Movement Education: Its Evolution and a Modern Approach

That's French for "the ancient system," as in the ancient system of feudal privileges and the exercise of autocratic power over the peasants. The ancien regime never goes away, like vampires and dinosaur bones they are always hidden in the earth, exercising a mysterious influence. It is not paranoia to believe that the elites scheme against the common man. Inform yourself about their schemes here.

Re: Movement Education: Its Evolution and a Modern Approach

Postby admin » Thu Jun 28, 2018 3:10 am

Terminology

Since most terms are explained within their particular context in Parts II and III, the following words and definitions are supplementary explanations of additional expressions.

ABDUCTION: a movement of limbs or scapulae away from the median axis of the body.

ACCENT: the distinctive dynamic emphasis on a movement or a sound.

ACTIVATING: energizing or increasing muscle tension.

ADDUCTION: the reverse of abduction, a movement toward the median axis of the body.

AGONISTS: the muscles which perform movement.

ANTAGONISTS: the muscles which stabilize or oppose the action of the agonists.

ARCHING: bending part of the spine or the whole spine backward.

ARTISTIC GYMNASTICS: difficult fluent exercises on apparatus or on the floor; the women's floor exercises consist of acrobatic, dance, and gymnastic skills in aesthetic, flowing sequences, similar to figure skating.

AWARENESS: a vigilant, or conscious perception of sensory impressions.

AXIAL MOVEMENT: a movement in which the body is the axis of the motion; used for nonlocomotor motions.

BASIC MOVEMENT, OR FUNDAMENTAL MOVEMENT: usually denotes the natural functional movements of the body in daily life. The term is also used for movements based on the mechanical potentialities of the body.

BODY OR MOVEMENT AWARENESS: the conscious observance of the sensation of tensions, pressures, and vibrations of the body in rest or in motion.

BODY RHYTHM: the natural, unrestricted flow of body movement as affected by gravity, body energy, time (usually not metrical), and space.

BODY TRAINING: exercises to develop and improve all physical capacities of the body.

CALISTHENICS: floor exercises with or without hand apparatus, stressing flowing movement rather than positions; also vigorous conditioning exercises for the purpose of developing strength, endurance, flexibility, and balance.

CANON OR ROUND: a musical or movement composition in which rhythmic, melodic, or movement phrases follow one another in strict imitation.

CENTRAL MOVEMENT: a movement which is executed or started by a central part of the body (the pelvis, chest, or shoulder).

CHASSE, ALSO CALLED SLIDE: a gliding step combination in which one leg follows or "chases" the other, sliding on the floor or propelling the body off the floor.

CONTRACTING: used in this text for muscle contraction to diminish body shape.

CURLING: bending the spine or the whole body forward into a round shape.

DEVELOPING A MOVEMENT: expanding a motion dynamically from its original impetus.

EDUCATIONAL GYMNASTICS: a natural body training for the improvement of movement behavior, rather than for the mastery of specific skills.

EFFORT-SHAPE (derived from Laban's terminology): the qualities and fluency of various movements, which cause constantly changing body shapes.

EURHYTHMICS: an activity which relates body movement to music for the development of rhythm and artistic sensitivity.

EXTENDING: the return from bending; lengthening the body shape.

FLOOR PATTERN: the imaginary floor design traced while in locomotion.

FREE BODY MOVEMENT: an unrestrained movement which follows the rhythm of the body.

FREE RHYTHM: the unrestricted natural rhythm in life and nature.

GYMNASTICS: in general. the term gymnastics refers to floor exercises and apparatus work, although it is also used for floor exercises alone.

KINESIOLOGY: the study of movement on the basis of biomechanics, anatomy, and physiology.

KINESTHESIA, OR THE MUSCLE SENSE: the feeling of movement, position, pressure, tension, and vibration.

LABILE BODY ATTITUDE: a changeable body behavior in which the body conforms to gravity or reacts to a previous movement.

LATERAL FLEXION: bending sideward.

LEVEL: the altitude of a movement.

MOVEMENT EDUCATION: a schooling for the improvement of organic movements, which may be functional or expressive.

MUSICAL RHYTHM: the ordered flow of musical sounds.

NATURAL OR ORGANIC MOVEMENTS: the biologically consistent movements of the human organism.

NATURAL ACTIVITIES: the fundamental movement skills such as walking, running, throwing, catching, bending, stretching, pushing, pulling, shielding, climbing, and other movements which are used in everyday life, play, and sports.

OPPOSITIONAL MOTION, ALSO CALLED COUNTERMOTION: movements of various parts of the body which proceed in opposite directions.

PENDULAR MOTION: a motion similar to the pendular swing of a clock.

PERIPHERAL MOVEMENT: a movement which is executed or started by a peripheral part of the body (the head or the extremities).

PLANE: imaginary, two-dimensional surface in which movement proceeds; there are the sagittal, frontal, horizontal, and diagonal planes.

POLYRHYTHMS: different and also contrasting sound or movement patterns occurring at the same time.

PRONATING: turning lower arm, hand, or foot inward toward the body.

RANGE OF MOVEMENT: the extent of a motion.

RHYTHMICAL GYMNASTICS, ALSO CALLED MODERN GYMNASTICS: a training in flowing, natural movements with or without objects.

SIMULTANEOUS MOTION: a movement performed by two or more parts of the body at the same time.

STABILE BODY ATTITUDE: a stabilized, gravity-resisting body behavior.

STACCATO OR PERCUSSIVE MOVEMENT: a short, abruptly terminated sound or movement.

SUCCESSIVE MOTION, ALSO CALLED SEQUENTIAL MOTION: a movement which starts in one section of the body and proceeds successively to the proximal sections.

SUPINATING: turning lower arm, hand, or foot outward away from the body.

SUSTAINED MOVEMENT: a slow motion in which intensity is even, or gradually increasing and decreasing.

TENSION TESTING POSITIONS, ALSO CALLED CONTROL POSITIONS: extreme body positions which cause shortened antagonists to lengthen; the resistance of these muscles causes pain.

TURNEN: the German term for calisthenics and apparatus work.

WARM-UP EXERCISES. In movement education, this term means whole body movements used at the beginning of a lesson.
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Re: Movement Education: Its Evolution and a Modern Approach

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Re: Movement Education: Its Evolution and a Modern Approach

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Index

Abelgaard, Jorgine, 68
Accompaniment for, gymnastics, 3, 25, 28
movement, 48, 54-59, 63, 99-102
Activation, 90, 117
Adolescents of Today, 58-59, 63, 69
Advanced work, 202-243
bouncing, 223-226
central release, 207-208
falls, 208-213
jumps, hops, skips, gallops, slides,
leaps, 226-231
movement sequences, 239-243
sustained movements and balance exercises,
214-220
swings, 220-223
turns, 231-236
walking and running, 202-206
waves, 236--239
Alexander, Gerda, Eutonie, 89
Release of Tension and Eutonie, 89,
108
Alexander, Mathias F., The Use of the
Self, 88
Amaros, Francisco, 24
American dance pioneers, movement
theories of, 38, 41-42, 45-49, 63, 77
Colby, Gertrude K., 48
Duncan, Isadora, 41-42
Graham, Martha, 46
H'Doubler, Margaret N., -18-49
Holm, Hanya, 47
Humphrey, Doris, 46-47
S1. Denis, Ruth, 45-46
Shawn, Ted, 38, ·15-46
Weidman, Charles, 47
Analysis of movement, bouncing, 223
central contraction and central extension,
216
central release, 207
deep knee bends, 219-220
falls, 208
jumps, hops, skips, gallops, slides,
leaps, 226, 227
passive, 115
rhythm, 85-88
scales, 219
sequences, 239
sustained, 214
swings, 220
turns, 231, 232
tension-testing (control) positions, 89,
109-114
walking and running, 202-203
waves, 236, 237
Anderson, William G., 30
Andre, Christian Carl, 12
Antagonists, relaxing and stretching the,
109-114
Archambault, R., John Dewey on Education,
I4-15
Arts and movement; see Movement and
the arts
Asceticism, effect on body training, 5-6,
8, 27
Athens, gymnastics in, 3-4
Austria, natural gymnastics in, 69
Bacon, Francis, 10
Baer-Frisell, Christine, An Autobiography,
55-56, 63
Bags, movements with, 193
Balance exercises, 219-220
knee bends, 219-220
scales, 219
Balls, exercises with, 154-160, 175-184
medicine, 154-155
playground, 157-161, 175-184
tennis, 157-161, 176--177
Barrows, I. C. (ed.), Report of the Physical
Training Conferences, 1889, 30
Basedow, Johann Bernhard, 12
Basic concepts of modern approach,
85-92
natural body movement, 85
objectives and principles, 88-92
rhythm of body movement: dynamics,
time, space, 85-88
Basic position, 94-96
Beauty of motion; see Motion, beauty of
Beck, Charles, 27
Beecher, Catharine E., Physiology and
Calisthenics, iv, 14
Beginners' work, 107-156
explorations in walking and running,
107-108
mobility of the joints, 127-146
relaxation, 108-127
strengthening the muscles, 146-155
Bertram, Agnete, 68
Bibliography, 247-254
Biological Sciences Curriculum Study,
Biological Science: Molecules to
Man, 31
Bishop, E., Americanized Delsarte Culture,
37-38
Bjorksten, Elli, 66, 68, 71
index
Blackwell, Elizabeth, 28
Bode, R., Expression Gymnastics, 54-55
Bode School, 54-55, 57
Bouncing, 223-226
by leg action, 225-226
in simultaneous joint action, 223-225
Bowen, Catherine D., Francis Bacon, 10
Boykin, J. C., Physical Training, 9-10
Braithwaite, M., Medau Rhythmic Movement,
58
Breathing and movement; see Movement
and breathing
Bronson, A. 0., Clark W. Hetherington,
Scientist and Philosopher, 74
Brunet-Lecomte, H., Jaques Dalcroze,
Sa Vie-Son Oeuvre, 38-39
Bukh, Nils, 68
Burgess, W. C., The Life of Thomas
Denison Wood, M.D., 73
Cameron, W. McD. and P. Pleasance,
Education in Movement, 44
Carlquist, M. and T. Amylong, Balance
and Rhythm in Exercise, 67
Cassidy, Rosalind, 73, 75
Castiglione, B., n Cortegiano, 7-8
Central contractions, 216--219
backward, 217-218
forward, 216--217
sideward, 218-219
Central Europe, natural gymnastics in
Austria, 69
in Czechoslovakia, 68-69
Central extension, 216
Central release, 207-208
Cermak, J., Dr. Miroslav Tyrs, 22
Chinese blocks, 198, 200-201
Chivalry, body training in, 6
Chladek, Rosalia, Laws of Body Movement,
Eutonie, 89-90
Principles of Body Motion, 55-56
Circling, 146
Clias, Phokion, 27
Colby, Gertrude Kline, 48, 73, 75
Natural Rhythms and Dances, 42-48
Comenius, Johann Amos, 10-11, 22, 30
School of Infancy, II
Conference in the Interest of Physical
Education, 1889, 30
Cong-Fu, 31
Control (tension-testing) positions, 89,
109-114
Costume, 102-103
255
256 index
Coubertin. Pierre de. 24
Creating movements. 97-99.197-201
Cubberly. E. P .• The History of Education,
5-8. 10
Cymbal, 102, 198, 200-201
Czechoslovakia, movement education.
68-69
Sokol gymnastics, 23-24
Dalcroze, Emile-Jaques. rhythm. music,
and movement. 38-39, 42, 44, 47,
54, 57-59.63.75
Dalcroze Institute, 39, 54
Dambach, J.. Physical Education in Germany,
22
Dance and movement, 38-39, 41--49.
55-56, 59, 90
Deep body awareness, exercises for, 108-
109
Delacato, C. H., The Diagnosis and
Treatment of Speech and Reading
Problems, 89, 92
Delsarte, Francois, art and system of expression.
31. 34-38. 42, 45--46.
52, 66
laws of motion, 35-36
Demeny, Georges. 24-25
DeMille, A., The Dance, 42
Denishawn School and Dance Company,
46
Denmark, gymnastics in. modern. 67-68
nationalistic, 18-20
Deutsche Sportochschule Koln, 61-63. 77
Deutscher Gymnastik-Bund. 56-57, 59-60
Dewey, John, 14-15, 73-74
Human Nature and Conduct, I4
Dexterity and quick reaction. exercises
for, 156-165
Diem, Carl, Fundamental Principles of
Physical Education, 62
Diem, Liselott, 62-63, 77
Who Can, 62
Dorgan, E. J. Luther Halsey Gulick, 73
Drums, accompaniment, 100, 102
leading and following, 197-198, 200-
201
movements, 193-196
Duncan, Elizabeth, 52
Duncan Irma, The Techniques of Isadora
Duncan, 41-42
Duncan Isadora, My Life, 41-42
natural dance. 30. 38. 41-42, 45. 52.
56.63
Du Toit. Johann Jakob, 12-13
Dynamics, 37, 45-49, 56, 59, 88
Early twentieth century. German gymnastic education in, 52-56.
Eastman, M F., Biography of Dio Lewis.
A.M., M.D., 37
Educational Gymnastics (London), 71-72
Effort, concept of, 43-44
Emerson, C. W., Physical Culture, 30
Energy, moving with a minimum of, 115
Engel, Johann Jacob. 15
England, gymnastics in, conventional, 8,
25-27
movement education in educational
gymnastics, 71-72
Eurhythmics, 38-39, 56, 89
Eutonie, 39, 89, 108-115
deep body awareness. 108-109
moving with a minimum of energy,
115
relaxing and stretching antagonists,
109-114
Exercise as a Path 10 Health, 70
Exercise manual, 107-243
beginners' work, 107-156
intermediate work, 157-201
advanced work, 202-243
Exercises
balance, 219-220
bouncing. 223-226
central contractions. 216-219
central release, 207-208
dexterity, 156-165
exploratory, 94-97, 107, 115, 166, 174.
184, 188-189, 192-193
falls, 208-213
gallops and slides. 227, 230, 236
hops and skips, 227, 229-230
jumps, 226, 227-229
knee bends, 219-220
leading and following, 197-201
leaps, 227, 231
lunges, 204-205
mobility, 127-146
partner, 166-173
percussive, 46, 197.200
relaxation, 108-127
scales, 219
strength, 146-155
swings, 220-222
turns, 231-236
walking and running, 107.202-206
waves. 236-239
with objects, 174-196
Expressive movements and gestures, 6-7.
12, 15, 29, 31. 34-36. 41-42. 44-48
Falk, Ellin, 67, 71
Falls, 208-213
arms, 208, 209
chest. 210
head. 209
legs, 209
trunk, 210-213
whole body, 213
Feldenkrais, M., Mind and Body, 88
Feltre, Vittorino da, 7
Feudel, E., Rhythmik, 55
Finland, modern gymnastics in. 66-67
Focus on Dance II, 43
Follen, Charles, 27
Forbes. C. A., Greek Physical Education,
4
France, naturalistic gymnastics in, 24-25
Froebel. F., The Education of Man, 13-14
Gallops and slides, 227, 230, 236
Gaulhofer, K., System des Schulturnens,
69
Gaulhofer, K. and M. Streicher, Naturliches Turnen, 69
German interpretations of movement
education, early twentieth century,
52-56
Weimar Republic. 56-60
Nazi period. 60-61
since 1950.61-62
German private schools for gymnastics,
music, and dance, 53-63
Germany, gymnastics in. modern rhythmical,
53-56
nationalistic, 21-22
naturalistic. 12-13
Gestalt psychology. 31, 54, 78
Gindler, Elsa. 52-53
Girls' and women's physical education,
progress in, 3-4. 6, 8, 19, 21, 23.
27-31, 36-49, 52-63, 66-78
Gong, 102, 198-199, 201
Graham. Martha. 46, 49
Gravity and force. 12, 35, 37. 46-47. 56,
90-91. 107, 202
Greece and Rome, gymnastics in, Athens.
3-4
Rome, 4-5
Sparta, 3
Greek culture, continuing influence of,
4-5, 7-8, 10-13, 22, 25-26, 30-31,
36, 41--42, 55, 66
Group arrangement, 103
Growth and development, education
based on, 11, 13, 30, 89, 91
Gulick, Luther Halsey, 73
Gunther, Dorothee, 52, 57-59, 63
Gunther School, 58-59
Guts Muths, Johann Friedrich, 12-13,
18-21, 25
Gymnastics for Youth, 12-13
Gymnastics, Americanized Delsarte,
29-30, 32-38, 52
artistic, 22, 60, 63, 69, 70, 72, 77-78
calisthenics and apparatus, 12-13,
19-30, 66-70, 72, 77-78
in Denmark, 19-20, 67-68
in England, 8, 25-27, 71-72
in Finland, 66-67
in France, 24-25
in Germany, conventional, 21-22
modern rhythmical, 53-56
naturalistic, 12-13
with hand apparatus, 58, 61, 68-69, 77
medical, 20, 29, 39--41
modern, 52-63, 66-72
nationalistic, 18-25, 31, 34, 69-76
naturalistic, 12-13, 24-25, 27, 66, 73
in Russia, 69-71
school, 3-4, 12-15, 19, 21, 23, 26, 28-30,
66-78
Sokol (Czech), 23-24, 68-69
in Sweden, Ling, 20-21
modern, 67
in United States, calisthenics and apparatus
work, 77-78
conventional, 27-29
natural, 73-75
Hagemann, Hedwig, 52
Hansen, E., Sports in Denmark, 19-20
Hartwell, E. M., On Physical Training,
26-27
H'Doubler, Margaret N., 48--49, 75
Dance, A Creative Art Expression,
48--49
Hebert, Georges de Vaisseau, 25
Health, exercises for, 4-5, 7-8, 10-11, 28,
67, 70
Hellerau-Laxenburg School, 55-56, 90
Hetherington, C. W., School Program in
Physical Education, 74
Hilker, F., Dem Andenken Einer Grossen
Pudagogin and Bewegung und
Bildung, 53
Die Gymnastischen Schulen in
Deutschland, 61
Reine Gymnastik, 13, 15, 38, 40, 52
Hill, Martha, 49
Hoepner, B. J., Elizabeth Blackwell, MD.
-Her Influence upon the Calisthenics
of Catharine Beecher,
27-28
Hollander-Markus, Gertrude von, 52-53
Holm, Hanya, 47-49
Homans, Amy, 29
Hoops
dexterity, 163-165
movements, 184-187
Hops and skips, 227, 229-230, 233-235
Hovey, Mrs. Richard, 38
Humanism, influence on physical training,
6-9
Humanistic education, 6-9
Human organism, unity of, 13-14, 31,
34-36, 42, 48, 53, 55-56, 73-75, 88,
107
Humphrey, Doris, 46--47, 49
Interactions of body sections, explorations
of, 96-97
Intermediate work, 157-201
dexterity and quick reaction, 157-165
improvisation by leading and following,
197-201
movements with objects, 174-196
partner work, 166-173
Jahn, Friedrich Ludwig, 20-22, 24, 27, 60
Jalkanen, Hilma, 66
Jumps, 226-229
Kallmeyer, H., Aus der Arbeit von Genevieve
Stebbins and Kilnstlerische
Gymnastik, 52
Kerr, james, 71
Kinesiology, 13, 20, 30, 38-41, 47, 54-55,
67, 76, 90
Kinesphere, 44
Kinesthetic awareness, 40, 47-49, 56, 62,
63, 71, 88-91, 107-113, 115, 201
Kinetographie (Labanotation), 42-43
Knighthood, training for, 6
Knightly arts, 6, 9, 10, 11
Kopponen, Elna, The Aim and Methods
of Ladies' Gymnastics in Finland,
66
Krogh, Anna, 68
Laban Art of Movement Guild Magazine
(London), 45
Laban, Rudolf Jean-Marie, Gymnastik
und Tam and Des Kindes Gymnastik
und Tam, 56
The Mastery of Movement, 43-44
movement and dance, 38, 42-45, 56,
58, 60, 63, 71-72
physical factors of motion, 43-44
Laban, R. and F. C. Lawrence, Effort, 43
Langgaard, L., Bewegungsentfaltung und
Menschenbildung, 53
Langgaard, Louise, 53-61
Leading and following with movements
and sounds, 197-201
Leaps, 226, 231
Leonard, F. E., History of Physical Education,
6, 12, 19, 22
Lesson planning, 93
Lewis, D., New Gymnastics, 28-29
Lex, Maja, 59
Lieber, Francis, 27
Lindhard, J., Theory of Gymnastics, 19,
20, 67-68
Ling gymnastics, 19-21, 24, 25, 27-30, 37,
67, 71
Ling, Per Henrik, 20-21
Locke, J., Some Thoughts Concerning
Education, 9, 10, 12
Loges, Carl, reform in turnen, 59-60, 63
Loges, H., Die Gymnastik in deutschen
Turnen, 59, 60
Loges School, 59-60
Loheland School, 53-54, 57
Loisel, E., Les Bases Psychologiques de
l'Education Physique, 24-25
Ludwig, Sophie, 53
Lunges, 204-205
Mcintosh, P. C., J. G. Dixon, et aI.,
Landmarks in the History of
Physical Education, 9, 12, 20, 62,
71
McKenzie, R. T., Exercise in Education
and Medicine, 20, 24, 34, 36, 48
MacKaye, Steele, Delsarte system of expression,
29, 36, 42, 52
Maclaren, A., Physical Education, 26
258 index
Manual of exercises, 107-243
beginners' work. 107-156
intermediate. 157-201
advanced, 202-243
Maracas, 198, 201
Martin. J., The Dance, 46-47
Mashin, Y., Athletes by the Millions, 71
Maynard, 0., American Modern Dancers,
41, 45-47, 49
Medau, R., et al.. The Development of
My Work, 58
Moderne Gymnastik, 58
Medau School, 57-58
Medicine balls, 154-155
Medieval educational theory, 5-6. 8
Mensendieck, Bess M., Look Better, Feel
Better, 39-41
system of functional exercises. 38-41,
52-53, 55, 57-59, 63
Menzler, D.. Aus meiner Arbeit, 55, 57
Mercurialis, Hieronymus, De Arte Gymnastica,
8-9
Mester, L., Rudolf Bode's Lebenswerk, 55
Middle Ages, body training in, 5-9
chivalry. 6
humanism, 6-9
Roman Christian church, 5-7
Military training, 3-4, 6-8, 13, 18, 20-21,
26-27, 29, 77
Mind and body, harmonious development
of, 3-4, 7, 9-10
relationship of, 88-89
unity of, 10, 55, 88
Mobility of the joints, exercises for
lumbar spine, 128, 131-132, 136,
140
thoracic spine, 132, 136-137, 142
waist down, 128-129, 141-143
waist up, 129, 132-133, 137-138, 142-
143
whole hody, 129-131, 133-136, 138-140,
143-146
Modern approach, theory and methods
of, 85-243
basic concepts, 85-92
exercise manual, 107-243
teaching techniques, 93-103
Monroe, W. S., Comenius Ilnd the Beginnings
of Educational Reform,
11
Montaigne, Michel de, 9-10
Montessori, Maria. Dr. Montessori's Own
Handbook, 14
Motion, based on biology and psychology,
13, 20. 48, 53, 58-59, 66, 72,
75, 89, 91
kinesiology. 13, 20, 30. 39-41, 47. 54.
55.63.76.90
natural laws, 24.25.47.54, 91
physical factors, 43-44, 56, 62. 75, 77,
85-91
physiology. 9, 13, 25, 31
Motion, beauty of, 4, 25, 40, 42, 68-69,
70, 88
Movement, accompaniment, 48, 54. 58-
59, 99-102
and the arts, 3, 15, 34-37, 52-53, 56,
59, 63, 75
and breathing, 37, 39, 54, 57-58, 89
and dance; see Dance and movement
and music; see Music and movement
and rhythm, 14, 38-39. 41-45, 53-61,
67, 72, 75-78, 85-88, 90-91
artificial, 25, 57, 74
basic, 56, 71
central and peripheral, 47, 90
choreography, 43, 60, 197, 239
concentric, 35
creative. 48-49, 72. 75. 85, 91, 97-99,
175, 184, 189, 190, 192-193, 197-
201
dynamic. 45, 57, 63. 78.86, 197-201
excentric, 34
exploratory, 14, 94-97, 107, 115, 166,
174, 184, 188, 190, 192-193, 197-201
expressive, 6-7, 12, 15, 34-39, 42, 54-
56, 63, 66-67, 78
feminine, 23, 47. 52-62, 66, 68
functional, 14, 25, 39-41, 44.71-72
improvisation. 55, 58-59, 67, 89, 91,
97-99. 167, 174-175, 184, 188, 190,
192-193, 197-201, 239
locomotor. 107. 115. 149. 150. 157-243
masculine, 31. 46-47
motivations, 76. 85, 91
natural. 12, 14-15, 24-25, 31, 35-49,
52-63.66-78, 85-92
oppositional. 35, 37, 137, 221-222
organic; see Natural (organic) movement
parallel, 35, 221-222
partial, 66. 117-122, 124-126, 209-213,
214-216, 223-224, 237-238
passive, 89.115-127.220
percussive. 46, 197, 200
sequences, 44, 72, 239-243
simultaneous, 37, 91, 129-130, 133
spontaneous, 25, 45-46, 67, 69, 91, 97-
99. 150-165
stylized, 35, 42
successive. 35. 37, 91, 134-136, 138,
140, 143-145, 214-218, 236-243
sustained, 72, 114, 214-220
tasks, 52. 72, 76
terminology, 42-44, 71-72.244-246
therapy, 57, 78, 88-89
vocabulary, 72, 76
willed, 40, 55
whole body, 25, 53, 54-63, 66-69, 77-
78. 107. 115, 122-123, 129-131,
133-136, 138-140, 142-146, 154-
201, 202-243
Movement analysis, 25, 31, 33, 35-36, 46-
47, 49, 56, 62, 71, 76, 85-88, 90.
115, 202-203, 207-208, 214, 220,
223, 226, 231, 236, 239
Movement sequences, 44, 72, 239-243
Moving with a minimum of energy. experiments
in, 114
Music and movement, 24-25, 38-39, 41,
47-48, 54-59, 63, 99-102
Nachtegall, Franz. 18-19, 20
Nash, J. B., Physical Education: Its
Interpretations and Objectives, 75
Nasmark. Anna Lisa, 67
National gymnastic systems, development
of, Czechoslovakia, 22-24
Denmark, 18-20
Germany, 21-22
Russia, 69-71
Sweden, 20-21
National Section on Dance. AAHPER,
43, 49
National socialism, effect on physical
education, 60-61
Nationalism, education for, 18
effect on physical training, 18-24, 61,
69-71
Natural activities, physical training
through. Greece and Rome, 3-5
humanism, 7-8
Middle Ages, 5-9
naturalism, 11-15, 20-21, 25, 72-75
realism, 9-10
Natural movement education, evolution
of,
beginnings. 12-15, 25, 27, 29, 31
contributions of American dancers,
45-49
effect on school gymnastics, 66-78
German interpretations and methods,
52-63
modern approach, 85-243
pioneer concepts of, 34-45
Natural (organic) movement, 12, 14-15,
24-25, 31, 35-49, 52-63, 66-78, 85
Naturalism, influence on physical training,
11-15, 20-21, 24-25, 30, 72-75,
77
Naturalistic schools of Germany, 11-13
Nazi period, German gymnastic education
in, 60-61
Nissen, Hartvig, 29
Objectives and principles of natural
movement education, 88-92
Objects (hand apparatus), movements
with, 61, 68-69, 77, 91, 174-196
bags, 193
balls, 175-184
drums, 193-196
hoops, 184-190
ropes, 190-192
scarves, 192-193
Olympic Games, 60, 68, 70, 97
Orff, Carl, 58-59, 63
Organismic (Gestalt) psychology, 31, 54,
78
Osterberg, Martina Bergman, 26-27
Palmieri, Matteo, 7
Partner work, 77, 166-173
Passive movements, 115-127
elicited by helper, 115-123
self-provoked, 124-127
Percussion instruments, 48, 55, 59, 75,
77, 99-102, 198-201
Pestalozzi, Johann Heinrich, 13-14, 22,
24-25, 30-31, 54
Pinloche, A., Pestalozzi, 13
Play, education through, 12-15, 73-75
Playground balls, 157-161, 175-184
Plutarch's Lives of Illustrious Men, 3
Pontan, M., Principles of Body Training,
55-56, 90
Positions, basic, 94-96
starting, 93
tension-testing (control), 109-114
Posse, Nils, 29
Power, E. j., Main Currents in the History
of Education, 5-6
Provaznik, M. and N. Zabka, Gymnastics
with Hand Apparatus, 69
Rabelais, 9
Randall, M., Basic Movement (London),
71
Realism, physical training in, 9-11
human, 9
sense, 10-11
social, 9-10
Reformation, effect on education, 8
Reisner, E. H., Nationalism and Education
since 1789, 18
Relaxation, concepts of, 37-38, 52, 54,
66, 68, 89-90
eutonie, 108-115
exercises for, 108-127
passive movements, 115-127
elicited by a helper, 115-123
self-provoked, 124-127
Renaissance, influence of, 6-11, 30-31
Rhoden, Hedwig von, 52-53
Rhythm of body movement: dynamics,
time, and space, 75, 77, 85-88
Rhythm and movement; see Movement
and rhythm
Rhythm sequences, 36, 37
Rogers, F. R. (ed.), Dance, A Basic Educational
Technique, 46-47
Roman Christian church, influence of,
asceticism, 5-6
physical training, 5-7
scholasticism, 6
Rome, gymnastics in, 4-5
Ropes, 190-192
Rosenstrauch, H., Percussion, Movement,
and the Child, 102
Rhythm and the Art of Living, 39
Roucek, J. S., Central-Eastern Europe, 22
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, 9, 12, 24-25, 41
Emile (Foxley, tr.), 12
Running, in curves, 203-205, 206
explorations in, 107-108
in straight lines, 202, 204-205
techniques, 202-203
Russell, J., Modern Dance in Education,
44
Russia, gymnastics in, 69-71
Sachs, C., World History of the Dance,
41
index 259
Sadler, M. E. (ed.), The Eurhythmics of
Jaques-Dalcroze, 38-39
Salzmann, Christian Gotthilf, 12
Sargent, Dudley A., 29
Saurbier, B., Geschichte der Leibesubungen,
21, 41
Scandinavia, modern gymnastics in, 66-
68
Denmark, 67-68
Finland, 66-67
Sweden, 67
Scarves, 192-193
Schlundt, C., Individuals Who Determined
the Dance Philosophy of
Graduate Education, 48-49
Scholasticism, effect on physical training,
6
School gymnastics, effect of movement
methods on, 66-78
Central Europe, 68-69
England, 71-72
Russia, 69-71
Scandinavia, 66-68
United States, 72-78
Schulberg, S., Russian Sports Revolution,
69-70
Schwendener, N., History of Physical
Education in the United States, 49
Senff, Hilda, 57-61
Sense realism, 10-11
Sensory perception, 11-14, 89
Shawn, T., Every Little Movement, 3,
35-36, 38, 45-46
Simon, Johann Friedrich, 12
Slet (Sokol), 23
Smithells, P. A., In Memoriam (Carl
Diem), 62
Social and cultural influences, 3, 6-9,
11, 12, 18, 20, 21-23, 25, 27, 34,
69-70
Social realism, physical training in, 9-10
Sokol (Czech) gymnastics, 69
Space, 12, 35-36, 41, 43-45, 67, 72, 86-
88, 107
Sparta, gymnastics in, 3
Spartakiada, 24, 71
Spiess, Adolf, 21-22, 68
St. Denis, Ruth, 45-46
Starting positions, 93
Stebbins, Genevieve, Delsarte expression,
29, 35-38, 42, 52, 63
Delsarte System of Expression, 35, 36,
37
Steinhaus, A. H., quoted, 62
Facts and Theories of Neuromuscular
Relaxation and Your Muscles See
More Than Your Eyes, 89
Strachey, E. (ed.), Le Morte Darthur, 16
Streicher, M., Systematik und Bewegungslehr,
69
Strength, exercises for muscles, abdominal,
146-148
arms and shoulders, 149-151
back, 148-149
foot, 152-153
legs, 151-152
whole body, 154-155
Summaries of Chapters I and 2, 30-31
Chapters 3 and 4, 63
Chapter 5, 78
Svetov, A., How Science Helps Sports and
Tens of Millions on the Start, 70,
7I
Sweden, gymnastics in, Ling, 20-21
modern, 67
Swings, 220-223
circular, 222
loop swings, 222-223
pendular, 221-222
Syllabus of Physical Training for
Schools (London), 27
Tambourines, 198-201
Teacher training, methodical differences
in, 23, 26-30, 40, 52-63, 68
Teaching techniques of modern approach,
93-103
accompaniment of movement, 99-102
basic position, 94-96
costume and group arrangement, 102-
103
creating movements, 97-99
exploring the interactions of the body
sections, 96-97
planning a lesson, 93
starting positions, 93
Tension-testing positions; see Control
positions
Terry, W., The Dance in America, 45,
46, 47
Tennis balls, 157-161, 176-177
Terminology, 241-246
Thucydides, The History of the Peloponnesian
War, 4
Time, 43-44, 49, 56, 59, 62, 72, 75-77,
86, 88, 99-102, 193
Tom-toms, 100-102, 198, 200-201
Triangles, 198, 201
Turnen, 19, 22, 59-60, 63
Turner, 21, 28
Turnhalle, 21
Turnplatz, 21
Turns, in locomotion, 233-236
in place, 232
Turnverein, 21, 28
Tyrs, Miroslav, 22-23, 68
Historical Preface to Foundations of
Physical Culture and Our Task,
Aim and Goal, 22
Ullmann, Lisa, 43
United States, movement training in, 75-
77
physical education in, 27-30, 72-78
Van Dalen, D. B., Mitchell, E. D., and
B. L. Bennett, A World History of
Physical Education, 62
Walking, in curves, 203, 205, 206
explorations in, 107-108
in straight lines, 202, 204-205
techniques, 202-203
Wands, dexterity with, 162-163
movements with, 188-290
Waterman, E., The Rhythm Book, 75
Waves, 236-238
arm, 237
leg, 237
trunk, 238
whole body, 238-239
Weidman, Charles, 46-47, 49
Weimar Republic, German gymnastics
in, 56-60
Whole man, education of, 7, 11, 13, 20,
22, 31, 36, 53, 63, 73, 78
Wigman M., Die Sprache des Tames and
My Teacher Laban, 45
Williams, J. F., Education through the
Physical, 74-75
Interest and Effort in Physical Education,
75
The Principles of Physical Education,
74
Winckel, F., Introduction to Eutonie, 108
Wood, T. D., and R. F. Cassidy, The
New Physical Education, 48, 73-74
Wooden blocks, 102, 198, 200-201
Woodward, W. H., Studies in Education
during the Age of the Renaissance,
7-8
Vittorino da Feltre and Other Humanist
Educators, 7
Woody, T., Life and Education in Early
Societies, 2-4
Xylophone, 201
Yoga, Hatha, 31, 77, 89
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