The Writings of Martin Buber, edited by Will Herberg

Every person is a philosopher by nature; however, we are quickly dissuaded from this delightful activity by those who call philosophy impractical. But there is nothing more practical than knowing who you are and what you think. Try it sometime.

Re: The Writings of Martin Buber, edited by Will Herberg

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SOURCES

Part I: I and Thou

I AND THOU


The selections are from I and Thou, translated from the German by Ronald Gregor Smith (Edinburgh: T. and T. Clark, 1937; New York: Charles Scribner's Sons), pp. 3-4, 11-17, 22-33, 28-34, 75-81, 104-106, 109-112. Ich und Du first appeared in 1923 (Leipzig: Insel-Verlag).

THE QUESTION TO THE SINGLE ONE

The selections are from "The Question to the Single One," Between Man and Man, translated from the German by Ronald Gregor Smith (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1947; New York: Macmillan Company, 1948), pp. 40-61, 65, 69-71, 79-82. Die Frage an den Einzelnen first appeared in 1936 (Berlin: Schocken Verlag).

GOOD AND EVIL

These selections constitute chapters III and IV of Part Three of "Images of Good and Evil" (pp. 125-138) in Good and Evil: Two Interpretations (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1953). The German, Bilder von Gut und Bose, appeared in 1952 (Cologne: Jakob Hegner).

THE LOVE OF GOD AND THE IDEA OF DEITY

This selection constitutes chapter IV, "The Love of God and the Idea of Deity," in Eclipse of God: Studies in the Relation Between Religion and Philosophy (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1952), pp. 67-84. It first appeared in Hebrew in Kenesset, 5703 (1943), and was translated by I. M. Lask. It is also to be found in Israel and the World: Essays in a Time of Crisis (New York: Schocken Books, 1948), pp. 53-65.

GOD AND THE SPIRIT OF MAN

This selection constitutes chapter VIII, "God and the Spirit of Man," in Eclipse of God: Studies in the Relation Between Religion and Philosophy (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1952). It is substantially one of the lectures delivered by Martin Buber at a number of American universities in November and December, 1951, and was translated from the German by Maurice S. Friedman.

Part II Of Social Life

THE IDEA; IN THE MIDST OF CRISIS; AN EXPERIMENT THAT DID NOT FAIL


These selections are chapters from Paths in Utopia, translated from the German by R. F. C. Hull (New York: Macmillan Company, 1950): chapter I, "The Idea," pp. 1-6; chapter X, "In the Midst of Crisis," pp. 129-138; and "Epilogue An Experiment That Did Not Fail," pp. 139-149. The German edition, Pfade in Utopia, appeared in 1950 (Heidelberg: Verlag Lambert Schneider).

"AND IF NOT NOW, WHEN?"

The selection included constitutes a chapter from Israel and the World: Essays in a Time of Crisis (New York: Schocken Books, 1948), pp. 234-239, and was translated from the German by Olga Marx. It is an address delivered at a Jewish youth convention in Antwerp in 1932, and was first published in Kampf um Israel: Reden und Schriften 1921-1932 (Berlin: Schocken Verlag, 1932).

Part III: Of Biblical Faith

SAGA AND HISTORY


The selection included constitutes a chapter from Moses (Oxford: East and West Library, 1946), pp. 13-19. The Ger- man edition is Mose (Heidelberg: Verlag Lambert Schneider, 1952).

HOLY EVENT

This selection constitutes chapter V, "Holy Event," in The Prophetic Faith, translated from the Hebrew by Carlyle Witton- Davies (New York: Macmillan Company, 1949), pp. 43-59. Der Glaube der Propheten was published in 1950 (Zurich: Manesse Verlag).

"UPON EAGLES' WINGS"; THE WORDS ON THE TABLETS; THE ZEALOUS GOD; THE CONTRADICTION

The selections included are chapters from Moses (Oxford: East and West Library, 1946): "'Upon Eagles' Wings,'" pp. 101-109; "The Words on the Tablets," pp. 119-140; "The Zealous God," pp. 141-146; "The Contradiction," pp. 182-190.

BIBLICAL LEADERSHIP; PLATO AND ISAIAH; THE MAN OF TODAY AND THE JEWISH BIBLE

These selections are chapters from Israel and the World: Essays in a Time of Crisis (New York: Schocken Books, 1948). "Biblical Leadership" (pp. 119-133) was a lecture delivered in Munich in 1928, and was first published in Kampf um Israel: Reden und Schriften 1921-1932 (Berlin: Schocken Verlag, 1933); the translation is by Greta Hort. "Plato and Isaiah" (pp. 103-112) is an introductory lecture delivered at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, and published by the University in 1938; the translation is by Olga Marx. "The Man of Today and the Jewish Bible" (pp. 89-102) is from a series of lectures delivered in 1926, and published in Die Schrift und ihre Verdeutschung, by Martin Buber and Franz Rosenzweig (Berlin: Schocken Verlag, 1936); the translation is by Olga Marx.

Part IV: Of Jewish Destiny

THE FAITH OF JUDAISM; THE TWO FOCI OF THE JEWISH SOUL; NATIONALISM; OF THE LAND AND ITS POSSESSORS; ON NATIONAL EDUCATION; HEBREW HUMANISM The selections included are chapters from Israel and the World: Essays in a Time of Crisis (New York: Schocken Books, 1948). "The Faith of Judaism" (pp. 13-27) was first prepared in 1928 as a lecture for a political science institute in Reichenhall, and was delivered at the Weltwirtschaftliches Institut in Kiel. It was first published in Kampf um Israel: Reden und Schriften 1921-1932 (Berlin: Schocken Verlag, 1933); the translation is by Greta Hort. "The Two Foci of the Jewish Soul" (pp. 28-40) is an address delivered at an institute held by four German-language missions to Jews at Stuttgart in March 1930, and published in Kampf um Israel; the translation is by Greta Hort. "Nationalism" (pp. 222-226; only part of the essay is presented here) is an address delivered at the twelfth Zionist congress at Karlsbad, on September 5, 1921, and published in Kampf um Israel; the translation is by Olga Marx. "The Land and Its Possessors" (pp. 227-233) is from an open letter addressed to Gandfez in 1939; it first appeared in The Bond, Jerusalem, 1939. "On National Education" (pp. 157-163; only part of the essay is presented here) is an address delivered at the national conference of the Palestinian Teachers Association held at Tel Aviv in 1939; it appeared in Ha-Ruah veha-Metziut (Tel Aviv, 1942). "Hebrew Humanism" (pp. 241-254; only part of the essay is presented here) appeared in Ha-Ruah veha-Metziut, and was translated by Olga Marx.

ZION AND THE OTHER NATIONAL CONCEPTS

The selection included constitutes the introductory chapter of Israel and Palestine: The History of an Idea, translated from the German by Stanley Godman (London: East and West Library, 1952), pp. ix-xiv. A Hebrew edition appeared in 1944, The German edition is Israel und Palastina: Zur Geschichte einer Idee (Zurich: Artemis-Verlag, 1950).

THE SILENT QUESTION

The selection included is from At the Turning: Three Addresses on Judaism (New York: Farrar, Straus, and Young, 1952), pp. 29-44. It is an address delivered at the Jewish Theological Seminary in November 1951.

Part V: Of Teaching and Learning

The selection included is a chapter from Israel and the World: Essays in a Time of Crisis (New York: Schocken Books, 1948), pp. 137-145. It is an address delivered at the Freies Judisches Lehrhaus in Frankfort on the Main in 1934, and was published in Die Stunde und die Erkenntnis: Reden und Aufsatze 1933-1935 (Berlin: Schocken Verlag, 1936); the translation is by Olga Marx.
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Re: The Writings of Martin Buber, edited by Will Herberg

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

A full bibliography of writings by, about, and relating to Martin Buber will be found in Maurice S. Friedman, Martin Buber: The Life of Dialogue (see below), pp. 383-298. The following list includes only Buber's major works available in English, as well as a few outstanding studies of Buber's life and thought.

WORKS BY MARTIN BUBER AVAILABLE IN ENGLISH

At the Turning: Three Addresses on Judaism. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Young, 1952.

Between Man and Man. Translated by Ronald Gregor Smith. New York: Macmillan Company, 1948.

"Distance and Relation." Translated by Ronald Gregor Smith. The Hibbert Journal, Vol. XLIX, January 1951.

Eclipse of God: Studies in the Relation Between Religion and Philosophy. Translated by Maurice S. Friedman, et al. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1952.

For the Sake of Heaven. Translated by Ludwig Lewisohn. 2nd ed. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1953.

Good and Evil: Two Interpretations. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1953.

Hasidism. New York: Philosophical Library, 1948.

"Hope for This Hour." Translated by Maurice S. Friedman. World Review, December 1952.

I and Thou, Translated by Ronald Gregor Smith. Edinburgh: T. and T. Clark; New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1937.

Israel and Palestine: The History of an Idea. Translated by Stanley Godman. London: East and West Library, 1952.

Israel and the World: Essays in a Time of Crisis. New York: Schocken Books, 1948.

The Legend of the Baal-Shem. Translated by Maurice S. Fried- man. Harper and Brothers, 1955.

Mamre: Essays in Religion. Translated by Greta Hort. Mel- bourne: Melbourne University Press, 1946.

Moses. Oxford: East and West Library, 1946.

Paths in Utopia. Translated by R. F. C. Hull. London: Rout- ledge and Kegan Paul, 1949.

Pointing the Way: Collected Essays. Translated by Maurice S. Friedman. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1956.

The Prophetic Faith. Translated by Carlyle Witton-Davies. New York: Macmillan Company, 1949.

"Remarks on Goethe's Concept of Humanity," Goethe and the Modern Age. Edited by Arnold Bergstraesser. Chicago: Henry Regnery, 1950.

Right and Wrong: An Interpretation of Some Psalms. Trans- lated by Ronald Gregor Smith. London: S.C.M. Press, 1952.

"Society and the State." World Review, New Series 27, May 1951.

Tales of the Hasidim: The Early Masters. Translated by Olga Marx. New York: Schocken Books, 1947.

Tales of the Hasidim: The Later Masters. Translated by Olga Marx. New York: Schocken Books, 1948.

Ten Rungs: Hasidic Sayings. Translated by Olga Marx. New York: Schocken Books, 1947.

Two Letters to Gandhi. With Judah Magnes. (Pamphlets of The Bond.) Jerusalem: Rubin Mass, 1939.

Two Types of Faith. Translated by Norman P. Goldhawk. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1951. New York: Macmillan Company, 1952.

The Way of Man, According to the Teachings of Hasidism. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1950.

WORKS ABOUT MARTIN BUBER

Agus, Jacob B., Modern Philosophies of Judaism. New York: Behrman's Jewish Book House, 1941.

Friedman, Maurice S., Martin Buber: The Life of Dialogue. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1955.

Kohn, Hans, Martin Buber, Sein Werk und Seine Zeit: Ein Versuch uber Religion und Politik. Hellerau: Jakob Hegner Verlag, 1930.

Pfuetze, Paul E., The Social Self. New York: Bookman Associates, 1954.
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Re: The Writings of Martin Buber, edited by Will Herberg

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NOTES

Introduction by WILL HERBERG


1. J. H. Oldham, Real Life Is Meeting (London: Sheldon Press, 1942), p. 28.

2. Such testimony will be found cited in Maurice S. Friedman, Martin Buber: The Life of Dialogue (Chicago: University of Chicago, 1955); see esp. the introductory chapter, "The Narrow Ridge," the chapters on education and psychology, and the chapter on "Buber and Christianity." For Buber's influence on Christian thought, see Paul Tillich, "Jewish Influence on Contemporary Christian Theology," Cross Currents, Vol. II, No. 3, Spring 1952, and "Martin Buber and Christian Thought," Commentary, Vol. V, No. 6, June 1948.

3. See Martin Buber, Between Man and Man, translated by Ronald Gregor Smith (London: Kegan Paul, 1947; New York: Macmillan, 1948), "Dialogue," pp. 13-14. The essays in this volume contain other fragments of autobiographical disclosure.

4. Mar tin Buber, Daniel: Gesprdche von der Verwirklichung (Leipzig: Insel-Verlag, 1913).

5. Buber did, however, by the time of Daniel, decisively reject the impersonalist, absorptionist type or aspect of mysticism. Criticisms of this kind of mysticism abound in his later writings. "All doctrine of absorption is based on the colossal illusion of the human spirit bent back on itself . . ." (I and Thou, translated by Ronald Gregor Smith [Edinburgh: T. and T. Clark, 1937], p. 93). "It [mysticism] too lets man be alone before God, but not as a Single One. The relation to God which it thinks of is the absorption of the I, and the Single One ceases to exist if he cannot even in devoting himself say I. As mysticism will not permit God to assume the servant's form of speaking and acting person, ... so it prohibits man, as the Single One persisting as such, from really praying and serving and loving, such as is possible only by an I to a Thou" (Between Man and Man, "The Question to the Single One," p. 43). "But in the actuality of lived life, the man in such a moment [of mystical experience] is not above but beneath the creaturely situation ... He is not above but beneath dialogue" (Between Man and Man, "Dialogue," p. 25). A. Steinberg is quite justified in his assertion: "If at first, he [Buber] regarded himself as a mystic, he later came to the conclusion that mysticism, which seeks through 'nearness to God,' to submerge and efface man's individual character, is essentially anti-religious, and therefore non- Jewish" (A. Stein- berg, "The History of Jewish Religious Thought," in The Jewish People Past and Present, Vol. I [New York: Jewish Encyclopedic Handbooks, Central Yiddish Culture Organization, 1946], p. 505a).

6. Martin Buber in cooperation with *"*, Rosenzweig, Die Schrift, 15 vols. (Berlin: Schocken Verlag, 1927-37); see also Martin Buber and Franz Rosenzweig, Die Schrift und ihrer Verdeutschung (Berlin: Schocken Verlag, 1936).

7. "All real living is meeting" (I and Thou, p. 11).

8. "The more perfect and more eternal aspect of the universe is represented in our religions as having a personal form. The universe is no longer a mere It to us, but a Thou, if we are religious; and any relation that may be possible from person to person might be possible here . . ." (William James, Essays in Pragmatism, ed. by Alburey Castell [New York: Hafner, 1949], "The Will to Believe," p. 106). The "Will to Believe" was first published in 1897.

9. Buber asserts that even hate is possible only with part of one's being and that "only a part of a being can be hated." "Yet the man who straightforwardly hates is nearer to relation than the man without hate or love" (I and Thou, p. 16).

10. I and Thou, p. 3.

11. I and Thou, p. 33.

12. Maurice S. Friedman, Martin Buber: The Life of Dialogue, pp. 164, 186.

13. The term is Reinhold Niebuhr's, in The Self and the Dramas of History (New York: Scribner's, 1955). Niebuhr makes specific acknowledgment to Buber in defining his understanding of life and history in terms of the "dramatic" elaboration of personal encounter: "I acknowledge my indebtedness to the great Jewish philosopher, Martin Buber, whose book 1 and Thou first instructed me and many others on the uniqueness of human selfhood and on the religious dimension of the person" (p. ix). Buber would not seem to fit in exactly into either of the two categories which I employ in interpreting Niebuhr's thinking the ontological (Tillich) and the historical (Niebuhr) but in the end he is definitely closer to Niebuhr's approach (see Will Herberg, "The Three Dialogues of Man," New Republic, May 16, 1955, esp. pp. 30-31).

14. See Paul E. Pfuetze, The Social Self (New York: Bookman, 1954), pp. 281, 346-47.

15. I and Thou, p. 28.

16. See Pfuetze, The Social Self.

17. Buber calls this "the soul's adventures in doubling roles . . . , [which] can never become critically true, just as the 'one and one in one' of mysticism can never be ontically true" (Between Man and Man, "The Question to the Single One," p. 50).

18. Between Man and Man, "The Question to the Single One," pp. 48, 43.

19. Martin Buber, At the Turning: Three Addresses on Judaism (New York: Farrar, Straus, and Young, 1952), "The Silent Question," p. 39.

20. Between Man and Man, "The Question to the Single One," p. 50.

21. For the discussion with Kierkegaard, see Between Man and Man, "The Question to the Single One," esp. pp. 40-65.

22. I and Thou, p. 78.

23. I and Thou, p. 75.

24. Between Man and Man, "What Is Man?," pp. 168, 167.

25. I and Thou, pp. 34, 11.

26. Between Man and Man, "The Question to the Single One," p. 43.

27. Martin Buber, Israel and the World: Essays in a Time of Crisis (New York: Schocken, 1948), "Teaching and Deed," p. 142.

28. Martin Buber, Hasidism (New York: Philosophical Library, 1948), "Spinoza," p. 99. Jacob B. Agus has well summarized Buber's teaching: "To be religious is to be 'actual,' to live in perpetual conversation with God a conversation which, coming from God to us, is expressed in the needs of the situation as understood by man, . . . and which, returning from us to God, is concretized in the form of deed performed to meet those needs" (Jacob B. Agus, Modern Philosophies of Judaism [New York: Behrman's, 1941], p. 269).

29. Israel and the World, "Biblical Leadership," pp. 131-32.

30. Israel and the World, "The Two Foci of the Jewish Soul," p. 33.

31. I and Thou, p. 51.

32. Friedman, Martin Buber, p. 107. See also Martin Buber, Good and Evil: Two Interpretations (New York: Scribner's, 1953), pp. 107-113.

33. Between Man and Man, "What Is Man?," p. 166. Ferdinand Ebner has traced mental disturbance to this same "remaining with oneself;" he sees insanity as the end product of Icheinsamkeit ("I-aloneness") and Dulosigkeit ("Thou-less-ness"), the isolation of the I from the Thou (Ferdinand Ebner, Das Wort und die geistigen Realitdten [Innsbruck: Brenner-Verlag, 1921]; Friedman, Martin Buber, p. 185).

34. Martin Buber, Two Types of Faith, translated by Norman P. Goldhawk (New York: Macmillan, 1952), p. 84.

35. Good and Evil, p. 140.

36. Some confusion in Buber's discussion of the problem of evil is on occasion introduced by his use of a familiar rabbinic saying that man must serve God not simply with his good yetzer, but with his yetzer ha-ra ("evil impulse;" better, "inclination to evil") as well.

This would seem to imply that the yetzer ha-ra is not "really" evil, but that something else (what?) makes it evil. What Buber is attempting to say here is that man must serve God not only with his "spirit," but with his "passions" as well. "From the same passionate powers, which undirected give rise to evil, when they are turned toward God, the good arises. One does not serve God with the spirit only, but with the whole of his nature, without any subtractions" (Israel and the World, "The Two Foci of the Jewish Soul," p. 34). But despite frequent rabbinic precedents, it seems wrong to identify the yetzer ha-ra with the "passions," as though there was something evil in them. In the classic rabbinic passage, the yetzer ha-ra is understood as something very different. "Were it not for the yetzer ha-ra" we are told, "a man would not build a house or take a wife or beget a child or engage in business, as it is said: 'All labor and work comes of a man's rivalry with his neighbor'" (Gen. R. ix.7). Here the yetzer ha-ra is not the "passions," but "rivalry with one's neighbor," Buber's "false self-asserting instinct."

37. Good and Evil, p. 60. 38. 1 and Thou, p. 80.

39. Buber thus characterizes the two ways of philosophy and mysticism, and the third way of the dialogic "meeting" with God in the world: "If you explore the life of things and of conditioned being [as in philosophy], you come to the unfathomable [the Urgrund, the "primal ground" of being]; if you deny the life of things and of conditioned being [as in mysticism], you stand before nothingness [the Ungrund, the "no-ground" of being]; if you hallow this life, you meet the living God" (I and Thou, p. 79).

40. I and Thou, p. 81.

41. Martin Buber, Der heilige Weg: Em Antwort an die Juden und die Volker (Frankfort: Literarische Anstalt Riitten und Loening, 1920), pp. 67-68.

42. I and Thou, p. 106.

43. Between Man and Man, "The Question to the Single One," p. 81.

44. Israel and the World,, "What Are We To Bo About the Ten Commandments?," p. 86.

45. Between Man and Man, "The Question to the Single One," p. 82.

46. Martin Buber, "Remarks on Goethe's Concept of Humanity," in Arnold Bergstraesser, ed., Goethe and the Modern Age (Chicago: Regnery, 1950), pp. 232-33.

47. Between Man and Man, "Dialogue," p. 16.

48. Between Man and Man, "The Question to the Single One," p. 45.

49. At the Turning, "The Dialogue between Heaven and Earth," p. 56.

50. Between Man and Man, "The Education of Character," p. 114.

51. Between Man and Man, "What is Man?," pp. 203, 176.

52. I and Thou, p. 45.

53. Between Man and Man, "What Is Man?," p. 200.

54. Good and Evil, p. 136. See also Martin Buber, "Distance and Relation," translated by Ronald Gregor Smith, The Hibbert Journal, Vol. XLIX, January 1951.

55. Martin Buber, "Hope for This Hour," World Review, December 1952.

56. See Martin Buber, Paths in Utopia, translated by R. F. C. Hull (Macmillan, 1949), epilogue.

57. Ben Halpern, in a perceptive article on the new problems of the Israeli commune, notes that to the more recent immigrants from Eastern and Central Europe, "kibbutz collectivism is repellantly reminiscent of the concentration camp, the kolkhoz, or the DP camp" (Ben Halpern, "The Israeli Commune: Privacy and the Collective Life," Modern Review, Summer 1949). Mr. Halpern believes the kibbutz to be a valuable and enduring part of the Israeli social system, but asserts that it needs greater flexibility and adaptiveness to meet pressing new problems.

58. Paths in Utopia, p. 145.

59. Martin Buber, "Society and the State," World Review, New Series 27, May 1951. This contrast of the "social" and "political" principles reminds one of the social philosophy of eighteenth and nineteenth century liberalism. It was Tom Paine who declared: "So- ciety in every state is a blessing, but government, even in its best state, is but a necessary evil; in its worst state, an intolerable evil" (Common Sense, chap. i). In the nineteenth century, the "social" principle became the "economic" principle, the "political" principle remaining the bete noir of the liberal.

60. Paths in Utopia, p. 104.

61. Israel and the World, "'And If Not Now, When?'", p. 238.

62. Israel and the World, "Hebrew Humanism," p. 246.

63. Martin Buber and Judah L. Magnes, Two Letters to Gandhi (Jerusalem: Rubin Mass, 1939), pp. 20-21.

64. Israel and the World, "Hebrew Humanism," p. 246.

65. Ernst Simon, "Martin Buber: His Way Between Thought and Deed," Jewish Frontier, Vol. XV, No. 2, February 1948.

66. Martin Buber, For the Sake of Heaven, translated from the German by Ludwig Lewisohn, 2nd. ed. (New York: Harper, 1953), foreword, p. x.

67. Between Man and Man, "The Question to the Single One," p. 77.

68. See esp. Reinhold Niebuhr, The Children of Light and the Children of Darkness: A Vindication of Democracy and a Critique of Its Traditional Defense (New York: Scribner's, 1944). In an address on October 16, 1854, Abraham Lincoln stated: "What I do say is that no man is good enough to govern another without that other's consent. I say this is the leading principle, the sheet anchor, of American republicanism" (T. Harry Williams, ed., Abraham Lincoln: Selected Writings and Speeches (Chicago: Packard, 1943), pp. 36-37. See also Will Herberg, "The Biblical Basis of American Democracy," Thought, Vol. XXX, No. 116, Spring 1955.

69. Between Man and Man, "What Is Man?," p. 201.

70. Between Man and Man, "The Education of Character," p. 111.

71. Between Man and Man, "The Question to the Single One," pp. 80- 81.

72. Martin Buber, The Prophetic Faith, translated from the Hebrew by Carlyle Witton-Davies (New York: Macmillan, 1949), p. 54.

73. Israel and the World, "The Man of Today and the Jewish Bible," p. 89.

74. At the Turning, "The Dialogue between Heaven and Earth," p. 48.

75. Martin Buber, Moses (Oxford and London: East and West Library, 1946); The Prophetic Faith, as above. (Buber's basic work on biblical faith, Konigtum Gottes [Berlin: Schocken Verlag, 1933; 2nd edition, 1936] has unfortunately not yet appeared in English). Buber describes his method as the "intuitively scientific method," and holds to "tradition criticism" as distinct from "source criticism," and presumably "form criticism" as well (The Prophetic Faith, pp. 6-7).

76. The Prophetic Faith, p. 70.

77. I and Thou, p. 79.

78. Emil Fackenheim, "In the Here and Now" (review of Buber's The Prophetic Faith), Commentary, Vol. IX, No. 4, April 1950.

79. Eclipse of God, "Religion and Ethics," p. 127.

80. Israel and the World, "The Faith of Judaism," p. 27.

81. The Prophetic Faith, p. 54.

82. Moses, p. 131.

83. At the Turning, "The Dialogue between Heaven and Earth," pp. 47-48.

84. Eclipse of God, "Religion and Philosophy," p. 51.

85. Friedman, Martin Buber, p. 253.

86. At the Turning, "The Silent Question," p. 37.

87. The Prophetic Faith, p. 146.

88. Moses, p. 145. Cp. the celebrated rabbinic saying: "'Unto me are the children of Israel slaves' (Lev. 25:55) not slaves unto slaves," (Bab. Talmud, Baba Metzia 10a [Kiddushin 22a]).

89. Israel and the World, "The Faith of Israel," p. 17.

90. At the Turning, "The Dialogue between Heaven and Earth," p. 56.

91. Israel and the World, "The Man of Today and the Jewish Bible," p. 102.

92. The Prophetic Faith, p. 52.

93. Israel and the World, "The Faith of Judaism," p. 17.

94. Israel and the World, "The Faith of Judaism," p. 20.

95. The Prophetic Faith, p. 195.

96. At the Turning, "The Silent Question," p. 39.

97. I and Thou, p. 110.

98. Emil Brunner, Wahrheit als Begegnung: Sechs Vorlesungen uber das christliche Wahrheitsverstandnis (Berlin: Furche-Verlag, 1938); the English translation of this book is entitled The Divine-Human Encounter, translated from the German by Amandus W. Loos (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1943).

99. Buber distinguishes between revelation through nature and revelation through history. The former is "continuous" and continuously proclaims "that one, though all-inclusive something, that which the psalm calls the glory of God." Revelation through history, on the other hand, is discontinuous and varied: "times of great utterance, when the mark of divine direction is recognizable in the conjunction of events, alternate with, as it were, mute times, when everything that occurs in the human world and pretends to historical significance appears to us empty of God." Moreover, in revelation through nature man is only the receiver; in revelation through history, on the other hand, "mankind, being placed in freedom, cooperates incessantly in shaping its [history's] course" (At the Turning, "The Dialogue between Heaven and Earth," pp. 57-58). These distinctions are important, but are they ultimate? In a great natural catastrophe, destroying men and communities, does nature speak so obviously and unequivocally the same word of revelation of the glory of God?

100. Israel and the World, "The Man of Today and the Jewish Bible," p. 94.

101. Oscar Cullmann, Christ and Time: The Primitive Christian Conception of Time and History, translated from the German by Floyd V. Filson (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1951), pp. 81ff., 90, 101, 124, 167, 211, and passim.

102. "The Exodus was basic in the consciousness of Israel ... [It] was of existential significance . . . For Israel, reality was laid bare in that bit of history. God revealed himself in it. It is the normative event . . . Yahweh redeemed Israel . . . This is the people by which he will fulfill his intention for all mankind . . . This is the perspective in terms of which the Exodus becomes the formative and guiding 'event' in Israel's religious tradition. When we read on to the end of the Old Testament, we find that all of it with the possible exception of such items as Proverbs and Ecclesiastes, which omit reference to our historical locus of revelation is written as testimony to this perspective that emerges from the Exodus event" (J. Coert Rylaarsdam, "Preface to Hermeneutics," The Journal of Religion, Vol. XXX, No. 2, April 1950).

103. Israel and the World, "The Faith of Judaism," p. 27.

104. Israel and the World, "The Two Foci of the Jewish Soul," p. 36.

105. Israel and the World, "The Two Foci of the Jewish Soul," p. 34.

106. Quoted by Ernst Simon, "Martin Buber: His Way Between Thought and Deed," Jewish Frontier, Vol. XV, No. 26, January 1948.

107. Martin Buber, "Der Preis," Der Jude, October 1917.

108. Friedman, Martin Buber, p. 252.

109. Israel and the World, "Biblical Leadership," p. 131.

110. At the Turning, "The Silent Question," p. 39.

111. Israel and the World, "The Two Foci of the Jewish Soul," p. 29, Here, and especially in Two Types of Faith, Buber attempts to contrast faith as emunah with the New Testament pistis, which he asserts means faith in the sense of believing some proposition about God or Christ. While pistis does occasionally bear this meaning in the N. T. (e.g., Heb. 11:6), its general usage is in- distinguishable from emunah. "In the vast majority of cases, the meaning [of 'faith' in the New Testament] goes back to a Hebrew concept . . . The core of this Hebrew concept is firmness, re- liability, or steadfastness . . . Usually, it is a person rather than a statement which is believed, and in the context of men's relation to God, the verb always implies personal conviction and trust arising within direct personal relationship . . . The NT Greek reflects this point by introducing a preposition ('believe in . . .') in almost every instance where more is intended than mere credence. If a person 'holds sure to God,' he may be said to 'have faith' ... It is the act by which he lays hold of God's proffered resources, becomes obedient to what God prescribes, and abandoning all self-interest and self-reliance, trusts God completely. This is the meaning which the noun 'faith' receives in St. Paul's writing . . . To believe, in the technical Christian sense, is to be related to God in trust via those historical events [the 'Christ-events']" (W. A. Whitehouse, "Faith," in Alan Richardson, ed., A Theological Word Book of the Bible [Macmillan, 1951], pp. 75-76).

112. I and Thou, p. 106.

113. Eclipse of God, "God and the Spirit of Man," p. 162.

114. Eclipse of God, "God and the Spirit of Man," p. 163.

115. The Prophetic Faith, p. 170.

116. Hasidism, "Hasidism in Religion," p. 199.

117. The Prophetic Faith, p. 88. G. Ernest Wright subtitles his God Who Acts with "Biblical Theology as Recital" (Chicago: Regnery, 1952).

118. "In the biblical religion, which is a history religion, . . . there is no nature in the Greek, the Chinese, or the modern Occidental sense. What is shown us of nature is stamped with history" (Moses, pp. 78-79). The messianic vision of Israel, Baron points out, is the vision of an age in which, through divine action, " 'history* will finally vanquish 'nature/ even changing its course, for in that day, 'the wolf shall dwell with the lamb' (Is. 11:6) and . . . nature will be transformed into a community" (Salo W. Baron, A Social and Religious History of the Jews [New York: Columbia, 1937], Vol. I. p. 7).

119. Moses, p. 131.

120. Israel and the World, "Biblical Leadership," pp. 127-28.

121. "The individual Israelite approaches God in virtue of his membership in the holy people ... In the whole of the Bible, . . . there is no such thing as a private personal relationship between the individual and God apart from his membership in the covenant folk" (Alan Richardson, "Instrument of God," Interpretation, Vol. Ill, No. 3, July 1949).

122. "The collectivity cannot enter instead of the person into the dialogue of the ages which the Godhead conducts with mankind" (Between Man and Man, "The Question to the Single One," p. 80).

123. At the Turning, "The Silent Question," p. 36.

124. Moses, pp. 189-90.

125. See Martin Buber, Die Schriften uber das dialogische Prinzip (Heidelberg: Verlag Lambert Schneider, 1954), "Nachwort," p. 296.

126. Israel and the World, "In the Midst of History," pp. 81-82. Emil Brunner has said of Buber 's Konigtum Gottes (Berlin: Schocken Verlag, 1932) that it is "a book which shows what history is better than any philosophy of history" (Emil Brunner, Man in Revolt [Philadelphia: Westminster, 1947], p. 448, note 2).

127. Martin Buber, Drei Reden uber das Judentum (Frankfort: Literarische Anstalt Riitten und Loening, 1911).

128. Drei Reden uber das Judentum, p. 70.

129. Drei Reden uber das Judentum, p. 71.

130. Drei Reden uber das Judentum, p. 75-91, esp. p. 90.

131. Franz Rosenzweig, in an essay published in 1914, branded Buber's views, without mentioning him by name, as "atheistic theology." "The will to unity, this most Jewish of all concepts, these new theologians of ours see as the crowning of their Jewish folk picture. Here they stray most consciously from tradition. For whereas traditional Judaism assigns the Jew the task of unity on the ground of the revealed unity of God, and regards the acknowledgment of the coming kingdom of God as involving the assumption of the God-bidden way of life, these new theologians make this relation between man and his God into an historical corollary of the yearning for the unity of life that has informed the Jewish folk character in all ages" (Franz Rosenzweig, "Atheistische Theologie," Kleinere Schriften [Berlin: Schocken Verlag, 1937], p. 286).

132. Drei Reden uber das Judentum, p. 101.

133. Israel and the World, "The Faith of Judaism," p. 13.

134. This distinction between the two strains in Hasidism has been made by J. G. Weiss, "Contemplative Mysticism and 'Faith' in Hasidic Piety," The Journal of Jewish Studies (London), Vol. IV, No. 1, 1953. Weiss writes: "The entire Hasidic literature, as far as theory is concerned, may be divided into two clear-cut types the mystical, contemplative Hasidism, . . . with an idealistic and semi-pantheistic outlook . . . , and the Hasidism of faith, . . . which lives in an atmosphere of 'existentialism'" (pp. 20, 29).

135. Israel and the World, "On National Education," p. 159.

136. At the Turning, "The Silent Question," p. 43.

137. Israel and the World, "On National Education," p. 159.

138. Israel and the World, "The Land and Its Possessors," pp. 229-30.

139. At the Turning, "The Silent Question," p. 42.

140. Rosenzweig's view of Judaism and Christianity may be found briefly described in Nahum N. Glatzer, "Franz Rosenzweig," Yivo Annual of Jewish Social Science I (1946), and Nahnm N. Glatzer, ed., Franz Rosenzweig: His Life and Thought (New York: Schocken, 1953), esp. pp. xxv-xxvi, 341-48. See also Will Herberg, "Judaism and Christianity: Their Unity and Difference," The Journal of Bible and Religion, Vol. XXI, No. 2, April 1953.

141. The phrase is Jacques Maritain's; see his A Christian Looks at the Jewish Question (New York: Longmans Green, 1939), p. 29.

142. Israel and the World, "The Two Foci of the Jewish Soul," p. 35.

143. Israel and the World, "The Two Foci of the Jewish Soul," pp. 39- 40.

144. "To Buber Zionism represents the opportunity of the people to continue its ancient existence on the land which was interrupted by the generation of exile. This implies that Jewish existence in the Diaspora from the time of the exile to the present cannot be understood as Judaism in the full sense of the word" (Friedman, Martin Buber, p. 262).

145. Israel and the World, "The Two Foci of the Jewish Soul," pp. 28- 29.

146. Moses, p. 188.

147. Two Types of Faith, p. 57.

148. Der heilige Weg, p. 53.

149. Franz Rosenzweig, "Die Bauleute," Kleinere Schriften; Buber's and Rosenzweig's exchange of letters will be found in Franz Rosen- zweig, On Jewish Learning, ed. by N. N. Glatzer (New York: Schocken, 1955), pp. 109-24.

150. At the Turning, "The Silent Question," p. 44.

151. At the Turning, "The Silent Question," p. 44.

OF HUMAN EXISTENCE

1. The Question to the Single One. The German which I have rendered by the cumbrous and none too clear phrase "the Single One" is der Einzelne, which is a fairly precise rendering of Kierkegaard's hiin Enkelte. It is a pity that in the English translations of Kierkegaard no effort seems to have been made by the translators to avoid the use of the word "individual," which is highly misleading. For every man is individuum, but not everyone is an Einzelner or Enkelte. In fact, the whole course of Kierkegaard's life, and the whole force of his teaching, is directed toward "becoming a Single One," and this is not a natural or biological category, but, as Kierkegaard reiterates, it is "the spirit's category," and a rare thing. The leader's complaisance is invited, therefore, as it was decided better to make the English a little odd rather than customary and misleading. [Translator]

2. All Kierkegaard's works, and a selection of the Journals, are now available in English. An English translation of Stirner's book, by S. C. Byington, was published under the title The Ego and His Own, London (A. C. Fifield) and New York (E. C. Walker), 1913. [Translator]

3. "Love your neighbour as one like yourself": this departure from the customary rendering of the Authorized Version is again an effort to render the original more precisely (in this case the Hebrew of Lev. 19:18) in order to keep before the reader the stark objec- tivity of the command the other whom you are required to "love" being one with a real life of his own, and not one whom you are invited to "acquire." [Translator]

OF SOCIAL LIFE

1. The minutes appeared in Zurich in 1929 under the title "Sozialismus aus dem Glauben" (Socialism from Faith).

2. Of course, I am not dealing here with the otherwise successful "socio-economic organizations, used by governmental or semi-governmental agencies to improve rural conditions" (Infield, Cooperative Communities at Work, p. 63).

3. Cf. Julien Benda, The Treason of the Intellectuals (New York, 1928).

OF BIBLICAL FAITH

1. Usener, "Der Stoff des griechischen Epos," Sitzungsberichte der Wiener Akademie der Wissenschaften, philologisch-historische Klasse, Vol. CXXXVII (1897), pp. 4f. (reprinted in Usener, Kleine Schriften, Vol. IV, pp. 201f).

2. Herzfeld, "Mythos und Geschichte," Archaeologische Mitteilungen aus Iran, Vol. VI (1933), pp. 102ff.

3. Jacob Grimm, "Gedanken ueber Mythos, Epos und Geschichte," Deutsches Museum (1813), Vol. Ill, p. 53 (reprinted in Jacob Grimm, Kleinere Schriften, Vol. IV, p. 74).

4. Sachsse, Die Bedeutung des Namens Israel (1922), p. 91; cf. Noth, Das System der Zwoelf Staemme, pp. 90ff.

5. Noth, Die israelitischen Personennamen (1929), p. 207f. Buber, Koenigtum Gottes, pp. 193, 252f.; Moses, pp. 113f.

6. Volz, Mose, p. 88.

7. Cf. Buber, Koenigtum Gottes, pp. 119ff. (against Mowinckel, Psalmenstudien II).

8. Cf . Buber, Moses, pp. 74ff.

9. The view connecting these words with the Schechem assembly is without foundation; nothing in the Joshua story fits this hymn of a great theophany.

10. Sellin, Einleitung in das Alte Testament (1935), p. 22. The view that this is a late psalm (so e.g., H. Schmidt, "Das Meerlied," Zeitschrift fuer alttestamentliche Wissenschaft, Neue Folge, Vol. VIII (1931), pp. 59ff.) cannot be supported from the fact that there is hardly any more mention in it of the dividing of the Red Sea than in other psalms; no other psalm is so built upon the one event and its effects.

11. Cf. Moses, pp. 101ff.

12. The saying is later elaborated many times homiletically (cf . Deut. 4:20; 7:6; 14:2; 26:19; I Kgs. 8:53); but it differs completely from these in its concentrated style. Its presentation of the deity, to whom the whole earth belongs and who can choose to himself one people out of all, is earlier in the history of faith than the universal liberator deity of Amos.

13. Cf. Eerdmans, De godsdienst van Israel (1930), Vol. I, pp. 56ff,; Volz, Mose, pp. looff.; Klamroth, Lade und Tempel (1933), pp. 30ff.; Sellin, Alttestamentliche Theologie (1933), Vol. I, pp. 30ff.; Buber, Koenigtum Gottes, pp. 228ff., Moses, pp. 147ff.

14. Cf. M. Dibelius, Die Lade Jakves (1906).

15. Cf. especially Pedersen, "Passahfest und Passahlegende," Zeitschrift fuer alttestamentliche Wissenschaft, Neue Folge, Vol. XI (1934), pp. 161ff.; and Buber, Moses, pp. 69ff.

16. Pedersen, op. cit., p. 168.

17. Hempel, Das Ethos des Alien Testaments (1938), p. 43.

18. Volz, Das Daemonische in Jahwe (1924), and Buber, Moses, pp. 56ff.

19. Cf. Moses, pp. 8off.

20. Oesterley and Robinson, A History of Israel, Vol. I (1932), p. 96; and Buber, Moses, pp. 119ff.

21. Alt, Die Urspruenge des israelitischen Rechts (1934), p. 52.

22. R. Kittel, Geschichte des Volkes Israel, Vol. I, Supplement I.

23. Alt, op. cit., p. 69. For an examination of the types of ordinance style, cf. Jirku, Das weltliche Recht im Alten Testament (1927).

24. Alt, op. cit., p. 47.

25. Ibid., p. 70.

26. Jirku, Das israelitische Jobeljahr (Seeberg-Festschrift, 1929), p. 178. Cf. Alt, op. cit., pp. 65f.; but Alt ascribes only the statutes about the Sabbatical year to an early age, and conjectures that in this year there was a completely new allotment of field plots to families, somewhat like that which is to be found amongst semi-nomads in our time; cf. also Kennett, Ancient Hebrew Social Life and Custom (1933), p. 77.

27. Cf. Koenigtum Gottes, pp. 56ff.

28. Cf. Eerdmans, Alttestamentliche Studien, Vol. IV (1912), pp. 121ff.; Kugler, Von Moses bis Paulus (1922), pp. 49ff; Ramsay, Asianic Elements in Greek Civilization (1927), pp. 49f.

29. Alt, op. cit. p. 47.

30. Such an addition is to be seen in the mention of the two kinds of sacrifice in verse 24.

31. Cf. Koenigtum Gottes, pp. 143ff.

32. Cf. Rost, Die Vorstufen von Kirche und Synagoge im Alien Testament (1938), pp. 7f.

33. Cf. Koenigtum Gottes, pp. 157f., 287f.

34. Ibid., pp. 3ff.

35. Volz, Mose, 2nd ed. (1933), p. 84; cf. also Staerk, "Zum alttestamentlichen Erwaehlungsglauben," Zeitschrift fuer die alttestameniliche Wissenschaft, New Series, Vol. XIV (1937), p. 8, and von Rad, Das formgeschichtliche Problem des Hexateuchs, p. 36.

36. Buber, Koenigtum Gottes, p. 112ff.; cf. also Quell, article diatheke in Kittel, Theologisches Woerterbuch zum Neuen Testament, Vol. II (1955), p. 123.

37. Gressmann, "Die Anfaenge Israels," Die Schriften des Alien Testaments, I, 2, and ed. (1922), p. 60; cf. Gressmann, Mose, p. 185.

38. Eissfeldt, Einleitung in das Alte Testament (1934), p. 260.

39. Cf. Buber, Koenigtum Gottes, pp. 126ff. Regarding the interpretation in detail, cf. Staerk, Zum alttestamentlichen Erwaehlungsglauben, pp. 8ff.

40. Cf. the excellent exposition in Baudissin, Kyrios als Gottesname im Judentum, Vol. III (1927), pp. 379ff; see pp. 398ff. in particular for the attribute of justice.

41. Cf. Buber, Koenigtum Gottes, pp. 140ff.

42. Ibid., pp. 132ff., 273ff.; cf. also Gunkel, Einleitung in die Psalmen (1933), p. 208.

43. Eichrodt, Theologie des Alien Testaments, Vol. I, p. 96.

44. Cf. Buber, Koenigtum Gottes, pp. 69f., 93ff., 211ff.

45. On Gideon see ibid., pp. 3ff. I have demonstrated the unity of nucleus of the Samuel story in my as yet unpublished work, "The Anointed" (passages from which have appeared in the Hebrew historical quarterly Zion, Vol. IV (1939), pp. 1ff.).

46. Buresch, Klaros (1899), pp. 89ff; the passage on the Decalogue is found on p. 116.

47. Wellhausen, "Skizzen und Vorarbeiten I," Die Composition des Hexateuchs, p. 96.

48. Alt, Die Urspruenge des israelitischen Rechts (1929), p. 52; cf. Rudolph, Der "Elohist" von Exodus bis Josua, p. 59: "a conglomerate of little value from the Book of the Covenant, which is in no way source material."

49. B. Duhm, Israels Propheten (1916), p. 38.

50. Beer, Exodus, p. 162.

51. Hoelscher, Geschichte der israelitischen und juedischen Religion (1922), p. 129.

52. Steuernagel, Einleitung in das Alte Testament (1912), p. 260.

53. Beer, op. cit, p. 103.

54. Budde, Religion of Israel to the Exile, p. 33: "both superfluous and impossible."

55. Mowinckel, Le Dialogue (1927), p. 102, is of the opinion that un- like the decalogue the moral elements "seem to be lost within a long series of ritual and cultic commandments"; but a glance at the tot shows that the ritual and cultic commandments constitute less than half in the Egyptian, and only a small fraction in the Babylonian.

56. Bruno Gumann, Die Stammeslehren der Dschagga, 3 vols. (1932).

57. Mowinckel, op. cit., p. 101.

58. Nowack, Der erste Dekaog (Baudissin-Festschrift, 1917), p. 395.

59. Beer, Mose und sein Werk (1912), p. 26.

60. Cf. J. Kaufmann, History of the Religion of Israel, II/1, p. 77; he connects Aaron with these influences.

61. With regard to the powerful influence exerted on Goethe particularly by the "Faustian" element in the Moses saga, cf. the fine essay by Burdach, "Faust und Mose," Sitzungsberichte der Koeniglich freshen Akademie der Wissenschaften, philosophisch-historische Klasse, 1912.

62. Mowinckel, op. cit., p. 75.

63. Wellhausen, Reste arabischen Heidentums, p. 102.

64. Lehmann, "Erscheinungs und Ideenwelt der Region, m Chantepie de la Saussaye, Lehrbuch der Religionsgeschichte, 4th ed. (1925), Vol. I, p. 89.

65. Thus, e.g., Edvard Lehmann, ibid. Vol. I, p. 33; cf. also K. Florenz "Die Jajaner," ibid. Vol. I, p. 294; Hempel, Politische Absicht und politische Wirkung im biblischen Schrifttum (1938), p. 14; also Gressmann, Mose, pp. 203, 207, 211. In my book The Prophetic Faith, I have dealt with the matter in detail in the chapter, The God of the Fathers"; cf. also Koenigtum Gottes, pp. 73ff.

66. Lagrange, Etudes sur les religions semitiques, 2nd ed. (1905), p. 507: cf. Fevrier, L. Religion des Palmyreens (1931), p. 37; cf. also Rostovtzeff, "The Caravan-gods of Palmyra," Journal of Roman Studies, Vol. XXII (1932), pp. 111f.

67. Schrader, Die Keilinschriften und das Alte Testament, 3rd ed. (1903), p. 29.

68. Haller, Religion, Recht und Sitte in den Genesissagen p. 23, is of the opinion, to be sure, that YHVH "detached himself from stone, tree, and spring and linked himself with the person of the shepherd," but also remarks: "Or is the process to be regarded as reversed, so that Yahve was originally a protective spirit that wandered with the shepherds and gradually, as the nomads began to settle, became established at a fixed habitation?" Gunkel noted in his copy of Haller's book that stationary god and settled worshipers as Canaanite are faced by "wandering god and wandering nomads as Israelite." It must, however, be added that this god does not sleep in the tents of the nomads like the teraphim fetishes, but from time to time withdraws to the spacious heavens, which are inaccessible to men; Jacob's vision of the gate of Heaven is a primordial constituent of the tradition. (That it is therefore impossible to "have" this god may hence have been one of the chief reasons for the women of the tribe to take the teraphim about with them.)

69. According to Lods, Israel, p. 531, the people imagined YHVH with an aerial and therefore invisible body, "susceptible d'apparaitre sous des formes diverses."

70. For the relation between imagelessness and invisibility cf. Max Weber, Gesammelte Aufsaetze zur Religionssoziologie (1921), Vol. III, p. 170, who sees the relation otherwise but as no less close: "A god whose cult has been imageless since immemorial time had to be normally invisible as well, and also had to nourish his specific dignity and uncanny quality by means of that invisibility."

71. Mowinckel, op. cit., p. 103.

72. Mowinckel, op. cit., p. 60.

73. Mowinckel, Psalmenstudien II (1922), p. 224.

74. Mowinckel, Le Dialogue, p. 100.

75. Eissfeldt, Hexateuch-Synopse (1922), p. 275*.

76. Cf. Koehler, Theologie des Alien Testaments, p. 238: "The fact that in the biblical decalogue any such commandment as 'Thou shalt not lie' is absent awakens all kinds of thoughts."

77. Gunkel, "Die israelitische Literatur," Die Kultur der Gegenwart, 1/7 (1906), p. 73.

78. Gressmann, Mose, p. 477.

79. Cf. Buber-Rosenzweig, Die Schrift und ihre Verdeutschung, pp, 176ff; Staples, "The Third Commandment," Journal of Biblical Literature, Vol. LVIII (1939), pp. 325ff.

80. Cf. Procksch, Der Staatsgedanke in der Prophetic (1933), p. 5.

81. J. M. Powis Smith, The Origin and History of Hebrew Law (1931), pp. 8f.

82. Hempel, Das Ethos des Alien Testaments (1938), p. 183.

83. Volz, Mose, and ed., p. 25.

84. Volz, Mose, 1st ed. (1907), pp. 93f.

85. Caspari, Die Gottesgemeinde von Sinai, p. 159.

86. Sellin, Geschichte des israelitisch-juedischen Volkes, Vol. I, p. 72.

87. Volz, Mose, 2nd ed., p. 78.

88. L. Koehler, "Der Dekalog," Theologische Rundschau, Vol. I (1929), p. 184.

89. Rudolph, Der "Elohist," p. 47.

90. Cf. Ganszyniec, Der Ursprung der Zehngebotetafeln (1920), p. 18. (This little study contains interesting material, from which, however, unwarrantable conclusions are drawn.)

91. Cf. Eerdmans, Alttestamentliche Studien III, pp. 69f.

92. Morgenstern, The Book of the Covenant I (1928), p. 34, argues against the originality of the tradition of the Tables that the description "tables of witness" is late, and is only found in the Priestly Code. But Exodus 32:15, in general, is not attributed to P.

93. Morgenstern, loc. at., adduces the absence of any such tradition as his chief argument against the witness character of the tables. But it seems reasonable to assume that Solomon, with his cult policy which aimed at immobilizing the ark and its contents in order to withdraw political coloration from the melek character of YHVH, would have no objection to ordering the removal of all traces of such a tradition (cf. Klamroth, Lade und Tempel (1933), p. 60; Buber, The Prophetic Faith, pp. 78f.).

94. Hans Schmidt, Mose und der Dekalog (Gunkel-Festschrift), p. 90.

95. L. Koehler, Der Dekalog, p. 179.

96. Wellhausen (Die Composition des Hexateuchs, p. 89), followed by many others, has regarded the word as "most strikingly" Deuteronomic, but this can have a meaning only if the end of the Song of Deborah is mutilated which has been done by some for no other reason than the use of this word. The turns of phrase which it is customary to regard as Deuteronomic, and hence as late, derive naturally from the history sermon (cf. Koehler, Der Dekalog, p. 169), which collected its basic phrases from verbal and written tradition, while admittedly depriving them of their original weight by incorporating them into the rhetorical sequence. The fact that Exodus 34:7 does not mention the haters and the lovers does not prove anything, since here almost half of the sentence, including the entire positive section, has been omitted. This appears to be an extract from the decalogue section, introduced for elucidatory purposes.

97. A. Klostermann, Der Pentateuch II (1907), p. 515.

98. Jepsen, Untersuchungen zum Bundesbuch (1927), p. 25; cf. S. A. Cook, The Laws of Moses and the Code of Hammurabi (1903), p. 155.

99. Cf. Ring, Israels Rechtsleben im Lichte der neuentdeckten assyrischen und hethitischen Gesetzesurkunden (1926), p. 148.

100. Schmoekel, Das angewandte Recht im Alien Testament, p. 65.

101. Cf. inter alia Baudissin, Die Geschichte des alttestamentlichen Priestertums, p. 35.

102. Thus Gressmann, Mose, pp. 26 ff.

103. Cf. Gray, Sacrifice in the Old Testament, pp. 249f.

104. The article "Levi" by Hoelscher, in Pauly-Wissowa's Real-Enzyklopaedie des klassischen Altertums, Vol. XII, pp. 2155ff, is most comprehensively based, but is nevertheless an unsuccessful attempt to view the Levites as the ancient priestly order of Kadesh, by whom Moses was supported. Cf. Gray, Sacrifice in the Old Testament, pp. 23gff., on the complexity of the problem. Albright's assumption, in Archaeology and the Religion of Israel (1942), p. 109, that the Levites were "a class or tribe" which as such exercised sacral functions (even in pre-Mosaic times), and which increased both naturally as well as through children who were dedicated to the service of YHVH, is satisfactory in certain respects, but still does not offer any adequate solution of the problem. And that Moses as well as Aaron were Levites "by virtue of their priestly function" presupposes a professional priesthood on the part of Moses, which must be questioned.

105. Cf Rost, Die Vorstufen von Kirche und Synagoge im Alien Testa ment, pp. 7ff., 32ff; on Numbers 16ff, pp. 10, 14, 90. The double sense of edah in our section is not given consideration here.

106. Cf. Buber and Rosenzweig, Die Schrift und ihre Verdeutschung, pp. 217ff.

107. The latest attempt of which I am aware to prove that Moses was a priest, in Gray's Sacrifice in the Old Testament, pp. 198ff., is one that I likewise cannot regard as successful.

108. This is inter alia the thesis of J. Kaufmann, History of the Religion of Israel, II/1, pp. 342ff.

109. Thus, e.g., Bacon, The Triple Tradition of the Exodus, p. 190: "Certain prominent individuals aspire to the priesthood and raise rebellion against Moses."

110. To complete what follows cf. Buber, Koenigtum Gottes, pp. 140ff.

111. Lorenz von Stein, System der Staatswissenschaft (Stuttgart, 1856), Vol. II, p. 384.

112. Franz Rosenzweig, in his Stern der Erloesung, has the great merit of having shown this to our era in a new light.

OF JEWISH DESTINY

1. Franz Rosenzweig, "Judentum und Christentum," appendix to Briefe, Berlin 1935.

2. Baader assumes that the German Glaube (faith) is derived from geloben (to pledge).

Martin Buber

Martin Buber was born in Vienna in 1878 and was educated at the Universities of Vienna, Berlin, Leipzig, and Zurich. Co-founder of the Judischer Verlag in Germany, he also edited Der Jude from 1916 to 1924. With Franz Rosenzweig, he published a German translation of a number of books of the Hebrew Bible in a version considered by many to be comparable to that of Martin Luther. For a time before leaving Germany, he taught at the University of Frankfurt. In 1938 he joined the faculty of the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, retiring from his post after fifteen years to continue his translation of the Bible. His numerous published works cover wide aspects o contemporary philosophy and religious thought, and include studies in Hasidic literature, which have served to revive interest in this Jewish religious movement. In 1954 he received the Goethe Prize in Hamburg.
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