress on an October night. It was here that Martin Luther gave Jesus a German accent. Luther's translation of the New Testament into German catalyzed nationalist sentiment and revolutionized the German world of letters. Heinrich Heine captures so many of the contradictions in the German soul in his often quoted description of Luther as "not merely the greatest but also the most German man in our history, so that in his character all the virtues and failings of the Germans were united in the most magnificent way." Luther was "the tongue as well as the sword of his age ... a cold scholastic word-cobbler and an inspired, God-drunk prophet who, when he had worked himself almost to death over his laborious and dogmatic distinctions, in the evening reached for his flute and, gazing at the stars, melted in melody and reverence." [8] For many of the young men, the commanding walls of the Wartburg fortress rose above them like the brooding, corpulent specter of Martin Luther himself.

In October of 1517 a defiant Martin Luther hammered his theses of protestation to a church door. October also was celebrated as the anniversary of the defeat of Napoleon at Leipzig in 1813. The feeling of being German swelled whenever these victories of the Volk were recounted.

"Feelings" of being German were all that one could have, for "Germany" was a word for an ideal, not a reality. German-speaking peoples lived in a loose confederation of dozens of autonomous states of varying sizes and significance bound only by a weakly ruled political entity called the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation. They shared no common currency or legal system, and travel and commerce between many of them was a gauntlet of complex taxes, customs fees, and unanticipated local restrictions on personal freedoms.

At the foot of the Wartburg, the men built a huge, blazing bonfire and other pillars of fire that could be seen by the people of Eisenach. Encircling the central fire, with an excitement driven by a sense of the sacred and the dangerous, the men sang the traditional hymn "Eine Feste Burg" ("A Mighty Fortress Is Our God"). One of the leaders then offered a few inspirational remarks about justice and invoked the important symbol of the German forest of oaks. The mighty oak was sacred to the ancient Teutons and indeed was the "cross" upon which Wotan (Odin) underwent his revelatory self-sacrifice. Nostalgic references to it recur throughout more than a century of German spiritual longing.

More songs were sung and a patriotic sermon was delivered. Then, before a final hymn to end the formal segment of their ritual, the young men joined hands around the fire and took a collective oath of allegiance to one another and to their group (Bund). They also pledged to preserve the purity of the Volk. Before the Wartburgfest concluded, for the first time in recorded German history "un-German books" were denounced and burned in the great central fire.

Karl Gustav Jung -- the grandfather of Carl Gustav Jung -- considered his participation in the Wartburgfest one of the purest and most meaningful experiences of his life. He was twenty-three. He carefully preserved his black, red, and gold wrap from his days of student activism, and it became one of his grandson's most cherished possessions.

-- The Aryan Christ: The Secret Life of Carl Jung, by Richard Noll


On the occasion of the three-hundredth anniversary of Martin Luther's nailing of his theses and the fourth anniversary of the bloody Battle of Nations at Leipzig, the student groups organized a festival at the Wartburg. This castle had been a refuge for Martin Luther. As he translated the bible there and thus set a standard for the German language, it became a symbol of German nationalism.

Accordingly, it must and dare not be considered a trifling matter but a most serious one to seek counsel against this and to save our souls from the Jews, that is, from the devil and from eternal death. My advice, as I said earlier, is:

First, that their synagogues be burned down, and that all who are able toss in sulphur and pitch; it would be good if someone could also throw in some hellfire. That would demonstrate to God our serious resolve and be evidence to all the world that it was in ignorance that we tolerated such houses, in which the Jews have reviled God, our dear Creator and Father, and his Son most shamefully up till now, but that we have now given them their due reward.

Second, that all their books their prayer books, their Talmudic writings, also the entire Bible, be taken from them, not leaving them one leaf, and that these be preserved for those who may be converted. For they use all of these books to blaspheme the Son of God, that is, God the Father himself, Creator of heaven and earth, as was said above; and they will never use them differently.

Third, that they be forbidden on pain of death to praise God, to give thanks, to pray, and to teach publicly among us and in our country. They may do this in their own country or wherever they can without our being obliged to hear it or know it. The reason for this prohibition is that their praise, thanks, prayer, and doctrine are sheer blasphemy, cursing, and idolatry, because their heart and mouth call God the Father *Hebel Vorik* as they call his Son, our Lord Jesus, this. For as they name and honor the Son, thus they also name and honor the Father. It does not help them to use many fine words and to make much ado about the name of God. For we read, "You shall not take the name of the Lord your God in vain" [Exod. 20:7]. Just as little did it avail their ancestors at the time of the kings of Israel that they bore God's name, yet called him Baal.

Fourth, that they be forbidden to utter the name of God within our hearing. For we cannot with a good conscience listen to this or tolerate it, because their blasphemous and accursed mouth and heart call God's Son *Hebel Vorik,* and thus also call his Father that. He cannot and will not interpret this otherwise, just as we Christians too cannot interpret it otherwise, we who believe that however the Son is named and honored thus also the Father is named and honored. Therefore we must not consider the mouth of the Jews as worthy of uttering the name of God within our hearing. He who hears this name-from a Jew must inform the authorities, or else throw sow dung at him when he sees him and chase him away. And may no one be merciful and kind in this regard, for God's honor and the salvation of us all, including that of the Jews, are at stake!

-- On the Jews and Their Lies, by Martin Luther


A key event was a book-burning of reactionary literary works, and symbols of Napoleon like a corporal's cane. This act was used in 1933 as a justification for the Nazi book burnings.

The event itself was also used as a justification for further suppression of liberal forces, like the Carlsbad Decrees of 1819.

In 1832, the Hambacher Fest was held in similar manner. A second festival at the Wartburg was held during the Revolutions of 1848 in the German states.

Some works burned during the book burning

• Jean Pierre Frédéric Ancillon: Ueber Souverainitaet etc.
• F. v. Cölln: Vertraute Briefe. Freymüthige Blätter
• August Friedrich Wilhelm Crome: Deutschlands Crisis und Rettung im April und May 1813.
• Dabelow: Der 13e Artikel der deutschen Bundesacte
• Karl Ludwig von Haller: Restauration der Staatswissenschaft
• August von Kotzebue: Geschichte des deutschen Reichs
• Ludwig Theobul Kosegarten: Rede gesprochen am Napoleonstage 1800, Geschichte meines fünfzigsten Lebensjahres, and Vaterländische Lieder
• Carl Albert Christoph Heinrich von Kamptz: Codex der Gensd'armerie
• W. Reinhard: Die Bundesacte über Ob, Wann und Wie? deutscher Landstände
• Schmalz: Berichtigung einer Stelle in der Bredow-Venturinischen Chronik; und die beyden darauf
• Saul Ascher: Germanomanie
• Zacharias Werner: Martin Luther oder die Weihe der Kraft, Die Söhne des Thals
• K. v. Wangenheim: Die Idee der Staatsverfassung
• The Napoleonic Code
• Justus Friedrich Wilhelm Zachariae: Über den Code Napoleon
• Carl Leberecht Immermann: Ein Wort zur Beherzigung, 1814, (gegen die Burschenschaft zu Halle)
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Re: Charles Follen, by Wikipedia

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Part 1 of 2

Germaine de Staël
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 7/31/18

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The Congress of Vienna in 1815 had an indisputable and decisive influence on the Germans' decline. Had this assembly never taken place, National Socialism would probably have never come into being. Never had the Germans been closer to conducting a republican revolution on the American model, and never had they reached a higher moral level, than they were during the 1812-15 Wars of Liberation. These wars were not merely a republican uprising against Napoleon's imperialist occupation of the greater part of Germany; above all else, they were spearheaded by a flourishing constitutional movement.

The movement was led, of course, by the Prussian reformers vom Stein, Humboldt, and Scharnhorst, but it drew its vitality from the countless common citizens who were filled with patriotism and inspired by Schiller's dramas and other republican writings. Even at the Vienna Congress itself, vom Stein still cherished hopes that the negotiations would result in a united, sovereign German nation. But that was precisely what the international oligarchy conspired to prevent. With the intrigues and machinations of the English, French, Venetians, the Russian nobility, and especially the wretched Metternich (the man whom, not surprisingly, Henry Kissinger admires the most) arrayed against them, the German republicans did not stand a chance. Cloaked in hypocritical fundamentalism, the Holy Alliance snuffed out each and every shining idea, introducing instead an era of brutal oppression and surveillance. The German population, unable to understand why their heroic and victorious struggle against Napoleon had not led to a nation-state, lapsed to an ever greater degree into an other-worldly Romanticism during the years following the Restoration, drifting later on into outright demoralization. It is only from this standpoint that the influence wielded by Nietzsche and the other demagogues of cultural pessimism becomes comprehensible.....

The Vienna Congress marked the end of republican turmoil in Germany. The oligarchy of England, Russia, France, Switzerland, Venice, and Austria had regrouped their forces, and were determined to leave no openings for the German negotiator, vom Stein. Following 1815, and with a vengeance in the wake of the Carlsbad Decrees of 1819, there began a long phase of gloomy reaction, with devastating effects on the population. Most citizens were unable to reconstruct in their minds precisely why and how they had been robbed of the fruits of their struggle. As the bigoted narrowness of the Holy Alliance increasingly made itself felt, the clear mind of the world citizen and patriot shrank into the limited purview of the Burschenschaften (student dueling societies) and maudlin German chauvinism. Clear conceptions yielded to romantic Schwarmerei, and the disappointed hopes lapsed into latent cultural pessimism.

This paradigm shift from classicism to Romanticism, however, was no more a "sociological phenomenon" than was West Germany's turn from a belief in progress during the "economic miracle" of the 1960s, to the 1970s' zero-growth ideology and hatred of technology. The subversion, sabotage, and final defeat of the hopeful republican freedom movement at the start of the nineteenth century was the result of the same shift; and all the weapons directed against the humanist conception of man can be summed up under one modern concept: the "Conservative Revolution."...

Romanticism was consciously promoted by the European oligarchy as a movement which advocated the total rejection of reason and humanism, upon which Weimar classicism was based. One of the oligarchy's most influential agents, who supported the young Romantics with body and soul, was Madame de Stael, daughter of the Swiss banker Jacques Necker, who as French finance minister had ruined France for the sake of the Swiss banks. Heinrich Heine has pointedly described how Madame de Stael and her circles were angered that the "republican" culture found in the Weimar classics, in musical soirees at home, or in the great theater houses had begun to spread through large portions of the population. In a blue rage, she attempted to regain her own control of culture by luring young artists into her own salon. These recruits threw themselves into action with the same abandon as today's "beautiful people" or the nobility's "Jet set." Not only did this romantic movement produce the organized terrorism of Giuseppe Mazzini's "Young Europe," but it also spawned the tendency stretching from the turn-of-the-century youth movement to today's counterculture "alternative" movement, along with its ideologues Friedrich Nietzsche, Paul de Lagarde, Julius Langbehn, Alfred Rosenberg, and so forth. The Nazis too drank out of this "alternative" trough.....

The most devastating oligarchical attack on the republican spirit, however, was led by the philosopher G. W. F. Hegel in Berlin, who is proven by "check-stubs" to have been a paid agent of Austria's Metternich against the Prussian state, and was therefore working directly for the sinister reaction of the Holy Alliance. It is a sad commentary on the level of our universities, that the holy aura surrounding Hegel has remained intact down to the present day.


When one considers that Hegel finished his Phenomenology of Mind in the year 1806, in the midst of the intellectual climate of the Weimar classics, we can only conclude that his ostensibly dialectical method was nothing but a Jesuitical distortion of the Socratic method so gloriously evident in the dramas of Friedrich Schiller.Hegel's idea of the world-historical individual was indeed drawn from the classics; his "philosopher kings" or "philosophical minds," however, tended to degenerate into mere power-mongers (Napoleon, for Hegel, was the World Spirit on horseback!), and were much closer to the master-race concept of Nietzsche and Hitler. Worst of all, toward the end of his teaching career Hegel not only engaged in the corrupt practice of blocking or spoiling the studies of many young and hopeful students, but also -- in his Philosophy of Right -- he provided the perfect justification for the totalitarian state, which served as source material for Europe's reactionary oligarchical circles, as it did later for the Third Reich.

We could name many more figures and fields which were involved in the Conservative Revolution's attempt to reshape the population's conscious values. In all these cases it can be proven, often in great detail, that these were not "sociological phenomena" or mysterious transformations in the Zeitgeist, but were developments initiated or financed by the oligarchy.

In spite of passing rivalries, the oligarchy's efforts after 1815 were closely coordinated, and they often succeeded in setting into motion movements which crossed national borders, such as Young Europe and the Anthroposophist movement. The direct successors of these movements today are tied to the activities of such supranational institutions as the Trilateral Commission, the Club of Rome, and the Aspen Institute.

The republicans, who could look back upon the American Revolution as their proudest victory, were seriously weakened following 1815 and were later eliminated as a political force. At best, republicans worked on as dispersed, humanistically inclined individuals, who had lost consciousness of the great historical weight of their task. Such individuals reacted to humanist culture solely on the basis of their own personal moral disposition.

While Hegel was providing the totalitarian state with a frightening ideological justification, pointing the way to the Nazis' "everything is permitted" rule, Romanticism was at the same time softening up the general population. The Holy Alliance slowly but surely stifled Germany's soul, and encouraged the emergence of such romantic philosophers as Schopenhauer, who began to deny the power of reason. For Schopenhauer, egoism was the natural disposition of mankind, and life as such was not an adequate affirmation of life. Thus the republicans' cultural optimism yielded to an irrational, immoral pessimism.

The absolute height of Romanticism, or rather the nadir of general culture, where raving folly and emotional infantilism turned into aggressive mania, the welding point between the Romantic muddleheads and the Nazis -- this was the world of Nietzsche, whose works can only be described as the mind running amok.

This self-hating, joyless psychotic could not tolerate the idea of reason; he hated Socrates, Schiller, Beethoven, and Humboldt. In his confused writings he attempted, if incoherently, to rewrite history, emphasizing not the classical and Renaissance periods as the Weimar classics had done, but the Dark Ages, the dionysian and bacchanalian orgies, the dances of St. Vitus and the flagellants. He regarded the scientific mode of questioning as man's arch-enemy, just as the Greens do today. Everything the Nazis later made into reality was already lurking within Nietzsche's tormented brain, darting about with increasing frenzy: the volkisch idea, a deep hatred of industrial progress, the "biological world outlook" of "blood and soil," the idea of a master race, the mystically inspired hatred of Christianity, and its final and ultimate form, the Ecce Homo, where Nietzsche cries out: "Have I made myself clear? -- Dionysus against the Crucified .... "

Nietzsche, celebrated along with Dostoevsky as the prophet of the Conservative Revolution, was the spiritual pathfinder for the nihilism of the National Socialists and the existentialist philosophers.


-- The Hitler Book, edited by Helga Zepp-LaRouche


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"Madame de Staël" by François Gérard (1810)
Born Anne-Louise Germaine Necker
22 April 1766
Paris, France
Died 14 July 1817 (aged 51)
Paris, France
Cause of death Cerebral hemorrhage
Nationality French
Notable work Delphine, Corinne, De l'Allemagne
Spouse(s) Erik Magnus Staël von Holstein (m. 1786; d. 1802)
Albert Jean Michel de Rocca (m. 1811)
School Romanticism
Main interests
French nationalism, representative government and constitutionalism
Notable ideas
Literary salons

Anne Louise Germaine de Staël-Holstein (French: [stal]; née Necker; 22 April 1766 – 14 July 1817), commonly known as Madame de Staël, was a French woman of letters of Genevan origin whose lifetime overlapped with the events of the French Revolution and the Napoleonic era. For many years she lived as an exile under the Reign of Terror and under Napoleonic persecution. Known as a witty and brilliant conversationalist, often dressed in flashy and revealing outfits, she participated actively in the political and intellectual life of her times. She was present at the first opening of the Estates General and at the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen,[1] and witnessed the departure of the royal family from Versailles. Her intellectual collaboration with Benjamin Constant between 1795 and 1811 made them one of the most celebrated intellectual couples of their time. They discovered sooner than others the tyrannical character and designs of Napoleon.[2] In 1814 one of her contemporaries observed that "there are three great powers struggling against Napoleon for the soul of Europe: England, Russia, and Madame de Staël".[3] Her works, both novels and travel literature, with emphasis on passion, individuality and oppositional politics made their mark on European Romanticism. Personal freedom was evidently as important to her as abstract political liberties.[4]

Childhood

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Germaine Necker by Carmontelle

Germaine (or Minette) was the only child of the prominent Genevan banker and statesman Jacques Necker, who was the Director-General of Finance under King Louis XVI of France. Her mother was Suzanne Curchod, also of Swiss birth, who hosted in Rue de la Chaussée-d'Antin one of the most popular salons of Paris.[5] Mme Necker wanted to educate her daughter according to the principles of Jean-Jacques Rousseau and to endow her with the intellectual education and Calvinist discipline instilled in her by her pastor father.[6] On Friday she habitually brought Germaine as a young child to sit at her feet in her salon, where the guests took pleasure in stimulating the brilliant child. (Celebrities such as the Comte de Buffon, Jean-François Marmontel, Melchior Grimm, Edward Gibbon, the Abbé Raynal, and Jean-François de la Harpe, Jacques-Henri Bernardin de Saint-Pierre, Denis Diderot, and Jean d'Alembert were frequent visitors.) At the age of thirteen she read Montesquieu, Shakespeare, Rousseau and Dante.[7] This exposure occasioned a nervous breakdown in adolescence, but the seeds of a literary vocation had been sown.

According to Craiutu her father "Necker is remembered today for taking the unprecedented step in 1781 of making public the country’s budget, a novelty in an absolute monarchy where the state of finances had always been kept a secret."[8] Leading to his dismissal in May, the family eventually took up residence in 1784 at Château Coppet, an estate her father purchased on Lake Geneva. The family returned to the Paris region in 1785, and Mlle Necker continued to write miscellaneous works, including the three-act romantic drama Sophie (1786) and the five-act tragedy, Jeanne Grey (1787).

Marriage

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The Swedish Ambassy, Hôtel de Ségur, later Hôtel de Salm-Dyck

At the age of eleven, she offered her mother to marry Edward Gibbon, so he would always be around. Being twenty Germaine's parents became impatient for her to marry a Protestant. In 1783 William Pitt the Younger and the Comte de Guibert, a cold-hearted fop of some talent, certainly paid her attention.[5] Finally a marriage was arranged with Baron Erik Magnus Staël von Holstein, an attaché of the Swedish legation to France. It took place on 14 January 1786 in the Swedish embassy at 97, Rue du Bac; Germaine was 20, her husband 37. On the whole, the marriage seems to have been acceptable to both parties, although neither seems to have had any or little affection for the other. The baron, a gambler, obtained great benefits as he was confirmed as lifetime ambassador to Paris, although his wife was almost certainly the more effective envoy.[9]

Revolutionary activities

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The meeting of the Estates General on 5 May 1789 at Versailles

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"Dix Août 1792. Siege et prise du Chateau des Tuileries": French soldiers and citizens storming the Tuileries to get the royal family and end the monarchy.

In 1788, she published Letters on the works and character of J.J. Rousseau.[10] This fervid panegyric, written for a limited number of friends - in which she accused his housekeeper Therese Levasseur having been unfaithful - she demonstrated evident talent, but little in the way of critical discernment. De Staël was at this time enthusiastic for a mixture of Rousseau's ideas about love and Montesquieu in politics. On 4 and 5 May 1789 she joined the meetings of the Estates-General in Versailles , where she met with the young Mathieu de Montmorency. Her father had instigated the assembling, doubling the number of deputies from the Third Estate. His address at the Estates-General was terribly miscalculated: his speech lasted for hours, and while those present expected a reforming policy to save the nation from bankruptcy, he gave them like a school teacher many financial data. This approach had serious repercussions on Necker's reputation leading to his resignation on 11 July, and prompted Camille Desmoulins the storming of the Bastille. Her parents left France on the same day in unpopularity and disgrace. Accompanied by Erik Magnus, their son-in-law, they escaped to Switzerland. Necker had lost half his fortune introducing assignats, invested in the public treasury.[11][12]

In January 1791 she went back to Paris. The increasing disturbances caused by the Revolution made her privileges as the consort of an ambassador very important safeguards. Germaine held a salon in the Swedish embassy, where she gave "coalition dinners", that were frequented by moderates as Talleyrand, De Narbonne, monarchists (Feuillants) as Barnave, Charles Lameth and his brothers Alexandre and Théodore, the Comte de Clermont-Tonnerre, and Pierre Victor, baron Malouet, the poet Abbé Delille, Thomas Jefferson, the one-legged Minister Plenipotentiary to France Gouverneur Morris, the leftish Barras and the radical Condorcets. "The issue of leadership, or rather lack of it, was central to Staël's preoccupations at this stage of her political reflection. The death of Comte de Mirabeau she experienced as a sign of great political disorientation and uncertainty. He was the only man with necessary charisma, energy, and prestige to keep revolutionary movement on the path of constitutional reform."[13]

After the French legislative election, 1791 was held, and the French Constitution of 1791 was announced in the National Assembly, she resigned from a political career and decided not to be re-eligible. "Fine arts and letters will occupy my leisure."[14] Though, in the succession of Comte de Montmorin the minister of Foreign Affairs, and the appointment of Narbonne as minister of War she played an important role and became the center of the stage.[15] Marie Antoinette wrote to Hans Axel Fersen: "Count Louis de Narbonne is finally Minister of War, since yesterday; what a glory for Mme de Staël and what a joy for her to have the whole army, all to herself."[16] In 1792 the French Legislative Assembly saw an unprecedented turnover of ministers (six ministers of the interior, seven ministers of foreign affairs, and nine ministers of war.[17]) On 10 August 1792 Clermont-Tonnere was thrown out of a window, and trampled to death. De Staël offered Malouet a plan to escape to Dieppe for the royal family.[18] She helped De Narbonne, dismissed for plotting, to hide under the altar in the chapel of the Swedish embassy, and lectured the sans-culottes in the hall.[19][20][21][7] On 20 August De Narbonne arrived in England on a German passport.

On 2 September, the day before the September massacres of 1792 she fled her self, escorted by the procurator Louis Pierre Manuel and Jean-Lambert Tallien. Her carriage was stopped and the crowd forced her to go to the Paris town hall, where Robespierre seated.[22] Her own account of her escape is, as usual, so florid that it provokes the question whether she was really in any danger.

Salons at Coppet and Paris

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Juniper Hall Plaque

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Château de Coppet near Nyon

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In 1797 Constant and De Staël lived in the remains of the Abbey of Herivaux.

After her flight from Paris, she moved to Rolle where Albert was born. She was surrounded by De Montmorency and the Marquis de Jaucourt.[23] In January 1793, she made a four months visit to England to live with her lover, the Comte de Narbonne at Juniper Hall. (Since 1 February France and Great Brittain were at war.) Within a few weeks she got pregnant, apparently one of the reasons she caused a scandal in England. According to Fanny Burney her father urged his daughter to avoid De Staël and the group of French Émigres in Surrey.[1] She met with Horace Walpole, James Mackintosh, Lord Sheffield, a friend of Edward Gibbon, and Lord Loughborough, the new Lord Chancellor.[1] De Staël was not favourably impressed by the conditions of women in English society.[1]

In the summer of 1793, she returned to Coppet Castle perhaps while De Narbonne stopped loving her. She wrote a biased depiction of the character of queen, called "Reflections on the Trial". For De Staël France had to follow England's example from absolute to limited royalty.[24] Living in Jouxtens-Mézery, Germaine was visited by Adolph Ribbing in July 1793.[7][23] Count Ribbing was living in exile, after being sentenced for taking part in a conspiracy to murder the Swedish king Gustav III. Under his influence it seems she converted to Republicanism.[23] At the same time Germaine helped several monarchists to escape from France. Late 1793 her parents moved to Beaulieu Castle. In September 1794 she was visited by the divorced Benjamin Constant. In May 1795 she moved with her new "colleague" to Paris. (The fall of Maximilien Robespierre opened the way back to Paris.) De Staël had rejected the idea of the right of resistance - which had been introduced by the French Constitution of 1793, but removed from the Constitution of 1795.[25] In 1796 she published Sur l'influence des passions, in which she praised suicide, and a book that attracted the attention of the German authors Schiller and Goethe.[26] For De Staël "passionate love is natural to human beings and to yield oneself to love will not result in abandoning virtue".[27]

Germaine had also an obsession with French politics,[28] and reopened her salon. It was during these years that Mme de Staël was of chief political importance. For a time she was conspicuous in the motley and eccentric society of the mid-1790s. On the 13 Vendémiaire the Comité de salut public ordered her to leave Paris after accusations of politicking, and locked up Constant for one night.[29] Germaine spent that autumn in Forges-les-Eaux, a spa. She was trusted by neither side and a threat to political stability.[30] The couple moved to Ormesson-sur-Marne where they lived with Montmorency. In Summer 1796 Constant founded "Cercle constitutionnel" in Luzarches; De Staël supported him.[31] In May 1797 she was back in Paris and eight months pregnant. She succeeded in getting Talleyrand from the list of Émigrés and in July in his appointment by Paul Barras as minister of Foreign Affairs.[32] Since the coup of 18 Fructidor (in September) anyone wishing to restore the monarchy or the French Constitution of 1793 would be shot without a trial.[33] Germaine moved to Saint-Ouen near Montmartre, on her father's estate and became friends with the beautiful and rich Juliette Récamier to whom she sold the parental house in the Rue de la Chaussée-d'Antin.

De Staël completed the initial part of her first most substantial contribution to political and constitutional theory, "Of present circumstances that can end the Revolution, and of the principles that must found the republic of France".[8] On 6 December 1797 at Talleyrand's office and 3 January 1798 during a ball she met with Napoleon. She made clear she did not agree with his planned French invasion of Switzerland, but he showed no interest and would not read her letters.[34]

Conflict with Napoleon

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Bonaparte in 1803 by François Gérard

Both personal and political reasons threw her into opposition to Napoleon Bonaparte, in August 1802 elected as first consul for life. For De Staël Napoleon started to resemble Machiavelli; for Napoleon J.J. Rousseau was the cause of the French Revolution.[35] It culminated when Jacques Necker had published his "Last Views on Politics and Finance" and his daughter "De la littérature considérée dans ses rapports avec les institutions sociales". It was her first philosophical approach to Europe, that dealt with such important factors as nationality, history and social institutions.[36] Napoleon started a campaign against this publication. He did not like her cultural determinism and generalizations, in which she stated that "an artist must be of his own time".[27][37] For him a woman should stick to knitting.[38] He said about her, according to the Memoirs of Madame de Rémusat, that she "teaches people to think who never thought before, or who had forgotten how to think."[39] It became pretty clear that the first man in France and the De Staël were not likely to get on together.[40] In January 1800 Benjamin Constant was appointed by Napoleon as a member of the Tribunat but he acted not long after as the first consul's enemy. Two years later the first consul forced him to withdraw because of his speeches that Napoléon Bonaparte thought were written by Mme de Staël.[27] In April 1802 she moved to Coppet.

De Staël published a provoking (anti-catholic) novel Delphine, in which the femme incomprise (misunderstood woman) living in Paris between 1789 and 1792, is confronted with conservative ideas about divorce after the Concordat of 1801. In this tragic novel, influenced by Goethe's The Sorrows of Young Werther and Rousseau's Julie, ou la nouvelle Héloïse, she reflects on the legal and practical aspects on divorce, the arrests and the September Massacres, and the fate of the émigrés. The main characters have traits of the flippant Benjamin Constant, and Talleyrand is depicted as an old woman, herself as the heroine with the liberalist view of the Italian aristocrat and politician Melzi d'Eril?[41] In December 1802 she sent Bernard-François, marquis de Chauvelin a copy.

When Constant moved to Maffliers in September 1803 De Staël went to see him and let Napoleon know she would be wise and careful. Immediately the house became very popular among her friends, but Napoleon, informed by Madame de Genlis suspected a conspiracy. "Her extensive network of connections - which included foreign diplomats and known political opponents, as well as members of the government and of Bonaparte's own family - was in itself a source of suspicion and alarm for the government."[42] Her protection of Jean Gabriel Peltier - who wished the death of Napoleon - influenced his decision on 13 October 1803 to exile her without a trial.[43] For ten years De Staël was not allowed to settle within a distance of 40 leagues (almost 200 km) from Paris. She accused Napoleon of "persecuting a woman and her children".[44] On 23 October she left for Germany "out of pride",[45] in the hope to gain attention and to be able to return as soon as possible.[46]

German travels

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Weimar around 1800 by Georg Melchior Kraus

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François Gérard (1770–1837), Carnavalet Museum. Mme. de Staël as her character Corinne (posthumously)

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Château de Chaumont

With her children and Constant she stopped off in Metz, met with Kant's translator Charles de Villers.

The most devastating oligarchical attack on the republican spirit, however, was led by the philosopher G. W. F. Hegel in Berlin, who is proven by "check-stubs" to have been a paid agent of Austria's Metternich against the Prussian state, and was therefore working directly for the sinister reaction of the Holy Alliance. It is a sad commentary on the level of our universities, that the holy aura surrounding Hegel has remained intact down to the present day.

-- The Hitler Book, edited by Helga Zepp-LaRouche


In mid-December, they arrived in Weimar, where she stayed for two and a half months at the court of Karl August, Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach and his mother. She was constantly on the move, talking and asking questions.[47][27] The exchange of ideas and literary and philosophical conversations with Goethe, Schiller, and Wieland, would later inspire de Staël to write one of the most influential books of the nineteenth century,[48] recounting her travels through the German states. Goethe in fact became ill and hesitated about seeing her. An irritated Schiller felt relieved when she left, but also Constant decided to abandon her in Leipzig and return to Switzerland. De Staël travelled to Berlin, where she made the acquaintance of August Schlegel who was giving lectures on literature. In the vain hope of his becoming her lover, she appointed him on an enormous salary as private tutor to her children. On 18 April they all left Berlin when the news of her father's death reached her. Constant decided to return to Weimar and assisted her.

On 19 May she arrived in Coppet and found herself its wealthy and independent mistress, but her sorrow for her father was deep and certainly sincere. She spent the summer at the chateau arranging her father's writings, and published an essay on his private life. In July Constant wrote: "She exerts over everything around her a kind of inexplicable but very real power. If she could only govern herself, she might have governed the world."[49] In December 1804 she travelled to Italy, accompanied by her children, Schlegel and the historian Sismondi. She met with the poet Vincenzo Monti and the painter, Angelica Kauffman. "Her visit to Italy helped her to further develop her theory of the difference between northern and southern societies..."[1]

She returned to Coppet in June 1805, moved to Meulan (Château d'Acosta) and spent nearly a year writing her next book on Italy's culture and history. In Corinne, ou L'Italie (1807) the female hero appears to have been inspired by the Italian poet Diodata Saluzzo Roero.[50] She showed all of Italy's works of art still in place, rather than plundered by Napoleon and taken to France.[51] The book's publication acted as a reminder of her existence, and Napoleon sent her back to Coppet. Her house was, according to Stendhal, "the general headquarters of European thought" and became a debating club hostile to Napoleon, "turning conquered Europe into a parody of a feudal empire, with his own relatives in the roles of vassal states".[52] Madame Récamier, also banned by Napoleon, Prince Augustus of Prussia, Charles Victor de Bonstetten, Prosper de Barante, Claude Hochet, Zacharias Werner, Adelbert von Chamisso and Chateaubriand all belonged to the "groupe de Coppet".[53] Each day the table was laid for about thirty guests. Talking seemed to be everybody's chief activity. She invited the (obscure) Danish poet Friederike Brun to come and stay with her.

For a time she had lived with Constant in Auxerre (1806), Rouen (1807), Aubergenville (1807), then she had met with Friedrich Schlegel, whose wife Dorothea had translated Corinne into German. (Schlegel and Madame de Staël have endeavoured to reduce poetry to two systems, classical and romantic.) The use of the word Romanticism was invented by Schlegel, but spread more widely across France through its persistent use by Madame de Staël.[54] Late in 1807 she set out for Vienna and visited Maurice O'Donnell, whom she had met before in Venice.[55] She was accompanied by her children and August Schlegel who again held his famous lectures. She was again at Coppet in the summer of 1808 (in which year Benjamin Constant was afraid to admit to her that he had got married in the meanwhile). "If men had the qualities of women", Staël wrote, "love would simply cease to be a problem."[56] De Staël set to work on her book about Germany - a country that did not exist until Bismarck - in which she presented the idea of Germany as an ethical and aesthetic model and praised German literature and philosophy.[57]

Pretending she had emigrated to the US, de Staël was given permission to re-enter France. Looking around in Chaumont-sur-Loire de Staël moved into the Château de Chaumont (1810) which she rented from James Le Ray, and then onto Fossé and Vendôme. She was determined to publish De l'Allemagne in France, a book in which she called French political structures into question, so indirectly criticising Napoleon while promoting French culture and theatre. Constrained by censorship, she wrote the emperor a somewhat provocative and perhaps undignified letter. Anne Jean Marie René Savary had emphatically forbidden the publication of her book as being “un-French" and she again set sail on a boat as she had earlier pretended.[58][59] In October 1810 de Staël was exiled again and had to leave France within three days. Then August Schlegel was ordered to leave Swiss Confederation as an enemy of the French literature.
She found consolation in a wounded officer named Albert de Rocca, twenty-three years her junior, to whom she got engaged privately in 1811 and subsequently married publicly in 1816.[27]
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Re: Charles [Karl] Follen, by Wikipedia

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Part 2 of 2

Eastern Europe

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De Staël in 1812 by Vladimir Borovikovsky

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August Wilhelm von Schlege

The operations of the French imperial police in regard to Mme de Staël are rather obscure. She was at first left undisturbed, but by degrees the chateau itself became a source of suspicion, and her visitors found themselves heavily punished. François-Emmanuel Guignard, De Montmorency and Mme Récamier were exiled for the crime of visiting her. She remained at home during the winter of 1811, planning to escape to England or Sweden with the manuscript. On 23 May 1812 she left Coppet almost secretly, and journeyed through Bern, Innsbruck and Salzburg on her way to Vienna, where she met with Metternich. There she obtained an Austrian passport up to the frontier, and after some trepidation and trouble, received a Russian passport in Brody.

During Napoleon's invasion of Russia de Staël, her two children and Schlegel, journeyed through the Habsburg empire from Brno to Łańcut where Rocca, having deserted the French army and having been searched by the French gendarmerie, was waiting for her. The journey continued to Lemberg, capital of the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria. On 14 July 1812 they arrived in Volhynia. In the meantime, Napoleon, who took a more northern route, had crossed the Niemen River with his army. In Kiev she met Miloradovich, governor of the city. De Staël hesitated to travel to Odessa, Constantinople, and onto Greece, and decided instead to go north. In Moscow, she was invited by the governor Fyodor Rostopchin. According to de Staël, it was Rostopchin who ordered to set his mansion on fire, which spread to the city with its 1,600 churches. She left only a few weeks before Napoleon arrived. Until the end of September, her party stayed in Saint Petersburg. She met twice with the tsar Alexander I of Russia who "related to me also the lessons a la Machiavelli which Napoleon had thought proper to give him.

"You see," said he, "I am careful to keep my ministers and generals at variance among themselves, in order that each may reveal to me the faults of the other; I keep up a continual jealousy by the manner I treat those who are about me: one day one thinks himself the favourite, the next day another, so that no one is ever certain of my favour."[60]


For de Staël that was a vulgar and vicious theory. General Kutuzov sent her letters from the Battle of Tarutino[61] and before the end of that year he would succeed in chasing the Grande Armée out of Russia.

After four months of travelling she arrived in Sweden. Crossing of the Bothnian Gulf by boat had frightened her. In Stockholm she started "Ten Years' Exile", giving details of whom she had met and explaining what she had seen. She never finished the manuscript and after eight months she set out for England, without August Schlegel who had been appointed as secretary to general Bernadotte. (She supported Bernadotte as new ruler of France, who she hoped would introduce a constitutional monarchy.[62]) In London she received a great welcome. She met with Lord Byron on the first evening (27 May). The next day they dined at Sir Humphry Davy's, the chemist and inventor. In the evening de Staël had made very long speeches, according to Byron. She preached English politics to the first of our English Whig politicians ... preached politics no less to our Tory politicians the day after."[63] Her stay was marred by the death of her son Albert, who as a member of the Swedish army had fallen in a duel with a Cossack officer in Doberan as a result of a gambling dispute. In October John Murray published De l'Allemagne both in French and in an English translation, in which she reflected on nationalism and suggested a re-consideration on cultural rather than on natural boundaries.[64] In May 1814, after Louis XVIII had been crowned (Bourbon Restoration) she returned to Paris. She undertook Considérations sur la révolution française, based on Part One of "Ten Years' Exile". Again her salon became a major attraction both for Parisians and foreigners.

Restoration

Image
Lord Byron, ca 1816

When news came of Napoleon's landing on the Côte d'Azur, between Cannes and Antibes, early in March 1815, she fled to Coppet, and never forgave Constant for approving of Napoleon's return.[65] Although she had no affection for the Bourbons she succeeded in obtaining restitution for the loan Necker had made to the French state before the Revolution.[66] In October, after the Battle of Waterloo, she set out for Italy, not only for the sake of her own health but for that of her second husband, Rocca, who was suffering from tuberculosis. In May her 19-year-old daughter Albertine married Victor, 3rd duc de Broglie in Livorno.

The whole family returned to Coppet in June, and Lord Byron a womanizer and a gambler in debt, left London in great trouble and frequently visited Mme de Staël during July and August. For Byron, she was Europe's greatest living writer, but ...with her pen behind her ears and her mouth full of ink". "Byron was particularly critical of de Staël's self-dramatizing tendencies..."[67] Byron was a supporter of Napoleon, but for de Staël "Bonaparte was not only a man but a system..." "Napoleon imposed standards of homogeneity on Europe that is, French taste in literature, art and the legal systems, all of which de Staël saw as inimical to her cosmopolitan point of view."[67] Byron wrote she was "... sometimes right and often wrong about Italy and England - but almost always true in delineating the heart, which is of but one nation of no country, or rather, of all."[68]

Despite her increasing ill-health, she returned to Paris for the winter of 1816–17. Constant argued with de Staël who had asked him to pay off his debts to her. A warm friendship sprang up between Madame de Staël and the Duke of Wellington, whom she had first met in 1814, and she used her influence with him to have the size of the Army of Occupation greatly reduced.[69] She had already become confined to her house at 40, rue des Mathurins, paralyzed since 21 February. She died on 14 July. Her deathbed conversion to Roman Catholicism surprised many, including Wellington, who remarked that while he knew that she was greatly afraid of death, he had thought her incapable of believing in the afterlife.[70] Rocca survived her by little more than six months. "Yet although she insisted to the Duke of Wellington that she needed politics in order to live, her attitude towards the propriety of female political engagement varied: at times she declared that women should simply be the guardians of domestic space for the opposite sex, while at others, that denying women access to the public sphere of activism and engagement was an abuse of human rights. This paradox partly explains the persona of the “homme-femme” she presented in society, and it remained unresolved throughout her life."[71]

Albertine Necker de Saussure, married to her cousin, wrote her biography in 1821, published as part of the collected works. Auguste Comte included Mme de Staël in his Calendar of Great Men. Her political legacy has been generally identified with a stern defence of "liberal" values: equality, individual freedom and the limitation of power by constitutional rules.[72] Comte's disciple Frederic Harrison wrote about de Staël that her novels "precede the works of Walter Scott, Byron, Mary Shelley, and partly those of Chateaubriand, their historical importance is great in the development of modern Romanticism, of the romance of the heart, the delight in nature, and in the arts, antiquities, and history of Europe."

Offspring

Image
Louis-Marie de Narbonne

Image
Benjamin Constant

Beside two daughters, Gustava Sofia Magdalena (born July 1787) and Gustava Hedvig (died August 1789), who died in infancy, she had two sons, Ludwig August (1790–1827), Albert (November 1792–July 1813), and a daughter, Albertine, Baroness de Staël von Holstein (June 1797–1838). It is believed Louis, Comte de Narbonne-Lara was the father of Ludvig August and Albert, and Benjamin Constant the father of red-haired Albertine.[73] With Albert de Rocca, de Staël then aged 46, had one son, the disabled Louis-Alphonse de Rocca (April 1812–1842), who would marry Marie-Louise-Antoinette de Rambuteau, daughter of Claude-Philibert Barthelot de Rambuteau,[27] and granddaughter of De Narbonne.[74] Even as she gave birth, there were fifteen people in her bedroom.[75]

After the death of her husband, Mathieu de Montmorency became the legal guardian of her children. Like August Schlegel he was one of her intimates until the end of her life.

In popular culture

• Republican activist Victor Gold quoted Madame de Staël when characterizing American Vice President Dick Cheney, "Men do not change, they unmask themselves."
• De Staël is credited in Tolstoy's epilogue to War and Peace as a factor of the 'influential forces' which historians say led to the movement of humanity in that era.[76]
• The popular wrestling compilation series Botchamania has referenced her on several occasions saying One must choose in life, between boredom and suffering which is normally followed by a humorous joke.
• Mme de Staël is used several times to characterize Mme de Grandet in Stendhal's Lucien Leuwen.
• Mme de Staël is mentioned several times, always approvingly, by Russia's national poet, Alexander Pushkin.
• Mme de Staël is frequently quoted by Ralph Waldo Emerson and she is credited with introducing him to recent German thought.[77]
• Talleyrand observed with his customary cynicism that Germaine enjoyed throwing people overboard simply to have the pleasure of fishing them out of the water again.[78]
• Sismondi accused De Staël of a lack of tact, when they were travelling through Italy and wrote Mme De Staël was easily bored if she had to pay attention to things.
• For Heinrich Heine she was the "grandmother of doctrines".[79]
• For Byron she was "a good woman at heart and the cleverest at bottom, but spoilt by a wish to be -- she not was. In her own house she was amiable; in any other person's, you wished her gone, and in her own again.[80]

Works

Image
Delphine, 1803 edition.

Image
De l'Allemagne

• Journal de Jeunesse, 1785
• Sophie ou les sentiments secrets, 1786 (published anonymously in 1790)
• Jane Gray, 1787 (published in 1790)
• Lettres sur le caractère et les écrits de J.-J. Rousseau, 1788 [81]
• Éloge de M. de Guibert
• À quels signes peut-on reconnaître quelle est l'opinion de la majorité de la nation?
• Réflexions sur le procès de la Reine, 1793
• Zulma : fragment d'un ouvrage, 1794
• Réflexions sur la paix adressées à M. Pitt et aux Français, 1795
• Réflexions sur la paix intérieure
• Recueil de morceaux détachés (comprenant : Épître au malheur ou Adèle et Édouard, Essai sur les fictions et trois nouvelles : Mirza ou lettre d'un voyageur, Adélaïde et Théodore et Histoire de Pauline), 1795
• Essai sur les fictions, translated by Goethe into German
• De l'influence des passions sur le bonheur des individus et des nations, 1796 [82]
• Des circonstances actuelles qui peuvent terminer la Révolution et des principes qui doivent fonder la République en France
• De la littérature dans ses rapports avec les institutions sociales, 1799
• Delphine, 1802 deals with the question of woman's status in a society hidebound by convention and faced with a Revolutionary new order
• Vie privée de Mr. Necker, 1804
• Épîtres sur Naples
• Corinne, ou l'Italie, 1807 is as much a travelogue as a fictional narrative. It discusses the problems of female artistic creativity in two radically different cultures, England and Italy.
• Agar dans le désert
• Geneviève de Brabant
• La Sunamite
• Le capitaine Kernadec ou sept années en un jour (comédie en deux actes et en prose)
• La signora Fantastici
• Le mannequin (comédie)
• Sapho
• De l'Allemagne, 1813, translated as Of Germany 1813.[83]
• Réflexions sur le suicide, 1813
• Morgan et trois nouvelles, 1813
• De l'esprit des traductions
• Considérations sur les principaux événements de la révolution française, depuis son origine jusques et compris le 8 juillet 1815, 1818 (posthumously) [84]
• Dix Années d'Exil (1818), posthumously published in France by Mdm Necker de Saussure. In 1821 translated and published as Ten Years' Exile. Memoirs of That Interesting Period of the Life of the Baroness De Stael-Holstein, Written by Herself, during the Years 1810, 1811, 1812, and 1813, and Now First Published from the Original Manuscript, by Her Son.[85]
• Essais dramatiques, 1821
• Oeuvres complètes 17 t., 1820-21
• Oeuvres complètes de Madame la Baronne de Staël-Holstein [Complete works of Madame Baron de Staël-Holstein]. Paris: Firmin Didot frères. 1836. Volume 1 •Volume 2

See also

• Contributions to liberal theory
• Liberalism

References

1. Lord Byron and Germaine de Staël by Silvia Bordoni, The University of Nottingham 2005
2. Considerations on the Principal Events of the French Revolution ..., Band 2 by Madame de Staël, p. 46
3. Mémoires de Madame de Chastenay, 1771–1815
4. L. Moore (2007) Liberty. The Lives and Times of Six Women in Revolutionary France, p. 15
5. Saintsbury 1911, p. 750.
6. Casillo, R. (13 May 2006). "The Empire of Stereotypes: Germaine de Staël and the Idea of Italy". Springer – via Google Books.
7. http://www.swisscastles.ch/Vaud/chateau/jouxtens.html
8. Stael and the French Revolution Introduction by Aurelian Craiutu
9. Napoleon's nemesis
10. Historical & literary memoirs and anecdotes by Friedrich Melchior Grimm and Denis Diderot, H. Colburn, 1815, p. 353.
11. Voltaire, Rousseau, Condorcet, Mirabeau, Madame Roland, Madame De Stael, p. 311. by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley
12. L. Moore, p. 334
13. Biancamaria Fontana (2016) Germaine de Staël: A Political Portrait, p. 30. Princeton: Princeton University Press
14. B. Fontana, p. 33
15. B. Fontana, p. 37, 41, 44
16. Correspondance (1770-1793). Published by Évelyne Lever. Paris 2005, p. 660, 724
17. B. Fontana, p. 49
18. "Mémoires de Malouet", p. 221
19. B. Fontana, p. 61
20. L. Moore, p. 138
21. Mistress to an Age: A Life of Madame de Staël von J. Christopher Herold
22. Voltaire, Rousseau, Condorcet, Mirabeau, Madame Roland, Madame De Stael by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, p. 317
23. Selected Correspondence by Anne Louise Germaine de Staël
24. Fontana, p. 113
25. Fontana, p. 125
26. Olaf Müller: Madame de Staël und Weimar. Europäische Dimensionen einer Begegnung. In: Hellmut Th. Seemann (Hrsg.): Europa in Weimar. Visionen eines Kontinents. Jahrbuch der Klassik Stiftung Weimar 2008. Göttingen: Wallstein Verlag 2008, p. 29.
27. Anne-Louise-Germaine Necker, Baroness de Staël-Holstein (1766-1817) by Petri Liukkonen
28. L. Moore, p. 332
29. B. Fontana, p. 178; L. Moore, p. 335
30. L. Moore, p. 345, 349
31. Fontana, p.159
32. Fontana, p. 159
33. L. Moore, p. 348
34. L. Moore, p. 350-352
35. Considerations on the Principal Events of the French Revolution ..., p. 90, 95-96, Band 2 by Madame de Staël
36. Considerations on the Principal Events of the French Revolution ..., Band 2 by Madame de Staël, p. 42
37. A. Goodden (2000) Delphine and Corinne, p. 18
38. L. Moore, p. 379
39. Memoirs of Madame de Remusat, trans. Cashel Hoey and John Lillie, p. 407. Books.Google.com
40. Saintsbury 1911, p. 751.
41. From the Introduction to Madame de Staël (1987) Delphine. Edition critique par S. Balayé & L. Omacini. Librairie Droz S.A. Génève
42. Fontana, p. 204
43. "Un journaliste contre-révolutionnaire, Jean-Gabriel Peltier (1760–1825) – Etudes Révolutionnaires". Etudes-revolutionnaires.org. 7 October 2011. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 17 September 2013.
44. Fontana, p. 263, note 47
45. Fontana, p. 205
46. Olaf Müller: Madame de Staël und Weimar. Europäische Dimensionen einer Begegnung. In: Hellmut Th. Seemann (Hrsg.): Europa in Weimar. Visionen eines Kontinents. Jahrbuch der Klassik Stiftung Weimar 2008. Göttingen: Wallstein Verlag 2008, p. 292
47. Madame de Staël von Klaus -Werner Haupt
48. Fontana, p. 206
49. Mistress to an Age: A Life of Madame de Staël by J. Christopher Herold
50. Panizza, Letizia; Wood, Sharon. A History of Women's Writing in Italy. p. 144.
51. A. Goodden (2000), p. 61
52. Fontana, p. 230
53. Herold, J. Christopher. Mistress to an Age: A Life of Madame de Staël. Grove Press, 2002. p. 290. ISBN 0802138373
54. Ferber, Michael (2010) Romanticism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-956891-8.
55. Madame de Staël et Maurice O’Donnell (1805–1817), d’apres des letters inedites, by Jean Mistler, published by Calmann-Levy, Editeurs, 3 rue Auber, Paris, 1926.
56. A. Goodden (2000), p. 73
57. Olaf Müller: Madame de Staël und Weimar. Europäische Dimensionen einer Begegnung. In: Hellmut Th. Seemann (Hrsg.): Europa in Weimar. Visionen eines Kontinents. Jahrbuch der Klassik Stiftung Weimar 2008. Göttingen: Wallstein Verlag 2008
58. Ten Years of Exile, pt. II, chap. i, 101–10
59. Fontana, p. 206
60. Ten Years' Exile, chapter 17
61. Tolstoy, Leo (21 June 2017). The Complete Works of Leo Tolstoy. Musaicum Books. pp. 2583–. ISBN 978-80-7583-455-3. Retrieved 12 April 2018.
62. A. Zamoyski (2007) Rites of Peace. The fall of Napoleon & the Congress of Vienna, p. 105
63. The Complete Miscellaneous Prose, p. 184-185. Ed. by Andrew Nicholson (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991).
64. Lord Byron and Germaine de Staël by Silvia Bordoni, p. 4
65. Fontana, p. 227
66. Fontana, p. 208
67. Joanne Wilkes, Lord Byron and Madame de Staël: Born for Opposition. London: Ashgate, 1999. ISBN 1-84014699-0.
68. The Complete Miscellaneous Prose, p. 223-224. Ed. by Andrew Nicholson (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991).
69. Longford, Elizabeth (1972) Wellington-Pillar of State, p.38. Weidenfeld & Nicolson. London.
70. Longford p.38
71. The Man-Woman and the Idiot: Madame de Staël's Public/Private Life Goodden, Angelica. Forum for Modern Language Studies, 2007, Vol. 43(1), pp.34-45
72. Fontana, p. 234
73. Angelica Goodden. Madame de Staël: the dangerous exile. Oxford University Press, 2008, p. 31?
74. L. Moore, p. 390
75. Lucy Moore, p. 8
76. Abramowitz, Michael (2 April 2007). "Rightist Indignation". Washington Post. Retrieved 30 June 2007.
77. "Emerson - Roots - Madame DeStael". transcendentalism-legacy.tamu.edu.
78. L. Moore, p. 350
79. Sämtliche Schriften (Anm. 2), Bd. 3, S. 882 f.
80. The Complete Miscellaneous Prose, p. 222. Ed. by Andrew Nicholson (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991).
81. LETTRES SUR LE CARACTÈRE ET LES ÉCRITS DE JEAN-JACQUES ROUSSEAU
82. A Treatise on the influence of Passions on the Happiness of indivuals and of nations
83. Of Germany
84. Considérations sur les principaux événements de la révolution française
85. Ten Years' Exile by Madame de Staël

• This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Saintsbury, George (1911). "Staël, Madame de". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 25 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 750–752.

Sources

• Biancamaria Fontana (2016) Germaine de Staël: A Political Portrait. Princeton University Press.
• Angelica Goodden (2008) Madame de Staël : the dangerous exile. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0199238095 ISBN 019923809X

Further reading

• (in French) Bredin, Jean-Denis. Une singulière famille: Jacques Necker, Suzanne Necker et Germaine de Staël. Paris: Fayard, 1999 (ISBN 2213602808).
• Fairweather, Maria. Madame de Staël. New York: Carroll & Graf, 2005 (hardcover, ISBN 0-7867-1339-9); 2006 (paperback, ISBN 0-7867-1705-X); London: Constable & Robinson, 2005 (hardcover, ISBN 1-84119-816-1); 2006 (paperback, ISBN 1-84529-227-8).
• Herold, J. Christopher. Mistress to an Age: A Life of Madame de Staël. New York: Grove Press, 2002 (paperback, ISBN 0-8021-3837-3).[1]
• Winegarten, Renee. Germaine de Staël & Benjamin Constant: a Dual Biography. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2008 (ISBN 9780300119251).
• Winegarten, Renee. Mme. de Staël. Dover, NH : Berg, 1985 (ISBN 0907582877).

External links

• Stael and the French Revolution Introduction by Aurelian Craiutu
• BBC4 In Our Time on Germaine de Staël
• Madame de Staël and the Transformation of European Politics, 1812–17 by Glenda Sluga. In: The International history review 37(1):142-166 • November 2014
• (in French) Stael.org, with detailed chronology
• (in French) BNF.fr (Searching "stael").
• Works by Germaine de Staël at Project Gutenberg
• Works by or about Germaine de Staël at Internet Archive
• "Staël, Germaine de" in The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition: 2001-05.
• The Great de Staël by Richard Holmes from The New York Review of Books
http://www.dieterwunderlich.de/madame_G ... _Stael.htm
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