Critical Path, by R. Buckminster Fuller

Peaceful relations among humans on earth, and peaceful relations between humans and the other life forms on the planet, are imperative for the survival of planet earth as a habitat for life as we know it. Making the achievement of peace an affirmative goal for all humanity is noble and essential.

Re: Critical Path, by R. Buckminster Fuller

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CHAPTER 10: Critical Path: Part Four

HAVING COMMITTED OURSELVES to solving humanity's problems with artifacts, we can use the Geoscope and World Gaming strategies as a "test-bed," and can now sort out which comes first of various artifacts -- all of which are going to be needed to get Spaceship Earth operating omnicooperatively on behalf of all.

Not only may we begin to make the whole world work for all humanity but incidentally to actualize the human functioning in Universe as local information-gatherers and local problem-solvers in support of the eternal regeneration of Universe itself.

No single move can bring us more swiftly in the direction of complete overall desovereignization, unblocking the free flow of technologies and resources, than that of instituting the world-around integrated electrical-energy network fully described in the Introduction to this book and the "World Game" chapter.

Next in artifact design priority to the integrated world electrical energy network comes the physical-environment-controlling equipment of world-around humanity's momentarily geographically fixed activities -- fixed in contradistinction to humanity's swiftly mobile environment-controlling artifacts such as automobiles, buses, trains, airplanes, and satellites. So seemingly stationary are city skyscrapers that few think about the fact that all their parts have been transported from far away and that many of those parts and materials have been intertransported many times in the course of their production and assembling. As of 1980 the average U.S.A. family moved out of town to a new location every three years. They do so primarily in readjusting human production functions to relocated factories and offices and to new airport and shopping centers' living-local convenience. When I speak of mobile dwellings, I do not refer to camping trailers or tents, I speak of those dwellings which will stay geographically fixed for many months or years but which are readily and economically transportable and reinstallable over wide ranges of distance.

As I have mentioned before and now repeat in a more comprehensive manner, in 1800 the average human being was walking an annually cumulative distance of 1100 miles and riding ten additional annual miles. By 1900 the average human being was yet walking a total of yearly distance of 1100 miles but the average U.S.A. citizen's annual vehicle-ridden miles had increased to 400. All humanity is as yet in 1980 walking an annual average of 1100 miles but in the U.S.A., Europe, and parts of the Near East, Asia, Africa, and Australia, all men, women, and youngsters free to travel, are averaging over 20,000 annual miles of vehicular travel.

Class-one evolution has all humanity progressively cross-breeding to produce an integrated world human race. If we pass our present cosmic examination to continue aboard planet Earth in Universe, the to-and-froing of humanity will increase rapidly. The motion patterns of humanity, as also mentioned earlier, are pulsating between ever more widely convergent and divergent to-and-froing. Two main types of environment controls are required: a whole city under one dome for convergent phases of human living and single-family or small group air-deliverable domes for remote deployment for skiers, geologists, artists, and others.

* * *

Since 1927 I have been deeply involved with the issue of making high-performance shelter available to all humanity. By high performance I mean such environment-controlling shells -- and their survival equipment -- as can be produced only by the most advanced aircraft and space technology and the latter's level of technical problem-solving. In 1927 I anticipated a fifty-year- long gestation period for a new building industry. Since 1977 was the fifty-year target date, I began the prototyping of my Fly's Eye dome, which embodied design attention to all that I had learned not only throughout that fifty-year development period but in all my thirty-two earlier years. They, will not be sold. Like telephones, they will be rentable.

The Fly's Eye uses a very few types of nestable, mass-produced fiberglass, sheet aluminum of thin gauge, or polyester-coated sheet steel components that, when assembled, produce a 5/8 sphere of the "Hex-Pent" geodesic configuration. As with the ports and pores of all organic systems, the size and shape of these openings sort, sieve and classify the in-bound and outbound physical-component traffic of metabolic regeneration which the Fly's Eye domes embody.

The Fly's Eye domes' "pores" are all seven-foot-diameter circular openings. These circular openings serve alternately as doors, vents, solar-energy-cell mounts, etc. The circular openings constitute three-fourths of the surface area of the domes, while the manufactured shell-structure components constitute only one-fourth of the structures' surface. Since the circles have rigid rims, the closure of the circles can be accomplished by two, spread-apart drumheads of tensed, thin film or fabric materials -- ergo, at low relative cost.

The structural shell components constitute a comprehensive leakproof, watershedding system that, with the circular openings covered, leads all rain and melting snow into the shell's watercourse cisterning system. The cylindrically rimmed circular openings will be tensilely covered with opaque, translucent, or transparent glass, plastic film, metal glazing or screening, or some combination thereof. They will serve as energy harvesters in the operation of the dwelling by parabolically collecting incoming energy in sunlight foci, liquid-heating cells and by circular-opening-mounted, wind-drag-driven, air turbines.


FIGURE 41. 26-foot-diameter Fly's Eye dome prototype


FIGURE 41. Fly's Eye dome transported by helicopter

Fly's Eye domes are of two sizes. The smaller twenty-six-foot-diameter one is constructed of only one type of mass-produced, strong, lightweight, hyperbolic-saddle-form component; the larger fifty-foot-diameter one is comprised of only two types of mass-produced structural shell and watershed- constituting components, which are also of the hyperbolic-saddle type.

Both twenty-six- and fifty-foot-diameter domes can consist of two concentric identical domes with a space of six inches between and no metallic interconnectors -- this spacing produces highly effective insulation as well as an excellent hot- and cold-air ducting system. The concentric domes' interconnection is accomplished with a seven-foot-diameter outside circle and six-inch-deep conic tubes made fast at the seven-foot outside end of the circular openings of the spheres.

The smaller Fly's Eye provides the optimally workable fundamentals for comfortable, efficient living in a two-story shelter. It is small compared to a conventional house, but huge next to a van, camper, or almost any of the thousands of yachts enthusiastically occupied while tied up at the marina slips. Optimum use of space will be important.

The larger Fly's Eye is fifty feet in diameter, capable of enclosing three or more stories (each of 2000-square-foot floor area), a garden, trees, and a pool. While also equipped with all the living essentials at different levels, its space utilization will be quite different from the smaller Fly's Eye--the fifty-footer accommodates what we call the Garden of Eden living-living in a garden.


FIGURE 42. Fly's Eye dome with trussed flooring


FIGURE 43. 50-foot-diameter Fly's Eye dome prototype

The Fly's Eye domes are designed as components of a "livingry" service. The basic hardware components will produce a beautiful, fully equipped, air-deliverable house that weighs and costs about as much as a good automobile. Not only will it be highly efficient in its use of energy and materials, it also will be capable of harvesting incoming light and wind energies. The software part of the product will include a service industry to air- or highway- transport, install, lease, maintain, remove, and relocate the domes or their separate hardware components. And as mentioned, they will not be sold.

Both the twenty-six- and fifty-foot Fly's Eye domes are semiautonomous -- i.e., have no sewer, water-pipe, or electric-power-supply connections. The personal hygiene, clothes-and-utensil-washing functions are accomplished with the high-pressure, compressed air and atomized water fog gun which requires only a pint of water per hour.

The human excrement is sittingly deposited in the dry-packaging toilet. The human sits on fresh, plastic-film-covered, fore-and-aft seat halves. The excrement falls into the top-open plastic tube as it is formed by the two converging edges of the two plastic sheets, which are then electrosealed together from the originally separate two plastic film rolls, whose filmstrips first covered the two seat-sides. The hermetically sealed-off tubular section containing the excrement is then mechanically detached and conveyed away as litter to be neatly packed in a corrugated carton clearly marked for pickup and dispatch to the methane-gas-producing plant and the dry-powder fertilizer manufacturer or to be processed into methane gas and fertilizer powder by accessory equipment of the dome home itself.

• • •

Having undertaken the solution by artifacts of the world's great housing crisis, I came to regard the history of cities. Cities developed entirely before the thought of electricity or automobiles or before any of the millions of inventions registered in the United States Patent Office. For eminently mobile man, cities have become obsolete in terms of yesterday's functions -- warehousing both new and formerly manufactured goods and housing immigrant factory workers. Rebuilding them to accommodate the new needs of world man requires demolition of the old buildings and their replacement of the new and now obsolete real estate, streets, water and sewer lines, and yesterday's no longer logical overall planning geometries. I sought to take on this challenge and developed plans for an entirely feasible and practical new way for humans to live together economically. Old Man River's City is one such design.

Old Man River's City, undertaken for East St. Louis, Illinois, takes its name from the song first sung by Paul Robeson fifty years ago, which dramatized the life of Afro-American blacks who lived along the south-of-St. Louis banks of the Mississippi River in the days of heavy north-south river traffic in cotton. Cessation of the traffic occurred when the east-west railway network outperformed the north-south Mississippi, Mexican Gulf, and Atlantic water routes, which left many of its riverbank communities, such as East St. Louis, marooned in economic dead spots. East St. Louis is an American city overwhelmed by poverty. Its population of 70,000 is 70 percent black.

I originally came to East St. Louis to discuss the design and possible realization of the Old Man River's City, having been asked to do so by East St. Louis community leaders themselves, being first approached by my friend Katherine Dunham, the famous black dancer. At the community leaders' request I presented a design that would help solve their problem. It is moon-crater-shaped: the crater's truncated cone top opening is a half-mile in diameter, rim-to-rim, while the truncated mountain itself is a mile in diameter at its base ring. The city has a one-mile-diameter geodesic, quarter- sphere, transparent umbrella mounted high above it to permit full, all-around viewing below the umbrella's bottom perimeter. The top of the dome roof is 1000 feet high. The bottom rim of the umbrella dome is 500 feet above the surrounding terrain, while the crater-top esplanade, looks 250 feet radially inward from the umbrella's bottom, is at the same 500-foot height. From the esplanade the truncated mountain cone slopes downwardly, inward and outward, to ground level 500 feet below.

The moon crater's inward and outward, exterior-surface slopes each consist of fifty terraces -- the terrace floors are tiered vertically ten feet above or below one another. All the inwardly, downwardly sloping sides of the moon crater's terraced cone are used for communal life; its outward-sloping, tree-planted terraces are entirely for private life dwelling.

The private-home terraces on the outward circular bank are ·subdivided by trees and bushes to isolate them one from the other. This garden-divided exterior terracing hides the individual private-home terraces from one another while permitting each an unobstructed view outward to the faraway landscape. Thus landscape-partitioned from one another, the individual homes beneath the umbrella dome do not need their own separate weather roofs. The experience will be that of living outdoors in the garden, without any chance of rain and out of sight and sound of other humans, yet being subconsciously aware that your own advantage is not at the expense of others' zonal advantage.

The floors of the individual homes on the outward terraced slopes penetrate inwardly of the "mountainside" to provide an 85-percent-enclosed family apartment set back into the "mountain's" surface. Each family's apartment floor area totals 2500 feet, being 100 feet inwardly extended and twenty-five feet, one inch, wide at its outside terrace front line and twenty-five feet at its innermost chord line. Each apartment occupies only one sixhundredth of the circle's 360 degrees of arc. In addition there will be 1300 square feet of public space for each of the 25,000 families that Old Man River's City will accommodate on the fifty interior, communal, terraced slopes of the crater city.

The geodesic-sky parasol-umbrella protects the whole of Old Man River's City from rain or snow. The sky dome is transparent. Its aluminum-and-stainless- steel-trussed structure will be covered in two alternate ways: (1) glazed with wire-reinforced glass -- ergo, fireproof; (2) with a pneumatically filled, glass-cloth-pillowed umbrella. The dome will admit all biological, life-supporting Sun radiation. The great umbrella is a watershed whose runoff is collected in a dome-level reservoir for a high-pressure fire sprinkler and service purification system, after which the reservoir's overflow is piped downwardly to a dome-surrounding "moat" reservoir.

The interiormost, circular diameter ground level of Old Man River's City is twice the size of the playing-ground area of any of the world's large athletic stadia. This means that it has about four times the interior horizontal area of a regulation football stadium's oval ground area.

The terraced (angle of repose) slopes of Old Man River's City, both outside and inside, are very gradual slopes and are thus unlike the steeply tiered athletic stadium's seating slopes. The angular difference is like that of a reclining chair versus an upright chair.

Many of the lower tiers of Old Man River's City's interior terraces have enough horizontal surface to accommodate groups of tennis courts, whole school and playground areas, supermarkets, outdoor theaters, etc. The terraces are of graduated widths. With the narrowest at the top, they become progressively wider at each lower level.

Inside -- that is, below the moon crater's three-and-a-half-mile-circumferenced, surface-terraced mountain mass -- are all the communal services not requiring daylight: for instance, all the multilevel circumferential trolleyways, interlevel ramps, roadways, and parking lots, with numerous radial crosswalks and local elevators. There are radial crosswalk bridges at every four terrace levels. These provide bridges -- never more than two decks up or down-for walking homeward, outwardly from the interior community bowl, to one's individual, terraced, tree-hidden dwelling area. In addition to the foregoing interior structuring and facilities, the factory, office and parking space within the crater mountain is colossal -- about ten million square feet. The city is as complete a living, working, studying, and playing complex as is a great ocean passenger ship -- but without the space limitations imposed by the ship's streamlined forming to accommodate swift passage through the seas.

Because its life-style will be so vastly improved over present-day living, Old Man River's City has been designed to accommodate 25,000 families -- i.e., 125,000 humans -- though East St. Louis has now only 70,000 humans grouped in 14,000 families.

There are many exciting consequences of Old Man River's City community life being introverted and its private life extroverted.

Within the interior community bowl everyone can see what all the rest of the community is doing, as do the 125,000-member audiences of our present- day great "bowl" games see all the other humans present, though indistinctly at the farthest distances. The difference in Old Man River's City experience will be that each of its 125,000 individuals will have an average of 260 square feet of communal-terrace roaming space versus the six square feet of seating space of the football stadium fan -- i.e., the OMR citizen will average forty-three times as much free space as does the football fan.


FIGURE 44. Total Undercover Area 1,767,146 M


FIGURE 45. Model of Old Man River's City (elevation)


FIGURE 45a. Model of Old Man River's City (aerial view)


FIGURE 46. Plan view of Old Man River's City, East St. Louis, Illinois

From the individual, external home terrace on the crater's outer slopes one can see no humans other than those within one's own family's home-terrace domain. People can look outwardly, however, from Old Man River's City as far as the eye can see at the interesting Mississippi River scenery outside the moon crater's umbrella limits. The Old Man River City's home views are analogous to those of individuals living in dwellings on mountainsides, such as those of residents on the hills of Hong Kong Island or those above Berkeley, California. Such hillside dwellers overlook vast, mysteriously inspiring scenic areas, ever-changing with the nights, days, and weather.

The total roof surface area of the one-mile-diameter, quarter-sphere dome is only 2 percent that of the total roof and exterior skin surface area of all the buildings standing on an equal ground area in any large conventional city. The amount of external shell surface through which each interior molecule of atmosphere can gain or lose heat is thus reduced by 98 percent. Another energy-conservation factor is operative, for every time we double the sphere's diameter, we increase its surface by four and its volume by eight. Therefore, the energy efficiency doubles each time we double the dome size. This means that the structural efficiency, useful volume, and energy conservation are all at optimum in the Old Man River's City project. Throughout the year Old Man River's City will have a naturally mild climate. With a large, aerodynamically articulated, wind-and-weather-controlled ventilator system atop and round the dome, together with the 500-foot-high vertical opening that runs entirely around the city below the umbrella, the atmospheric controllability will guarantee fresh air as well as energy conservation. The umbrella will jut out above and beyond all the outer-slope residential terrace areas as does a grandstand roof, so that neither rain nor snow will drift horizontally inwardly, being blocked from doing so by the mass inertia of the vast quantity of atmosphere embraced by the umbrella as well as by the vertical mass of the crater's cone within the dome.

Optimum efficiency also characterizes the way in which Old Man River's City is to be produced. The three-and-a-half-mile circumferential moon crater and its terracing will be developed entirely with modern, high-speed, highway-building equipment and earth-moving techniques as well as with suspension-bridge-building and air-space technologies. Construction will begin with installation of a set of concentrically interswitching railway tracks, with tangential shunting bypass tracks, on which great cranes and other machinery will travel. The mammoth, 500-feet-high and 2000-feet-wide-based, A-frame-shaped, circumferential segments of the crater become highly repetitive and economically producible. There will be 100 columns rising from the A-frame tops at the crater's top-rim esplanade. These 100 columns will be 500 feet high and will be spaced forty meters apart, mounted above the A-frames. The tops of the 100 columns will be 1000 feet high and will be capped by a circumferential ring.

The whole terraced crater structure, inside and out, will be of thin-wall reinforced concrete. This terraced shell will be cast-mounted upon, and will thus encase, an inverted, kitchen-sieve-like, domical basket, consisting of an omnitriangulated, quarter-sphere geodesic, basket-bowl, suspension web of fine-diameter, high-tensile steel rods and wires. The spider-fine steel web basket will be suspended from the A-frame tops at the base of the 100 columns. The whole structure is, in effect, a circular, triangularly self-stabilizing, "suspension bridge"-principled, terraced, ferroconcrete bowl with the human occupants and their goods constituting only a small fraction of the stress loads of equimagnitude highway traffic bridges.

The 1500-meter- (one-mile) diameter dome itself will be a horizontal wire wheel suspension consisting of an octahedral-tensegrity-trussed, one-quarter sphere geodesic dome suspended horizontally from the 100 circumferential columns. This method means mounting the dome one-quarter of a mile inwardly from the one-mile-diameter parasol dome's outer rim. This results in an inner clear span of only one-half mile, a distance comparable to that of the Golden Gate Bridge's central clear span between its two masts.

I said to the East St. Louisans at the outset that our first resolve must be not to compromise our design solution in order to qualify for any private foundation or government subsidy funds. Three-quarters of the United States national debt of almost $1 trillion and much of the private debt, which altogether transfers $25 billion a year "interest" from our nation's pocketbooks to the banks and insurance companies, has been amassed through government building subsidies that were designed strictly as "money-makers" for bankers, real estate operators, and handcraft building-industry interests. The funds were not amassed in the interest of the individuals and the community. I advised the East St. Louisans that we must develop our design and its production and assembly logistics strictly in terms of the individual and the community's best interests. I said that if we solve the human problem and do so in the most economical and satisfactory manner, independent of building codes, zoning restrictions, etc., while employing airspace technology, effectiveness, and safety, we will do that which no subsidized housing thus far has done. I pointed out that, with increasing socioeconomic emergencies, the economic support will ultimately materialize simply because we have what world-around humanity is looking for and needs. The money-making solutions of housing are exactly what humanity is not looking for but has had to accept, lacking any alternatives.

The East St. Louis schoolchildren are soon to be provided with a fifty-foot- diameter miniature OMR moon-crater city with which (and on which) to play, simulating actual living conditions. The children will furnish its terraces with miniaturized, scale-model equipment, landscape material, athletic facilities, interior transportation equipment, factories, and similar materials they will design and make. As the political leader of East St. Louis, who was formerly principal of its largest high school, says, "By the time Old Man River's City gets completed, our present high school students will be its grown occupants, and they might just as well start right now using their imaginations in play living in and operating it." Fabricating and assembling the model itself will be in strict conformity with the full-scale operation.

At the outset meeting of our OMR's City's development, I told the East St. Louisans that I would develop the design and models at my own expense and do so without fee. I said that what I would design must be so "right" that the entire community would fall in love with it ... or it would be dropped. I said that if they did fall in love with it, I would carryon with all the development expense and that they must not allow the project to become a political football. It was fortunate that the East St. Louis community did fall spontaneously in love with the design. This held the project together through many critical moments of preliminary challenges of its validity and practicability. There were many critical meetings wherein skeptics, some of them powerful political activists, declared that this design, with its domed-over interior community and exterior private-dwelling terraces, might be part of its social enemy's conspiracy to entrap them. Fortunately the design gradually explained itself, until all the leaders of the community's diverse factions -- political, ethnic, and economic, as well as the city's engineer -- all agreed on its desirability.

I have been greatly aided in the Old Man River's City development by a group of volunteer architectural students from Washington University in St. Louis and, above all, by Professor James Fitzgibbon, head of Washington University's architectural school. As I am absent a great deal due to my world traveling, Jim, who is one of my best, lifelong friends, has been locally in command of the development. Most powerful support of the East St. Louisans has been provided by Wyvetter Younge, Carl Utchmann, and Bob Ahart.

Both the East St. Louis and St. Louis newspapers and radio and television stations have given good and favorable reception to the project. Now world-around interest in the Old Man River project is beginning to be manifest. As interest grows, more and more articles are being published about it, despite its having no public relations or advertising promotion. Quite to the contrary, I have asked the community to let the project gestate at a natural rate. Answer questions faithfully when they are asked, but otherwise be silently at work.

As the first favorable publicity occurred, it was inevitable that Illinois's political representatives would quickly offer the East St. Louisans their aid in securing government funds, which funds, however, would involve so many restrictions and compromises as to utterly emasculate the OMR City's design rationale. Thus it was a second victory for the project when I was able to dissuade the community from being tempted by the "millions" of dollars tendered them.

I have never engaged in a development that I have felt to have such promise for all humanity, while being, at the same time, so certain of realization, because its time is imminently at hand.

* * *

In 1951, at North Carolina State University at Raleigh, I designed an automated cotton mill.

Situated upon the banks of many New England rivers and employing the latter's waterpower, all the great cotton mills of the nineteenth-century U.S.A. were built four stories high. They used giant pulley wheels mounted on the hubs of their great main waterwheels to drive leather belts which led slantingly upward into the mills' top floors and thence to the ceiling-hung, pulley-driven shafting mounted under the ceilings of each of the mills' four floors. There were many pairs of pulleys, their axes hung in parallel. Each driving wheel had its own idler wheel. When the belts were shifted over from the idler to the driving wheel, they drove the wheels of their respective machines of the various types of cotton mill machinery, which was positioned just below the ceiling-hung shafts. To operate those early-in-the-nineteenth- century mills the owners imported whole town-size armies of immigrants, who settled into the companies' houses. Having no other sources available, the millworkers bought all their supplies from the company stores. Their wages were minimal. After one-half a century the organized- labor movement forced wage increases for them.

In the early twentieth century the cotton-manufacturing business owners abandoned their New England mills and moved their machinery into the Southern states, where homes need not be heated and where they could reach a low-cost labor market. Instead of the belting, overhead shafting, and pulleys, they used the World-War-I-developed electric motor drives for each separate machine. This freedom from a shafting-and-waterpower-driven system economizedly (which is not always most economically) called for single-story factories with large roof areas. The latter's black tar and gravel roofs impounded vast quantities of Sun heat, which in turn produced many internal environment-control problems.

Before that southward cotton-milling migration my earliest job before World War I had been as an apprentice cotton millwright (cotton machine fitter). The new mill we were equipping with machinery was located in Sherbrooke, Quebec. Most of the machinery was manufactured in Lancashire, England, some in France. Working first as a helper to the Lancashire master machine fitters, I learned how to put together by myself every one of the various kinds of cotton mill machines. These began with the cotton bail "openers" at railroad track level and the blowing of the cotton to the top (fourth) floor of the mill, after which the cotton went through the pickers, combers' cards, and slubbers, all of which gradually cleaned and formed the cotton into a continuous single strand of cotton, which strands then ran through the twisters, into thread-spinning machines, and thereafter into cotton cloth weaving machines.

Eventually, together with other fitters, I taught the cotton mill workers how to operate their machines. It was a powerful and valuable experience. It was synergetic -- behavior of a whole system unpredicted by the behavior of anyone of its parts only separately considered.

Fifty years later, with much other experience including the development of large geodesic domes, I found I could build a large spherical environment control for much less expense in materials and labor than was required to produce the traditional one-story-high Southern cotton mill. Inside the great column-free space of the clear-span geodesic sphere, an octet-truss mast structure would support many levels of surrounding, outwardly cantilevered, octet-truss platforms.

In the great steamships of yesterday the engine room area occupied a very large part of the ship's interior space. This was occupied by large equipment, such as three-decks-high engines and boilers. In place of decks these engine rooms had open-grating platforms, walkways, and stairways, all open for seeing through and for free circulation of the air.

In 1952, at the university in Raleigh, North Carolina, I was asked to lead a full· term design problem in their department of architecture. I proposed the designing and detailed scale-modeling of a large spherical cotton mill within which -- and not touching the sphere -- would be open-frame grating platforms 'supported by octahedron-tetrahedron trusses cantilevered outwardly around the central mast at many levels, with the octet-trussed platforms occurring only where the machinery was to be situated. In the conventional Southern one-story cotton factory all the machines are on one single floor, requiring the horizontal transfer of the semiprocessed cotton products of one machine to the next machine in the manufacturing sequence. In mill terms this carry-across-of-product is called "doffing." In my vertical mill proposal all "doffing" was eliminated. The first processing machinery would be situated on a cantilevered open truss at the highest point around the mast, inside the dome, and the products would start a continuous downward flow from one machine to another accomplished exclusively by gravity. No doffing would be required.

I designed this factory in conjunction' with North Carolina State University's top cotton mill professors as well as with the operating superintendents and other industry experts from neighboring mills. All the cotton mill machinery companies' sales engineers participated in the project, which was being run for the senior class in architecture of North Carolina State University. (North Carolina State University happens to be the leading university in the cotton manufacturing area of the South, and has more engineers in that trade than can be found anywhere else.) We designed this factory to be completely automated. Inadvertently it became extraordinarily beautiful. (See Figs. 47, 47a and 47b.)


FIGURE 47. Model of automated cotton mill, Raleigh, North Carolina


FIGURE 47a. Model of automated cotton mill, Raleigh, North Carolina (interior detail)


FIGURE 47b. Cross-section of Raleigh cotton mill

When the cotton mill owners moved their mills from New England into the Southland, they did not move their own homes. They remained deliberately remote from any labor hassling. When I developed this new mill, which all the professionals considered to be a great improvement, the ownership of the cotton mills was so far away from where the mills are located that the owners heard nothing of our new cotton mill development. The people who managed the mills for the remote owners were economists and statisticians, seeking only to squeeze every cent out of costs. They had no engineering-design analytical capability. They sought only to reduce labor costs. Nobody was then considering new cotton-manufacturing technology. It was assumed that all possibilities of improving the manufacturing processes had been exhausted long ago. As a consequence the cotton mill owners paid no attention whatsoever to the mill I designed; the North Carolina State cotton-manufacturing engineering scientists who participated in the project agreed that my spherical, gravity-serviced mill was optimally efficient and highly desirable. The design exists. We probably will see it adopted one of these days. That is the way with critical-path items. They come into use only when class-one evolution needs them.

* * *

In the following year, 1952, at North Carolina State University I introduced the idea of what I called the mechanical Growth House. At that time I knew how to construct -- and had already constructed -- many geodesic domes. Some were enormous, spherical environment controls. As mentioned before, ever-larger spheres have ever-less surface area per unit of enclosed volume. Doubling a dome's diameter increases its surface fourfold while increasing its volume eightfold. Large domes can be completely transparent, allowing ultraviolet radiation to enter wherever necessary to support the growth of vegetation and the latter's impoundment of Sun energy through photosynthesis. Transparent domes can also be opaquely shuttered or mirrored where desired. It is highly feasible to produce two concentric, translucent spheres, the outer one being, for instance, 100 meters in diameter, and the inner one being four meters less in diameter than the outer one and having no metal conductors running between their two plastic and fiberglass intertrussed surfaces and with top and bottom, remotely controlled openings in both domes.

The southeastern United States has more of what we think of as individual farmers than anywhere else in this country. North Carolina State University, Cornell, and Iowa State University, are the leading agricultural-engineering- sciences schools in America. It was at North Carolina State that, in conjunction with the, Growth House, I conducted comparative studies into (1) the economics of individually operated versus business-corporation- operated farms and (2) the critical-limit size and other conditions of individually owned and personally operated farms versus those same questions for corporation-operated farms. I also made comparative studies of farms' operated by the very rich as tax write-offs versus the few little subsistence farms, such as those owned by the small tobacco farmers in North Carolina, which are worked entirely by the resident owner-farmers. These latter are very personal types of operation, in which the farmers carefully watch their crops, even to each tobacco leaf, to get the best out of their investment in the land. These little tobacco farms and certain subsistence farms were quite a different type of eco-technical game than that of the huge conglomerate-owned multithousands-of-acres farm operations. The small, individual farmers soon learned all the ways in which the government could help them run their farms.

For instance, the U.S. government at the time of the New Deal helped the small farmers by underwriting the cost of constructing little local dams on their land, which produced small ponds and lakes that the government stocked with fish. These new energy sources greatly increased the farmers' crop yields and earnings.

From that time on the farms began to hold the water that fell on them. People like myself who were light-plane flyers began to notice as we flew westward cross-country that, late in the afternoon with the Sun in the west, its brilliance began to reflect from the myriads of these little newly dammed farm ponds. Soon the glare of these farm ponds became almost blinding to the airplane pilot; before that period the farmland had been a dark carpet at dusk.

Overnight the New Deal had captured all that water for all those farms and had stocked them with highly reproductive fish.

I found that North Carolina State University at Raleigh was a great place to discuss the idea of a Growth House because the plant physiologists there were some of the best agricultural scientists I could find in America.

These scientists agreed with me about the desirability of producing a Growth House -- an enormous clear-span sphere with no interior bearing walls or columns. It would have a great central mast around which, one above the other, would, be cantilevered octahedron-tetrahedron arms, like branches of a tree extended at successive levels. The horizontally rotatable arms would carry the growing plants, with their roots hung in trays. The Growth House would be a multitiered-tray agriculture. Tray agriculture had already been studied a great deal in North Carolina and had been successfully developed. (We had some very satisfactory tray-growing experiments.) We then went on to find that inside the great sphere we could atomize the water, atomize all the chemical fertilization, and immerse the plants in a Sun-and-nutriment-filled atmosphere that would produce the greatest growth in a given time. The growth-supporting, rotatable arms could be separately rotated for cultivation. All the resultant food grown would gradually work downwardly by gravity, finally to be packaged or canned automatically and delivered in, cases out through the bottom. This Growth House is completely designed and ready to be produced. If it were to be used to produce the new "winged bean," the life-support worth of its product would be enormous.

Referring back to my designing of the Dymaxion House of 1927 -- that of producing an environment most favorable to a living organism's growth and to its dynamic process, and doing so in the most economically pleasing and safe manner -- we found that in designing our North Carolina Growth House we had used the same principles for inventorying its essential functions as those we had employed in designing the 1950-1956 North Carolina cotton mill and subsequent projects. Considering in some detail how such a most favorable environment can be arrived at, we see that, in the first place, we wished to have clear space wherever possible. Needing no interior bearing columns or walls, we would interrupt our enclosed space only when we had some service that we needed at that point. There would be no walls or partitions that arbitrarily stopped you from passing through. Space would be broken up only by devices that served you at preferred locations -- for instance, by a bathroom or a clothes-storage device.

* * *
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Re: Critical Path, by R. Buckminster Fuller

Postby admin » Tue Jul 28, 2015 6:52 am


I saw in 1927 that all storage may be divided into two classes -- things we rest on shelves, held in horizontal display by gravity, and things we hang vertically, with gravity always maintaining the economy of individual display. The horizontal storage we developed in the Dymaxion House is very different from the drawers of a conventional bedroom bureau. I developed what I called O-Volving shelves and storage walls. The storage walls had two parts: a hemicircular revolving coat closet and shoe rack structured with aluminum tubing (see Fig. 48). This hemicircular hanger tube hemirevolved around a center axle with an ample amount of room for vertically hanging all clothing, short or long; and with a hemicircular shoe rack, rigged horizontally below the bottom of hung dresses, coats, etc. The revolving coat closet had also the advantage of coming out into a room so you could pick things out very neatly instead of having to reach back blindly into a closet.


FIGURE 48. Storage walls

The horizontal O-Volving shelves operated like a paternoster, using vertically rotated circular chains (similar to a bicycle chain but more powerful) with geared wheels at top, vertically rotating the bicycle-chain-supported hanging shelves. The shelves were suspended in such a way that they would . never tilt, yet were strong enough to support great weights. On pressing a button, electric motors rotated the two top sprocket wheels, from both of which, mounted at both ends of the rig, the bicycle-type chain loops were suspended. Each shelf in turn would appear swiftly at a single horizontal opening in the storage wall, positioned at a height safe from the reach of children. With these shelves children would never have to be told, "Don't!"

I was designing an environment that in every way could accommodate children learning what they have to learn in order to conduct themselves physically and safely, without getting into trouble with the operations of the environment, so an adult would never have to "don't" the children or discourage. their curiosity-initiating -- i.e., experiments -- for fear that a child might get hurt.

* * *


FIGURE 49. O-Volving shelves

I then decided my O-Volving shelves would be very logical for use in a library. I designed a proposed library project for Princeton University which, although not built at that time, would be very practical if used in the future. It had a deep, fifty-meter-in-diameter, circular silo well going far below into the ground, with walls that were thoroughly waterproofed on their outside. Above this deep circular well I mounted two levels of Octe-truss floors, and above them a hemispherical geodesic dome sixty meters in diameter. I designed a radial arrangement of many consoles on the library's ground floor, each within a library book category. Instead of taking elevators to the right floor and walking to the shelves, the O-Volving shelves would bring the one-meter-Iong shelves of books to you -- ovolving vertically before your eyes, fast or slowly, until the right shelf arrives and you locate your book.


FIGURE 50. O-Volving console floor placement patterning, Princeton University Library project

All the vertical bookshelves' ovolving was actuated by an electric push button and high-speed motor. It could be run by you at a speed suitable for your adequate inspection of the contiguous titles. Any book-seeker who wants to can dial for the book by computer-entered title or description, and it will ovolve to the seeker's window at high speed. When the book arrives at the console, it is practical to have it pneumatically and mechanically opened behind the console window for the reader's intimate viewing. The reader cannot put hands on it, possibly to damage it. By push button the viewer at the console can also order a Xerox copy of any or all of the book's pages. Also by push buttons the viewer can order a copy of the book for purchase. At the exit door of the library the Xeroxed pages or the purchased book will be waiting for credit-card purchase.

In the Princeton University design there were two decks of consoles. One was for the book-untouching, general library visitor; the other deck, twenty feet above the ground level entrance, would be accessible only to research-accredited visitors, who could remove the books from the shelves and open them after they ovolved into place. The 0-Volving consoles on both decks would be triangularly arrayed all around the library's circular decks in a pattern of as-close-to-one-another-packing as possible without making the viewer feel crowded. The many perpendicularly book-loaded, O-Volving shelves would be parallelly suspended within the vast and deep underground air-conditioned silos. In terms of overall initial and operating costs compared to those of a multilevel, searchingly walk-around, fixed-steel-bookstacks library, my design solution costs are extremely favorable.

The 0-Volving shelf technology was perfected operationally to everyone's satisfaction at Beech Aircraft thirty-five years ago. The principle is now completely sound, only awaiting application.

• • •

In the early 1960s I was commissioned by a Japanese patron to design one of my tetrahedronal floating cities for Tokyo Bay.

Three-quarters of our planet Earth is covered with water, most of which may float organic cities.

Floating cities pay no rent to landlords. They are situated on the water, which they desalinate and recirculate in many useful and nonpolluting ways. They are ships with all an ocean ship's technical autonomy, but they are also ships that will always be anchored. They don't have to go anywhere. Their shape and its human-life accommodations are not compromised, as must be the shape of the living quarters of ships whose hull shapes are constructed so that they may slip, fishlike; at high speed through the water and high seas with maximum economy.

Floating cities are designed with the most buoyantly stable conformation of deep-sea bell-buoys. Their omni-surface-terraced, slope-faced, tetrahedronal structuring is employed to avoid the lethal threat of precipitous falls by humans from vertically sheer high-rising buildings.

The tetrahedron has the most surface with the least volume of all polyhedra. As such it provides the most possible "outside" living. Its sloping external surface is adequate for all its occupants to enjoy their own private, outside, tiered-terracing, garden homes. These are most economically serviced from the common, omni-nearest-possible center of volume of all polyhedra.

All the mechanical organics of a floating city are situated low in its hull for maximum stability. All the shopping centers and other communal service facilities are inside the structure; tennis courts and other athletic facilities are on the top deck. When suitable, the floating cities are equipped with "alongside" or interiorly lagooned marinas for the safe mooring of the sail- and powerboats of the floating-city occupants. When moored in protected waters, the floating cities may be connected to the land by bridgeways.

In 1966 my Japanese patron died, and the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development commissioned me to carry out full design and economic analysis of the floating tetrahedronal city for potential U.S.A. use. With my associates I completed the design and study as well as a scaled-down model. The studies showed that the fabricating and operating costs were such that a floating city could sustain a high standard of living, yet be economically occupiable at a rental so .low as to be just above that rated as the "poverty" level by HUD authorities. The secretary of HUD sent the drawings, engineering studies, and economic analysis to the Secretary of the Navy, who ordered the Navy's Bureau of Ships to analyze the project for its "water-worthiness," stability, and organic capability. The Bureau of Ships verified all our calculations and found the design to be practical and "water-worthy." The Secretary of the Navy then sent the project to the U.S. Navy's Bureau of Yards and Docks, where its fabrication and assembly procedures and cost were analyzed on a basis of the "floating city" being built in a shipyard as are aircraft carriers and other vessels. The cost analysis of the Navy Department came out within 10 percent of our cost -- which bore out its occupiability at rental just above the poverty class.

At this point the city of Baltimore became interested in acquiring the first such floating city for anchorage just offshore in Chesapeake Bay, adjacent to Baltimore's waterfront. At this time President Lyndon Johnson's Democratic party went out of power. President Johnson took the model with him and installed it in his LBJ Texas library. The city of Baltimore's politicians went out of favor with the Nixon administration, and the whole project languished. The city of Toronto, Ontario, Canada, and other cities of the U.S.A. are interested in the possibility of acquiring such floating cities. Chances of one being inaugurated are now improving.

In relation to such floating cities it is to be noted that they are completely designed under one authority, and when they become obsolete, they are scrapped and melted and the materials go into subsequent production of a greatly advanced model whose improvements are based on earlier experiences as well as the general interim advances of all technology.


FIGURE 51. Triton Floating City

There are three types of floating cities: There is one for protected harbor waters, one for semi protected waters, and one for unprotected deep-sea installations. The deep-sea type is supported by submarine pontoons positioned under the turbulence, with their centers of buoyancy 100 feet below the ocean's surface. Structural columns rise from the submarine pontoons outwardly through the water to support the floating city high above the crests of the greatest waves, which thus pass innocuously below the city's lowest flooring, as rivers flow under great bridges. The deep-sea, deeply pontooned floating cities will be as motionless in respect to our planet as are islanded or land-based cities.

There are also deep-sea spherical and cylindrical geodesic floating cities whose hulls are positioned entirely below the ocean surface turbulence. Only their vertical entrance towers penetrate outwardly through the disturbed surface waters. The occupants of submarine cities with their vertical towers penetrating outwardly above water can be serviced by helicopters landing on the tower-top platforms. Such pontooned or hulled submarine cities also can provide safe mid-ocean docking for atomic-powered cargo- and passenger- carrying submarine transports. With their submarine hulls locked together below the turbulence, a safe passageway can be opened between them.

Even in mild weather docking cannot be done on the open water surface of the ocean. Even the mildest "old-sea" or ground swells would roll any two ocean ships' great tonnages into disastrous hull-smashing clashes. Relative mass attraction is proportional to the product of the masses of the interattracted pair multiplied by the second power of the relative proximity changes. When any two oceangoing steel vessels come within "critical proximity," their interattraction increases as the second power of their relative distance. Their interattraction is fourfolded every time the distance between them is halved. This chain-attraction-increasing force pulls them sideways toward one another, ultimately to touch and chew up one another's skins -- that is, unless one is maneuvered in time backward or forward away from the other. Land harbors are essential for surface docking or inter-tie-up of ships of any size. There are relatively few big-ship harbors in the world. This fact, and the world-around scarcity of such good harbors as Athens' Piraeus, France's Cherbourg, Italy's Venice, the U.S.A.'s New York, or Tokyo's Yokohama. have greatly affected the geographical patterning of world history. The new ability to transfer cargoes at sea could completely alter world economic balances and could bring ships once more into economic competition with airplanes. The recent decades' development of seventy-knot submerged speed of the great atomic submarines, complemented by floating cities, could herald the beginning of a new era of subsurface oceanic traffic.

In due time small cruising yachts also wjll be able to sail or power around the world in safe, one-day runs from one protected floating city's harbor to the next.

• • • In 1958 I saw clearly the progression of technical events altering all old engineering concepts regarding the relative increase in the overall weights of structures -- and designed my sky-floating tensegrity structures, which I call "Cloud Nines."

A 100-foot-diameter, tensegrity-trussed, geodesic sphere weighing three tons encloses seven tons of air. The air-to-structural-weight ratio is two to one. When we double the size so that the geodesic sphere is 200 feet in diameter, the weight of the structure increases to seven tons while the weight of the air increases to fifty-six tons -- the air-to-structure ratio changes as eight to one. When we double the size again to a 400-foot geodesic sphere -- the size of several geodesic domes now operating -- the weight of the air inside increases to about 500 tons while the weight of the structure increases to fifteen tons. The air-weight-to-structure-weight ratio is now thirty-three to one. When we get to a geodesic sphere one-half mile in diameter, the weight of the structure itself becomes of relatively negligible magnitude, for the ratio is approximately a thousand to one.

When the Sun shines on an open-frame aluminum geodesic sphere of one-half- mile diameter, the Sun penetrating through the frame and reflected from the aluminum members of the concave far side bounces back into the sphere and gradually heats the interior atmosphere to a mild degree. When the interior temperature of the sphere rises only one degree Fahrenheit, the weight of the air pushed out of the sphere is greater than the weight of the spherical-frame geodesic structure. This means that the. total weight of the interior air plus the weight of the structure is much less than the surrounding atmosphere. This means that the total assemblage of the geodesic sphere and its contained air will have to float outwardly, into the sky, being displaced by the heavy atmosphere around it.

When a great bank of mist lies in a valley in the morning and the Sun shines upon it, the Sun heats the air inside the bank of mist. The heated air expands and therefore pushes some of itself outside the mist bank. The total assembly of the mist bank weighs less than the atmosphere surrounding it, and the mist bank floats aloft into the sky. Thus are clouds manufactured. As geodesic spheres get larger than one-half mile in diameter, they become floatable cloud structures.

If their surfaces were draped with outwardly hung polyethelene curtains to retard the rate at which air would come back in at night, the sphere and its internal atmosphere would continue to be so light as to remain aloft.

Such sky-floating geodesic/tensegrity spheres may be designed to float at preferred altitudes of thousands of feet. The weight of human beings added to such prefabricated "Cloud Nines" would be relatively negligible. Many thousands of passengers could be housed aboard one-mile-diameter and larger cloud structures. The passengers could come and go from cloud to cloud, or cloud to ground, as the clouds float around the Earth or are anchored to mountaintops.

While the building of such floating clouds is some years in the future, we may foresee that, with the floating tetrahedronal cities; air-deliverable skyscrapers; submarine islands; sub-dry-surface dwellings; domed-over cities; flyable dwelling machines; and rentable, autonomous-living, black boxes, man may be able to converge and deploy around Earth without its depletion.

• • •

In the 1920s Frank Lloyd Wright made a drawing of a mile-high tower building. Engineering feasibility studies were never made.

In 1966 I was contracted by a Japanese patron -- Matsutaro Shoriki, owner of the Nippon Television Network Corporation -- to undertake a design feasibility study for a 12,250-foot-high observation tower, which was to overtop the height of Mount Fuji on the island of Honshu. In view of the fact that at that time the world's tallest building was the Empire State Building at 1472 feet, including TV towers, and the tallest man-made structure was a 2000-foot TV transmission tower a mere one-sixth the proposed tower's height, totally-new-for-humanity considerations necessarily came into play. Our tightly phrased, detailed engineering report contained 10,000 words.


FIGURE 52. Cloud Nine Floating Tensegrity Spheres

The patron's given budgetable limit for the project was $300 million. The feasibility study showed that a 12,250-foot tower that performed all the functions desired by the tower's patrons could be met by present technology, but not at the $300-million figure. The study, therefore, also included critical details covering the construction of an engineering- and function-satisfying tower of 8000 feet, which could be produced for $300 million.

The studies showed that there was nothing that presently operative technology could not cope with even at the 12,250-foot Mount Fuji height. Almost all objectionable features of the 12,250-foot tower were eliminated at the 8000-foot height.

Such formidable safe working assumptions had to be adopted as that of icing one foot thick covering the tower's entire surface; wind loadings of 250-mile-per-hour winds; allowance for ice dropping into protected areas; and unitary five-story-high, air compression and decompression elevators in order to accommodate pay-for-itself observatory traffic, etc. A section of the report even covered helicopter rescue operations from the observation section at the top should the elevator fail.

• • •

With all human beings furnished with their personal, automatic, computer- programming, "chips" -containing credit cards, the computers will be making it clear that all humanity will be able to employ their along-the-streetside- controlled, slot-machine-like, travel-program-and-ticket dispensers to get themselves from any part of the world to any other part of the world in the shortest possible time.

The world computers will keep track of all available air-travel passenger spaces in all directions. The airlines will operate on a load-shuffle-and-shuttle, special-destination-pallet basis. When each eight-seat-or-bed-capacity pallet is full, it will be hang-loaded by local cranes onto overhead monorails and electric-trolleyed into an en-route-to-destination plane. The destination-programmed, eight-place pallets will be· overhead-monorail, electric-trolley loaded aboard through each plane's tail. The planes can carry many pallets with· many different ultimate destinations.

For example, there will be a pallet for Sydney, Australia, being loaded in New York City's Waldorf-Astoria Hotel lobby. When it is full, the computer will have it overhead-monorailed to the first overseas plane going most directly toward Sydney -- say to Mexico City. At Mexico City it will be computer- overhead-trolley-transferred to a plane for Papeete, Tahiti, in the Society Islands, and thence into another plane leaving in a short space of time from Papeete directly to Sydney.


FIGURE 53. Tokyo Tower


FIGURE 54. Tokyo Tower

At each world airport the computers will re-sort the variously destined pallets, sending them forward in the most efficient manner. The pallets will be computer-shuttle-sorted in and out of the planes through the planes' hinged-open tails and continually rerouted to their ultimate destination in the computer-determined swiftest manner.

The pallets themselves will accommodate all the passengers' luggage inside the floor-truss space below the passengers' seats. Passengers will never be separated from their luggage. On arrival at destination their pallet will take them "downtown" to their destination hotel.

There will be a variety of pallet designs. All the pallets for long-distance, multihoured flights will have all their seats convertible by elevation into comfortable full-length beds.

Travelers can even start their trips in a pallet in the lobby of their hotel. The pallet will be overhead-trolleyed into a truck thus to produce in effect a small bus. Pallets will be loaded into trucks through their tails by overhead trolley rails.

Because the world-around computer system is continually rerouting its pallets to adjust for unexpected delays, there will be no way of planning to hijack a plane from within a pallet.

* * *

We now find that every human being generates a self-surrounding, ultra-ultra- ultra-high-frequency electromagnetic field -- exquisitely ephemeral but exquisitely real. Each individual's field alternates between positive and negative. When an individual is feeling predominantly negative mentally, the field is negative, and vice versa.

The sensitivity of the satellite-mounted, electronic, spy-sensing equipment developed by both Russia and the United States is such that satellites, dynamically space-stationed around the world,· can take continual readings of the sum-total proportions of positive and negative electromagnetic field reactions of all humanity in respect to world-numbered "proposals" - -to be broadcast at given times all around the world-regarding computer-discovered solutions to each and every world -- human-affecting problem.

The computer will make it quite possible to continually confront humanity via the electronic media with its own world's nonpolitical, professionally trained, and examination-qualified management's successively evolved human- problem-solution proposals.

With adequate time to get the world informed of each of the nonpolitical, professional world-management committee's specific computer-derived problem-solution proposals, at specific world-around times readouts will be broadcast reporting the world majority's disposition toward anyone proposed solution. All humanity can keep track of the changing disposition of the majority of all humanity and of how many are positive or negative in respect to any world-around, simultaneous, periodical presentation of any given proposition. After a proposition has been exposed for a given period of days and a 75-percent majority is attained, the professional-management world committee will be authorized to put the proposition into the world-around industrial production and service.

Thus will begin the world's first real tamper- and corruption-proof democracy. Humanity will make mistakes, but the minority, knowing that this is the first true democracy, will often go along spontaneously with the majority, knowing that if it develops that the majority has made a bad judgment, negative readings will swiftly occur as society discovers that it has chosen the wrong course.

Norbert Wiener's and Claude Shannon's cybernetic "feedbacks," which implement their "information theory," will swiftly and progressively correct the decisions and thereby the historical course of world-around citizenry evolution. Very swiftly all humanity will learn to think about total Earth, total humanity, and total accumulated knowledge, total resources, etc., and will begin to make some powerful omnihumanity, omni-Universe-considerate decisions.

When a 51-percent majority shows that humanity now regrets the previous decision, the world management committee will propose a means of correcting the course, and the foregoing processes will be repeated.

* * *

Refer to my 760-year "Pure Science Acceleration Chart" and the accompanying text in my book Earth, Inc. (Doubleday, 1973, pp. 3-26). In that piece and its chart, first published by me in 1959, I predicted that by 1985 we humans would be doing something as presently incredible as sending ourselves around the world by radio. Whatever this presently incredible form of circumnavigation may be, it will be right on schedule.

We have gradually been learning how to substitute various inanimate mechanical parts in our total human organic assembly. We have also been learning how to synthesize more and more of the atomic and molecular ingredients of our organic assembly. We have also been learning from the virologists' DNA-RNA about all the unique biological-design programming of various biological species. We have also been learning that you and I and "life" are not the physical equipment that we use. "Life" itself is entirely metaphysical -- a pattern integrity.

Of timely relevance to nature's progressive disclosure that "life" is not physical, in early 1980 it was reported in science journals that a seventy-kilogram baby mammoth had been found preserved for 44,000 years in a chunk of hitherto-never-defrosted Siberian ice. Some of the animal's molecules were still "alive" when the beast was found, occasioning the observation that biochemists are trending to grow organisms -- perhaps as complex as the woolly mammoth -- from a single molecule of DNA or any part of the physical organism. But "life" is not the physical molecule or a morsel of flesh or a blood corpuscle-as we have been. progressively discovering. These are all minor complexes of inanimate atoms.

Now, in July 1980, at eighty-five years of age, I have consumed over 1000 tons of food, water, and air, which progressively, atom by atom, has been chemically and electromagnetically converted into all the physical components of my organism and gradually displaced by other income atoms and molecules. Now all but 146 pounds of that 1000 tons have been progressively discarded. In 1895 I weighed in at seven pounds -- at 146 pounds in 1980 my organism is the same slightly evolved and aged "personality" pattern being manifest in pure principle by the total complex of unique behaviors of the only-in-pure-principle-existent inanimate "atoms."

Each one of us is a unique behavioral pattern integrity. The metaphysical you and I are not the coarsely identified "cornflakes" and "prunes" that we ate in the days before yesterdays -- some of which became constituents of what are identified momentarily as our "flesh" and "hair" functions.

Our human organisms were designed to initially operate only nakedly and only within the tropical-island areas of the Earthian biosphere. However, our metaphysical minds were given the capability progressively to discover and comprehend many of the principles governing various complex environment formulations as well as the principles that must be employed in .order to permit human presence under those various intolerable-to-naked-human conditions. Excursions to the Moon require an additional special set of environment-suitable, external sensing-and-manipulating equipment.

We have already operative the equipment to accommodate abstract, metaphysical you or I observing various Moonscapes, which does not require our donning space suits. It requires only our subscribing to the National Geographic. We have now achieved exactly the right physical-information- gathering-and-problem-solving artifacts for the weightless, invisible, metaphysical you and I to employ our instrumental extensions to occupy, explore, and operate in scientific depth on the Moon, Mars, Venus, and the other celestial bodies of our solar system.

In thinking about what I've just said, remember that no human has ever seen or sensed outside of self. All our sensing is nerve-relayed inward to be directly sensed only in our brain. We have become so accustomed to the reliability of the information-relaying-inward to our brain that we now mis-assume that we are seeing things directly outside ourselves.

Let US consider an athlete -- a hockey player who has played for a number of years on his city's professional team in his city's principal rink. He is injured and is hospitalized for months. He tunes his hospital-room television to his team's hockey games in their regular rink. He tends to see what is going on and groans and grins as though he were really present, on the rink. That is the way our sight system works, seemingly to see things transpire outside ourselves.

We noted earlier that all living organisms other than humans have special, integral organic equipment that gives them special advantage in special terrestrial environments -- the seaweed that lives exposed to air at low tide and is submerged at high tide, the penguins that live and flourish only at water's edge in the Antarctic. Within a larger cosmic scheme humans are given the special physical equipment to flourish initially only within the planet Earth's biosphere. But humans are also given the metaphysical equipment with which to discover the principles governing metaphysical information- gathering and physical action-taking within extreme macro-micro ranges of physical Universe unreachable directly with the naked organism's primary equipment as initially implemented. It is possible for humans to design, produce, and enclose themselves within such awkward equipment as that which permits their effective coping with nakedly lethal environmental conditions such as those on the Moon. But having visited the Moon to prove our capability thus to cope, we discover that computer-controlled mechanical equipment can be rocketed to the Moon or elsewhere and can do an even better job of exploring and visually recording macro- and micro-remote environments, as well as their respective invisible physical, chemical, and electromagnetic phenomena. While the data that can be thus instrumentally attained are inherently fascinating, their real value consists of what may be discovered and comprehended thereby of the generalized scientific principles demonstrated to be operative in these remote-from-everyday-experience environments.

Eventually we realize that what is transpiring is that the metaphysical weightless mind of humans -- the real you and I -- is spontaneously preoccupied with hitherto-unharvested local Universe information and therefrom is gleaning omni-Universe-operative principles and therewith is solving local Universe problems in the comprehensively responsible maintenance of the local integrity of eternally regenerative Universe -- which we have heretofore hypothesized as the reason humans are included in the cosmic scheme. Our most prominent present local Universe problem is how to wean humanity from metabolic sustenance only by exploiting nature's local Universe energy savings account--energy being locally imported by cosmic evolution design to produce a new star ten billion years hence. How can we convince those in power the world around that we can live handsomely as supplied only by our daily income of cosmic energy? The answer is we can't convince them. Only the cosmic wisdom manifest in inexorable evolution can cope with such matters.

When I was twenty-seven years of age, Earthian humanity knew of only one galaxy -- our own Milky (Latin: Galactic) Way. A year later astronomer Hubble discovered another galaxy. During the subsequent fifty-seven years human astronomers and astrophysicists have discovered two billion more galaxies, all doing their galactic acts within the eleven-and-one-half-billion-light- year-radiused sphere of humanity's present limit of omnidirectional observing.

The average star population of each of these two billion known galaxies is 100 billion. This is to say that the thus-far-discovered star population is two times 1020 -- that is the integer two followed by twenty zeroes. Within this 200-quintillion star group our star Sun ranks among the pygmies. Each one of the 200 quintillion known stars is an atomic-energy plant. There is nothing new or cosmically illogical about atomic-energy plants. Nature -- the 'intellectual integrity designer of eternally regenerative scenario Universe- designed human organisms to serve metaphysically weightless mind as the physical instruments of exploration and of development -- first of the planet Earth's biosphere, and thereafter of that planet's local Universe operating planetary companions, and possibly later other whole star systems, thus to fulfill their cosmic functions as local Universe information-gatherers and local-Universe problem-solvers. As we have also discovered early in this book, nature's design of the human mind's complex organic instrument of exploration and information-gathering -- known as the human body -- solved all the structural compression problems of these exploratory organisms with water, which boils and freezes within very limited thermal range in respect to the vast range of cosmic temperatures. We also discovered that all the biological organisms -- botanical or zoological -- which altogether comprise the terrestrially regenerative system ecology (no ecology ... no humans). Radiance from a candle diminishes rapidly as we recede from the candle. The intensity of all radiation from all radiant sources diminishes as the distance from the source increases. As Einstein's formula anticipated and physical experiments have proved, the sum-total energy content of all the radiation distributed radially outwardly in all directions from the source remains the same but the amount of energy concentrated at anyone spherical surface point decreases as the distance from the source increases. Draw a picture of concentric circles, each circle divided into identical arc lengths. The further out we go more arcs of the same length are required to constitute the greater circles. Nature -- the impeccable designer that knew exactly how to design and produce what we do not know how to design and produce -- our human brain, out optical systems, etc., let alone all the complex interplays of all the organisms, visible and subvisible, of all ecology -- has discovered and heeded its own designing laws which state that Sun energy -- the atomic energy plant called Sun -- is essential to life on planet Earth but that its radiation is too intense for direct exposure by many of the constituent members of the total ecological regeneration team. Such too-radiation- sensitive ecological constituents are designed to operate only within the Earth's earth or at its sea bottoms.

We have also learned earlier that in order to produce these limited-temperature- range organisms nature has designed them to be evolved and incubated only within the very special environmental conditions of planet Earth's biosphere. Nature as the omni-informed and omniconcerned, omniconsiderate cosmic designer discovered and heeded the fact that human organisms and their absolutely essential ecological support complex could not operate safely at a distance of less than ninety-two million miles away from their nearest atomic-energy plant -- the Sun -- and all the latter's lethal. radiation involvements. The would-be exploiters of atomic energy on board our planet Earth will in due course discover there is no way for them to solve atomic-energy-radiation waste-disposal problems save by rocketing it all back into the Sun, where it belongs. Humans will then have to learn how to keep all humans and their ecological support system operating successfully on our vastly adequate daily income of solar atomic energy.

Cosmically acceptable and effective decisions of humanity regarding such matters will not be made by leaders single or plural, political or religious, military or mystic, by coercion or mob psychology.

The effective decisions can only be made by the independently thinking and adequately informed human individuals and their telepathetically intercommunicated wisdom -- the wisdom of the majority of all such human individuals -- qualifying for continuance in Universe as local cosmic problem- solvers -- in love with the truth and in individually spontaneous self-commitment to absolute faith in the wisdom, integrity, and love of God, who seems to wish Earthian humans to survive.
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Re: Critical Path, by R. Buckminster Fuller

Postby admin » Tue Jul 28, 2015 6:53 am

APPENDIX 1: Chronology of Scientific Discoveries and Artifacts

WHEN I PUBLISHED Nine Chains to the Moon, I was doing research for Phelps Dodge Company. As a copper company, they were eager to have a history of scientific inventions in relation to copper. I was given a team of fifth-year engineering students from Columbia University to compile a history of inventions. This team, consisting of metallurgical, electrical, civil, and mechanical engineers, did their research for me in 1936.

Heretofore all such listings of inventions and discoveries had been warped in favor of this country or that in regards to the place or date of origin of each of the listed inventions.

Using their information of their branches of science, and as typical New Yorkers with forebears from around the world, they were able to select the true origins of inventions. This list was published in Nine Chains to the Moon in 1938.

In the intervening forty-four years an enormous amount of inventing and discovering has taken place. In the last decade an accelerating increase in the number of inventions and scientific discoveries has occurred.

For example, during the intervening forty-four years our knowledge of humans in Universe has been extended from 50,000 years of existence to over three and one-half million. Our knowledge of the number of galaxies has increased from two to over two billion!

Earlier in Critical Path I pointed out that in order for humans to get to the Moon and safely back, a very large number of technological developments had to be accomplished. None of them would have been accomplished had not there been the previous artifact developments of all human history.

We felt it appropriate to again review the number, dates, and origins of the sources on which our latest technological critical-path developments had been predicated.

I feel it appropriate to compile our own latest chronology because the many published chronologies of scientific and engineering history have lacked many of the items we consider critical and have included many we have not considered critical.

ANCIENT / Stone Age tools for at least three million years

4000 B.C.: Picto-linguistic writing, Tartaria

3500 B.C. Bronze in Thailand

3500 B.C. Sumerian picto-graphic writing (evolves later into cuneiform)

pre-3480 B.C.: Grain, domesticated animals, pictograms, copper, silver, gold, tin, lead, zinc, iron, carbon, sulphur, mercury; levers; wheels and wheeled vehicles; sledges (Scandinavia); stone wall structures; coal known, but its potentials unrecognized

3400 B.C. Mesopotamian evidence that number language preceded written language by thousands of years

3400 B.C.: Irrigation system in Egypt

3100 B.C.: Egyptian hieroglyphics

3000 B.C. Chinese ideograms, complex generalized concepts

Drainage and sewage system in India

Dams, canals, pyramids, heavy stone statues constructed using inclined plane and lever -- Sumeria

Pyramids in Egypt

2200 B.C.: Clay maps, Babylon

2100 B.C.: Babylonian calendar modified to include movement of stars True astronomical observation, Mesopotamia

Spherical geometry in Babylon (120 L.C.D. triangles)

2000 B.C.: Cretan writing (led to Hittite writing in Anatolia several centuries later)

1800 B.C.: Babylonian cuneiform (Hammurabi's Code)

1700 B.C.: Network of roads, Babylon

Linear A -- development of Cretan writing with ,largest corpus from Hagia Triada

1500 B.C.: Phonetic spelling developed by Phoenicians

1400 B.C.: Linear B, Greek adaptation of Cretan writing either on mainland or at Knossus

1500-1100 B.C.: Cypro-Minoan, distant offshoot of Cretan writing

1000 B.C.: Phonetics transmitted by Phoenicians to Greeks

900 B.C.: Rustproof iron in India

640 B.C.: Beginning with Thales, the Ionian Greeks were the first of the Grecian natural philosophers.

600 B.C.: Discovery of "irrationals"

Laws of right-angle triangle -- Pythagoras

460 B.C.: Thinking microcosmically, Democritus was the first known human to conceive of a smallest cosmic entity, which he named the "atom."

600-400 B.C.: Thinking macrocosmically, the Greek Pythagorean scientists (situated to the north of Athens) were the first humans known and recorded to think of our world as a spherical entity.

410 B.C.: he Pythagorean Philolaus was the first to conceive of the Earth as a spherical body in motion around a central cosmic fire. He also conceived of the stars, Sun, Moon, and five planets -- Venus, Mercury, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn -- as spherical bodies. His Sun was not at the center.

350 B.C.: All the Greek states adopt a 24-letter alphabet enabling Greek philosopher-scientists to record and transmit their ideas.

A latter-day Pythagorean, Heraclides, was the first to conceive of the Earth sphere as spinning west to east. But Heraclides' cosmos was as yet geocentric. His Earth spun at the center of the fixed-stars Universe.

300 B.C.: Geometry -- Euclid

Most of Greek culture -- poetry, science, and philosophy -- and its written records are moved to Alexandria, Egypt, which was part of Alexander the Great's Greek Empire.

200 B.C.: Archimedes -- law of displacement of floating bodies and specific gravity, hydraulic screw pump, much mathematics, many polyhedra; first formulation of concept of limit

200 B.C.: Phoenicians circumnavigate the Earth

Aristarchus, the Greek, conceived of the Sun as at center of planetary revolutions. For him all the stars were fixed, and the Moon revolved around the Earth. He was almost killed for his unprecedented thoughts.

Eratosthenes measuringly calculates circumference of Earth within 1.5-percent accuracy. Also, makes map of world from England on the northwest to mouth of Ganges in the east and all of Africa on the south.

Hipparchus calculates distance of Earth to Moon, calculates solar year to within six minutes.

150 B.C.: Crates, Stoic philosopher, develops first terrestrial globe; celestial globes preceded it.

It is clear that a special chain of Greek scientist-philosopher-cosmologists consisting of Philolaus (410 B.C.), Heraclides (350 B.C.), and Aristarchus (200 B.C.) had successively evolved a concept of the solar system that was in fair agreement with Copernicus (1543 A.D.) and even with our late-twentieth- century conceptioning.

It is also clear that beginning with Plato's pupil, Aristotle (384 B.C.-322 B.C.), and his practical philosophy that the geocentric concept of the celestial system, despite its difficulty rationalized complexity, was after 200 B.C. becoming more and more formally adopted by the "authorities."

It seems almost equally clear that between 200 B.C. and 200 A.D. a deliberately planned policy of the combined political and religious powers undertook the conditioning of the human reflexes to misconceive, mis-see, or mostly not see at all the macro-micro systems in which we live. Their success drew the curtains on science for 1700 years -- until 1500 A.D.

100 B.C.: Alexandrian library reputed to have reached 700,000 manuscript volumes, or rolls. Fortunately, volumes in Alexandria copiously copied and distributed to libraries all around civilized world of that time.

47 B.C.: 40,000 volumes of Alexandrian library burned during siege in war between Caesar and Pompey.

200 A.D.: Ptolemy's conic, latitude-and-longitude world map reading from British Isles on west to China on east involved North Africa, Arabia, India. His Almagest publication containing storehouse of navigational data -- catalog of over 1000 stars.

272 A.D.: Second burning of Alexandrian library by Roman emperor

300 A.D.: Compass, China

391 A.D.: Third burning of Alexandrian library by another Roman emperor

529 A.D.: Closing of all universities

642 A.D.: Final complete burning of library of Alexandria by Muslims

700 A.D.: Moorish invasion of Spain, introducing Arabic numerals and algebra

720-813 A.D.: Principal salts of arsenic, sulphur, and mercury are discovered.

875-925 A.D.: 875-925 A.D. Persian Rhases applies chemical knowledge to preparation of medicines.

800 A.D.: AI-Khwarizmi, in Baghdad, writes treatise in Arabic explaining function of ciphra and positioning of numbers.

1000 A.D.: Leif Erikson reaches America

Gunpowder in China

First real lenses -- Alhozen

Avicenna's medical Canon and alchemical De Anima

1100: Bologna University established

1105: First recorded windmill in Europe

1118: Cannon used by Moors

1144: Paper used in Japan

Alchemy introduced to Europe through translation of Arabic texts

1147: Use of woodcuts for capital letters

1180: Fixed steering rudder

1190: Paper mills at Herault, France

1200: Al-Khwarizmi's 780 A.D. "Treatise on Cipher" translated into Latin, published in Carthage, North Africa

1230: Hot-air balloons in China

1250: Discovery of arsenic

1260: Pivoted magnetic compass

1270: Treatise on lenses-Vitellio

Compound lenses-Roger Bacon

Silk-reeling machine

1280: Compendium of agricultural practice


1290: Marco Polo returns to Europe from Far East with data.

Spinning wheel

1300: Ship's compass

1310: Dissection of human body -- De Luzzi

1320: Water-driven blast furnace

Sawmill at Augsburg

1330: Crane at Luneberg

Wool manufacture established at York

1346: Battle at Crecy, guns used in battle

Division of hours and minutes into sixtieths

1350: Wire-pulling machines at Nurnberg

1390: Metal types, Korea

1400: Diving suit

First book in movable type, Korea

1410: Street lights in London

1420: Velocipede -- Fontana

First European woodcut

1430: Scientific cartography

1440: Azores discovered

Laws of perspective -- Alberti

Modern printing with movable type in Europe

Copperplate engraving

1450: Printing established a universal symbolism for algebraic numerals

Discovery of antimony

Wagon springs

1460: Trigonometry -- Regiomontanus

Printing introduced in England -- Caxton

1480: Canal lock

Arquebus introduced

Copper etching

1482: Leonardo da Vinci career begins: perspective frame, wheelbarrow, speaking tube. Also plans for: centrifugal pump, canal dredge, polygonal fort and outworks, breech-loading cannon, rifled firearms, antifriction roller bearings, lens grinder and polisher, universal joint, conical screw, rope and belt drive, link chain, submarine. bevel and spiral gear, proportional and paraboloid compasses, lathe, silk doubling, winding apparatus, flying machine, parachute, lamp chimney, helicopter, ship's log, double-deck streets, standardized mass-production house, perfect whorehouse.

1492 : oors driven from Spain

Positioning of numbers was popularly established; first post-Dark Ages globe was made.

Columbus discovers America.

1497: 1497 Cabot lands in North America

Vasco da Gama reaches India

1500: 1500 First portable watch with iron mainspring

Mechanical farming drill

1508: Multicolored woodcut

1511: Pneumatic beds

1513: Porcelain introduced in England

Balboa discovers Pacific

1515: Camera obscura

1521: Discovery of potato by European population

1522: Magellan's voyage around the world is completed.

First arithmetic book is published in England.

1524: Fodder-cutting machine

1535: Diving bell

First English Bible is printed.

1539: First astronomical map

Printing introduced to America (Mexico)-Pablos

1540: Padlock invented

Invention of mathematical symbols -- Vieta

First handbook of dyeing

1541: Tartaglia finds general third-degree equation solution.

1543: Copernican system published

1544: Elaboration of algebraic symbols -- Stifel

1545: Pare -- surgical instruments

1548: Water-pumping works in Augsburg

1550: First known suspension bridge in Europe

1552: Iron-rolling machine -- Brulier

156: Copper mines discovered in England

1564: Coaches first made in England

1565: Lead pencil

1568: Mercator projection of world map

1576: Discovery of magnetic dip

1579: Automatic ribbon loom

1582: Tide mill pump, London

Gregorian calendar revision

1585: Decimal system -- Stevin

1589: Knitting frame

1590: Compound microscope -- Jansen

1594: Use of clock to determine longitude

1600: Treatise on terrestrial magnetism and electricity -- Gilbert

Pendulum -- Galileo

1605: Stevin revives study of statics.

Theorems on inclined planes, pulleys and equilibrium -- Galileo

1606: Discovery of Australia

1608 Telescope -- Lippershay

1609: First laws of motion -- Galileo

Kepler's laws (first and second laws)

1612: Bituminous coal smelting -- Sturtevant

1613: Gunpowder in mine blasting

1614: Logarithms -- Napier

1615: Triangulation in surveying

1617: Log tables

Adding machine -- Napier

1620: Spirit thermometer

Slide rule -- Oughtred

Bacon's Novum Organum

1624: First patent law in England

1628: Worcester's engine

Harvey's discovery of circulation of blood

1629: Explanation of negative roots

Branca's engine

1631: Invention of mathematical symbols x and :

1635: Discovery of microscopic organisms

Infinitesimal calculus -- Fermat

Threshing machine

1637: Laws of refraction


1638: Formulation of infinite aggregate -- Galileo

1639: Rain gauge

Invention of coordinate geometry -- Descartes

1640: Cotton manufacture in England

1642: Calculating machine -- Pascal

1647: Calculation of foci of all lenses

1650: First bread made with yeast -- England

Magic lantern -- Kircher

1650: Air pump -- Von Guericke

1654: Mathematical induction -- Pascal

Laws of probability -- Pascal

1657: Pendulum clock -- Huygens

1658: Balance spring for clocks

Red corpuscles discovered in blood

1661: Boyle's "skeptical chemist"

1662: Boyle's law

1666: Discovery of diffraction

Newton discovers light dispersion by prism

Reflecting telescope -- Newton

1667: Paris observatory

Cellular structure of plants

1669: Double refraction discovered

1670: Discovery of phosphorus

Sulphur ball electric machine

1675: Greenwich observatory

Determination of speed of light -- Roemer

1677: Infinite series

Calculus -- Newton and Leibnitz

1680: Discovery of chlorophyll

1685: Foundation of scientific obstetrics

1687: Newton's Principia, laws of gravitation and motion

1688: Distillation of gas from coal

1690: Huygens's wave theory

1695: Plate glass

Papin's engine

1698: Isogonic charts

Savery's engine

1700: Explanation of beats, overtones, and sympathetic vibrations

1702: First daily newspaper, London

1704: Newton's Optics

1705: Newcomen's engine

1707: Physician's pulse watch in seconds

1708: Wet sand iron casting

1709: Coke used in blast furnace

1714: Mercury thermometer -- Fahrenheit

1717: Iron-covered wooden railways

1720: Three-color copperplate printing

1727: First exact measurement of blood pressure

Invention of stereotype

Light images with silver nitrate

1732: Discovery of cobalt

Discovery of platinum

1733: Roller spinning

Flying shuttle-Kay

1736: Commercial sulfuric acid

1737: Centigrade thermometer

1738: Kinetic Theory of Gas -- Bernoulli

1745: First technical school separate from military engineering

Leyden jar

1746: Sulfuric acid by lead chamber process

Discovery of zinc

1747: Beet sugar

1749: Scientific calculation of water resistance to ships -- Euler

1751: Lightning jar

Discovery of nickel

1753: Discovery of bismuth

1756: Latent heat -- Black

1758: Achromatic telescope

1760: Steam blast -- Smeaton

1761: Modern type chronometer

1763: Spinning jenny

1765: Steam engine

1766: Discovery of hydrogen

1767: Cast-iron rails

History of Electricity (including phlogiston theory) -- Priestley

1769 -- Steam carriage

Lightning conductors on high buildings

1770: Caterpillar tread

Screw-cutting lathe -- Ramsden

1771: Discovery of fluorine

Encyclopaedia Britannica, first edition

Discovery of electric nature of nervous impulse -- Galvani

1772: Vitamin cure for scurvy

Discovery of nitrogen

1774: Boring machine -- Wilkinson

Lighting in Boston streets

Discovery of chlorine

Discovery of manganese

1775: Reciprocating engine with flywheel

1776: Reverberatory furnace

Machine plane

Chemical nomenclature "element," "compound" -- Lavoisier

Scientific explanation of combustion -- Lavoisier

Discovery of oxygen by Priestley -- named by Lavoisier

1777: Torsion balance

Torpedo -- Bushnell

Circular wood saw

Steam hammer -- Wilkinson

1778: Discovery of molybdenum

Modern water closet -- Bramah

1779: Cast-iron bridge sections

1780: Mass-produced cast-iron farm implements

1781: Drill plow

Siberian highway begun

Synthesis of water

1782: Discovery of tellurium

1783: Argand lamp

Free hydrogen-balloon flight

Discovery of tungsten

1784: Power loom

Puddling process in manufacture of wrought iron -- Cort

Patent lock -- Bramah

1785: Balloon flight across Channel

Interchangeable musket parts

First steam spinning mill

Chlorine used as a bleach

1786: Gold leaf electroscope

1787: Steamboat

Nail-making machine

1788: Galvanic electricity

1789: Discovery of uranium

Discovery of zirconium

Modern classification of plants -- Jussieu

1790: Gas lighting

Ultraviolet rays discovered

Soda from sodium chloride

1791: Gas engine

Discovery of titanium

1793: Cotton gin -- Whitney

First U.S. balloon flight

First sulfuric acid made in U.S.


1794: Discovery of yttrium

Ecole Poly technique

1795: Food canning

Hydraulic press -- Bramah

1796: Lithography

Natural cement

Hydraulic cement

Discovery of photosynthesis

1797: Cast-iron plow

Carding machine

Discovery of geometric interpretation of complex numbers

Improved screw-cutting, and slide rest lathe -- Maudsley

1798: Vaccination introduced

Discovery of chromium

Cavendish weighs Earth

Discovery of beryllium

1799: High-pressure steam engine

Laughing gas as anesthetic

Manufactured bleaching powder

Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers

1800: Voltaic cells

Infrared rays discovered

Macadam roads -- McAdam

First experimental electrolysis

1801: Discovery of interference of light waves

First asteroid discovered

Discovery of columbium

First practical submarine

1802: Machine dresser for cotton warps

Planing machine

Discovery of tantalum

1803: Atomic theory -- Dalton

Discovery of palladium

Discovery of rhodium

Discovery of cerium

Boat propelled by steam power

1804: Jacquard loom

Discovery of iridium

Discovery of osmium

Bottling factory

1807: Voyage of steamboat S. C. Clermont from New York to Albany

Kymography-revolving cylinder, recording continuous motion

Discovery of sodium

Discovery of potassium

1808: Discovery of polarization of light

Gay-Lussac's law of combining volumes of gases

Discovery of strontium

Discovery of barium

Discovery of calcium

Discovery of magnesium

1810: Discovery of boron

1811: Modern chemical notation

Discovery of iodine

Avogadro's hypothesis on composition of gases

1814: Steam printing press

Steam locomotive

Discovery of Fraunhofer black lines in Sun's light spectrum

1815: Stethoscope

Macadam roads officially adopted in Britain

Miner's safety lamp -- Davy

1817: Discovery of lithium

Discovery of cadmium

Discovery of selenium

1818: Milling machine -- Whitney

1819: Steamship Savannah crosses Atlantic

Dulong and Petit's law

Isomorphism of chemical elements discovered -- Mitscherlich

1820: Modern wood planer

Formulation of power of an aggregate -- Bolzano

Discovery of catalysis

1823: Faraday -- laws of electromagnetism

Calculating machine -- Babbage

Waterproof fabric

Discovery of silicon

1824: Mechanical equivalent of heat -- thermodynamics

1825: Algebraic numbers not expressed by radicals discovered

1826: Discovery of bromine

1827: Niepce -- first photograph

Practical ship's screw

Brownian movement discovered

Discovery of aluminum

Ohm's Law -- current equals pressure/resistance in given electric circuit

1828: Electromagnet

Hot blast in iron production

Wohler synthesis of urea

Discovery of thorium

1829: Paper matrix stereotype

Water-filtration plant, London

1830: Sewing machine

Compressed air for underwater tunnels

Discovery of vanadium

1831: Steam railway passenger train

Mowing machine

Phosphorus match


1832: Magnetic telegraph

Principles of induction -- Faraday

Magneto -- Pixii

1833: Reaper -- McCormick

Laws of electrolysis -- Faraday

Principles of geology -- Lyell

1834: Law of substitution in organic chemistry

1835: Revolver-type pistol


1836: Pin machine


Type-casting machine

1837: First metal ship

Electric motor -- Davenport

Discovery of nature of fermentation

Screw propellor

Shorthand -- Pitman

1838: Rubber vulcanizing

Photography -- Daguerre

Power-driven rope-making machine

Use of single wire and ground circuit

Steam drop hammer

1839: Penny postage in England

Brick-making machinery


Discovery of lanthanum

1840: Corrugated iron roofing


First iron-link suspension bridge

Liebig shows need for artificial fertilizer

1841: Principle of conservation of energy -- Mayer

1842: Doppler effect discovered

Mechanical equivalent of heat

Superphosphate fertilizers

1843: Chemical spectrum analysis


Discovery of terbium

Discovery of erbium

1844: First telegraph line, Washington to Baltimore

Practical wood pulp paper

1845: Portland cement

Turret lathe -- Fitch

Pneumatic tire (bicycle type)

Sewing machine -- Howe

Mechanical boiler stoker

Discovery of ruthenium

1846: Rotary printing press

Ether- -- arren and Morton

Nitroglycerine and guncotton

Prediction and discovery of Neptune

1847: Penny postage in U.S.

Second law of thermodynamics

1848: Rotary fan

Corliss engine

1849: Hydraulic turbine

Steam power rock drill

1850: Law of mass action

1851: Wire rope for power transmission

Vernier caliper

Sewing machine -- Singer

Foucault pendulum

Cast-iron-frame building

1852: Elevator with brake


Hydraulic mining

Theory of valence

1853: Mechanical ship's log

Mass-production watches

Gear-cutting machine

1854: Riemann's geometry

1855: Gas-stove burner

Lathe safety lock

Powdered milk

1856: Steel -- Bessemer

Perkin's aniline dye

1857: Kinetic theory of gases

Passenger elevator -- Otis

Discovery of sols, theory of colloids

1858: Steel -- Kelly

Structure of organic compounds -- Kekule

1859: Storage cell -- Plante

Electric accumulator -- Plante

Absorption spectra

First oil well

On the Origin of Species by Natural Selection -- Darwin


1860: Dynamo, Italy

Ammonia refrigerator

Discovery of cesium

Asphalt paving

Laws of radiation, emission, and absorption

1861: Electric furnace in Siemens, England

Discovery of rubidium

Discovery of thallium

Germ theory of disease -- Pasteur

Milling machine

1862: Machine gun -- Gatling


Monitor battleship

Synthesis of acetylene

1863: Solvay process for making soda

Argelander catalogs 324,000 stars

Discovery of indium

Cell theory -- Schultze

1864: Electromagnetic theory -- Maxwell

Cylindrical grinders

1865: Multiple-cell electrolytic copper

Law of heredity -- Mendel

Modern ore stamp mill

Newland's octaves

Ring theory of the structure of benzene -- Kekule

Antiseptic surgery -- Lister

1866: Bunsen burner

Underwater torpedo -- Whitehead

First successful transatlantic telegraph cable

Dynamite -- Nobel

1867: Railroad block signals

Elevated railroad in N.Y.C.

Micrometer caliper

1868: Railroad refrigerator car

Tungsten steel -- Musket

First metallography of iron -- Tscherroff

1869: Transcontinental railroad in U.S.

Air brake

Shield tunneling

Suez Canal

Science of eugenics -- Galton

Periodic table -- Mendeleyev

"Angstrom" (wave length of light measurement)

1870: Celluloid

Discovery of invertase

1871: Welt machine

1873: Automatic railroad coupler


Discovery of chromosomes

1874: Audruplex telegraph

Atomic theory of electricity -- Stoney

Pressure-cooking method for canning food

1875: Telephone

Discovery of gallium

1876: Gas engine -- Otto four-cycle

Toxins discovered

Gibbs's phase rule

1877: Microphone

Automatic gear cutters

Anthrax cure

Osmotic pressure

Electric welding

Reinforced-concrete beams


1878: Incandescent lamp

Synthesis of indigo

Discovery of ytterbium

Cathode ray -- Crookes

Basic removal phosphorus iron products

1879: Arc lamp

Synthesis of saccharin

Discovery of samarium

Discovery of scandium

Discovery of holmium

Discovery of thulium

First electrified railroad

1880: Centrifuge

Discovery of gadolinium

Ball bearings (cup and cone)

1881: Depressing freezing point solutions

1882: Tuberculosis bacillus isolated

First central electric power station

Hydroelectric plant

1883: Rayon

Steam turbine

Brooklyn Bridge

1884: Trolley car

Fountain pen -- Waterman

Roll film -- Eastman

Manganese steel

Skyscraper with steel frame


Micro-organisms responsible for cholera, tetanus, and diphtheria discovered

Gasoline motor -- Daimler

1885: Drinell's laws of metallography

Linotype patented -- Mergenthaler


Hydrophobia cure -- Pasteur

Discovery of praseodymium

Discovery of neodymium

Van't Hoff's laws

1886: Aluminum commercially produced -- Hall

Electrolytic copper (series cell)

Electric fan

Fluorine isolated

Discovery of dysprosium

Discovery of germanium

1887: Split-phase induction motor

Rotary converter

Automatic telephone

Esperanto -- attempt at artificial universal language

Ionization -- Arhennius

Fructose synthesized

Monotype machine -- Lanston

Electromagnetic waves -- Hertz

Michelson-Morley experiment

Voltaic cell explanation

1888: Allotrophy in heat treatment

Adding machine (recording)

Box camera

Calcium carbide (acetylene)

Nitrogen-fixing bacteria discovered

1889: Pneumatic tire inner tube

Electric-induction motor

Color film

1890: Electrolytic alkali

Mantle gas burner

Silicon carbide

Synchronous converter

Clincher tire

Gold and silver refining (cyanide)

1891: Thermoelectric pyrometer

Morrison electric auto

Electric cooking

1892: A.C. motor -- Tesla

Automatic telephone switchboard

1893: Motion picture machine

Zip fastener -- Judson

By-product coke oven

Railroad car dumpers

Artificial diamonds

1894: Submarine -- Lake

Dry-air blast furnace

Liquid oxygen

Experimental embryology

Discovery of argon

Andean railway

1895: Automobile

Diesel oil engine

Wireless telegraphy

X ray -- Roentgen

Automatic screw machine

Discovery of helium

1896: Disc plow

Zeeman effect

Ore unloader

Discovery of europium

1897: Steel hopper cars

Electric trip-hammer drill

Cure beri-beri with vitamins

Electron discovered


Radio tuning -- Lodge

1898: Discovery of krypton

Discovery of neon

Discovery of xenon

Discovery of polonium -- Curies

Discovery of radium -- Curies

Coil-and-condenser tuning system for radio -- Lodge X-ray diagnosis

1899: Discovery of actinium

Oil flotation of ore


1900: Nernst lamp

Mercury lamp

Quantum theory -- Planck

Arrhenius discovers the pressure of radiation

Electric steelmaking

Induction furnace


Revolver -- Browning

Discovery of radon

Automatic stereotype plate process

Caterpillar tractor

Dirigible balloon -- Zeppelin

1901: High-speed alloy steel

Gas welding

Wright glider

Transatlantic radio telegraph

Trans-Siberian Railroad completed

Discovery of yellow fever transmission

Isolation of adrenaline

DeVries theory of mutation

1902: Catalytic hydrogenation

Radio telegram

Discovery of heaviside layer

Photos by wire

1903: Edison cell

Oil-burning steamer


Theory of colloids

Tantalum lamp

First successful turbogenerator at Chicago

Pacific cable -- around-world message in 12 minutes

Ford Motor Company founded -- beginning of mass-production autos

Motor taxis in London

Bottlemaking machine

Wright brothers' gas engine-propelled airplane flight

1904: Fleury tube

Electrostatic fume precipitation -- Cottrell

SAE founded

Safety razor blades

Reinforced concrete

Electric subway trains -- N.Y.C.

1905: Mercury pump -- Goede

Process-nitrogen fixation (cyanamide)

Synthetic ammonia

Power plant at Niagara

Special Theory of Relativity -- Einstein

Fleming valve

1906: Turbine drive on Lusitania and Mauretania

Crystal detector (radio)


Deflocculated graphite

Nickel refining

Vacuum radio tube

1907: Automatic bottle-blowing machine

Phosphorus rustproofing (Parkerizing)

First Ford Model T and assembly-line production

Removable auto tire

Discovery of lutetium

Bakelite (phenolic resin plastic)

1908: Oil cracking

Electronic valence

Thermit process of welding railroad rails

East and Hudson river railroad tubes

Electron -- Millikan

1909: Maxim silencer

Bleriot flies English Channel


North Pole reached -- Peary

1910: Haber process

Poulson continuous-wave radio transmission

Roller bearings

1911: Pulmotor

Recognition of protons

South Pole discovered

X-ray study of metals

Kinemacolor movies


First use of gyrocompass -- Sperry

First cloud chamber

1912: First self-starter exhibited -- Bendix

X-ray spectra, X-ray crystallography


Vitamins -- Hopkins

Atomic numbers -- Moseley

Successful diesel installation on ship

Diesel-engine submarines capable of transatlantic crossings

Copper from low-grade ore (electrowinning)

1913: Tungsten-filament lamp

Research on radiation -- Geiger

Atom model -- Bohr

Metal spray plating machine

100-kilocycle generator -- Alexanderson

Nitrogen fixation from air

1914: Military tank

Regenerative circuit -- Armstrong

Chrome-nickel-steel (in lab only)

Panama Canal

World War begun

Selenium photometer

1915: Chrome vanadium steel

Transcontinental phone service

Magnesium industry started

Theory of continental drift -- Wegener

High vacuum radio tube -- Langmuir

Tuned radio frequency reception -- Alexanderson

First chlorine gas attack in World War I

General Relativity Theory -- Einstein

Neon lamp -- Claude


Introduction of chloropicrin, mustard gas

1916: Development of gas mask

Ajax Wyatt furnace


Depth bomb

Stainless steel (secret of World War I, first commercial use in 1928)

1917: Submarine detector

Sperry rangekeeper

Aerial photography

Discovery of protactinium

Optical glass industry in U.S.

Commercial cadmium

Vitamin B

1918: Electron employed

Examination by X ray of brain




1919: NC-4 flight across Atlantic via Bermuda and Azores

First wireless phone two-way conversation across Atlantic, from Brest, France, to Arlington, Virginia

Alcock and Brown nonstop flight across Atlantic

R-34 Atlantic flight

Lewis Langmuir theory of atomic structure

First man-made transmutation -- Rutherford

1920: Neutron discovered -- Harkens

Sodium from salt

Electric furnace production of phosphoric acid

Commercial radio broadcast of voice

1921: Compound gas engine

Electrical prospecting devices

Rubber plated on metal

1922: Thermocouple for interplanetary sensing

Fundamental complementarity in physical Universe

A.C. radio tube


Clear-fused quartz

Air conditioning

Practical automobile self-starter -- Bendix

Push-button elevator


Vitamin D


1923: Nitriding process

Discovery of hafnium

First chromium plating -- Fink

Mercury steam boiler -- Emmet

Chemical physiology of muscle contraction


Hubble discovers another galaxy

1924: Flettner rotor ship


Atomic hydrogen welding

Insulin fattening

Liver for anemia

Wave mechanics -- De Broglie

First dynamic loudspeakers on radio sets

First intercity bus lines

Air mail, from New York to San Francisco

1925: Beryllium copper

Electrochemical restoration of corrosion -- Fink

Transmutation of mercury to gold

Discovery of rhenium

First commercial airline on regular schedule



Science and the Modern World -- Whitehead

1926: Movies (talking)

Electric refrigerator

Dirigible to North Pole

Airplane to North Pole

Liquid-fuel rocket -- Goddard

Conditioned Reflexes -- Pavlov

1927: German lightweight streamline railcar, beginning of streamlining

Television (laboratory only)

Photoelectric cell

Lindbergh flies airplane nonstop across Atlantic from New York to Paris

Heisenberg's indeterminacy

Dirac predicts existence of antiparticles

Holland Tunnel from New York to New Jersey

Dymaxion House -- Buckminster Fuller

Energetic/Synergetic Geometry -- B. Fuller

Michaelson's final, most accurate measurement of speed of light in vacuo (accredited by world science in 1970)

Transatlantic telephone service inaugurated

1928: Teletype

Dirigible Graf Zeppelin flown across Atlantic by Dr. Eckner

Sir Charles Kingsford-Smith flies Pacific, California to Australia

Ford Model A

Penicillin discovered -- Fleming

Tungsten and tantalum carbide

Coalescence from brittle copper cathode

1929: Coaxial cables

Rocket engine successful -- Goddard

Automatic airplane pilot

"Paper bottles" first used for frozen juices and vegetables

Closest packing effect -- Aston

1930: Cyclotron (atom smasher)

Electrolytic sheet copper

Electrolytic powdered metal

Spectra photography

First air-conditioned passenger train

1931: Stratosphere balloon flight -- Piccard

Neoprene rubber developed

Empire State Building completed (world's tallest at 1250 feet)

Around-world airplane flight -- Post and Gatty

George Washington Bridge opened (3500-foot span)

Ford Trimotor Stout aluminum airplane

Pauli postulates neutrino (25 years before first observed)

Godel's proof, hallmark of modem mathematics

Heavy water -- Urey

A1 Williams sets seaplane speed record, 407 mph

1932: Boeing and Douglas DC-3 all-metal passenger airplanes

Cosmic ray camera

Inauguration of transcontinental U.S.A. airline service

92nd isolation of a chemical element

X-ray diffraction

Neutron discovered

Dymaxion House prototype

First use of sulfa drugs

South Atlantic transoceanic zeppelin service

1933: Dymaxion car successfully demonstrated (invented 1927, B. Fuller)

FM broadcasting

Positron -- Anderson and Millikan

1934: Sulfanilamide discovered

Casting of 200-inch mirror for Mount Palomar telescope

High-intensity mercury arc lamp

Perfection of sodium lamp

1935: Cortisone

First trans-Pacific airplane passenger service (Pan Am)

Flying boat

Ion-exchange resins

Public TV begins in England

GE portable shortwave beam radio transceiver

1937: Rust cotton picker


1937: Atomic fission theoretically envisaged by Hahn and Stresemann in Germany

Discovery of technetium

Jet engine, England -- Whittle

Nylon produced

1938: Ballpoint pen

1939: Sikorsky helicopter invented


Development of A-bomb funded (dubbed Manhattan Project in 1942)

Discovery of francium

Electron microscope

Synthetic rubber

1940: First radio map of Milky Way published

Discovery of astatine

Discovery of plutonium

Plutonium fission

Meningitis cure

Discovery of neptunium

Rh factor discovered in blood

1941: Dacron

1942: Magnetic tape

First sustained uranium fission reaction -- Fermi

V-2 rocket

1943: Sikorsky helicopter successfully flown

Dymaxion projection Sky-Ocean World Map published -- B. Fuller

LSD-25 -- Hoffman

1944: DNA discovered

Discovery of curium

First jet airplane (fighter), England

Prototype Dymaxion Houses constructed by Beech Aircraft, Wichita, Kansas

1945: World's first atomic bomb, Alamogordo, New Mexico

Streptomycin developed

Phototypesetting machine

Discovery of americium

1946: First regular transatlantic airplane (DC-4) passenger service

First all-electronic general-purpose digital computer

Pilotless radio-controlled rocket missile

1947: Geodesic dome -- B. Fuller

"Atomic time clock" developed using carbon-14

Discovery of promethium

World's largest reflector telescope, 200-inch mirror (Mount Palomar)

Reflecting microscope developed

Commercial television broadcasting -- U.S.

Speed of radio waves in vacuo -- Essen

Supersonic air flight

Theory that all massive rotating bodies are magnetic -- Blackett

1948: Aureomycin developed


Xerography -- Carlson (first envisioned in 1938)

Holograph -- Gabor

Long-playing record -- Goldmark

Polaroid Land camera marketed

Transistor invented -- Bardeen, Brattain, Shockley

1949: Giant electronic computers introduced to implement complex stockpiling and anticipatory arming and preparation for World War III under title "cold war," invisible psychological warfare.

U.S.S.R. explodes A-bomb, ending U.S. monopoly


General industrial automation emerging


1950: DC-6 airplane passenger service

1950s consumer goods "fall-out" from emergent technology: frost-free refrigerator, dishwasher, self-cleaning oven, etc.

Discovery of berkelium

Discovery of californium

1951: DC-7 propellor-drive airplane introduced

Peat-fired gas turbine

DNA helical structure discovered by Wilkins, Watson, Crick

"Flying spot" microscope

1952: First hydrogen bomb explosion, Eniwetok Island, South Pacific

Artificial lung-heart machine used in surgery

Radioisotopes come into scientific, medical, industrial use

1953: Ford Motor Company 93-foot geodesic dome successfully installed

Polio vaccine developed by Jonas Salk

Cryosurgery -- Swan

Cosmic-ray observatory in Alaska

1954: Nautilus, first atomic-powered submarine, launched

Solar battery capable of converting Sun's radiation into electricity

Vertical-takeoff aircraft

1955: Discovery of radio emissions from Jupiter-Burke

Maser invented by Towne

Compatible color TV receiver (widespread use in U.S. in 10 years, and 40 million worldwide by early '70s)

Open-heart surgery

Discovery of molecular structure of insulin

Artificial diamonds -- gem-quality by early '70s

Salk polio vaccine effective

First glass with regular crystalline molecular pattern discovered

1956: Neutrino first detected

Transcontinental helicopter flight, 37 hours

First transatlantic telephone cable

Mullard image-dissector camera

Ion microscope

1957: International Geophysical Year

First civilian nuclear-power station

History's largest clear-span structural enclosure at Baton Rouge, Louisiana (384 feet in diameter) -- B. Fuller

Sputnik, first satellite launched by Earthians

First containerized cargo ships

First monorail -- Cologne, Germany

Discovery of nobelium

1958: Nuclear-powered ice-breaker ship

First U.S. satellite orbits Earth

Stereophonic phonograph recordings

Geodesic domes at North and South Poles to house research

Invisible high-energy Van Allen radiation belts discovered

Discovery of mendelevium

Law of Conservation of Parity does not hold for weak interactions -- Lee, Yang

Atomic submarine crosses Arctic Ocean and North Pole from Pacific Ocean to Atlantic submerged below ice cap.

1959: World-around air jet passenger service network established

Unmanned rocket Luna 2 crash-lands on Moon (U.S.S.R.)

Luna 3 circles Moon and sends first radiophoto of "far side" back to Earth

First nuclear-powered passenger-cargo ship launched

Luna 1 orbits Sun as first man-made planet (U.S.S.R.)

St. Lawrence Seaway opens mid-America to ocean traffic

1960: Laser demonstrated -- Maiman

Chlorophyll is synthesized from man-made materials

Structure of protein myoglobin elucidated -- Kendrew, Perutz

Birth control pills

Pacemaker for human heart

Bathyscaphe navigates seven miles inward to bottom of Pacific Ocean

Nuclear submarine Triton circumnavigates Earth submerged the whole way -- 84 days

First weather satellite, Tiros I (U.S.A.)

U.S.S.R. recovers dogs after 17 orbits of Earth in satellite

1961: DNA genetic code deciphered -- design control for all life

Gagarin orbits Earth as first human spaceman

Russians orbit Earth in hourly cycles in co-rocketing vehicles

Discovery of lawrencium

National electric ultra-high-voltage grids of France and Britain are connected by cable and superconductivity

Methane used to supplement coal-gas in Britain

1962: Telstar, half-ton communication-relay satellite

Satellite studies of cosmic radiation and Venus

Advances in molecular biology -- Perutz

Four ice ages established from soil core diggings

1963: Friction welding

Discovery of anti-xi-zeno, fundamental atomic particle of antimatter

Measles vaccine perfected

Syncom satellite holds position over spinning Earth

Belt of copper needles orbited to test a secure global radio communications system

Quasars discovered

1964: Verrazano Narrows Bridge, New York, world's longest suspension bridge

Close-up photos of Moon's surface

Divers live in underwater Sealab for nine days

1965: First space walks (U.S.A. and U.S.S.R.)

Mars photos from 7000-mile fly-by

First use of satellites in TV transmission

1966: Luna 9 instrument package makes soft landing on Moon

Bubble memories for computers

1967: Docking of two unmanned spacecraft

2.5-million-year-old human bone fragments

DNA virus synthesized

Human heart transplant

B. Fuller's tetrahedral floating-city project

Mendelevium 258, heaviest element yet known, discovered

Chromium dioxide magnetic tape, doubling information-storage capacity

1968: First men orbit Moon

Pulsars first detected

Integrated circuits

Ribonuclease molecule synthesized

1969: First humans on Moon

First remote sensing satellite

Single gene isolated

Enzyme synthesized

Structure of gamma globulin deciphered

Fiber optics, microwaves, fluidics

1970: Venera 7 spacecraft makes soft landing on Venus

Boeing 747 jumbo jet

Completion of gene synthesis

Largest fully steerable dish radio telescope

1971: First synthesis of hormone responsible for human growth

First man-made object to orbit another planet-Mars

Moon soil brought back

1972: Jupiter fly-by launched

Computer-programmed subway train

1974: Orbiting space station

Astronauts spend 85 days aboard Skylab space station

"Close-in" pictures of Venus, Mercury, and Jupiter

1975: B. Fuller's Synergetics published

Particles with "charm" discovered

Venus soft landing with surface pictures

Satellite brings educational TV to 2400 villages in India

U.S.-Soviet satellite link-up

Marketing of home video recorders, home TV projection systems, and home personal computers

1976: Mars unmanned landing

Progress in unification of general relativity, quantum mechanics, and thermodynamics leads to prediction that miniature black holes (1015 grams) created early in history of Universe are exploding now, yielding burst of gamma rays that should be observable.

World's largest solar furnace, France

1977: Many moons discovered around Uranus

Gene-splitting technique to attack human disease

Cruise missile, neutron bomb, and charged particle beam weapons secretly researched

First explicit demonstration of a burn within the target core in fusion reaction

Fiber optics for telephone transmission using gallium arsenide lasers

Instant-motion-picture system marketed

Chinese claim to predict three of six major earthquakes

1978: World's first test tube baby

Smallpox completely eliminated from planet

All-microwave Seasat satellite launched to study ocean surface

Insulin production using recombinant DNA techniques

First transatlantic balloon flight

1979: Gossamer Albatross, human-powered England-to-France flight

Jupiter fly-by photographs

Fly's Eye dwelling-machine prototype completed

Interferon studied by cancer researchers
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Re: Critical Path, by R. Buckminster Fuller

Postby admin » Tue Jul 28, 2015 6:54 am


APPENDIX 2: Chronological Inventory of Prominent Scientific, Technological, Economic, and Political World Events: 1895 to Date

UPON WHICH HAS BEEN SUPERIMPOSED the utterly personal chronology of Buckminster Fuller (RBF), his family, his discoveries and his inventions, both philosophic and technological.

The integration of the prime world history events with those of one individual and his family at first exaggerates the infinitesimal stature of the individual in respect to humanity's integrated, news-processed, and arbitrarily classified experience.

But this exaggerated relationship of the minute individual in respect to the whole is nonetheless the only possible common direct experience of each and every human being. All else is hearsay.

The inventions of the single individual at first seem irrelevant and preposterous as associated with the great legends of the publicly accredited historical accounting. Gradually, however, the relevancy of the philosophy of the individual to the comprehensive evolution may become visible, and his inventions may gradually appear feasible, even logical, if he persists and learns how to perfect them both by inclusions and refinements.

If the individual were not moved by the seeming significance of his undertakings, as exaggeratingly disclosed in this chronological juxtaposition of all humans and one human, he would not have an adequately sustaining drive to reduce his inventing to commonly assimilable practice and possible common advantage.

Taken out of the context of scientific search for data apparently governing and motivating the individual inventor in the era of the massive corporation and the massive state and the latter's apparently staggering economic and political starting advantage over the prime design initiative of the individual, the following record could only be classified as egotistical. However, it was compiled and is submitted in scientific earnest by its only possible direct observer. Because the lag between the dates of invention and common public use averages twenty-two years, the dates of the inventions listed must be considered only as harbingers, with their effective industrial realizations and public advantaging variously postponed.

1895: Automobile (first U.S.A. gasoline engine) designed under Charles Duryea's U.S. patent; wireless telegraph, automatic screw machine invented; X rays discovered; photoelectric cell; First diesel engine; RBF born July 12, Columbine Road, Milton, Mass.; Cleveland, President. At this time the Flatiron Building, 23rd Street and Broadway (at Fifth Avenue), New York City, was the tallest occupied building in the world, and the Eiffel Tower, built in 1889 and 984 feet high was the tallest man-made structure in the world and remained the tallest until Empire State Building of 1250 feet erected in 1930; psychoanalysis (Sigmund Freud).

1896: Steam turbine, disc plow; Anne Hewlett (RBF's future wife) born, January 9, Columbia Heights, Brooklyn, N.Y.; discovery of radioactivity in uranium.

1897: Electric trip-hammer drill; William McKinley inaugurated President; Electron discovered.

1898: Spanish-American War begins; U.S. annexes Hawaii; Curies discover radium.

1899: Flotation of ore (oil); RBF enters kindergarten, makes octet-truss.

1900: Escalator; Caterpillar tractor; dirigible balloon (Zeppelin); electric steelmaking; mercury lamp; quantum theory, by Max Planck; President McKinley re-elected; U.S. "Open Door" policy toward China; Boxer Rebellion.

1901: Wright brothers' glider; gas welding; Marconi's transatlantic radio telegraph; yellow fever vanquished; RBF enters elementary school; President McKinley assassinated; Theodore Roosevelt becomes President.

1902: Mt. Pelee erupts on the island of Martinique, destroying 30,000 people, powerful impression on RBF; RBF's father and mother travel to Buenos Aires via London and Rio and via White Star liner Oceanic and the steamers Don and Magdalene.

1903: Around-the-world telegram, 12 minutes; Wright brothers' gas-engine-propelled airplane flight, Kitty Hawk, N.C.; ultramicroscope; arc light; bottlemaking machine; oil-burning steamship; Pord Motor Company founded, beginning of mass-production automobiles.

1904: Theodore Roosevelt elected President, proposes "Corollary" to Monroe Doctrine; reinforced concrete; Russo-Japanese War; N.Y.C. electric rapid transit "subway" opens 42nd to 14th streets. (RBP's Uncle Waldo Puller, a chief engineer of project. Uncle Waldo Puller, a Harvard football great of 1883 who had gone to Klondike in the gold rush, was RBF's greatest living boyhood hero.) RBP enters Milton Academy, lower school; RBP's Grandmother Matilda Wolcott Andrews and all her grand family of Kings and Pullers go for summer to John Quinn's on Eagle Island in Penobscot Bay, Me., buy Bear, Compass, and Little Sprucehead Islands.

1905: Einstein's relativity; RBP's family occupy Bear Island, Me., as summer home; Russo-Japanese peace treaty signed at Portsmouth, N.H., with Teddy Roosevelt as mediator.

1906: Sperry gyrocompass; radio vacuum tube; crystal radio detector; RBP enters Milton Academy, upper school; San Francisco earthquake and fire; RBP has one of first appendectomies by Dr. Dan Jones of Massachusetts General Hospital.

1907: Ford's Model T automobile inaugurates major world mass-production industry, demountable tires, Bakelite (phenolic resin plastic); RBP's father has stroke, brain clot.

1908: East River (L.I.R.R.) and Hudson railroad tunnels; President William Howard Taft elected; fire destroys Chelsea, Mass., witnessed clearly by RBP from Milton Hill as RBP's mother and Grandmother Andrews described their witnessing of the Chicago fire from the cupola of their "Sweet Briar" farmhouse just north of Chicago.

1909: Bleriot flies English Channel; North Pole discovered by Admiral Peary, April 6; typhus vaccine discovered.

1910: Salvarsan discovered; Albany-to-New-York Curtis flying-boat flight; RBP's father dies; cosmic rays identified.

1911: South Pole discovered by Amundsen, December 14; atomic nucleus proton discovered; hydroplane; pulmotor; first use, gyrocompass servos (Sperry); first cloud chamber.

1912: President Woodrow Wilson elected; vitamins; S.S. Titanic sunk in collision with iceberg; first S.O.S.; New Orleans music -- "Alexander's Ragtime Band," Turkey Trot becomes popular; U.S.A. -type music and dance, displacement of classical and European dances.

1913: Tungsten incandescent lamp; gasoline "cracking" process; concept of atomic number (Moseley); RBP graduates from Milton Academy and enters Harvard University in Class of 1917. Although U.S. currency fully convertible to gold until 1933, U.S.A. internal monetary system goes off gold standard. Federal Reserve System established (as private bankers' gold becomes inadequate to implement new industrial mass-production magnitudes of trade). Although under many constraints Federal Reserve as yet in private banker management, as the Alexander Hamilton U.S. constitutional interpretation of the dogma persists that U.S. government had no fundamental wealth initiative and must borrow all wealth from private bankers and repay them through collection of taxes, tariffs, and excises. RBF's Milton home sold; U.S. intervention in Mexican Revolution.

1914: Military tank; Armstrong's regenerative radio circuit; chrome-nickel- steel (in-lab-only); Panama Canal; World War I begins as industrialized powers compete for world-around resources for their new technology; RBF expelled from Harvard College, then reinstated, after intensive experience as apprentice and millwright in cotton mill at Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada.

1915: Transcontinental telephone; gas warfare; neon lamp; radiotelephone; RBF expelled from Harvard second time, employed in New York City by Armour & Co., worked. in 28 branch houses throughout greater New York City, working 3 A.M. to 5 P.M. daily; Woolworth Building, N.Y.C., 792 feet high, 60 stories, succeeded Singer as world's tallest occupied building and remained tallest until exceeded by Empire State Building fifteen years later (1930).

1916: Stainless steel (secret World War I accomplishment), does not get into commercial use until 1928; depth bomb; President Wilson reelected; S.S. Lusitania sunk by German submarine; RBF and AHF engaged; RBF corporal at U.S. military training camp, Plattsburg, N.Y.

1917: U.S. into World War I (April 6); Russian Revolution, U.S.S.R. born; Vitamin B; RBF enters U.S.N.R., March; AHF and RBF married July 12 at Rock Hall, the Hewlett family homestead at Lawrence, Long Island, N.Y., for 130 years (Rock Hall was built by Josiah Martin, British governor of Antigua, and his son Josiah Martin, British colonial governor of North Carolina, as their joint summer mansion about 1750, and was used by the English as Tory headquarters in Battle of New York during American Revolution).

1918: RBF assigned to short special course at U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis. Over one million American troops safely deployed in Europe by July. World War I Armistice, November 11; electron employed and development of mass spectroscopy; toaster; RBF and Anne Fuller's first child, Alexandra Willets Fuller, born December 12; sonar.

1919: U.S. Navy flying boat NC-4 flies Atlantic in three jumps, Newfoundland, to Azores, to Lisbon, to Spain, May 16-27; transatlantic two-way radio telephone conversation, U.S.S. George Washington in Brest Harbor, France, to Arlington Tower, Washington, D.C. (U.S.S. George Washington was transport that carried President Wilson to France for Versailles Treaty and inauguration of League of Nations); Ensign RBF assigned temporarily to U.S.S. George Washington, then to U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, on a special course. Alcock and Brown fly Atlantic in airplane nonstop, Newfoundland to 'Ireland, June 14-16; British dirigible R-34 crosses Atlantic, England- U.S.A., July 2; RBF promoted to Lt. (j.g.) U.S.N. Then to active war zone Atlantic troop transport duty as personal aide for secret information to Admiral Albert Gleaves, who commanded cruiser and transport forces U.S. Atlantic Fleet. Service in U.S.S. Great Northern, U.S.S. Seattle; November 1 -- RBF resigns from U.S. Navy, as his admiral is assigned to commander-in-chief of Asiatic Fleet, and his daughter, Alexandra, successively contracts infantile paralysis and spinal meningitis in N.Y.C.; RBF becomes assistant export manager of Armour & Co. in their N.Y.C. headquarters in new Equitable Building at 120 Broadway; RBF, Anne, and Alexandra live in house on Pearsal Place, Lawrence, Long Island, N.Y.; alcoholic beverage prohibition begins in U.S.A.

1920: Neutron discovered; commercial radio broadcast of voice; Harding elected President; League of Nations, Geneva, Switzerland (minus U.S.A.); women get the vote, U.S.A., August 26.

1921: RBF resigns from Armour & Co. to become National Account Sales Manager of Kelley-Springfield Truck Co. with office in Equitable Building, N.Y. C.

1922: Practical automobile self-starter (Bendix); air conditioning; pushbutton elevator; insulin; vitamin D. RBF resigns Kelley-Springfield .. Truck Co. and starts career as independent enterpriser. Stockade Blocks invented by RBF's father-in-law, J. M. Hewlett, and manufactured by RBF; RBF and Anne's only child, Alexandra Willets Fuller, dies November 14, just before her fourth birthday. AHF's mother dies, and her brother, Willets, killed in auto accident; radar invented (Taylor and Young); Reader's Digest founded.

1923: House oil burners; RBF and Anne live in apartment, East 95th St., N.Y.C.; Hubble discovers another galaxy in addition to our own "Milky Way" galaxy. (In the half-century since Hubble's discovery of another galaxy other than our own "Milky Way," two billion galaxies each averaging 100 billion stars have been discovered and photographed -- trying to record these precessional discoveries from 1923 onward would overwhelm this chronicling.) Bulldozer; sound-on- sound motion pictures.

1924: Coolidge elected President; first dynamic loudspeakers on radio sets, using Major Armstrong's regenerative circuits; first intercity bus lines established -- Chicago to Detroit; Fageol twin coach -- Greyhound buses; RBF and Anne have apartment, East 94th St., N.Y.C.; Soldiers' Bonus Act compensated soldiers for overseas duty -- a million Americans had served overseas in World War I; transcontinental airmail carried by cloth-covered-wing biplanes.

1925: First commercial airline -- Detroit to Chicago; phototelegraphy; methanol; Alfred North Whitehead's Science and the Modern World discloses separation of science and humanities with rise of scientific materialism.

1926: Electric refrigerator -- adapted for domestic use from oceangoing technology; talking, moving pictures; Amundsen, Ellsworth, and Nobile fly to North Pole in Italian dirigible; Richard Byrd and Floyd Bennett fly Norway to North Pole and return, May 9, in airplane; Air Commerce Act provides federal aid to airlines and airports; RBF's five Stockade Building System companies have their blocks and building system employed in total of 240 homes and commercial buildings between 1922 and 1927; RBF fails to make money with Stockade, loses all the money his friends had ventured in support of his enterprise; RBF resigns as president of Stockade Company as company is acquired by Celotex Company; Firestone leases million acres in Liberia, Africa, for rubber plantations, provides medical/educational services to Liberians; Goddard launches first liquid-fuel rocket; Pavlov's Conditioned Reflexes published, U.S.S.R.

1927: Television (laboratory only, not in popular use in U.S.A. until 1947); photoelectric cell; Lindbergh flies airplane, Spirit of St. Louis, across Atlantic, New York to Paris, nonstop, May 20-21; Heisenberg's indeterminism; Holland Tunnel under Hudson River, New York to New Jersey; RBF's and AHF's second child, Allegra Fuller, born August 28, Chicago, Ill.; RBF and family live on Belmont Ave., Chicago; RBF writes book, 4D, privately published; RBF founds "4D" company for research, development, and patent protection of his Dymaxion House and Car; Energetic/Synergetic geometry discovered by RBF; Dymaxion House invented as part of his concept of air-deliverable, mass-producible, world-around, dwelling machine based on anticipatory design science.

1928: Teletype; Hoover elected President; dirigible Graf Zeppelin flown across Atlantic by Dr. Eckner; Amelia Earhart flies Atlantic, June, 17; Sir Charles Kingsford-Smith flies Pacific, Oakland, Calif., to Brisbane, Australia, in airplane Southern Cross, May 31; both Amelia Earhart and Sir Charles Kingsford-Smith became warm friends of RBF in 1934; Ford introduces Model A, with stainless steel headlight trim; Kellogg-Briand Pact outlawing war signed by U.S.; Stalin initiates five-year-plan for rapid industrialization of U.S.S.R.; penicillin discovered (Fleming).

1929: Aston's closest-packing-effect; RBF and family move from Chicago to N.Y.C.; World Stock Market Crash, October 29; "Great Depression" begins; night airmail inaugurated out of Chicago in cloth-covered biplanes; RBF and family take house Woodmere, Long Island, N.Y.; coaxial cables; rocket engine successful (Goddard); automatic airplane pilot. "St. Valentine's Day Massacre" in Chicago. RBF frequents Romany Marie's Tavern, Greenwich Village, N.Y.C.; "paper bottles" first used for frozen juices and vegetables.

1930: Cyclotron (atom smasher); Fortune magazine, conceived in pre-1929 boom days to service the boom's millionaires, then frustrated by the Crash, comes inadvertently into being as a protagonist of the (it is hoped) re-emergent enterprise concept of a self-perpetuating industrial-management capitalism, surprisingly escaped from Finance Capitalism's 1929 shipwreck and death, by "drowning," of international banking as the world's economic master; RBF and family have house, Johnson Place, Woodmere; RBF also has apartment on the roof, Lehigh-Starret Building, N.Y.C.; Empire State Building (1250 feet) under construction -- to become the world's tallest building; RBF sells Navy life insurance policy to finance taking over T-Square magazine in Philadelphia and renames it Shelter magazine; Einstein's "Cosmic Religious Sense -- the Nonanthropomorphic Concept of God," published by the New York Times Sunday magazine.

1931: Piccard's stratosphere balloon flight; ·Post and Gatty fly around world by airplane in succession of refueling short hops; George Washington Bridge (New York) opens, 3500-foot span; Ford Trimotor Stout aluminum airplane flown; Pauli postulates neutrino 25 years before observed directly (1955); Godel's proof -- hallmark of modern mathematics; neoprene rubber developed.

1932: Economic depression depth in U.S.A.; FDR elected President; Boeing and Douglas DC-3 all-metal passenger airplane; inauguration of transcontinental U.S.A. airline service; 92nd isolation of a chemical element; X-ray diffraction; neutron discovered; RBF closes Shelter magazine after November election of FDR and inauguration of New Deal, hoping that economic ills Shelter cited might be corrected; Fortune magazine publishes "The Industry that Industry Missed," citing RBF Dymaxion House as prototype of new mass-production house industry; first use of sulfa drugs.

1933: Dymaxion Car (invented 1927), built and successfully demonstrated by RBF in old -plant of Locomobile Co. at Bridgeport, Conn., as first-stage experimental vehicle leading to eventual omnimedium wingless transport, propelled and maneuverably controlled by twin, orientable, rocket and jet-stilts; FM broadcasting; alcoholic beverage prohibition ends in U.S.A.; Adolf Hitler becomes chancellor of Germany, January 30; U.S. banks failing finally at peak rate of 5000 in one day, bank moratorium declared by FDR, March 6-9; Congress gives President power to control money (law upheld by U.S. Supreme Court, February 18, 1935); FDR begins "Fireside Chats," radio; approximately all of world's monetary gold paid over to U.S. government and put into Kentucky hill vaults; world completely off gold standard of exchange; RBF, Anne, and Allegra live in house in Darien, Conn.; "Dust Bowl" droughts begin to ravage Great Plains.

1934: NRA (U.S. National Relief Administration), WPA (U.S. Works Progress Administration), RFC (U.S. Reconstruction Finance Corporation, world's largest capital), REA (U.S. Rural Electric Administration), TVA (U.S. Tennessee Valley Authority), SEC (U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission), and HOLC (U.S. Home Owners Loan Corporation); RBF's mother dies; sulfanilamide discovered.

1935: RBF completes Dymaxion Transport # 3 -- displayed at Chicago's "Century of Progress" World's Fair; cortisone; first trans-Pacific airplane passenger service, in Pan Am flying boats.

1936: RBF joins Phelps Dodge Corporation, Research Department, as assistant to its director; RBF, Anne, and Allegra have apartment, East 87th St., N.Y.C., between Park and Madison avenues; RBF as guest performer of director Gilbert Seldes in frequent experimental broadcasts of CBS television from Grand Central Station office building studio to 100 experimental sets of CBS executives; Allegra Fuller also guest on first TV shows; public television broadcasts begin in England; micrometer.

1937: Atomic fission theoretically envisaged by Hahn and Stresemann in Germany; jet engine, Whittle, England; nylon produced; RBF, Anne, and Allegra move to apartment, 105 East 88th St., N.Y.C.; Allegra to Dalton School, 100 E. 89th St., N.Y.C.; auto and steel industry labor unions win first big labor contracts

1938: RBF book, Nine Chains to the Moon, published; RBF travels much of U.S. with Christopher Morley; RBF joins Fortune magazine staff as its science and technology consultant; Munich; Hitler.

1939: World War II begins; Sikorsky helicopter invented; Einstein and others warn FDR of possibilities of developing atomic bomb; FDR immediately funds the research, eventually to become the Manhattan Project; electron microscope; synthetic rubber.

1940: First radio map of Milky Way published, U.S.A. -- invisible world emerging; plutonium fission; meningitis cure; RBF leaves Fortune magazine; backed by Robert Colgate, RBF inaugurates Dymaxion Deployment Unit of Butler Manufacturing Company, Kansas City; units used as first radar shacks and as air-conditioned dormitories of U.S. flyers and mechanics making fly-away delivery of war planes to Russians at head of Persian Gulf; FDR's Four Freedoms -- freedom from fear, freedom from want, freedom of religion, freedom of speech; Rh factor discovered in blood.

1941: Penicillin comes into use to fight pneumonia; Lend-Lease Act; Atlantic Charter; Japanese attack Pearl Harbor, December 7; U.S.A. enters World War II, December 8; commercial TV inaugurated in U.S.A., but held up until war's end; aerosol spray.

1942: RBF joins U.S.A. Board of Economic Warfare, Washington, D.C., as its head mechanical engineer; first sustained uranium fission reaction achieved at University of Chicago; RBF, Anne, and Allegra move to 2222 Decatur Place, N.W., Washington, D.C.; magnetic tape.

1943: Sikorsky helicopter successfully flown; RBF's Dymaxion Projection Sky-Ocean World Map published in Life magazine, March 1; Hoffman discovers LSD-25.

1944: DNA discovered; first jet airplane (fighter), English; RBF becomes Special Assistant to Deputy Director, U.S. Foreign Economic Administration; prototype Dymaxion House manufactured by aircraft industry, Wichita, Kans., under joint auspices AFL-CIO Labor, War Production Board, War Manpower Commission, Aircraft Industry Production Board, Beech Aircraft's Executive Administration, with RBF as chief design engineer; RBF, Anne, and Allegra move to 6 Burns St., Forest Hills, N.Y.C., apartment, as RBF goes to live in Wichita, Kans., '44, '45, '46; "D-Day," Normandy invasion, June 6; FDR elected to fourth term.

1945: FDR dies April 12, Warm Springs, Ga.; Truman succeeds him as President; Mussolini executed April 28; Hitler commits suicide, April 29; Nuremburg War Crimes Tribunal; United Nations meets in San Francisco, April 25, chartered June 26; world's first atomic bomb exploded secretly near Alamogordo, N. M., July 16; Hiroshima, August 6 -- Nagasaki, August 9; VE Day, May 8 -- VJ Day, September 2 -- World War II ends; streptomycin developed; phototypesetting machine.

1946: Regular transatlantic airplane passenger service begins with prop-driven Douglas DC-4, secret transoceanic "workhorse" of World War II; League of Nations dissolved; RBF awarded first cartographic projection patent ever granted by U.S.A. Patent Office for Dymaxion Map (January 29); Eniac -- first all-electronic general-purpose digital computer.

1947: Geodesic dome invented by RBF; "atomic time clock" developed using carbon-14; Marshall Plan aids European countries; Taft-Hartley Act limits power of labor; world's largest reflector telescope (Mount Palomar, Calif.), 200-inch, 14-ton mirror, remains largest until U.S.S.R. 's 236-incher constructed in early '70s; commercial television broadcasting gets underway in U.S.A.; RBF professor at Black Mountain College, N.C.; Nehru becomes prime minister of newly established independent India; new postwar automobile designs begin to emerge.

1948: President Truman wins close election over Dewey; aureomycin developed; RBF to Massachusetts Institute of Technology; RBF teaching, summer session, Black Mountain College; State of Israel established; Gandhi assassinated in India, January 30; xerography (Carlson); long-playing record (Goldmark); holography (Gabor) first proposed; Polaroid Land camera first marketed (invented before World War II, a million sold by 1956); Rock Hall given by Hewletts to the people of Nassau County, N.Y., as a museum.

1949: Giant electronic computers introduced to implement complex stockpiling and anticipatory arming and preparation for World War III under title "cold war" -- invisible and psychological warfare; U.S.S.R. explodes first atomic bomb, ending U.S. monopoly; ACTH; general industrial automation emerging; Mao Tse-tung establishes People's Republic of China, October 1; RBF, dean at Black Mountain College, summer session; RBF to Chicago Institute of Design and to M.I.T. as visiting lecturer.

1950: DC-6 airplane passenger service inaugurated; Joseph "Witch Hunt" McCarthy; Brink's robbery of million dollars, Boston; RBF in heavy schedule of invited university appointments and lectures -- M.I.T., North Carolina State University, University of Michigan; AHF and RBF's daughter Allegra Fuller graduates from Bennington College and marries Robert Snyder; Diner's Club introduces universal credit card; 1950s consumer goods "fall-out" from emergent technology -- dishwasher, frost-free refrigerator, self-cleaning oven, etc.; Korean War begins.

1951: DC-7 propellor-driven airplane introduced; DNA helical structure discovered by Wilkins, Watson, Crick; RBF later points out similarities of DNA helix to his tetrahelix model; rise of African nationalism.

1952: U.S. detonates world's first hydrogen bomb, Eniwetok Island, South Pacific; Geodesic Dome project started, in contract with RBF, for Ford Motor Co., River Rouge headquarters; Eisenhower elected President (in first step of Wall Street lawyers' strategy to overturn New Deal controls of big business); Queen Elizabeth II crowned; first commercial jetliner service, British DeHavilland Comet.

1953 Ford Motor Company's 50th anniversary, Dearborn, Mich.; 93-foot-diameter geodesic Rotunda Dome installed as first successful industrial acceptance of RBF's concepts a quarter of a century after his 1927 prediction that first realization would be in 1952; Mount Everest climbed by Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norkay, May 29; 50- foot-diameter tensegrity sphere constructed under RBF's direction at Princeton University; Alexandra Fuller Snyder born November 1 (RBF and Anne Fuller's first grandchild). Polio vaccine developed by Jonas Salk; cryosurgery (Swan).

1954: Nautilus, first atomic-powered submarine launched; vertical-takeoff aircraft; U.S.A.; RBF granted U.S. Patent No. 2,682,235 for geodesic dome; U.S. Marine Corps' family-house-size geodesic dome helicopter air-lifted and delivered at 60 knots, front-page picture feature of New York Times; geodesic domes adopted by U.S. Marines for all advanced- base enclosures; Supreme Court orders school desegregation; compatible color TV receiver introduced, with widespread purchase in U.S. within 10 years and 40 million worldwide by early '70s; open-heart surgery; artificial diamonds -- gem-quality by early '70s; Walter O'Malley, owner of Brooklyn Dodgers, comes to RBF to develop geodesic dome to be installed over Dodgers' Brooklyn baseball stadium.

1955: "DEW Line" geodesic radomes installed in Arctic; Warsaw Pact; maser invented; Salk polio vaccine effective; Jaime Lawrence Snyder born April 28 (RBF and Anne Fuller's first grandson); RBF conducted development at Princeton University Architecture School of Brooklyn Dodger Stadium geodesic dome (Walter O'Malley and Robert Oppenheimer both served as critics of the problem -- much newspaper note of the event); Eisenhower and Khrushchev meet at Geneva, with their atomic scientists, followed by UN Food and Agriculture Organization, at which time it became publicly known that scientists conceded that Malthus was wrong and there could be enough food for 100 percent of humanity but for time being obviously frustrated from realization by world political sovereignties.

1956: Transistor developed for consumer use; first transcontinental helicopter flight, 37 hours; first transatlantic telephone cable; U.S.A. International Trade Fairs adopt RBF's geodesic domes as main pavilions (first geodesic 100-foot-diameter trade fair dome flown to Kabul, Afghanistan, in one DC-4; dome erected in 48 hours by Afghans led by one U.S. engineer). RBF's first appointment as visiting lecturer, Southern Illinois University.

1957: International Geophysical Year; European Economic Community established; first civilian nuclear power station; history's largest clear-span structural enclosure, 384-foot-diameter RBF-designed geodesic dome in Baton Rouge, La. (until RBF's geodesic dome, the largest clear-span domes in the history of the world were the 150- foot-diameter St. Peter's dome in Rome and the 150-foot-diameter dome of the Pantheon, also in Rome); first satellite (Sputnik) launched by Earthians -- orbits Earth every 90 minutes as humanity initiates the Space Age; first containerized cargo ships; Walter O'Malley moves his Dodgers baseball team from Brooklyn, N.Y., to Los Angeles, Calif., obviating his fuither need for geodesic dome.

1958: RBF makes first of his subsequently multiannual circuits of Earth in course of fulfilling his regular university appointments in South Africa, India, Japan, England, etc.; Boeing 707 commercial transport inaugurated; laser invented -- patented with working model in 1960 (Maiman); geodesic domes go to Arctic and Antarctic and all around Earth; first U.S. satellite orbits Earth; invisible high-energy radiation Van Allen belts first observed around Earth; U.S. nuclear submarine Nautilus, under Commander William R. Anderson, crosses Arctic Ocean and North Pole from Pacific Ocean to Atlantic Ocean submerged below ice cap; RBF's Energetic/Synergetic Geometry discovered by nuclear physicists and molecular biologists to mathematically explain nature's fundamental structuring at the atomic nucleus and virus levels (see Dow Chemical Company's chief physicist, John Grebe, in paper to New York Academy of Sciences, and Dr. Klug, Birbeck College, London University); RBF awarded Gold Medal, Scarab, National Architectural Society.

1959: World-around air-jet passenger-service network established; Luna 2, Russian unmanned rocket, crash-lands on Moon; Luna 3 circles Moon and sends radiophotos of "far side" back to Earth; first nuclear- powered commercial ship launched; Luna 1, Russian rocket, into orbit around Sun as first man-made planet; 200-foot-diameter RBF-Kaiser gold-anodized aluminum geodesic dome is U.S.A.'s International Exhibit, Moscow, Russia -- acclaimed by Khrushchev and after fair purchased (at full cost) by Russia from U.S.A. (dome now permanent structure in Moscow's Sokolniki Park); Alaska and Hawaii admitted as 49th and 50th states to U.S.A.; year-long outdoor garden exhibit of RBF's geodesic domes, Octetruss, and tensegrity mast at Museum of Modern Art, N.Y.C.; RBF appointed by State Department to visit Russia as representative of engineering in protocol exchange -- Russians, in giving dinner for RBF, stated they had been following his work for 29 years; St. Lawrence Seaway opens mid-America to ocean traffic; Major Rogers, U.S.A.F., flies airplane 2455 m.p.h.; RBF appointed as University Professor (Research) at Southern Illinois University where he is awarded honorary Doctor of Arts degree; RBF and Anne erect geodesic dome home, 407 S. Forest, Carbondale, Ill., moving there from Forest. Hills, N.Y.; 200-foot-diameter aluminum geodesic dome constructed as Palais des Sports, Paris, France; treaty reserving Antarctica for scientific research accepted by 12 nations. Judge Hofbeinz of Houston comes to Walter O'Malley in Los Angeles to gain his aid in securing a National Baseball League membership for a team Hofbeinz proposed forming in Houston, Texas -- O'Malley told Hofbeinz that he would need a domed-over stadium due to the weather pattern in Houston, O'Malley told Hofbeinz to get in touch with RBF as the only one capable of designing such a dome, a matter that O'Malley assured Hofbeinz he had studied deeply. Hofbeinz contacts RBF and asks him to work on the design of such a dome; he had RBF meet with all his financial associates and explain why dome was possible despite no engineering anticipation that such might be possible.

1960: John F. Kennedy elected President; Peace Corps established; 114- foot-diameter, 1O,OOO-square-foot-floor-space geodesic dome of Ford Motor Co. delivered by helicopter, fully erected; in 1960s oral birth control pills come into widespread use despite possible and unknown dangers; bathyscaphe navigates seven miles (35,810 feet) inward to bottom of Pacific Ocean, Marianas trench; U.S. nuclear submarine Triton circumnavigates Earth, submerged the whole way, in 84 days; Russia aids Egypt in beginning construction of Aswan High Dam on Nile; Dymaxion World of Buckminster Fuller, written with Robert W. Marks, published by Doubleday; U-2 photo-reconnaissance spy plane shot "in" by Russians -- Americans agree to suspend flights; civil war breaks out in new Republic of Congo; Cyprus gains independence, with Archbishop Makarios as president; RBF awarded Chronology of Prominent World Events: 1895 to Date 391 Frank P. Brown Medal of Philadelphia's Franklin Institute and Gold Medal, American Institute of Architects (Philadelphia chapter); RBF continues intensive development of Houston stadium dome for Hofheinz.

1961: Dag Hammarskjold, UN Secretary General, dies in plane crash, Congo; DNA genetic code deciphered -- design control for all life; Russian Gagarin orbits Earth as first human spaceman; men (Russians) orbit Earth in hourly cycles in co-rocketing vehicles; over 2000 geodesic domes produced by over 100 industrial corporations, licensees of RBF, primarily air-delivered and speed-installed in 40 countries around Earth and in North and South Polar zones, 1951-1961. RBF proposes to 2000 architects of International Union of Architects at Fifth World Congress, London, England, to officially initiate Phase I of Design Science Decade -- 1965-75, which will put world on notice that making world work is an invention initiative and not a political responsibility and is only solvable by a world design revolution, which is the only revolution universally tolerable to diverse political interests of the world; and that the design revolution must be conducted by world-around students under university auspices and supported by professional-degree accrediting boards and visiting committees of all the architectural-engineering and scientist professions and officially underwritten by their professional societies. RBF granted patent for Octetruss; Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba turned back by Fidel Castro; RBF continues Houston stadium dome design in aluminum for Judge Hofheinz.
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Re: Critical Path, by R. Buckminster Fuller

Postby admin » Tue Jul 28, 2015 6:55 am


1962: RBF appointed by Harvard University as Charles Eliot Norton Professor of Poetry -- one-year appointment; a year of transition of comprehensive technology from dry land into sea and into sky, from visible to invisible, because more-with-lessing, through transistors, metallurgy, chemistry, electronics, and atomics transfers all basic controls to invisible ranges; one Telstar communications-relay satellite weighing only a quarter-ton replaces transatlantic cables weighing 75,000 tons in equivalent function; first American to orbit Earth -- John Glenn; RBF established "Inventory of World Resources, Human Trends, and Needs" at Southern Illinois University with John McHale as executive director; John McHale's R. Buckminster Fuller published by Braziller; RBF exhibit at American Embassy in London, England; RBF awarded U.S. patent for tensegrity; U.S.A. -- U.S.S.R. Cuban missile crisis confrontation. On eve of Hofheinz signing contract for aluminum dome with RBF company, Synergetics of Raleigh, N. C., which had engineered Union Tank Car Domes, U.S. Steel, intent that first such large structure -- 642-foot- diameter clear span, 208 feet high -- should not be built in aluminum, subsidized a company, Roof Structures of St. Louis, Mo., which had long been attempting to invade RBF's patented geodesic field. Roof Structures took a license from RBF under his patent and entered a far lower bid on a steel geodesic with Hofheinz, who forsook RBF and gave contract to Roof Structures, who then proceeded to redesign their plans by using RBF's omnitriangulated truss, but by making the pattern of triangulating so asymmetrical as not to tread on RBF's allowed patent claims. They saved a small royalty fee at an enormous increase in cost of their structure which would work because of the omnitriangulation of RBF -- but with greatly increased weight of structure. When Houston Astrodome opened in 1965, Judge Hofheinz's son was in charge of its public relations. He always explained to its sightseeing parties that the dome was in reality designed by RBF. (Ten years later the Judge's son became mayor of Houston.)

1963: Telstar communications satellite; Syncom communications satellite put into 24-hour orbit, holding flight position over one point of spinning Earth as predicted by Arthur C. Clarke in the 1940s; quasars first detected; World Congress of Virologists meeting Cold Spring Harbor, Long Island, N.Y., announce comprehensive discovery of protein shells of viruses, which they publicly acknowledge (featured, front page, New York Herald-Tribune) as having been anticipated by RBF's formula of frequency to the second power times 10 plus 2; publication of RBF's Operating Manual for Spaceship Earth (E. P. Dutton), No More Secondhand God (Doubleday, paperback), Ideas and Integrities (Prentice-Hall), and Education Automation (Doubleday, paperback) are published; Limited Atomic Test Ban Treaty, U.S.S.R. -- U.S.A; President John F. Kennedy assassinated November 22 -- Lyndon Johnson succeeds him; RBF is member of Doxiadis' Delos Symposium # 1; RBF delivers world student discourse on Design Science Decade as International Union of Architects convene their Sixth World Congress at Mexico City; RBF awarded American Institute of Architects Allied Professions Gold Medal, Plomado de Oro Award of the Mexican Society of Architects, and RBF Recognition Day commemorated by University of Colgrado; seven-million-dollar railway train robbery, Cheddington, England; Federation of Malaysia established; ZIP (Zone Improvement Plan) Code introduced to deal with increasing volumes of mail, U.S.A.; RBF subject of five half-hour television broadcasts on National Educational Television Network on national hook-up -- broadcasts concentrate on Synergetics. Southern Illinois University's dean of their new School of Engineering asks the National Astronautical and Space Administration (NASA) for an advanced-structures research grant. NASA's director replies that the grant would be forthcoming provided RBF (a professor at Southern Illinois) would be willing to serve on NASA's "advanced structures" team and that the research grant to S.I.U. School of Engineering would be for a science master's development of a complete computerization of the mathematics of all types of geodesic structuring (which project went to a student, Joe Clinton). RBF agreed and served on the team until the Nixon government downgraded the NASA operation in 1968. The team adopted RBF's Octetruss and geodesic dome and studied the centrifugal spinning-into-sphericity of RBF's "Cloud Nine" tensegrity geodesic for assembly in space-its self-cooling ephemerality making it feasible to be decelerated on re-entry for self-positioning at outer atmosphere level.

1964: January 8 -- RBF "cover story," Time magazine; U.S. Civil Rights Act, July 2; antipoverty programs; Khrushchev ousted; Johnson elected President. RBF subject of BBC's first science program on their new wide-range Channel Two network on recommendation of scientists at Cavendish Laboratory of Cambridge University, because TV is visual and RBF had discovered the conceptually modelable mathematical-coordinate system of nature, which conceptual coordinate system bridged the gap of popular incomprehension existing between science and the humanities. RBF's serial articles, "Prospects of Humanity," appear in Saturday Review; RBF is Gold Key Laureate, Delta Phi Delta, National Fine Arts Honor Society; RBF commissioned as the architect of U.S.A. pavilion for Montreal's 1967 World's Fair, "Expo '67"; RBF is a member of U.S.A. team in Dartmouth (Leningrad) meeting of "Leading Citizens of U.S.S.R.-U.S.A.," assembled by U.S.S.R.'s Academy of Sciences with U.S.A.'s Norman Cousins, Arthur Larson, etc., to discuss all known points of contention between U.S.S.R. and U.S.; Berkeley Free Speech Movement; Mississippi Summer, civil rights project; RBF on Delos Symposium #2; four volumes of RBF's Design Science Decade: "World Resources Inventory, Human Trends and Needs," published by Southern Illinois University; RBF member of Cancer Research Institute, N.Y.C.; China explodes her first atomic bomb; Verrazano Narrows Bridge, New York, constructed -- world's longest suspension bridge (spans 4260 feet; 60 feet longer than Golden Gate, completed in 1937).

1965: World's longest tunnel, 7-1/2 miles, complete through Mount Blanc, Switzerland; Churchill dies; civil rights voter registration protests at their height, U.S.A. -- Selma-Montgomery federal-troop-protected march; first commercial satellite put in orbit to relay intercontinental electromagnetic wave programs as telephone, television, etc.; first space walks by both Russian and U.S.A. astronauts; U.S.A. spaceship photos of Mars from 7000-mile passing distance sent back to Earth; westward mobility of population evident as California becomes most populous state (New York now number two); massive electric power failure blacks out most of northeastern U.S. and two provinces of Canada, November 9-10; national origins quota system of immigration abolished, U.S.A.; U.S. forces in South Vietnam reach 184,000; Watts riots in Los Angeles black ghetto, August 11- 16, $200 million property damage; RBF is member of Doxiadis' Delos Symposium #3; RBF given Creative Achievement Award of Brandeis University; U.S. begins bombing North Vietnam; U.S. Marines land in Dominican Republic.

1966: January -- Russians make first successful instrument-package soft landing on Moon, followed in few months by U.S.A.'s successful duplication of feat as both send radio pictures of Moon's terrain back to Earth; July -- RBF persuades Archbishop Makarios to cede token land of 200 acres at Kyrenia from Cyprus sovereignty to World Man under 50-year trusteeship of World Academy of Art and Science, a supranational organization; RBF is a member of Doxiadis' Delos Symposium #4; November -- RBF's U.S.A. Pavilion, a 250-foot-diameter geodesic sphere, completed at Montreal, to open in April 1967; plasma-propulsion and ion-propulsion engines for space travel and ultra-high-speed, claimed first flown by Russians -- no U.S.A. confirmation; RBF receives First Award of Excellence from Industrial Designers Society of America; RBF inaugurates computer game at Southern Illinois University, called World Game, how to make world work in such a manner that all of humanity can become physical and economic success and can enjoy all of Earth without one interfering with the other and without anyone advantaged at expense of other; RBF asked to give lecture to scientists, engineers at Cape Kennedy to explain how fallout from space technology into domestic economy would bring first scientific house in history to world man on Earth, which would catalyze physical success on Earth for all humanity; Time runs "God Is Dead" cover story on decline of churches; bubble memories for computers.

1967: Cultural Revolution rocks China; China explodes her first hydrogen bomb; Arab-Israeli (U.S.S.R.-U.S.A.) Six-Day War; RBF appears on cover of Saturday Review, April 1; Soviets achieve first docking of two unmanned spacecraft; Montreal's Expo '67 (RBF, architect of U.S.A. Pavilion) draws 50.3 million visitors in 6 months, setting record; American Institute of Architects gives RBF First Architectural Design Award; Alpha Chapter of Phi Beta Kappa (Harvard University) elects RBF to honorary membership on occasion of RBF's Class of 1917 50th reunion; late-1966 discovery of tenth moon of Saturn, Janus, verified; Harvard paleontologists Patterson and Howells discover human bone fragments 2.5 million years old, Kenya; RBF and AHF celebrate 50th wedding anniversary; full infectious DNA virus, representing five to six genes, synthesized by Goulian and Kornberg; fossil of world's oldest reptile discovered (Romer); RBF attends Doxiadis' Delos Symposium # 5; Nirenberg demonstrates that identical genetic code combinations have the same results in mammal, amphibian, and bacterium in determining protein structure; human heart transplant (Barnard); design drawings, economic analyses, and model of RBF's tetrahedronal floating city project commissioned by U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN, Geneva) discovers seven new mesons; observes that the squares of their masses are in simple numerical relationship, supporting existence of "quarks" and "anti-quarks" (particles of fractional charge). RBF delivers 90 public lectures including: centennial address at American University, Beirut, Lebanon; keynote address to Austrian Architects Association; to World Congress of Architecture Students, Barcelona, Spain; 50th Anniversary Address, American Planners Association; to First World Congress of Engineers and Architects, Tel Aviv, Israel. RBF receives honorary Doctor of Engineering, Clarkson College of Technology, bringing his total of honorary doctorates to 13. The heaviest element yet known (isotope mendelevium 258) discovered by Hulet, who determines its life to be two months, compared with eight seconds for lawrencium, the second heaviest. RBF's "Star Tensegrity" granted U.S. patent; Johnson and Kosygin meet at Glassboro, N.J.; Soviet Union celebrates 50th anniversary; DuPont develops new chromium dioxide magnetic tape, doubling information storage capacity; RBF differentiates human brain and mind when speaking as Harvey Cushing Orator to annual congress of 2000 members of American Association of Neuro-Surgeons' meeting in Chicago; bone fragments and plant fossils found under Antarctic ice.

1968: Apollo 8 crew first men to orbit Moon; treaty for peaceful use of outer space adopted; Tet offensive, Vietnam; direct airline service between U.S.A. and U.S.S.R. initiated; Martin Luther King assassinated, April 4; Robert Kennedy assassinated, dies June 6; RBF elected to National Academy of Design and the World Academy of Arts and Sciences; Pulsars first detected; crowding of electromagnetic spectrum leads to development of airborne system to process 280,000 voice channels in bandwidth formerly handling 28,000; U.S. scientists fit 12 million unconnected transistors into 1-inch-square wafer -- all demonstrating RBF's concept of significant evolutionary trending of the more-with-Iess performance per pounds and volumes of materials and energy used per each function; degrees granted in colleges and universities increase l00-fold in 100 years in U.S. from 9372 in 1869 to 866,000 in 1968; RBF appointed Distinguished University Professor at Southern Illinois University, one of three so honored in the institution's 99-year history; international monetary crises caused by faltering British pound and French franc; Columbia University student rebellion; police and antiwar demonstrators clash at Democratic National Convention in Chicago; students riot in France; UN nonproliferation treaty enacted; Soviets invade Czechoslovakia; volume of technical and scientific literature on weather and climate is twice that of eight years ago; RBF and Shoji Sadao receive First Architectural Design Award from American Institute of Architects for the Expo '67 Dome; RBF receives Gold Medal, National Institute of Arts and Letters, and British Royal Gold Medal of Architecture from Her Majesty the Queen, on recommendation of the Royal Institute of British Architects; RBF receives honorary doctorates from Dartmouth College, University of Rhode Island, Ripon College, and New England College; ribonuclease molecule synthesized; RBF's 1934 Dymaxion Car #2 displayed at Museum of Modern Art, N.Y.C; Playboy publishes RBF's "City of the Future."

1969: RBF leads his first public World Game workshop at New York Studio School, testifies on World Game before U.S. Senate/Subcommittee on Intergovernmental Relations at invitation of Chairman Edmund Muskie of Maine; man lands on Moon, July 20, seen live around the world by 600 million viewers in 49 countries; RBF delivers Jawaharlal Nehru Memorial Lecture on "Planetary Planning," New Delhi, India; NASA launches first remote-sensing satellite, senses global temperature patterns, proves the revolutionary impact of satellites in weather forecasting. Beatle-mania in music, world-around; Harvard scientists isolate the basic unit of heredity, a single gene, of 3000 genes of E. coli, an intestinal bacterium, making possible detailed study of mechanisms of gene control -- enzyme synthesized for the first time; first paperback publication of RBF's Utopia or Oblivion: The Prospects for Humanity (Bantam); RBF attends Doxiadis' Delos Symposium #7; American Association of Humanists awards RBF Humanist of the Year Citation; Woodstock Music and Art Festival, gathering of 300,000 young people; Eisenhower dies; Charles DeGaulle resigns; North Vietnam President Ho Chi Minh dies; Ted Kennedy's "Chappaquiddick" incident; SALT talks begin in Helsinki; large oil spill, Santa Barbara, Calif.; Sidney Rosen's Wizard of the Dome -- R. Buckminster Fuller, Designer of the Future published by Little, Brown; RBF is Hoyt Fellow, Yale University; receives Citation of Merit, U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development; RBF receives honorary doctorates from University of Wisconsin, Boston College, and Bates College; RBF is architect of the Samuel Beckett Theatre of St. Peter's College, Oxford, England; deciphering of structure of gamma globulin, U.S.A. Newly emergent technologies: integrated circuits, fiber optics, microwaves, fluidics.

1970: Soviet Venera 7 soft-lands on Venus and transmits temperature and atmospheric pressure data for about 15 minutes;. first Earth Day celebrated; world's oldest edge-ground axes discovered on the island of New Britain (as found earlier in New Guinea and Australia), indicating that as many as 30,000 years ago man was crossing open water and carrying on trade as described in RBF's speculative prehistory account; as gifts of students' gratitude during his visits to their universities, RBF receives Stone Age ground axes from both Australia and Finland; U.S. scientists announce the discovery of 17 amino acids, the "building blocks of life," in meteorite that fell on Australia in 1969; RBF attends Doxiadis' Delos Symposium #8; RBF is awarded an honorary "Donship" as Fellow of St. Peter's College, Oxford University; first commercial flight of Boeing 747 jumbo jet, which is built of over 500,000 precision-machined parts and carries nearly 400 passengers; completion of gene synthesis, University of Wisconsin; RBF's I Seem To Be a Verb is published by Bantam; The Buckminster Fuller Reader is published in Great Britain (Jonathan Cape, Ltd.; Penguin Books, paperback); European Economic Community finance ministers agree on plans for economic and monetary union by 1980; element # 105 (proposed name, hahnium) 13th man-made element, U.S.A.; Detroit's oldest extant architectural firm endows the RBF Chair at the School of Architecture, University of Detroit; by 1970 there is one computer for every 4000 people in the U.S.A. (twice the per capita ratio of any other nation); 109 million telephones in the United States carry 141 billion phone conversations per year; Nauru, in the Pacific, becomes the 128th country to join the phone network (more than 96 percent of the world's telephones can be reached from the U.S. -- including for the first time direct transatlantic dialing); world-around there are 231 million TV sand 620 million radios; Bell Labs announces a newly developed low-cost pocket-sized infrared laser senii-conductor device that can carry hundreds of thousands of telephone messages, TV signals, etc., at room temperature while powered by ordinary flashlight batteries; largest fully steerable dish radio telescope (328-foot diameter), West Germany; oxygen process (BOP) now accounts for half of all U.S. steelmaking; first liberal abortion law in U.S. goes into effect in New York State; Dr. Salvador Allende becomes first freely elected Marxist president in Western Hemisphere; U.S. voting age lowered to 18; National Guardsmen kill four Kent State students during protest of U.S. invasion of Cambodia; National Chapter of Alpha Rho Chi Fraternity installs RBF as its Master Architect for life; RBF is visiting professor at International University of Art, Venice and Florence, Italy; Thor Heyerdahl and crew successfully sail from Morocco to Barbados in a papyrus boat, Ra II; RBF makes 86 important addresses, receives honorary doctorates from Minneapolis School of Art, Park College, Brandeis University, Columbia College, and Wilberforce University.

1971: First synthesis of the hormone responsible for human growth, University of California; New York Times prints RBF's telegram to Senator Edmund Muskie on the entire "Op-Ed" page, March 27; People's Republic of China admitted to United Nations; U.S.A.'s Mariner 9 spacecraft orbits Mars -- the first man-made object to orbit another planet; Russians accomplish Mars landing with their Mars 2 mission; "Old Man River's City" project, with RBF as architect, presented to East St. Louis community; twin World Trade Center towers succeed Empire State Building as world's tallest (since 1930) -- there are now 14 buildings in U.S. taller than 1915's world's-tallest, Woolworth Building; commissioned by Toronto Star newspaper, RBF heads "Project Toronto" proposal for future design of the city; international treaty banning nuclear weapons from ocean floor signed; U.S. Supreme Court upholds right to publish Pentagon Papers; Governor Nelson Rockefeller orders Attica (N.Y.) prison riot quelled -- 42 killed; Pakistan-India war; NBC-TV broadcasts onehour transnational program on RBF, "Buckminster Fuller on Spaceship Earth," produced by Robert Snyder (Allegra Fuller Snyder's husband); dedication ceremonies held for the Southern Illinois University Religious Center; Geoscope, oriented precisely on the Earth's 90th meridian, designed by RBF and Shoji Sadao; RBF receives honorary doctorate from Southeastern Massachusetts University; Life, Christian Science Monitor, and Rolling Stone publish major articles on RBF.

1972: Unmanned Luna 20 Soviet spacecraft returns to Earth with Moon soil samples; Pioneer 10, U.S. interplanetary probe launched to pass by Jupiter (early 1979) on barely possible outer planetary "grand tour"; Apollo 16 Moon voyage; U.S. scientific satellite Copernicus launched to study evolution of stars, seek new energy source in deep-space X rays; special 40th anniversary issue of Architectural Forum is dedicated to RBF and his work; England's Architectural Design magazine devotes its entire issue to "Buckminster Fuller Retrospective"; Playboy interviews RBF; Nixon visits China and U.S.S.R.; U.S.A. devalues dollar; Bangladesh created; UN Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm, Sweden); RBF calls for "Declaration of Interdependence" in 1976-Bicentennial Year for U.S.A., at Bryn Mawr College; Black September terrorists assassinate Israeli Olympic athletes, Munich; U.S.A.-U.S.S.R.-puppeted Indochina air war accelerates; RBF attends Doxiadis' Delos Symposium #9; 2.6- million-year-old skull (discovered by Richard Leakey in 1971 in Kenya) appears to be closer to modem man than either Australopithecus or the later Homo erectus; Bay Area Rapid Transit (computer-programmed subway train) in San Francisco is first new transit system in U.S.A. since 1907; RBF becomes "World Fellow in Residence" at a consortium of Philadelphia-area institutions -- University of Pennsylvania, Bryn Mawr, Haverford, and Swarthmore colleges, and the University City Science Center; in "Operation Deep Freeze" U.S.A. installs entire research station of several buildings beneath large stainless steel and aluminum geodesic dome at exact South Pole of Earth; population growth of U.S.A. nears zero (as explained by RBF as a corollary to electrical-power-generation level); RBF's Intuition is published by Doubleday, which also publishes Buckminster Fuller to Children of Earth with text by RBF, compiled and photographed by Cam Smith; Nixon re-elected; RBF receives honorary doctorates from Grinnell College, University of Maine (Orono), and Emerson College; RBF awarded the Founders Medal of Austin College; RBF consultant to Design Science Institute and advisor to Earth Metabolic Design; crisis for periodicals -- Life ends 36 years of publication.

1973: As "World Fellow in Residence," RBF establishes his publications and research office and archives in Philadelphia at University City Science Center; RBF and AHF move to apartment at Society Hill Towers, at 200 Locust St., Philadelphia; RBF attends 10th Doxiadis' Delos Symposium; Hugh Kenner's Bucky: A Guided Tour of Buckminster Fuller is published by William Morrow; The Dymaxion World of Buckminster Fuller by RBF and Robert Marks is reissued in paperback by Doubleday; U.S.A. launches orbiting space station. RBF patents "Floating Breakwater" and "Tensegrity Dome," achieving an ephemeralization ratio of 200 geodesic domes for weight of one present-day equivolumed fireproof building; RBF is architect with Shoji Sadao in the completion of design project for International Airports of New Delhi, Bombay, and Madras, India, under administration of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi; year of Watergate and the contrived "energy crises" (reminiscent of U.S. ecological revolution of 1966-72, which had resulted in legislated restrictions against atomic energy, strip mining, high sulphur fume fuels, DDT, etc.); Watkins Glen Rock Festival with 600,000 people is largest gathering in American history; RBF delivers 124 public lectures; RBF receives "Award of Merit" from the Philadelphia Art Alliance, delivers keynote address at the 1973 Milton S. Eisenhower Symposium at Johns Hopkins University; RBF a founding member of United States Committee for the United Nations University; Japan constructs two weather geodesic radomes atop rim of Mount Fuji's summit and issues memorial stamp, "Pearl in the Crown of Fuji-San,"; Chicago Museum of Science and Industry mounts major traveling exhibit of RBF artifacts, which travels in two years to Minneapolis Institute of Art, Ontario Science Center, Franklin Institute in Philadelphia, Bronfman Center in Montreal, California Museum of Science and Industry in Los Angeles, Des Moines Center of Science and Industry, East St. Louis Senior High School; RBF honored as Brockington Visitor at Queens University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada; RBF receives honorary doctorates from Nasson College, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, and Beaver College.

1974: Molecular biologists call for a temporary ban on research combining animal, viral, and bacterial DNA, fearing development of uncontrollable strains of biological-warfare agents; primates are successfully vaccinated for the first time in cancer experiments; radio telescope beams message to star cluster Messier 13 in search for intelligent beings, many light-years away; Mind's Eye of Buckminster Fuller by Don Robertson (Vantage) and Buckminster Fuller at Home in Universe by Alden Hatch (Crown) are published; Comet Kahoutek not as spectacular as predicted; "close-in" pictures of Venus, Mercury, and Jupiter; astronauts spend 85 days in space aboard U.S. space station Skylab; RBF on 37th complete circuit of Earth as he gives record 150 major public addresses; Nixon becomes first American President to resign (in wake of Watergate); New York Times publishes RBF article on wind energy; element # 106 synthesized; India becomes sixth nation to explode a nuclear device; Turkish jumbo jet crashes, killing j46, in aviation's worst disaster; fighting continues in Ireland, Middle East, Cyprus; after 40-year prohibition Americans are given right to own gold bullion; U.S. Treasury auctions gold, weakening the world-wide gold market; RBF gives commencement addresses and receives honorary doctorate degrees from the University of Notre Dame, St. Joseph's College, Pratt Institute, University of Pennsylvania, and McGill University; RBF speaks to Department of State's Foreign Service Institute; world food crops poor -- bad weather threatens widespread famine; U.S. unemployment rises to 6.5 percent; crude oil prices quadruple; RBF granted New York State Architect's License; world's-tallest Sears Tower constructed in Chicago (title held by N.Y.C. buildings for nearly 100 years, starting with Flatiron Building); RBF Chicago Museum of Science and Industry and U.S. Foundation for the Arts traveling exhibit continues at five major museums in U.S. and Canada. After Arab oil embargo U.S. oil companies report huge fourth-quarter profits over previous year: Exxon up 59 percent, Mobil up 68 percent, Texaco up 70 percent, etc. Supranational think tank, the Club of Rome, submits The Limits to Growth, citing accelerating linear population growth curves as proof of "not enough life support to go around" on our now-acknowleged-to-be-small, spherically finite planet (a restatement of Malthusian thinking of 1810).

1975: Synergetics, RBF's half-century work on the geometry of nature's own coordinate system -- the isotropic vector matrix that models both the physical and metaphysical aspects of Universe -- published by Macmillan (876 pages, in collaboration with E. J. Applewhite, with preface and article by Harvard mathematician Arthur Loeb); molecular biologists write guidelines for recombinant genetic engineering; Exxon surpasses General Motors as world's biggest industrial corporation; 300 largest and richest U.S.A. corporations have become transnational operations -- move engineered by Wall Street lawyers; RBF University Professor Emeritus at Southern Illinois University and University of Pennsylvania; supermicrobe that can digest crude oil developed by recombinant DNA to deal with increasingly frequent oil. spills; RBF made International President of the World Society for Ekistics; taxes rise faster than food, housing, or transportation costs; Medard Gabel and World Game Workshop publish Energy, Earth and Everyone (Doubleday) with introduction by RBF; cracks found in Illinois atomic reactor cause shutdown of 23 similar reactors; new particles suspected of association with the property "charm" discovered; first intimate pictures of surface of Venus transmitted by Soviet soft-landing probes; RBF patents "Floating Breakwater" and "Non-Symmetrical Tension-Integrity Structures"; U.S. population drops below Zero Population Growth; New York Times Magazine features RBF in article by Hugh Kenner; RBF makes 39th circuit of planet Earth; RBF makes 43 continuous hours of color videotaped "thinking-out-loud" sessions at Bell Laboratories Studios in Philadelphia; Satellite brings educational TV to 2400 villages in India; American and Soviet astronauts meet in orbit during Apollo-Soyuz cooperative space link-Up; RBF testifies before the U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations; RBF presented Planetary Citizens Award by United Nations, Distinguished Service Award Medal by Beech Aircraft, and Certificate of Honor, City and County of San Francisco; major articles on RBF appear in New York Times Book Review, Domus (Italy), Metropolis (France), Monday (Canada), Wall Street Journal, and Newsweek; Canada opens world's largest airport, Montreal; RBF invested as a Fellow in American Institute of Architects and speaks at their national convention; fossil remains of the oldest hominids yet (3.35 to 3.75 million years) found near Olduvai Gorge by Mrs. Leakey; communist indigenous governments in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia withstand invasion forces in 30-year-Iong war; marketing of home video recorders, home TV projection systems begins; videodisc systems tested. RBF attends 11th Delos Symposium (old "Delians" -- dear friends of RBF -- Dinos Doxiadis, Sir Robert Matthew, Arnold Toynbee, C. F. Waddington, all die); major figures in Watergate scandal found guilty, January 1; RBF speaks for Department of State's Senior Seminar in Foreign Policy; unemployment rises to over 9 percent; RBF receives 39th honorary degree from Hobart and William Smith colleges; New York City narrowly avoids bankruptcy as $3 billion becomes due.

1976: RBF conceives and designs Synergetics exhibit for opening of Smithsonian/ Cooper-Hewitt Museum of Design and a limited edition of silkscreens, "Synergetics Poster Series"; Viking mission lands two U.S. spacecraft on Mars, while two parent craft monitor the planet from orbit in man's first extraterrestrial planetary exploration; North and South Vietnam officially reunited, with Hanoi as capital; Chou En-lai (January 8) and Mao Tse-tung (September 8) die, leading to a power struggle for leadership in China, won by the pragmatists -- purge of orthodox Maoists ensues and "Gang of Four," led by Mao's widow, arrested; M.I.T. scientist constructs first synthetic gene; RBF participates in convention to draft and sign a Declaration of Principles and Rights for American Children; 26 die from "Legionnaire's Disease" at American Legion Convention in Philadelphia (50 years after American Legion Convention in Philadelphia opposed successfully U.S. Senate's ratification of Geneva Accords outlawing chemical and biological warfare weaponry internationally); formal guidelines regulating recombinant DNA research issued by National Institutes of Health, scientific groups urge world-around regulation; RBF proposes Geoscope for Montreal Expo '67 Dome, which remains structurally undamaged after fire burns off vinyl skin; RBF interviewed by CBS-TV for U.S. Bicentennial show (July 4, 1976); RBF conceives and designs limited edition of metal sculpture "Jitterbug," demonstrating 4-D wave generation -- spheres-becoming-spaces, spaces-becoming-spheres; proton found to be made of three layers, each of which has a different spin; Carter-Ford debates, first U.S. presidential debates in 16 years, interrupted by 28-minute technical blackout, September 23, Philadelphia; China's largest series of nuclear tests showers Philadelphia with fallout; Jimmy Carter elected President; publication of And It Came to Pass -- Not to Stay, RBF's 15th book (Macmillan); RBF cited as "Philadelphian who has brought honor to Philadelphia" at Golden Slipper Charity dinner; largest stony-meteorite fall in recorded history in Kirin, China; RBF is First Annual Distinguished Lecturer, College of Engineering, Villanova University; RBF receives Messing Award from St. Louis University Library Association; worst disaster. of modern times -- 700,000 die in Chinese earthquake, July 28; worst English drought in history reaches crisis; nationwide flu vaccinations halted on October 12, following deaths of several people; repressive conservative regimes strengthen their hold in South America as military coup takes over in Argentina and a coup opposes reformist regime in Peru; progress in unification of general relativity, quantum mechanics, and thermodynamics leads to prediction that miniature black holes (1015 grams) created early in history of Universe are exploding, yielding burst of gamma rays that should be observable; establishment of detailed climatic chronology from sediment cores produces virtually conclusive proof that the cycles of ice ages on Earth are caused by variations of Earth's orbit; National Science Foundation studies possibility of converting $300 million spy ship Glomar Explorer to a scientific research vessel for use in Deep Sea Drilling Project; RBF receives Development of Consciousness Award on September 20 from International Meditation Society; sex differences in brain hemisphere specialization reported, with specialization present in males by age of 6 but not in females until about age 13; RBF testifies at U.S. House hearing on "The Recovery of the City"; World's largest solar furnace at Odeillo, France, attracts American interest through defense and energy-related contracts; RBF speaks at Habitat -- UN Conference on Human Settlements, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; "Now House" exhibited; RBF continues as World Fellow in Residence, Philadelphia; consultant to Architects 3 in Penang, Malaysia; tutor in Design Science, International College, Los Angeles; International President of World Society for Ekistics; RBF interviewed for CBC by Margaret Trudeau; July 23 -- RBF signs limited edition of world's first tetrahedronal book, The Tetrascroll which was conceived, illustrated, and written by him, and published by Tayana Grossman's Limited Editions Press.

1977: RBF designs and develops two prototype geodesic domes -- "Pinecone Dome" and "Fly's Eye Dome"; RBF writes Synergetics 2 (to be published in 1979); RBF's "Tetrascroll" exhibited at Museum of Modem Art in New York and Philadelphia Museum of Art; "Jitterbug" sculpture exhibited in New York, Washington, D.C., Florida, and Ohio; and RBF Retrospective Exhibit at Ron Feldman Gallery in New York includes "Synergetic Geometry Posters" and "Tetrascroll"; five million Hindus celebrate January 19 as the holiest day in history (according to Hindu astrologers, the auspicious moment when Sun, Moon, and stars are at the same positions as at the creation of the Universe); American astronomers discover a swarm of satellites around Uranus, making it the planet with the most satellites; oil first flows in the Alaska pipeline; largest oil spill ever in the Ekofisk, 150 miles northeast of Scotland; gene-splitting technique to attack human disease, University of California; cruise missile, neutron bomb, and charged particle beam weapons are discussed and secretly researched; Carter drops B-1 strategic bomber program; worst aviation disaster in history at Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary Islands, involves two 747s, 577 dead; a 25-hour blackout leads to extensive looting and vandalism, N.Y.C.; Explorer satellite studies Sun emissions while in orbit from one of the Sun-Earth libration points; first explicit demonstration of a burn within the target core in fusion reaction; Bell Labs tests fiber optics for telephone transmission, using gallium-arsenide lasers; Department of Energy added to Cabinet with James Schlesinger, former defense secretary and AEC chairman, as new head; February 11 proclaimed "Buckminster Fuller Day" by governor of Massachusetts and mayors of Boston and Cambridge; RBF is first witness at U.S. Senate Select Committee on Small Business hearings on alternative energy. RBF receives awards: First Annual Heald Award at Illinois Institute of Technology, Eleanor Roosevelt Humanitarian Award from League for the Hard of Hearing, Stevens Honor Award from Stevens Institute of Technology, "The Golden Plate" Award from the American Academy of Achievement. Gandhi government of India defeated because of sterilization programs and replaced by devout Hindu Desai; Djibouti, last remaining European colony in Africa, granted independence; Polaroid announces instant movie picture system; RBF presents keynote address at "Toward Tomorrow Fair," University of Massachusetts, Amherst; RBF makes Far East lecture tour sponsored by U.S. State Department and United States Information Agency; John Mitchell first U.S. Attorney General to go to jail; RBF writes "Fifty Years Ahead of My Time," for Saturday Evening Post; E. J. Applewhite's Cosmic Fishing recounts the writing of Synergetics; RBF interviewed for BBC-TV "Twentieth Century Series"; President Carter pardons Vietnam War draft evaders as one of his first acts in office; China frees 100,000 political prisoners and expands trade with Japan, Europe, and the U.S., while relations with Russia, Cuba, and Vietnam worsen -- ideological guidelines with respect to industry, science, education and the armed forces are liberalized; RBF completes term as International President, World Society for Ekistics; Chinese claim to have predicted three of six major (magnitude 7) earthquakes in the previous year. RBF, Philadelphia's "World Fellow in Residence," continues as University Professor Emeritus at Southern Illinois University and University of Pennsylvania; consultant to Architects 3, Penang, Malaysia; and tutor in Design Science, International College, Los Angeles. U.S. Census Bureau announces that for the first time a majority of Americans live in the Sunbelt states of the South and West; U.S. Commerce Department announces a trade deficit of $26.7 billion for the year (four times that of 1976) -- oil, machinery, cars, coffee, and sugar accounted for the 22-percent increase in imports; U.S. exports increased only 4.6 percent over previous year; the Club of Rome publishes Mankind at the Turning Point, perhaps influenced by RBF's theories, retracting their pessimistic Limits to Growth theories restating Malthus, published two years earlier.

1978: World's first test-tube baby born in England (a case also reported, but not confirmed, in India) -- the healthy baby girl provokes worldwide interest and controversy; two Soviet cosmonauts spend record 140 days in orbit aboard Solyut 6 space station; Soviet nuclear-powered reconnaissance satellite disintegrates over northwestern Canada; RBF's Synergetics Folio published in limited edition in Singapore; biggest snowstorm in the history of the northeastern United States; $1.4-million roof of Hartford Coliseum collapses only hours after audience of 5000 leaves, and investigation blames failure on 4.8 inches of wet snow and "design deficiencies" (RBF's geodesic domes can handle Arctic snow load-burials of over 300 pounds per square foot); as lopsided balance of trade devalues U.S. dollar against other currencies, Bank of Japan buys $1 billion of U.S. currency but is unable to prevent dollar from reaching new postwar low against yen; $112 million awarded in antitrust suit filed against Eastman Kodak; People's Republic of China begins crash program to industrialize with Western help; researchers continue to probe for solar-weather links, and a "global electrical circuit" is proposed as a possible coupling mechanism -- as proposed in 1969 by RBF to N.Y.C. World Game workshop, and recounted in this book as a strategy with much potential and of utmost priority in World Gaming; U-25B, the joint U.S.A.-U.S.S.R. magneto-hydrodynamics project begins generating electricity and feeding it into the Moscow power grid; last smallpox case in the world-first instance of complete disease eradication in recorded history; first U.S. maximum-safety (P4) facility for recombinant DNA experiments opened at Fort Detrick (Maryland) as the N.I.H. eases their guidelines; RBF speaks to World Congress of the New Age in Florence, Italy, and presents his model of Einstein's E = mc2 equation; speaks to members of Congress as part of Clearinghouse on the Future series;. speaks at "Holistic Health" conference in Washington; speaks at Sun Day Celebration in Carbondale, Ill.; speaks at Aspen Healing Arts Conference; is keynote speaker at Annual Conference of the Society for College and University Planning; is keynote speaker for Colorado Energyfest (Alternative Energy Fair) in Golden, Colo.; presents Peter Goldmark Memorial Lecture at Electromedia Conference in Copenhagen, Denmark. Athena Lord's Pilot for Spaceship Earth -- B.F, -- published by Macmillan for young readers; President Carter mediates peace talks at Camp David, Md, between President Sadat of Egypt and Prime Minister Begin of Israel; U.S. government sells $4.8 billion worth of jet warplanes to Egypt, Israel and Saudi Arabia; Japan and China conclude $20-billion trade pact; worldwide population growth rate begins to decline, confirming RBF's industrialization prognostications; theory that all open universes develop to an anisotropically twisted "heat death" published, perhaps confirming RBF's theories that closed global system may serve as syntropic, integrating centers, countering the "heat death" trending; first federally funded commercial1Nind generator begins two years of tests in Clayton, N. M.; ten spacecraft visit Venus in December, including five atmosphere probes and an orbiter, and two Soviet landing craft; the all-microwave Seasat launched to study ocean surface, but fails amid some controversy after providing 99 days of data; RBF testifies before U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee and describes satellite use in taking daily inventories of everything from world resources to public opinion polls world-wide; RBF writes "Accommodating Human Unsettlement," Town Planning Review, and "Energy Economics"; RBF does half-hour program on Will Durant's Lessons of History on NBC-TV series; insulin production by bacteria is approached by two groups using recombinant DNA; national demonstration to close Rocky Flats Colorado Nuclear Arsenal in largest antinuke demonstration in U.S. to date; Mayor Moscone and Supervisor Milk assassinated in San Francisco; UN special session on World Disarmament opens; RBF gives Vikram Sarabai Memorial Lecture and conducts workshop on "Synergetics and Development" at Nehru Foundation for Development, Ahmedabad, India; RBF scholar in residence, University of Massachusetts, attends informal gathering of world leaders at D'Arros in the Seychelles; "RBF Day" jointly proclaimed in Minnesota by governor and mayors of St. Paul and Minneapolis; RBF interviewed on ABC News "Directions" program with Dean Morton of Cathedral of St. John the Divine, N.Y.C.; interviewed on NBC-TV noon "News Break" with Lee Phillips and Mort Crim, on "Voice of America" with Bill Reed; Honda advertisement with RBF, geodesic dome and Honda car run nationally; RBF interviewed by Centerpiece magazine; April and October bring heaviest periods of trading in history of New York Stock Exchange (65 million shares traded in a day), when institutional and foreign investors buy in record numbers to bolster up continually weakening dollar and after U.S. Treasury announces it will sell some of U.S. gold reserve and Federal Reserve announces it will tighten up credit; U.S. to grant sovereignty to Panama Canal Zone in December 1999; Pope Paul VI dies August 6, newly elected Pope John Paul I dies September 29 after reign of only 34 days, then first non-Italian pope in 456 years, John Paul II, chosen; first transatlantic balloon flight in history, August 17; United Airlines orders $1.6 billion worth of Boeing medium-size jets -- largest order in aviation history -- mostly Boeing 767s at $40 million each.

1979: RBF speaks at 6000-audience, Art Deco Radio City Music Hall at Rockefeller Center -- largest movie theater with largest stage in world -- to be refurbished after year-long conservation movement rescues it from destruction; March 28 "radiation accident" and "near-meltdown" at Three Mile Island nuclear-power facilities near Harrisburg, Pa., lead to re-evaluation of nuclear-power program -- with 83 reactors operating and four times that many in the construction or planning stages; RBF in extensive visit to People's Republic of China finds officials and people anxious to industrialize using "Design Science Revolution"; Egypt-Israeli Peace Treaty signed in U.S. with President Carter as mediator; plane crash of DC-10 in Chicago leads to grounding and evaluation of DC-10 wing strut design; manpowered Gossamer Albatross, using new lightweight, superstrength space-technology alloys and Mylar, flies across English Channel -- demonstrating RBF's theory that ever-improving scientific technology will produce ever-more-effective results with ever-less investment of weight and volume of materials, ergs of energy, and seconds of time for the performance of a particular function; Skylab (84-ton U.S. space station) leaves orbit and crashes in Western Australia; Pioneer 10 and 11 send pictures of Jupiter, revealing never-before-seen rings and the first extraterrestrial volcanic activity on Io, one of Jupiter's four large moons and perhaps its most interesting; RBF's Synergetics 2 published by Macmillan -- contains amplification of and collateral material for RBF's over-50-year-Iong conception, gestation, and manifestation of nature's coordinate system that encompasses both physics and metaphysics; prototyping of Fly's Eye Dome. Ho-Ping: Food for Everyone and Earth, Energy and Everyone by Medard Gabel and RBF-initiated World Game Laboratory published by Doubleday (these volumes encompass world resource inventories of food and energy and World Game strategies using present resources and our ever-increasing know-how and technological capabilities for solving critical problems in the shortest time possible); Chrysler Corporation asks for $4 billion in federal aid to avoid bankruptcy as General Motors (introducing its 1980 X-body cars a half-year early) begins a $70-billion retooling program to compete with smaller, more efficient, and fast-selling Japanese and West German cars; RBF interviewed by Andy Warhol's Interview magazine and by Quest magazine; RBF's prostate surgery, Bangor, Me.; RBF invested into the Order of Knights of St. John of Jerusalem and Priory of King Valdemar the Great in Copenhagen, Denmark; RBF presents keynote address at Mind Child Architecture Conference at New Jersey Institute of Technology, speaks at Flag Day Ceremony, June 14, Betsy Ross House, Philadelphia; Buckminster Fuller on Education published by University of Massachusetts Press; RBF receives Philadelphia's John Scott Award and the United Steelworkers of America's Raymond A. Dart Award; price of gold soars to $800 an ounce from $37 an ounce at the opening of the decade; international crises in Iran and Afghanistan; large-scale model demonstrating principle of tensegrity -- discontinuous compression-continuous tension -- unveiled at bank in Dayton, Ohio.

1980: Crises in Iran and Afghanistan continue -- U.S. rescue of Iranian hostages fails; Mount St. Helens, long-dormant Washington State volcano, erupts with hundreds-of-megatons-of-TNT force killing scores in the area; U.S. and 50 supporting nations boycott Moscow Olympic Games ostensibly because of U.S.S.R. invasion of Afghanistan; RBF honored by exhibition and gold medal from American Academy of Arts and Letters; Buckminster Fuller: An Autobiographical Monologue/Scenario, edited and documented by Robert Snyder, published by St. Martin's Press; Los Angeles Bicentennial leases 50- foot-diameter Fly's Eye Dome for its theme building; RBF and AHF move to Pacific Palisades, Calif., February 29; $1.5 billion federally-guaranteed loan to struggling Chrysler Corporation approved as new 1981 K-body small cars go into production; Japan passes U.S. in automobile production (by large margin) for first time; RBF travels to Brazil and views implementation of industrialization strategies he first described in 1942 (see Chapter 9, pp. 293-308). RBF awarded 45th honorary doctorate by Alaska Pacific University; RBF speaks to International Dome Conference at Winooski, Vt.; Russian tidal energy project -- largest power project in human history; RBF appointed to presidential commission to follow-up Global 2000 Report on crisis in energy and the global environment; RBF appointed to Congressional committee on the future. Robert Grip-Christopher Kitrick edition of RBF's Dymaxion Sky-Ocean World Map issued -- largest, most accurate whole Earth map in human history.
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Re: Critical Path, by R. Buckminster Fuller

Postby admin » Tue Jul 28, 2015 6:57 am



Appendix I (347-77) serves as a selected list of artifacts and scientific discoveries and is arranged chronologically. Appendix II (378-409) serves as a selected listing of scientific, technological, economic, and political world events integrated with a list of events, discoveries and inventions of R. Buckminster Fuller and is arranged chronologically: 1895 to date.

Appendix items are not indexed.

Page numbers for figures are in italic numerals.

Abacus, origins of, 30-31, 32
See also: Cipher; Multiplication &
division; Positioning of numbers
Academic degrees, 146, 264
See also: Self-discipline, of patenting
inventions; Self-education
Academic degrees (honorary)
See: Appendix II
Accelerating acceleration
as class-one evolution, 232-33, 284
chemical element isolation chart
and, 242-45
critical path and, 253
in consumer goods, 237
in circumnavigation, 245
-in environmental change, 129
in ephemeralization, 132-33
in human affairs changes, 131
in invisible revolution, 132-33,
216-17, 237, 284
in socioeconomics, 132, 146
of data rates, 284
of free-falling bodies, 132
prognostication and, 133, 150
with metals, 132-33, 284
See also: Evolution: Class-one evolution;
Ephemeralization; More
with less
"Accentuate the Positive, Eliminate
the Negative" (song), 146
See: Balance-of-trade accounting;
Commonwealth accounting; Cosmic
accounting; Energy accounting;
Monetary accounting
Accreditation board acknowledgment
of child, 26
Actinium, 244
Actuarial curves, 263-64
See also: Life expectancy
Advertising: Madison Avenue
as tax deduction, 114
by automobile manufacturers, 86, 101
origins of, 96
Aerial photomosaicing, 175, 179-180,
See also: Radio-triangulation mapping
Aeronautical architecture
See: Architectural profession
Aeronautics industry
gestation rate in, 148, 283
production tooling in, 205
See also: Airplane
as caravan route, 70, 71, 72
as geopolitical "Heartland, " 194-96
radio-triangulation mapping and,
RBF trade-fair dome in, 195
U.S.S.R. and, 188, 193, 195
See also: World War III
Africa, 3, 4, 201-2
electric grid integration with, 20
radio-triangulation mapping of, 186,
traffic to east coast of, 22-24, 71
voyaging around, xxi, 34
See also: Egypt
assumption of an, 49-50
of artist-scientist, 50-51
of commoners (everyone), 52
of middle-class, 51
of nobility, 51
of pharaoh, 50-51
See also: Heaven & Hell; Individual
human; Life is not physical; Life
Aggressive-passive behavior, 67
Ahart, Bob, 323
AlA 1927 single-family dwelling, 148
amount consumed, 343
conversion of monoxide gases to, 210
compression-decompression elevators,
prognosticating war in, 57
See also: "Cloud Nines"; Pneumatic
Air circulation patterns
of "Cloud Nines, " 336-37
of geodesic dome, 211, 2J1, 324
of Old Man River's City, 320
of Pacific Ocean, 277-78, 280
Air pollution
as "smog, " 277-80
by carbon dioxide, 112
by monoxide gases, 210
in Brazil, 306
See also: Ecology; Fume precipitation
Air transport
north-south pattern of, 205
Geoscope and, 182
See also: Land & sea transport
Airbrush, 86
Aircraft carriers in war strategy, 118,
Aircraft engine efficiency, 198
circumnavigation in, 20, 245
DC-4, 195
in warfare, 57, 118, 192, 234
in World War I, 82
in World War II, 194
intercontinental jet, 20
jet, performance of, 233
mobility of pilot of, 131
passenger, accommodation on, 221
RBF and, 129, 131
steel-less bomber (Douglas), 304
submarine-carried, 193
Vertol, 117, 193
view from, 57, 328
See also: Aeronautics industry
future, 338, 341
in Brazil, 294, 306
private enterprise and, 226
Alaska, 11
See also: Bering Strait
Alcohol (vegetation-produced)
as fuel, xvii, 272
in Brazil, 292, 298
See also: Energy accounting, income
Alexander the Great
as founder of Alexandria, 43
empire of, xxii
flat-world concept of, 44
reaches Indian Ocean, 71
Alexandria, 43, 71
Alexandrian Greeks lack cipher, 37
Alexandrian library, 43-44
accidental discovery of, 15-17
improve structural & mechanical capabilities,
used in Gossamer Albatross, xxiii
See also: Ephemeralization; Metallurgy;
More with less
Almagest (Ptolemy), 43
Aluminum, 201-2, 245
Amazon watershed, 297
America, electric grid integration of, 206
American Indian & environment, 64-66
American Institute of Architects
See: AlA 1927 single-family
American Revolution, 78
Americas, population of, 20
Amoeba & complexity of Universe, 7
Amsterdam, as canal city, 24
Andean basketry interweaving, 13, 14
Animal power structures, 60
domestication of, 11, 66
hunting of, 11
specialized equipment of, 63, 215
See also: Wild animals
Animate & inanimate
See: Life is not physical
Antarctic continent: Absence on
Mercator projection map, 164
Antientropy. See: Syntropy
See: Design science; Gestation rates;
Prognostication (scientific)
Anticipatory design science, 203, 246-
Antimony, 244
Antineutrino, 7
Apollo Project, xviii-xix, 163, 204,
241, 247-49, 253, 254, 255
See also: Critical-path planning;
Critical-path tasks
Applied science, 237, 244
See also: Design science; Industrialization;
Naval prognosticating science
& art; Pure science;
Technology; "Universal Dwelling
Arabian Sea, 20
Arabic numerals, xxi
Arc, 345
Archangel, U.S.S.R., 193, 196
Architectural profession
experience in, 128
in U.S., 301-2
livingry and, xxv
Architecture, 301-2
See also: Buildings; Building industry;
Dwelling machine; Environment
control; Geodesic dome
Area, 7
See also: Volume-area ratio
Aristarchus, heliocentric concept of,
34, 35
Aristotle, "practical" philosophy of, 37
Arrowheads, 25
Arsenic, 242, 244
Art, defined, 237
already accomplished, 266
critical-path planning and, xxxvii
development of, 25, 27, 125-26, 144,
145, 204, 233, 287
gestation rate in use of, 283
introduce economic eras, 52-54, 244
motivation behind, 149
nature's support of, 144
spontaneous adoption of, 125, 146,
temperature variation and, 3-4
See also: Appendix I; Applied science;
Artist-scientist; Consumer
goods; Critical-path artifacts; Industrialization;
Livingry vs. weaponry;
Naval prognosticating art &
science; Reduction to practice;
afterlife of, 50-51
as builder of pyramids, 50-51
open new eras of environmental
transformation, 26-27, 50-54
patronage of, 50, 51
See also: Artifacts; Environment:
Altering the environment; Appendix
I; Appendix II; "Scaffolding"
Ash (tree), 10
Asia, 71, 206
See also: Rivers of Asia
Asia Minor, population of, 20
Asia to Europe, 17, 42, 70-72, 71, 193
See also: East India Company; Land
& sea transport; Phoenicians
Asteroids, orbiting of, 144
Astrodome, 55-56
See also: Appendix II (388-92)
prognostication in, 251
space program and, 247
Astronautical architecture
See: Architectural profession
anonymity in, 241
as projective-objective science, 247
food in, 204
NASA and, 24
Space-platforms and, xviii
See alsf}: Apollo project; Astronomy;
Astrophysics; Ballistics; Criticalpath
planning; Environment control;
Space program
discovery of galaxies by, 345
prognostication accuracy in, 251
used by sailor-navigators, 29-31
See also: Greek scientists; Copernicus,
Nicolaus; Galileo, Galilei;
Hubble, Edwin; Newton, Isaac
Atmospheric gases, 112, 221
Atoll-dwellers. See: Water-people
Atolls, propitious for human survival,
first conceived, 34
in cosmic accounting, 120
orbiting of, 144
Atomic bomb
development of, 106, 234
LAWCAP and, 118
U.S. strategy, 117
U.S.S.R.-U.S.A. strategy, 117-18
Atomic energy
as burning of production equipment,
219, 223
as plant & equipment spending, xvii
Atomic Energy Commission (AEC),
Atomic energy industry
acquisition by petroleum companies,
112-13, 114, 116
after World War III, 118
critical path and, 254
earthquakes and, 112
history of, 106-8
phasing out of, 199
Sun analog of, 345
tied to U.S. warhead production, 192
Three Mile Island accident, 113
waste-disposal problem, 112, 346
Atomic warfare, 117-18, 190-91, 192,
193, 200, 234
See also: SALT Treaty; World War
Atomics, 27, 284
See also: Invisible reality (dawning
Attraction: Interattraction, 144-45
See also: Newton's second law of
Aural. See: Hearing
Austin Company, 304
Australia during ice ages, II
Authority. See: Human power
Automation, 102, 267
See also: Employment: Unemployment
air pollution and, 279-80
as prime-contractor industry, 101
distribution, 101
earliest mass production, 53-54
engine inefficiency of, xxiv, 208
gestation rate for, 148, 283
in Afghanistan, 195
metal components, 282
performance per weight, 302
post-World-War-I1 production, 101
RBF and, 58, 128, 129, 131
retooling of, 86
safety through design, 140
use of petroleum, 248
See also: "Big Three" automobile
producers; Dymaxion car; Environment
Aviators, 55, 131
as integration of information, xi
as "otherness, " xi
through sensing, xi-xii
See also: Brain; Individual human;
Life; Memory; Scenario Universe;
Awareness of child, 26, 62, 129

as city-state, 68
geometry of, 33
high priest of, 29
Balance-of-trade accounting
blocks in, 217-18, 286
computer allocation of resources in,
foreign investments in America and,
gold in, 104-6, 116, 286
in World War I, 82, 83-84
national sovereignty basis of,
214, 217
oil industry and, 110-11, 113
origin of, 75-77, 201
transnational trending of, 218, 253
uniform energy-value system in,
xxxi, xxxiv, 215, 253
U.S. foreign indebtedness in, 114,
118, 286, 287
See also: Commonwealth accounting;
East India Company; Gold;
Monetary accounting; Trade
Bali, II, 12-13, 12, 66, 71
defined, 64
interior & exterior, 238-39, 250
miniaturization in, 234
space program and, 247
See also: Apollo Project; Criticalpath
planning; Naval prognosticating
science & art; Orbital
feedback circuits; "Universal
Dwelling Requirements"
Baltimore, 334
Ban Chiang, 16-17, 24
See also: Alloying; Bronze; Shipbuilding;
as canal city prototype, 24
boatbuilding in, 21-22
See also:· Ban Chiang; Bronze; Shipbuilding;
Bank Moratorium, 88
and U.S., 113-14, 116, 118
in cosmic accounting, 120
of banks after Great Crash, 87-88
of prime contractors, 87, 94-96
See also: Fundamental risk enterprises
Banks: Banking
automobile financing and, 85, 86
corruption in, 90-93
credit accounting in, 275
deposits in, depreciate, 76, 276
deposits in, guaranteed, 89-90
deposits in, insufficiently capitalized,
80, 88, 213
early import-export accounts of, 201
early U.S. government and, 79, 80
failure of 87-88
in Indonesia, 13, 15
industrialization and, 77
know-how transmitted to China,
loans to prime contractors, 87, 94-
96, 101
mortgages and, 87
patrons waiting in lines, 221
Saudi Arabia and, 111
socialism and, 89-90
to finance farm machinery, 86-87,
to finance early sea enterprising, 72,
See also: Balance-of-trade accounting;
Bankruptcy; Finance capitalism
(FINCAP); Great Crash;
Monetary accounting; Morgan,
J. P.
Barges, 22
Barrier reefs, 5
Basket: Basketry interweaving, 13, 14,
79, 119
See also: Fiscus
Bauxite. See: Aluminum
Bay of Fundy meeting, 186
"Beating to windward." See: Sailing
Beads as artifact record, 25
See also: Abacus
Beech Aircraft, O-Volving shelf development,
Bees' cross-fertilization as precession,
142, 143, 246
Beginnings & endings, 7, 159-60
prehistoric, 5-6, 8, 204, 229
self-regeneratively driven, 27
socioeconomic, 142-46, 346
spontaneous, x, 67, 125, 126
superficially conditioned, xxxviii
See also: Aggressive-passive behavior;
Crowd behavior; Design science
vs political revolution; Doing
the right things for the right reasons;
Doing the right things for
the wrong reasons; Emergence
through emergency; Environment:
Altering the environment; Evolution:
Class-one evolution; Evolution:
Class-two evolution; Human
power structures; Human tolerance
limits; Learning through trial-
and-error; "Legally Piggily";
Precession; Profit motive; Self-disciplines;
Thought & action
Behind-the-scenes power structure, 27,
29, 47-48, 72, 108-10, 288
See also: Artist-scientist; Church-state
hierarchy; CIA; East India
Company; Metaphysical knowhow
Being informed by nature, 145
Beliefs, defined, 151
See also: "Ever Rethinking the
Lord's Prayer"; Prayer; Religion
Bengal, Bay of, 20
Bering Strait, xxxi, 24, 206
Bernoulli, Daniel, 22, 63, 211
Biblos, 35
See also: Phoenicians
Big business, xxvii, 240, 285, 286
See also: Communism vs. Capitalism;
Finance Capitalism (FINCAP);
Free Enterprise; Lawyer Capitalism
(LAWCAP); "Legally Piggily"
Big man, 60, 67, 73
See also: David & Goliath story;
God-king; Little individual: Little
man; Mind vs muscle; Weaponry
"Big Three" automobile producers,
See also: Chrysler Corporation;
Ford Motor Company; General
Binary as computer language, xxviii
See also: Computer
Bio-anthropology, 247
See also: Environment control; Human
tolerance limits
Biological species, extinction of, 215
See also: Specialization: Overspecialization
Birch, 10
Birds, 60, 63, 215
Birth rates & energy production, 206,
See also: Cosmic accounting; Electric
energy network grid; Energy,
Earth, and Everyone; Life expectancy;
"Limits to Growth"; Malthus,
Thomas; Population
Black box mechanical unit, 337
Black hole, ix
Blitzkrieg, 194
"Blood clots" to the free flow of metals,
217-18, 286
See also: National sovereignty; Recirculation
of metals
8100d (stock)
See: Genetics; Inbreeding; One
world family; Race: No race, no
class; Skin pigmentation
"Bloodstream, " metals as, 216, 284-
85, 286
Boat, 6, 11-12, 131, 172
See also: Ban Chiang; Bangkok;
Navigation; Phoenicians; Ship;
Bolivia, tin from, 205
Boltzmann, Ludwig, 275
Bombay, India, 78
Bonds, double & triple, 4
Books, xxxv, 275, 331-32
Boom. See: Dhow
Borneo, ii
Boron, 244
Boston, RBF boyhood in, 129
Boston Tea Party, 78
Boundary: Boundary conditions, 46-
47, 58
See also: Earth, as sphere; Greek
schools; National sovereignty;
Systems; Topology; Triangle
Bow & arrow, 64
Bracelets, 30
See also: Abacus
Brahmaputra River. See: Rivers of
as information integrator, xi, 183, 343
damage to, by undernourishment, 10
deals with thingness, 159, 160
See also: Computer; Experience;
Memory; Sensing
Brain & mind, 63, 159-60, 161-62,
See also: Generalized principles,
family of; Mind; Intellect; Metaphysical
industrialization plan, 287, 288-308
radio-triangulation mapping of, 186,
Brazil "Compendium, " 293-308
Brezhnev, Leonid I., and energy grid,
Bridge, as artifact, 27
British Empire
American Revolution and, 77-79,
and great pirates, 58-59, 76, 81
as origin of World War gaming,
as spherically closed, finite system,
xxii, 58-59, 75
high-seas trafficking of, 81-83, 201
naval supremacy of, xxii, 201
See also: Balance-of-trade accounting;
Earth, as sphere; East India
Company; England; Geopolitics;
Line of vital supply; Mackinder,
Sir Halford; Malthus, Thomas;
Pirates; World power structure
"ins" & "outs"; World War I;
World War II; World resources
British Isles, 16
Broadcasting, xxvi, 224
controlled vs uncontrolled news,
Geoscope display of news, 179
by stars, 28
See also: Communication Satellite;
Radio; Scanning transmission of
man by radio; Television; Video
Bronze, 15, 16-17, 21, 22, - 24, 205
See also: Alloying; Ban Chiang;
Copper; Metallurgy; Phoenicians;
Sea Technology; Tin
Bronze Age, 15-17
"Buck Rogers, " 262
Buckminster Fuller on Education, 137
See also: Education
Buddha, 47-48, 52
See also: Religion
Buick, 85
early stone, 25
performance per weight, 90, 132,
190, 209, 303-4
See also: Architectural profession;
Dwelling machine; Environment
control; Fuller, R. Buckminster;
Geodesic dome; Pyramid; Structural
efficiency; Structuring principles
of synergetics
Building blocks: No building blocks,
ix, 7, 56
See also: Darwin: Reverse evolution;
Building industry
Brazil, 303-4
emphasizes massiveness, 132
gestation rate, 90, 148, 283, 310
office building use in, 264
refinancing of, 90
self-imposed obstacles of, xxvi, 322
tied to highways, sewers, waterlines,
xxv, 90, 212, 314, 315
underwritten by U.S., 94, 113, 321-
U.S.A., 303
U.S.S.R. and, 138
use of copper by, 283
See also: Housing industry
Bull horn, as trade symbol, 73-75, 74,
See also: Phoenicians
Burial tombs, 51
See also: Afterlife; Pyramid
basketry interweaving in, 13, 14
water-people land in, 20
See also: Vietnam, puppet wars of
Southeast Asia
Burns, Robert, 124, 134, 163
Business. See: Big business
"Butcher, Baker, Candlestick Maker, "
Butz, Earl, 274-75
Byzantine Empire, 70

Cable (telephone), xxiii
See also: Communication satellite
Caesar, Julius, 16, 43
Cairo, Egypt, 57
Calcium 9,
See also: Vitamin D
Cambodia, canals of, 12, 13
See also: Vietnam, puppet wars of
Southeast Asia, Water-people
Canada, 271, 295
cross-breeding in, 218
electric grid, 206
Canals, 12, 13, 24
Canoes, 13, 21
Cape Canaveral, 241
banking and, 80, 87-90
concentrated, mobile forms of, 85,
86, 110-11
early forms of, 76
incorporation in, xxi
nature of, 98-99, 144
post-World-War-II, 102-3, 105, 106
risktaking in, xxi, 77, 85, 95-96, 108
See also: Banks: Banking; Communism
vs. capitalism; Free enterprise;
Fundamental risk
enterprise; Finance capitalism
(FINCAP); Land-based capitalism;
Lawyer capitalism
(LAWCAP); "Legally Piggily";
Managerial capitalism; Metals &
mining capitalism; Profit; Profit
motive; Stockholders; Socialism vs
free enterprise
"Capitalism's Invisible Army:" See:
See: Asia to Europe; City-state;
Horsemen; Land & sea transport;
Lines of vital supply
Carbon, 242
See also: Hydrocarbons
Carbon dioxide, 112
Carbon 14, 17
Carbon-fiber, xxiii
Cargo ships. See: Deep-bellied, stoutly
ribbed ships
Carotin, 9
Carter, Jimmy, 87
Cartography, 3, 31, 184-86
See also: Aerial photography; Dymaxion
Sky-Ocean Map; Earth, as
sphere; Eratosthenes' map; Fuller,
R. Buckminster; Geoscope; Latitude
& longitude; Mercator projection;
Polar azimuthal
projection; Polyconic projection;
Ptolemy map; Radio-triangulation
mapping; Whole Earth map
Castello. See: City-state
Catamaran, 13
Cattle (as capital), xxvi, 73-74, 76,
201, 271-72
See also: Capitalism; Phoenicians
Cedar, 44
Celestial globe, 35
Celestial navigation. See: Navigation
Celluloid, 267
Central Intelligence Agency. See: CIA
Chase Bank, 91
Chadenedes, Fran, <ois de, xxxiv-xxxv,
200, 222, 262, 263
Chao Phraya River, 21-22
See also: Rivers of Asia
Chemical & biological warfare, 234
Chemical element isolations chart,
242-45, (Profile of Industrial
Revolution), 243
Chemical elements
as primary electrical behavior, 308
associabilities, 204
discovery of, 242-44
RBF study of, 126, 256
recirculation of, 284-85
relative abundance of, 7, 221, 222,
224, 290, 296-97
Chemical industry, 220
Chemistry, 27, 133, 247, 284
See also: Ephemeralization; Invisible
reality (dawning of); More with
Chiang Kai-Shek, 104-5
Child: Childhood, 80, 230-31, 232
and city design, 322
and television, 26
cutting of umbilical cord, 232
in environment controls, 127
intuitions of, 129
safety of, 330
See also: Awareness of child; New
life; Youth
Child's parents, 123, 230, 231-32, 246
aspires to democracy, 197
bronze in, 16-17
electric utilities of, 105-6
in World War II, 104-5
U.S. banks and, 109
See also: Rivers of Asia
China Sea, 24
Christ Jesus, 37, 43, 52, 55
Christianity, 37, 71
See also: Church-state hierarchy;
Religion; Roman Catholic Church
Chromosomic programming, 143, 246
See also: Genetics; Precession
Chronology of scientific discoveries &
artifacts, 253, 254, 266, 267-68,
276-77, Appendix I & II
See also: Critical-path artifacts; Information
inventorying; World resources
Chronofile, 124, 125, 126, 128, 129,
See also': Commitment to humanity;
Fuller, R. Buckminster; Human
individual; Self-discipline, of documentation
Chrysler Corporation, 85-86, 87, 101
See also: Automobile; Fundamental
risk enterprise; Prime contractors;
Socialism vs free enterprise
Church-state hierarchy
and closed world system, 59
and national sovereignty, 214
construction of cathedrals by, 52-53
exploits scarcity, xxvii, 43, 198, 200,
2.17, 229
monopoly of calculating methods,
nurtures division, 214
suppression of science, 37, 48, 49,
origins of, 29, 32, 37, 47-54, 68, 70,
sanctions landownership, 79, 88-89
See also: Behind-the-scenes power
structure; Christ Jesus; Confession
of sins; God-king; Human power
structures; Life support inadequacy;
Religion; Roman Catholic
Churchill, Sir Winston, 186, 287
CIA, 103, 116, 117, 188, 262
See also: Behind-the-scenes power
structure; Espionage; Expenditures,
public; Psychological warfare;
World War III
Cifra, 32
Cipher, 32, 37, 53
See also: Abacus
Ciphra, 32
Circle, 33, 311
defined, 46
of energy, 345-46
Circumnavigation of Earth, 29, 34, 35,
38-39, 40-41, 44, 245
City, 56, 57
future, 264, 315
"metabolic" guts of, 90, 212, 314
pictured on Geoscope, 168, 180
residences, 264
See also: Domed-over cities; Float-
ing cities; Old Man River's City;
Triton Floating City
agragrian-supported, xx, 68-69
decline of, 75
fortification, 70, 194
origin, 68
trade-route type, xx, 69-70, 71, 72
See also: Asia to Europe; Land &
sea transport; Line of vital supply;
Mycenaens; Phoenicians; Troy
Civil architecture. See: Architectural
Civilization, maritime origins of, 24
Clear-span structure, 98, 179, 190, 324
See also: Geodesic dome
Climate. See: Temperature
"Cliveden set, " 191
Closed system: Open system
See: Boundary: Boundary condition;
Finity & infinity; Syntropy & entropy;
Systems geometry
Clothing, 221
"Cloud Nines, " 336-37, 337
Club of Rome, 284
Co-orbiting of Earth & Moon, xviii, 34
Co-orbiting of Earth & Sun, 28, 34,
37, 119, 131, 142, 143. 163, 173,
184, 245
Co-orbiting of Geoscope & Sun, 172
Coal, 84, 110, 112, 223
See also: Petroleum industry
Coastline records (Phoenician), 35
Coates, Austin, 13
Cobalt, 4
Coexisting: Always & only, ix
See also: Compression & tension
"Coincidence, " 145
"Cold" war. See: World War III
College, 62, 88, 231, 235-37
See also: Education; Fellowship;
G.I. Bill; Specialization: Overspecialization
trees, 10
skin pigmentation, 9
temperature zones, 3
See also: Race: No race; no class
Columbus, xxi
Comets, 144
Commitment to humanity, xi, 124,
125, 128, 137, 139, 149, 197, 202,
232, 248, 250, 264
See also: Artist-scientist; Environ420
ment: Altering the environment;
Humans, function of; Self-disciplines;
Spaceship Earth; Work effectiveness
Commonwealth accounting, 215, 216,
218, 221
See also: Cosmic accounting; Earning
a living; Fellowship; Humans,
as unknowing billionaires
Commoners, afterlife of, 52
earliest recorded, 25, 33, 48, 130
in Brazil, 304, 307
post-ideographic, 75
radiotelephone, 212, 273
spoken word, 240
telepathic, 346
through artifact records, 48, 49, Appendix
I & II
to self & others, xi, 125
verbal, 48, 230-31
world-around broadcasting, xxvi,
See also: Broadcasting; Language;
Literacy: Illiteracy; Radio; Speech
patterns; Television
Communism vs capitalism, xviii, xxiii,
98, 116, 127-28, 197, 232, 236,
See also: Dartmouth Conference;
"Killingry"-poker game; Radiotriangulation
mapping; Socialism
vs. free enterprise; U.S.S.R.U.
S.A.; Vietnam, puppet wars of
Southeast Asia; World War III;
World War IV
Communist party, 118, 197
See also: Union of Soviet Socialist
Republics (U.S.S.R.)
Compass Island, 185-86
"Compendium" on Brazil's industrialization,
Compressional capability, 24
See also: Pneumatic compression;
Tensile strength
Complementarity (principle 00, 7
See also: Coexisting: Always & only;
Conservation of energy
able to reverse historical patterns,
xxx, 268
air pollution and, 280
as "electronic credit card, " 215, 338,
Expo '67 proposal for, 167-69
in cosmic accounting, xxvi, xxvii
in education, xxxv, 26, 223, 253,
264, 265-66, 267
in elimination of race-creed differentials,
in library, 331-32
in meteorology, 181-82
in optimum low-cost living, xxxiv
integration of critical-path events
with, 266, 268
language of, xxviii
on non-wealth-producing employment,
xxxiv, xxxv
problem-solving function of, xxxv,
xxxvi, xxviii-xxix, 167, 262-63
profits and, xxviii-xxix, xxxiv
prototyping of, xxviii
research & development funds for,
stores, retrieves & integrates information,
xxvi. xxx, 28
use in allocation of energy & physical
needs, xxvii, xxxi, xxxiv-xxxv,
220, 221, 222, 225
World Game and, 215-16, 217, 219,
221, 225
See also: Accelerating acceleration;
Critical-path planning; Geoscope;
Information inventorying; World
Game vs War gaming; World resources
Conditioned & misconditioned reflexes,
See also: Behavior
Confession of sins, 43, 48
Conglomerates (business), 105, 273-74
Congressional Record, 286
Consumer goods, 231, 266
fallout from killingry, 148, 232-33,
World Game and, 215
See also: Livingry vs. killingry
See: Land & soil conservation; Air
Conservation of energy, 109, 158, 345
Conservation of integrity, 157
Conservation of parity, 7
Constant zenith model, 172-73
See also: Geoscope
Constantinople, 70, 72
Continuity & discontinuity (in structure),
Coordinate system (Babylonian), 33
See also: XYZ coordinate system;
Copernicus, Nicolaus, xxi, 37
Copper, 289-90
as early money, 75
discovery of, 242
found in Cyprus, 15-16
production of, 82, 84, 104
qualities of, 15, 84
recirculation of, 281-84
use in cables, xxiii, 80
See also: Bronze
Com, 212
as landowner, 273
as nonphysical entity, 105
increasing profits of, xxviii-xxix,
transnational, 218
See also: Capitalism; Free enterprise;
Fundamental risk enterprise;
Profit motive; Stockholder
Cornell, 328
Cornell University (Geoscope), 171,
Comers. See: Vertexes
Corruption, 101, 275
evolution transcends, 230
in banks, 90-93
in lobbying, 286
See also: Behind-the-scenes power
structure; Integrity; Pirates;
Cosmic accounting
ends taxes, 219
in land & soil conservation, 270
in World Game, 199-200, 222-23
life support and, 266
of energy income, xvii-xviii
on Earth, 119-20, 202
metabolic wealth and, 262
nature is always most economical in,
physical & metaphysical, 109
uniform energy-value system of,
xxxi, xxxii-xxxiii, xxxiv, 219
use of computer in, xxvi-xxvii, 215
vs. profit motive 275-76
See also: Commonwealth accounting;
Computer; Ecology; Energy
accounting; Humans, function of;
Intercomplementation; Spaceship
Earth; World Game
Cosmic evolution, ix, xvii, xxxviii
See also: Evolution: Class-one evolution
Cosmic laws. See: Generalized principles
Cosmic resources inventory
See: Chemical elements
Cosmology, 7, 49, 54
See also: Greek scientists
Cotton, 98, 289
Cotton mill, 323-27, 326, 327
See also: Geodesic dome
Courage, xi, xxvi, 157, 218, 346
See also: Integrity; Navigation; Self-disciplines
Cousins, Norman, 189
Craft tools, 130, 249
See also: Tool
Crafts, 265, 267
Crates, 35, 44
"Credit card, " electronic, xxvii, 215
See also: Commonwealth accounting;
Credit financing, 15, 118
See also: Bankruptcy
Credo, 37-38
Cretans, xx, 69, 73
See also: Water-people
Crisis. See: Emergency through emergency
Critical moment, xvii, xix, 246, 248,
Critical Path
LAWCAP and, 114
prognostication in, 190
reading of, xix, xx, xxxvi
reasons for writing, xi, xiii
traces trends of history, xxxvi
Critical path
defined, 248
1927 program, 253, 254, 255, 261
to one-world family, 218
Critical proximity, 16, 335
See also: Alloying; Mass attraction:
Mass interattraction
Critical-path artifacts, 250, 252-53,
261-62, 268, 269, 276-77, 309-46
See also: Appendix I & II; Artifacts,
development of; Artist-scientists
Critical-path planning
critical time limit in, xviii-xix, 28,
119, 201
familiarity of youth with, xix
in Brazil, 287-308
in space program, xviii-xix, 247-49,
operational terms & stages of, 255-
order in, xviii-xix
RBF and, 268
program of realization of, 255-61
technological stages of, 254
See also: Apollo project; "Compendium"
on Brazil's Industrialization;
Flowsheet; Naval
prognosticating science & art, Orbital
feedback circuit; Problem-solving;
World Game
Critical-path tasks, xxxi, xxxiv, 128,
146, 161, 199, 206, 248, 249, 253-
54, 262-69
in U.S.S.R. industrial planning, 289
See also: Appendix I & II
Critical-path problem-solving, 250-51
Cross-breeding, 74, 218, 285, 310
See also: Genetics; Nation; National
sovereignty; Specialization: Overspecialization
Crossings (in systems geometry), 7, 8
Cross-pollination, 246
See also: Bees' cross-fertilization as
Crowd behavior, xi, 232, 346
See also: Behavior
Crusades, 71
cummings, e. e., xii-xiii
Cuneiform, 33
Currents (ocean), 29, 31, 34-35, 40-
See also: Gulf Stream; Japan Current;
Curium, 244
Custom-validated, xxi
Customs, 27, 145
Cybernetics, xxxvii, 342
See also: Orbital feedback circuits;
Shannon, Claude; Wiener, Norbert
differing rates of change, 251
of recirculation of metals, 208, 281-
shown on Geoscope, 182
product design and, 259
See also: Geoscope; Gestation rates;
Human limits of observation; Orbital
feedback circuits; Time as
Cyprus, 15-16, 136
See also: Copper

da Vinci. See: Leonardo
Dalton, John, 7
Dark Ages
artists of, 52-53
suppression of science during, 72
See also: Artist-scientist; Behind-the-scenes
power structure; Church-state
Dartmouth (ship), 78
Dartmouth Conference, 188-93
See also: Communism vs. capitalism;
Prognostication (scientific)
Darwin, Charles Robert, xxii-xxiii, 7,
8, 58, 60, 140, 203, 213
See also: Earth, as sphere; Evolution:
Class-two evolution; Life
support inadequacy; "Killingry" poker
game; Malthus, Thomas;
Marx, Karl; "Survival only of the
Darwin: Reverse evolution, xxii-xxiii,
7, 17, 58
See also: Building blocks: No building
Data rates, 231, 235, 238-39, 250
See also: Accelerating acceleration;
Computer; Geoscope; Human
limits of observation; Light, speed
of; Scientific & technical knowhow;
Sound, speed of; Time as
See: Afterlife; Burial tombs; Life;
Life expectancy; Life is not physical
See: Computer; Democracy; Dictatorship;
"Electronic democracy";
Information access; Secret
Deeds, 68
See also: Landownership
Deep-bellied, stoutly ribbed ships, 44,
69, 71
Defense industry
See: Killingry; Prime contractors;
Weaponry industry
Definability & indefinability, 46
See also: Boundary: Boundary conditions;
Finity & infinity; Systems
Degrees, minutes & seconds, 33
Democracy, 82, 83, 341-42, 346
Democratic system, 287
See also: Dictatorship
Democritus, 34
See also: Atom; Building blocks: No
building blocks
Demography (RBF study of), 126
See also: Fortune (magazine); Geoscope;
Information inventorying;
Malthus, Thomas; Population distribution;
World Game; World resources
Depression, The. See: Great Crash
Design as orderly pattern, 28, 152
See also: Information; Syntropy &
Design engineering, 22
Design (of critical path), 254-55
See also: Apollo Project; Criticalpath
Design (of humans), x, 27, 143, 159,
262, 276, 345, 346
See also: Helpless: Humans born
helpless & ignorant; Human limits
of observation; Human tolerance
limits; Mind
Design (of planet), 276
See also: Ecology; Spaceship Earth;
Syntropy & entropy
Design (of Universe), 28, 152, 159,
204, 276, 345, 346
See also: Chemical elements; Cosmic
accounting; God; Regeneration;
Scenario Universe; Synergetics;
Design science, 246-47, 250-51, 256,
anticipatory, 126, 127, 204
behavioral basis of, 283
naval prognosticating science & art
as, 239-4O
needs stated as functions in, 307
prototyping in space program, 247
reduction to practice, 216
tetrahedron of variable design factors,
See also: Critical-path artifacts;
Critical-path planning; Ephemeralization;
More with less; Naval
prognosticating science & art;
Performance per pound; Work effectiveness
Design Science Decade, 136
Design science revolution, xviii, xix,
198, 201, 203-26, 254
role of recirculation of metals in,
Design science vs political revolution;
xviii, xix, xxv, xxxvii, 200, 219,
225, 232, 252, 253-54
among college students, 235-37
at Dartmouth Conference, 189-92
See also: Behavior; Environment:
Altering the environment
Devaluation of U.S. dollar, 1l0, 116
See also: Making money with
Dhow, 22-24, 24
Dhow captains, 22-24
See also: Phoenicians; Sailor-navigators
Diameter. See: Length-to-surface ratio
Diamonds, 225
Dictatorship, 138, 217, 286-87
See also: National sovereignty
Dictionary, xxxviii
Direct experience
of Earth, 57, 173-74, 265
of God, 153-59
of Universe, 153, 265
See also: Experience; Experiment;
"Guinea Pig B"; Learning
through trial-and-error; Reduction
to practice; Scientific & technical
Directions (in & out), 55
See also: Eastbound man: Westbound
man; Geoscope; Up &
Disarmament, 116, 117, 197
See also: Livingry vs. killingry;
SALT Treaty
Discipline. See: Self-disciplines
Disciplines: Academic disciplines
See: Academic degrees; Design science;
Education; Specialization:
Dillon, Read and Company, 85-86
Divide & conquer, xxviii, 61-62, 162,
196, 214-15
See also: Human power structures;
Specialization: Overspecialization
Dividers, 46
See also: Greek geometry
Divine right of kings. See: God-king
DNA-RNA, 8, 342-43
See also: Scanning transmission of
humans by radio
Dodge (family), 85
"Doffing, " 325
Doing one's own thinking, 123, 125,
151, 231, 266
See also: Self-disciplines
Doing the right things for the right
reasons, 246-47, 252
See also: Evolution: Class-two evolution;
Learning through trial-and-error
Doing the right things for the wrong
reasons, 246
See also: Evolution: Class-one evolution;
"Legally Piggily"; Precession
Domed-over cities, xxv, 209, 310, 337
as proposed for Manhattan, xxiv
See also: Old Man River's City
conventional, 179
volume-area ratio of, xxiv, 158, 209,
233, 311, 327, 333
See also: Geodesic dome
Domestication of animals, 11, 66
Doors (automatic), 268-69
Down, 55
Dragons & sea serpents, 58
Dry-packaging toilet, 149, 212, 314-15
See also: Black box mechanical unit;
Dymaxion Bathroom
Dugout, 69
Dulles, Allen, 103
Dulles, John Foster, 103
Dunham, Katherine, 315
Dwelling machine
AIA 1927 single family, 148
Beech aircraft, 148
flyable, 337
in Brazil, 303-4
service industry, xxv
technological features of, 210-12,
310-15, 311, 312, 313, 314
U.S.S.R. and, 138
underground, 337
See also: Dymaxion house; Environment
control; Fly's Eye; Gestation
rates; Housing industry;
Service industry; "Universal
Dwelling Requirements"
Dymaxion artifacts. See: Appendix II
Dymaxion Bathroom, 135-36, 149
See also: Building industry; Dry
packaging toilet; Fog gun
Dymaxion Car, 135
Dymaxion Chronofile. See: Chronofile
Dymaxion Deployment Unit, 136
Dymaxion House
doors of, 268-69
of 1927, 139, 148, 329
U.S.S.R. and, 138
See also: Critical-path artifacts;
Dwelling machine; Housing industry;
"Universal Dwelling Requirements"
Dymaxion Sky-Ocean Map, 136, 164-
65, 166, 168, 169
Arctic-front disclosures of, 288-89
compared with other projections, 44,
163-65, 165
described, 3
early voyaging and, 38-39, 40-41,
energy grid and, xxxi, xxxii-xxxiii
population on, 17, 18-19, 20, 205
temperature zones on, 3
World Game and, 205, 208
See also: Cartography; Earth, as
sphere; Geoscope; One world
family; Whole Earth map; World
Game; World ocean; World resources
Dymaxion transformational projection,
44, 164-65, 16~ 168
See also: Geoscope

Earning a living, xxxiv, xxx, 124, 144,
145, 150-51, 223, 225, 231, 266
See also: Commonwealth Accounting;
Employment: Unemployment;
as sphere, xxi, xxii, 29, 34, 35, 57,
58, 72, 131, 163, 172, 173, 174
as syntropic locus, 28, 275
circumference of, 34
diameter of, 55-56, 171, 172, 173
flat-out view of, 43, 44, 46, 54-55,
56-57, 58, 254
environment of, 120, 345-46
out from, as any direction, 55
relative abundance of chemical elements
on, 222, 224, 290, 296-97
scale model of, 56, 163-64, 167-68,
172-73, 176, 177, 178, 179-80,
size of, 55-57, 168, 171, 172-73
speed of rotation of, 131
to become radiant star, 28, 223, 344
See also: Cartography; Circumnavigation
of Earth; Commonwealth
accounting; Co-orbiting of Earth
& Moon; Co-orbiting of Earth &
Sun; Cosmic accounting; Dymaxion
Sky-Ocean Map; Ecology; Energy
accounting; Geoscope;
Humans; Humanity; Nation; National
sovereignty; One world
family; Radio-triangulation mapping;
Recirculation of metals;
Spaceship Earth; Systems geometry;
Syntropy & entropy; Water;
Whole Earth map; World Game;
World ocean; World resources inventory
Earth, Inc., 342
Earthquakes, 112, 182, 190, 222
East India Company, 76, 78
as invisible power structure, 78
as private enterprise, 104
flag of, 78
founded by Queen Elizabeth I, xxi
gathers world data, xxii
in establishing of world-trade supremacy,
invests in U.S.A., 104
See also: Balance-of-trade accounting;
Behind-the scenes power
structure; Free enterprise; Malthus,
Thomas; National sovereignty;
Pirates; Trade; World
East India Company College, 58
See also: Geopolitics; Information
inventorying; Malthus, Thomas;
World resources inventory
East is east: West is west
See: Kipling, Rudyard
East St. Louis, Illinois, 315, 317, 321-
Eastbound man: Westbound man, 23-
24, 286
Eastern philosophy of acceptance, 23
Ebony (tree), 10
Ecology, 13, 28, 281, 346
as syntropic, 246, 275
defined, 143
humans and, 345
of Earth's water system, 4-6, 270-
71, 277, 278
See also: Cosmic accounting; Earth;
Energy accounting; Intercomplementation;
Syntropy & entropy;
Wealth, metabolic
Ecological Transformation Charts, 136
national becomes transnational, 218
traditional, 133, 146, 200, 205, 232
See also: Balance-of-trade accounting;
Banks: Banking; Capitalism;
Commonwealth accounting; Cosmic
accounting; Ecology; Energy
accounting; Finance capitalism
(FINCAP); Free enterprise; Fundamental
risk enterprise; Lawyer
capitalism (LAWCAP); Life support
inadequacy; Malthus, Thomas;
Managerial capitalism; Marx,
Karl; Metals & mining capitalism;
Precession, socioeconomic; System:
Systems: Systems geometry;
Economic planning in U.S.S.R., 152,
288-91, 300-301, 302, 305
Economic success
See: Humanity, option to "make it";
Eden, Garden of, 15, 22, 204, 313
See: Line; Trajectory
Edison, Thomas Alva, 190
at home, xxxv, 223, 264, 265
books in, 265
by word-of-mouth, 265
computers in, xxxv, 223
conducted by elders, 123
funding of business, 220
future of teaching, 265-66
in Brazil, 298-99
in the 1960s, 236
initiating self-development, 237
misinformation in, 55, 59
of public, 261
on invisible reality, 253
pure science in, 244
tenure in, 265-66
through history's inventory of discovery,
through trial-and-error learning,
137, 146, 151, 230, 246, 248,
video, xxxv, 26, 253, 265-66, 267
See also: Buckminster Fuller on 126,
Education; Doing one's own
thinking; Experience; Experiment;
Self-disciplines; Schools; Specialization:
Edwardsville Religious Center (Geoscope),
See: Precession; Systems geometry
See: Design science; Ephemeralization;
Mechanical efficiency; More
with less; Performance per
weight; Structural efficiency;
Work effectiveness
artifacts of, 50-51
artists of, 33
early history, 17, 49-52, 70-71
geometry of, 33
high priest of, 29
See also: Alexandria; Pun, Land of
Einstein, Albert, 152
Einstein's equation: E = Mc2, 109,
158, 345
Eisenhower, Dwight David
appoints Strauss to AEC, 107-8
curbs U.S. Bureau of Standards, 108
elected to U.S. Presidency, 103
ends New Deal controls, 103
Geneva Meeting and, 117
LAWCAP and, 102, 108
See also: Lawyer capitalism
(LAWCAP); World War II;
World War III
Electric energy network grid
as priority, 202, 206, 215, 253, 309
in Alaska, xxxi
peak & valley use-patterns of, xxixxxxi,
practical delivery distance of, xxixxxxi,
xxxii. xxxiii. xxxiv
ultrahigh-voltage & superconductivity
and, xxix, 206
uniform costing & pricing system of,
xxxi, xxxii. xxxiii. xxxiv
Electric utilities
as new economic indicator, 103
critical path and, 253-54
direct & alternating current and,
integration of electric grid by, xxixxxx
largest customers of, xxix
metals industry and, 99
wind power regulation and, 208
U.S.S.R. program for, xxxi, 206
See also: Birth rate & energy production;
Critical-path tasks;
Energy accounting; Monetary accounting;
World Game
Electrical conductivity of metals, xxix,
84, 206, 225
Electrical current currency, xxxi,
xxxii, xxxiii, xxxiv, 215, 219, 253
Electromagnetic radiation, speed of,
192, 231, 235
See also: Light, speed of
Electromagnetic wave propagation, 28,
See also: Conservation of energy
condensation of water as, 13, 277
of aluminum, 201-2
of copper, 282
used in auto parts scheme, 101
Electron, 7, 58, 120, 144, 161, 242
Electron, positron, neutrino & antineutrino,
See also: Coexisting: Always & only;
Complementarity; Proton & neutron
Electronic "credit cards, " 338, 341
See also: Computer
"Electronic democracy, " 197, 341-42
See also: Communications satellite;
Orbital feedback circuits; Remote
Electronics, 133, 284
See also: Invisible: Invisibility
Electronics Industry
fallout into consumer economy, 133,
gestation rates in, 148, 283
See also: Accelerating acceleration;
Ephemeralization; Invisible reality
(dawning of); Livingry vs. killingry
Elements. See: Chemical, elements
Elephant, 11
Elevators, 338 .
Elizabeth I (queen of England), xxi, 78
See also: East India Company
See: Co-orbiting of Earth & Moon;
Co-orbiting of Earth & Sun; Kepler,
Embryo, 119-20
See also: New life
Emergence through emergency, xvii,
126, 252
energy crisis as, 113
in building industry, xxvi
in invention of words, 25
in war, xx
See also: Anticipatory design science;
Livingry vs killingry
Emperor, 43, 68
Emperor-pope. See: Church-state hierarchy
Employment: Unemployment
automation and, 102, 223
before & after World War II, 94,
95, 102
earning a living vs fellowships in,
xxxv, 225
"idle people" and, xxxv
on production or maintenance
teams, xxxv
on research & development teams, 223
producing no life-support wealth,
xxxiv, 200, 262-63
qualification exams, 223
security of, 100
World Game and, 223
See also: Earning a living; Fellowships;
Work week
Encyclopedia. See: Information access
End. See: Beginnings & endings
Energy accounting
income, xvii, xviii, 28, 1l2, 199, 208,
212, 219, 254, 276, 31l, 314
savings, xvii, xxxiv-xxxv, 112, 120,
192, 212, 219, 222, 223, 229, 254,
262-63, 276
savings vs. income, 109, 223, 241,
See also: Alcohol (vegetation-produced);
Atomic energy; Atomic
energy industry; Coal; Conservation
of energy; Critical moment;
Critical-path planning; Domed-over
cities; Electric energy network
grid; Electric utilities;
Geothermal; Hydroelectric; Mechanical
efficiency; Petroleum;
Petroleum industry; Shale (petroleum-
bearing); Sun; Vulcanism;
Windpower; Wavepower; World
Game; World resource inventory;
Work efficiency
Energy conservation
computer realized, 215
in communication satellites, xxiii
in housing, xxiv-xxv
See also: Emergence through emergency;
Energy crisis of 1979, 113
Energy, Earth, and Everyone, 219
Energy resources study, 126
See also: World resources inventory
Engine. See: Mechanical efficiency
[See also: listing under engine type]
Engineering corporations, 22, 290-92
in Brazil, 299-300, 301
U.S.S.R. industrial planning by,
See also: "Compendium" on Brazil's
Industrialization; Critical-path
planning; Economic planning in
U.S.S.R.; "Universal Dwelling
in World War I, 81-83
land grants of, 77
sea battles of, 72
tin from, 205
world-embracing strategies of, xxii
See also: British Empire;
World War I
Entropy. See: Syntropy & entropy
Environment: Altering the environment,
27, 125, 129, 130, 140, 213
defined, 27
for child, 330
in prehistoric times, 3-4, 5, 6, 15
in recorded times, 26, 27, 50-54
in recent times, 233, 309-46
inventions for, 233, 244
not behavior, 52-53, 134, 252, 254-
strategies, for, 136, 303
See also: Artifacts; Behavior; "Compendium"
on Brazil's Industrialization;
Critical-path artifacts;
Design science; Livingry not killingry;
World Game
Environment control
automobile as, 130, 302
and chemical element isolations
chart, 242
by artist-scientist, 27
defined, 130
early history of, 51-54
energy efficiency of, xxiv-xxv, 209- 12
fixed & mobile, xxiv, 90, 309-10
future, 263, 309, 346
in survival, 6, 303
land buildings as, xxiv, 90, 303
on Moon, 343-44
recent history of, 245, 303-4
space program and, 247
See also: Air circulation patterns;
Automobile; Design science; Environment:
Altering the environ-
ment; Land & sea transport;
Livingry vs. killingry; Structural
efficiency; Volume-area ratio
"L'Envois" (Kipling), 223-24
Ephemeralization. 103-4, 128, 132-33,
142, 148. 198-99, 203, 204, 205,
216.217, 232-33, 275-76
air-deliverability in, 194
and Henry Ford, 53-54
as exemplified by satellite & Gossamer
Albatross, xxiii, xxiv
as class-one evolution, 232-33
as self-discipline, 133
charts of, 103, 245
critical path and, 253
in consumer goods, 236
in socioeconomic behaviors, 146
in 1940, 103-4
in shipbuilding, 233
in World Game, 203, 216-17
prognostication and, 150
only recently possible, xxv
trends of, 103, 237
through know-how, 109
through metals, 284
ultimate, 234
youth and, 232
See also: Accelerating acceleration;
Design science revolution; Evolution:
Class-one evolution; Environment:
Altering the
Environment; Invisible: Invisibility;
Livingry vs. killingry; Mechanical
efficiency; Metaphysical
know-how; Miniaturization; More
with less; Precession; Structural
efficiency; Work effectiveness;
World Game
geodesic domes at, 210, 211
population and, 205, 277
travel along, 71
Equatorial Africa, 3, 4, 201-2
Eratosthenes' map, 34, 36, 44
Eskimos and vitamin D, 9
Espionage, 62
See also: CIA; Psychological warfare;
Scientific & technical knowhow;
Secret (critical information)
Eternally regenerative Universe
See: Integrity; Regeneration; Universe
Ether: Etherealization, 133
Euclid, 33, 44, 46-47
See also: Greek schools
Eucalyptus, 271
Euler, Leonhard, 7-8, 46
electric grid and, 206
ice-age hunters migrate to, 17
industrialization know-how of, 201
population of, 20
See also: Asia to Europe; World
War I; World War II
European Economic Community, 218
Europium, 244
"Ever Rethinking the Lord's Prayer, "
See also: Belief; Direct experience;
Experience; Experiment; Self-disciplines
Everest, Mt., 55
class-one vs. class-two, 232, 246, 254,
critical moment in, xvii, 246, 248,
gestation rate of, 134
See also: Cosmic evolution; Darwin:
Reverse evolution
Evolution: Class-one evolution, 217,
229-30, 232, 285
critical-path undertaking as, 254-55
design of vegetation as, 246
eliminates blockages, 281
h\lman origins & migrations as,
in farming, 272-76
information & mobility increase, 247
innate human drives as, 27
life expectancy increase and, 233
metals and, 284-85
national sovereignty and, 286-87
syntropy as, 246, 276
See also: Accelerating acceleration;
Critical moment; Ecology; Environment
control; Ephemeralization;
Humans, function of;
Industrialization; Precession; Syntropy
& entropy
Evolution: Class-two evolution, 229,
as entropy, 246
coincides with class-one evolution,
246, 254, 284-85
See also: Church-state hierarchy;
Doing the right things for the
wrong reasons; Human power
structures; "Legally Piggily";
"Killingry"-poker game;
"Wealth" -poker game
Evolutionary events on Geoscope,
Evolutionary processes, humans are,
can only increase, 198
in engineering, aeronautics, buildings,
information gained from, 125, 265
not belief, 125, 151-57, 283
of God, 151-58
omni-, 155
RBF inventory of, 127-28
setting in order the facts of, 43, 237,
synergetic integration of, 225
whole Earth, 173-74
See also: Direct experience; Helpless:
Humans born helpless & ignorant;
Learning through trial-and-
error; Memory; Metaphysical
know-how; Reduction to practice;
Experiment (undertaken by God), 155,
See also: Design (of humans); Humans,
function of
Experiment (undertaken by individual),
xxxviii, 128, 265
See also: Direct experience; "Guinea
Pig B"; Human individual; Learning
through trial-and-error; Pure
science; Reduction to practice;
Scientific & technical know-how;
Self-disciplines; Self-education
Expenditures, public, 103, 104-5, 106,
for CIA, 103, 116
for foreign aid, 105, 114, 116
for weaponry, 106-9, 110, 117
for new technologies, xx
See also: Bankruptcy; Emergency
through emergency; Fundamental
risk enterprise; "Killingry" -poker
Expo '67 Dome, 136, 165-71, 174
Exterior metabolics, 250
See also: Ballistics
Exterior tools, 250, 345, 346
See also: Ballistics;· Meteorology;
Naval prognosticating science &
art; Navigation; Shipbuilding
Extinction of humanity, 192, 201, 215,
217, 229, 237
See also: Human tolerance limits;
Specialization: Overspecialization;
Extraterrestrial life, 8, 119-20
Exxon, 241, 273
Site Admin
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Re: Critical Path, by R. Buckminster Fuller

Postby admin » Tue Jul 28, 2015 6:57 am


Face, 7, 8
See also: Area; Opening
Factory as fortress, 291, 300
Farms: Farming, 270-73
during Great Crash, xxx
economics of, 79, 272, 328
in wartimes, 80
non-resident, 87, 272-73, 274, 328
overproduction, 271-72, 273
See also: Conglomerates; Food; Labor
FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation),
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
(FDIC), 106
See also: Banks: Banking; Bankruptcy;
Fundamental risk enterprise;
New Deal
Federal Reserve Bank, 139
See also: Gold
Feedback. See: Orbital feedback circuits
as individual's spontaneous sensing,
vs thinking, believing, knowing, xiixiii
See also: Awareness
Feenicians. See: Phoenicians
Fellowships, xxxiv, 263, 266
See also: Commonwealth accounting;
Earning a living; Education; Employment:
Unemployment; Energy
accounting, savings
Fertilizer, 315, 329
Fiber optics, 268
Final examination, xxxvi, xxxvii
See also: Test & testing
Finance capitalism (FINCAP)
metals cartel and, 98-100
replaced by managerial capitalism,
revived in LAWCAP, 114, 116
See also: Banks: Banking; Capitalism;
Corruption; Fundamental
risk enterprise; Land-based capitalism;
Lawyer capitalism (LAWCAP);
Managerial capitalism;
Metals & mining capitalism; Morgan,
J. P.
Finity & infinity, 58
See also: Beginnings & endings;
Boundary: Boundary conditions;
Earth, as sphere; Earth flat-out
view of; Systems geometry
First things first
See: Critical-path planning; Criticalpath
Fire, defined for child, 62
"First life, " 134
Fiscus (basket), 119
using baskets, 13
as industry, 328
Fitzgibbon, James, 323
Fixes. See: Vertexes
Flat-out view of world. See: Earth,
flat-out view of
Fleets of ships, 72
See also: Naval prognosticating science
& art; Shipbuilding
Floating cities, 90, 337
See also: Triton Floating City
Flood control, xxix
Flotation process (in refining copper),
Flowsheet, 256-57
See also: Critical-path planning;
"Universal Dwelling Requirements"
Fly's Eye dome, 310-15, 3J1, 312.
See also: Dwelling machine; Environment
control; Service industry
Fog gun, 149, 212, 314
See also: Black box mechanical unit;
Dymaxion Bathroom
amount consumed, 343
ample, but poor distribution, 202
as essence of land wealth, 80
as military strategy, 69, 80
as world resource, 221
chromosomically programmed need
for, 246
distribution of, 80, 202, 271-72
for astronauts, 204
for atoll-dwellers, 5
in Ho-Ping: Food for Everyone (Gabel),
202, 219
inventory of resources and, 219
of earliest humans, 5, 49, 67
of Eskimos, 9
preservation of, 80
U.S.S.R. industrialization and, 289.
See also: Diet; Farms: Farming; Life
support inadequacy; Nourishment:
Undernourishment; Wealth,
Ford, Henry, 53-54, 86
and Dearborn school for U.S.S.R.
engineers, 138
Ford Motor Company, 305
in Brazil, 305
institutes time-financing, 86
See also: Automobile
Foreign aid
subsidies, 114
to U.S. companies abroad, 105-6,
See also: National sovereignty;
"Forgotten man, ;' 95, 100
See also: New Deal
Fort: Fortress, 194, 291, 300
See also: City-state
Fortune (magazine), 103-4, 133, 245,
284, 290
"Fortune 500" corporations, 105
Fossil fuels. See: Petroleum
4D monograph, 135
4D Timelock. 137
colonial, 77
in World War I, 82-83
sea battles of, 72
See also: Europe; World War I;
World War II
Franklin, Benjamin, 190
Free enterprise
backing of, by Queen Elizabeth I,
early, 73
Henry Ford and, 53
incorporation in, xxi
Obnoxico and, 225-26
personal advantaging in, xviii
profits of, xxviii-xxix, xxx, xxxi
re-establishment of, in U.S., 98
risks in, xxi, 77, 96
See also: Capitalism; Fundamental
risk enterprise; Profit motive;
Stockholder; Trade
Frequency in pure principle, 158
and angle coordination, 8, 342
See also: Cycles; Time as frequency
Fresh water, 5-6, 12, 13, 35
Friendliness as world resource, 221
Fuel cell efficiency, xxiv, 208
Fuji, Mount, 337, 338
Fuller, Alexandra, 124
Fuller, Anne (Hewlett), 124, 129
Fuller Archives, 137, 169
See also: Chronofile; "Guinea Pig
Fuller, R. Buckminster (RBF)
at birth (1895), 343
childhood, 128-29
at age 4, 241
search for cosmic-coordination system
begins, 241-42
remembers dawn of new century, 57
early school years, 32, 79, 80, 134
radio and, 129
father dies, 123
at age 12, 124
automobiles and, 58, 128, 129, 131
travel of, 129, 131
Harvard forebears, 129-30
no academic degrees, 146
daughter dies, 124, 127
marriage, 124, 129
U.S. Navy, 123, 124, 129, 135
Chronofile, 124, 125, 126, 128-29,
Transport magazine, 135
Stockade Building System, 124, 135
early financial crises of, 124, 134
self-disciplines of, xi, xxxvii-xxxviii,
123-60, 169, 171, 231, 233, 248-
49, 250, 261, 266-67, 323
crisis of 1927, 127, 134, 252
realization of 1927, xxxvii
commitment of 1927, 146
critical path strategy, 254-55
4D monograph, 135, 137
Dymaxion House (1927-28), 139,
148, 268-69, 329
Shelter magazine, 133, 135
Dymaxion Car, 135
Dymaxion Bathroom, 135-36, 149
Nine Chains to the Moon, 114, 133,
136, 237, 242
Ecological Transformation Charts,
Synergetic geometry, xxviii, 46-47,
136, 213
Dymaxion Deployment Unit, 136
Phelps Dodge Company, 282-84,
on Fortune staff, 103-4, 133, 245,
284, 290
Dymaxion Sky-Ocean Map, xxxi,
xxxii, xxxiii, 3, 17, 18, 19, 20, 38,
39, 40, 41, 42, 44 136, 163-65,
165, 166, 168, 169, 205, 206, 208,
U.S. Board of Economic Warfare,
104, 289-92
"Compendium" on Brazil's industrialization,
O-Volving shelves & storage, 136,
329-32, 330, 331
Underground Silo Library, 136,
331-32, 332
on earning a living (1947), 225
Geodesic domes, xxiv, 136, 167,
190, 195, 209, 211, 310, 324
Radomes, 136
Marine Corps Air-Delivered Domes,
trade fair domes, 136, 167, 195
Dartmouth Conference, 188-193
Operating manual for Spaceship
Earth, 198, 213
Expo '67 Dome, 136, 165-71, 174
Triton Floating City, 90, 131, 332-
35, 334
Design Science Decade, 136
World resources inventory, 136,
World Game, 136, 169, 184, 198-
226, 248, 309
Old Man River's City, 209, 315-23,
318, 319, 320
designs new airports in India, 78
Tokyo Tower, 136, 337-38, 339, 340
microcosmic structuring studies, 136
World Man Territory Trusteeship,
Earth, Inc, 342
Tensegrity projects, 136
Synergetics, 7, 8, 136
Buckminster Fuller on Education,
Fly's Eye dome, 310-15, 3JJ, 312,
313, 314
around-world flights of, 57
in Sao Paulo (1980), 292
residence, 131
at 85, 343
impelled to write Critical Path. xi,
See also: Appendix I & II; "Ever
Rethinking the Lord's Prayer";
"Guinea Pig B"; Self-disciplines;
Snyder, Allegra (Fuller)
Fume precipitation, 278-79, 280, 281
See also: Air pollution; Cosmic accounting;
Energy accounting
Fundamental risk enterprise
origin of, xxi
in U.S., 87
invest in new equipment, 96
public funds and, 106-10
See also: Bankruptcy; Capitalism;
Free Enterprise; Incorporated;
Limited; Prime contractors; Socialism
vs. free enterprise

Gabel, Medard, 202, 219
Galaxy, 34, 345
Galbraith, John Kenneth, 188
Galileo, Galilei
accelerating acceleration and, 132
religious sense of, 152-53
See also: Artist-scientist; Church-state
Gallium, 244
Game of life, learning to play, 123
Game of killing. See: "Killingry" -- poker
Game of making money with money
See: Making money with money
Game of Universe, six moves of, 247
Game of wealth. See: "Wealth" -- poker
Ganges River, 20
See also: Rivers of Asia
Gas, 223
See also: Energy accounting, savings
General Motors, 273
first billion-dollar profit of, xxix
grants workers lifetime benefits,
institutes time-financing, 86
negotiates labor pact with U.A.W.,
stripped of Morgan directors, 96
See also: Automobile
Generalized tools (of humans), 9, 249,
See also: Ballistics; Tool
Generalized principles, Family of, 125,
126, 128, 157, 230, 246, 250, 277
acceptance of, 160
as eternally invariant, 160, 250
as metaphysical, 109
as noncorruptible, xxxviii
as strategy of mind, 27-28
as subsets of interrelationships, 159
as synergetic, 251
as unpatentable, 109
in applied science, 237
in artifact development, 233
mind's access to, xxxvi, xxxviii
no contradiction in, 152
no exceptions to, 158
qualities of, 158-59
reorganizes the physical, 27
special case interactions of, 160
Sun and, 346
Generalized scientific principles
See: Generalized principles,
Family of
See: Cross-breeding; DNA-RNA;
Inbreeding; Nation; Specialization:
Geneva Meeting 117
Genghis Khan, xxii, 44
Genius, 26
See also: Artist-scientist; Awareness
of child; Intellect
Geocentric, 34, 37
Geodesic dome
air circulation patterns of, 210, 211.
domes-within-domes, 209, 212
domed-over cities, xxiv, xxv, 209,
310, 315-23, 318, 319, 320, 337
efficiency, xxiv, 209-12
energy income, xxiv, 212
heating & cooling of, xxiv, 210, 211,
"Hex-Pent, " 310
in Afghanistan, 195
snow-loading, wind-loading, earthquake-
proofing, 190
trade fair, 136, 167, 195
windpower and, 210
See also: AIA 1927 single-family
dwelling; Cotton mill; Dwelling
machine; Environment control;
Expo '67 dome; Fly's Eye dome;
Growth House; Structural efficiency
Geodesic sphere
See: "Cloud Nines"; Fly's Eye
dome; Geoscope; Sphere
plane, 44, 46-47
solid, 44
See also: Greek schools; Spherical
geometry; Systems geometry
Geographic isolation
Brazil, 290
U.S.S.R., 289
See also: Cartography; Demography;
Geology, RBF study of, 126
Geopolitics, 193-97
See: Mackinder, Sir Halford
Geopolitik. 194
See: Haushofer, Karl
Geoscope, 163-84, 248
as information display, 168-69, 174,
as scale model of Earth, 56, 180
as World Game "test bed, " 309
demographic data on, 168
earthquakes on, 182
evolutionary events on, 181, 184
ice ages on, 181
invisible trending and, 161-63
land & sea transport on, 168, 182
logistics and, 182
meteorology on, 181
on cities, 168, 180
population on, 168, 181, 182
recirculation of metals on, 181
size of, 179-80
structure of, 167-69, 170, 171, 172-
75, 176. 177, 178
vulcanism on, 182
world resources inventory and, 168-
69, 180-84
See also: Computer; Dymaxion SkyOcean
Map; Earth, as sphere;
Geodesic dome; Humans, function
of; Information access; Information
display; Information
inventorying; Problem-solving;
World Game; World resources inventory
automobile production in, 101
in World War I, 81-83
World War II energy program of,
World War IV and, 191
See also: Europe; Geopolitics; Haushofer,
Karl; World War I; World
War II
German industry, 101, 109-10
Geshin Fair, 195
Gestation rate
adoption of tools, 134
aeronautics, 283
artifacts, 283
in electronics development, 283
in building industry, 90, 148, 283, 310
in housing industry, 283
in human affairs, 119
natural & technological, 126
of automobile, 283
of critical path, 261
of railroad, 280
of single-family dwelling, 283
of technologies, 148, 283
Old Man River's City, 323
patents and, 149
steel, 284
See also: Accelerating acceleration;
Cycles; Ephemeralization; Mobility;
Naval prognosticating science
& art; Prognostication (scientific);
Recirculation of metals; Self-disciplines;
World Game
Ghana, geodesic dome, 210
G.I. Bill, 102
See also: Earning a living; Education
Glassmaking, 289
Goat, 11
acts of, 229
as a priori wisdom, 27
as cosmic designer, x, 156, 255,
as designer of humans, x
as exact truth, xxxvii
as Great Spirit, 64, 66
as intellectual integrity, 152
as life-giver & -taker, 21
as love of truth, xxxvii
as prevailing winds, 23
concept of, in Roman Empire, 43
direct experience of, 153-59
existence of, 153-58
formalized worship of, 151
guidance of, 254
in cosmic evolution, xxxviii
individual and, 48, 52, 251
of the sea, sky, and underground
land, 49
"of things as they are, " 224
RBF on, 153-58
religion contrary to, 23
as synergetic integral, 159
will of, x
wisdom of, 157
See also: Cosmic evolution; Design
as orderly pattern; Design (of humans);
Design (of planet); Design
(of Universe); Direct experience;
"Ever Rethinking the Lord's
Prayer"; Human individual; Integrity;
Intellect; Synergy; Truth;
God-king, 43, 60-62
afterlife of, 49-50
as only divine authority, 43
ascension of, 49-50
cosmological models of, 49
standard of living of, 53
See also: Behind-the-scenes power
structure; Church-state hierarchy;
Navigator-priest; Priesthood;
God-ordained chief tan of South Pacific, 29
Goering, Hermann, 194
as capital, 111
as money, 75, 201
co-occurring with copper, 282
discovery of, 242
flow out of U.S., 286
in World War II, 104-5
monetary accounting of, 214
New Deal and, 105
on shipboard, 75
reflectivity & electrical conductivity
of, xxvii, 84, 225
Sung family and, 104-5
U.S.S.R. industrialization and, 289
See also: Ba1ance-of-trade accounting
Gold bullion, 83-84, 104-5, 116
Gold equities, 105, 106
Gold standard, 84, 105
Golden Rule, The, 123
Gondolas, 22, 24
See: Water-people
Good & bad, ix, x
See also: Negative & positive
Gorman, Chet, 17
Gossamer Albatross, xxiii, xxiv
Gravity, xvii, 221
love as metaphysical, 156
as world resource, 221
See also: Conservation of energy;
Conservation of integrity; Integrity;
Synergy; Syntropy & entropy
Great Britain
See: British Empire; England
Great Crash, 270, 289
effects of, 87, 88
ends British supremacy, 193
farm-financing collapses in, 87
hydroelectric power and, xxix-xxx
reasons behind, 84-87
U.S.S.R. industrial planning and, 289
See also: Bankruptcy; Banks: Banking;
Finance capitalism (FINCAP);
New Deal; Roosevelt,
Franklin Delano; "Wealth" -- poker
Greatest task. See: Critical-path tasks
architecture, 56
burial urns & mausoleums, 51
cosmology, 34, 35, 37
geometry, 33, 46-47
use of phonetic spelling, 33-34
Greek schools, 33-35, 37, 43, 44, 46-
48, 71
See also:· Alexandrian Greeks;
Earth, as sphere; XYZ coordinate
"Greenhouse" effect, 112
Greenland, 164
Growth House, 212, 327-29
See also: Geodesic dome
Guatama Buddha. See: Buddha
"Guinea Pig B, " 124, 128-51
See also: Critical-path planning; Experiment
(undertaken by individual);
Fuller, R. Buckminster
(RBF); Self-discipline, of documentation
Gulf (oil company), 241
Gun, 64, 238-39
See also: Ballistics, interior & exterior
Gunpowder, 64

Habicht, 290
Hahn, Otto, 106
See also: Atomic bomb
Hamilton, Alexander, 79, 83
See also: Finance capitalism (FINCAP)
big ship, 335
of Brazil, 295
floating cities and, 333-35
Hardware, scrapping of, 205
Hardwoods, 10, 297, 305
Class of 1917, 131
RBF forebears at, 129-30
Harvard Business School, 220
Hatshepsut (queen of Egypt), 17
Haushofer, Karl, 194
See also: Geopolitics
Health care, 213
See also: Bio-anthropology
Hearing, 63, 230
See also: Sensing
"Heartland, The, " 194-96
See also: Afghanistan; Geopolitics;
Land & sea transport; Mackinder,
Sir Halford; Union of Soviet Socialist
Republics; World War III
Heating & cooling
of geodesic dome, xxiv, 211,
320, 324
of geodesic sphere, 336
of rectilinear structures, xxiv
See also: Structural efficiency
Heaven & Hell
concept of,
in Roman Empire, 43
in flat-out world, 49, 55
qualifications for, 52
See also: Afterlife; Church-state hierarchy;
Directions (in & out);
Earth, as sphere; Earth, flat-out
view of; Life support inadequacy;
Up & down
Heisenberg, Werner, xxxvii
in Brazil, 307
rescue by, 338
submarine cities and, 335
See also: Marine Corps Air-Deliverable
abundance of, 222
as world resource, 221
See also: Chemical elements, relative
abundance of
Helpless: Humans born helpless & ignorant,
5, 143, 204, 230
See also: Evolution: Class-one evolution;
Human tolerance limits;
Learning through trial-and-error;
Henderson, Loy, 290
Heraclides (of Pontos), 34, 35
Heyerdahl, Thor, 24
Hieroglyphics, 33
See also: Communication
Higbee, Edward, 274
High priest as mathematician-navigators,
See also: Behind-the-scenes power
structures; God-king
High-pressure atmosphere complemented
by low pressure, 28
See also: Coexisting: Always & only
Higher education
See: College; Education
Highway, 72, 195, 295
Himalayas as water source for Asia,
11, 20-21, 205
See also: Fresh water; Rivers of
Asia; Water
History, beginnings of recorded, 25
Hockey player, 344
Honey-money bee, 142-43, 246
Ho-Ping: Food for Everyone (Gabel),
202, 219
as domesticated animal, 11
inbreeding of, 215
leadership among, 60
earliest, 66-68
armed, xx, 67
See also: Human power structures;
Land & sea transport; Little individual:
Little man; Mind vs. muscle;
future, 338, 341
Hilton, not parallel, 57, 57
selling Obnoxico goods, 226
Hours, minutes & seconds, of time divisions,
Housing industry
future office building use in, 264
gestation rate in, 283
needs before 2000 A.D., xxv
physical properties unloaded by capitalism
in, 108
rate increase of, in Brazil, 303-4
rentable, air-deliverable, self-contained
housing in, xxv
See also: Building industry; Dwelling
machine; Dymaxion House;
Environment control; Fly's Eye
dome; Gestation rates; Livingry;
Old Man River's City; Service industry;
Structural efficiency; Triton
Floating City
Hubble, Edwin, 345
Human body, 4, 5, 6, 8 27, 222, 224,
247, 342, 343
See also: Chemical elements, relative
abundance of; Life is not physical;
Mind vs. muscle
Human individual
and humanity's fate, xxxvi
as cosmic problem-solvers, 346
as evolutionary processes, 132
as own authority, 144
breakthroughs of, 48
creative powers of, 25-28
drives of, 27, 276
God and, 48, 52, 251
in final exam, xxxviii
initiative of, xxxviii, 127, 197
integrity of, xi, xii, xxxvi-xxxviii,
king's control of, 61-62
operating on behalf of all humanity,
xii, 128-51
penniless, 124, 127, 137
precession and 143-44, 145
unique faculties of, 137-38, 345-46
vs. great nations & corporations,
without university degree, 124, 146
See also: Appendix II; Artist-scientist;
Behavior; Commitment to
humanity; Courage; Initiative; Integrity;
Little individual: Little
man; "Guinea Pig B"; Mind vs
muscle; "Scaffolding" technology;
Self-disciplines; Self-education
Human inventiveness, 3-4, 64
See also: Anticipatory design science;
Artifact, development of;
Artist-scientist; Environment: Altering
the Environment; Evolution:
Class-one evolution;
Helpless: Humans born helpless &
ignorant; Human tolerance limits;
Learning through trial-and-error;
Problem-solving; "Scaffolding"
Human limits of observation, 56, 161-
62, 174, 180, 181-84, 224, 238,
240, 343, 344, 345
See also: Cycles; Geoscope; Invisible:
Invisibility; Invisible reality;
Time as frequency
Human mind. See: Mind
Human opinion, 283
See also: Belief
Human power structures
adoption of flat world view, 37
and diet, 10
and military supremacy, xviii, xxii,
117-18, 202
bank officers as, 91, 94
behind-the-scenes, 47
individual threatens, 61-62, 261
metaphysical cutoff from, 232
obsolescence of, 200
origin of, 60
parents as, 230
patronage of artist-scientist, 27
political & geographical divisions
by, 214
"protection" and, 60
political-corporate authority as, 140
popular information and, 162
"radio people" as, 230-31
specialization strategy of, 62
strategy of "divide & conquer, "
suppression of science by, 37, 48,
49, 72
technical levers & strategies of, xx
television and, 231
threats to, 215
See also: Aggressive-passive behavior;
Banks: Banking; Behind-the-scenes
power structures; Big man;
Capitalism; Church-state hierarchy;
Communism vs capitalism;
Corporation; Divide & conquer;
Employment: Unemployment; Expenditures,
public; Free enterprise;
God-king; Ideologies;
Landownership; Life support inadequacy;
Lines of vital supply;
Little individual: Little man;
"Killingry" -- poker game; Making
money with money; Nourishment:
Undernourishment; "Protection";
Scientific & technical know-how;
"Wealth" -poker game
Human planning & manipulation
See: Evolution: Class-two evolution
Human survival. See: Survival
Human tolerance limits, 3, 5, 6, 8,
204, 229, 238, 247, 343, 344, 346
See also: Environment control; "Prehistory";
Human tool complexes, 63, 130, 250,
345, 346
See also: Ballistics, interior & exterior;
Specialization: Overspecialization;
Specialized equipment
Human tribes, extinction in, 215
See also: Specialization: Overspecialization;
as decision-makers, x
as hydraulic technologies, 4
as interior & exterior metabolic systems,
250, 345, 346
as inventors, 3-4, 64
as syntropic, 276
as systems, 249, 250
as unknowing billionaires, xxv, xxvi,
xxvii, 199, 200, 213, 216, 263
assumed to be ignorant, 25
computer needs of, xxvii
designed by God, x
function of, as information-gatherers
& problem-solvers, xxxvi, 8, 28,
47, 120, 126, 143, 161, 184, 200,
204, 216, 225, 246, 309, 344, 345
generalized tools of, xxvii, 250, 343-
in final exam, xxxvi
integration of, xvii
oppose technology, xxvii
origin of, 5, 8, 15, 17, 159
saltwater tears of, 6
suffering of early, 49-50
See also: Afterlife; Behavior; Child:
Childhood; Communication; Design
(of humans); Eastbound man:
Westbound man; Embryo; Extraterrestrial
life; Evolution: Class-one
evolution; Evolution: Class-two
evolution; Genetics; Helpless:
Humans born helpless & ignorant;
Information-gathering; Intellect;
Life; Life expectancy; Life is not
physical; Metaphysical know-how;
Mind; Mind vs. muscle; Mobility;
Omnisuccess; One world family;
Physiognomy & physiology; Precession;
Prehistory; Problem-solving;
Race: No race, no class;
Sensing; Skin pigmentation; Specialization:
Water-people; Westbound man
Humanity in crisis, xvii, xix
Humanity's option to "make it, " xviii,
xix, xxvii, xxxvi-xxxvii, xxxviii
Hunger. See: Diet; Food; Nourishment:
Undernourishment; Helpless:
Humans born helpless &
Hunters, 13, 17, 66-67
See also: Ice ages
Hunting & fishing rights among
American Indians, 64-66
Hydraulic technology (early), 4, 6, 12,
13, 15
Hydrocarbon molecule, 28
harvesting, 210
in trees, 62
See also: Photosynthesis
Hydroelectric generation
in Asia, 205-6
in Ghana, 202
in U.S.S.R., xxxi, 289
See also: Electric energy network
grid; Electric utilities; Energy accounting,
abundance of, 222
behavior of, 144
in Dalton's view, 7
See also: Chemical elements, relative
abundance of
Hydrogen bomb, 234
See also: Atomic war; "Killingry" poker
Hyperspecialization. See: Specialization:

Ice ages,
in petroleum production, 222
exploration during, 20
four known, 11
Geoscope and, 181
hunting & fishing during, 13
migrations during, 17
oceans during, 66
reason for studying, 229
See also: "Prehistory"; Water-people
Icosahedron as whole Earth map, 164,
See also: Dymaxion transformational
Idealism of youth, 232, 235-37
Ideographs, 75
Ideologies, 140, 285, 286, 346
See also: Communism vs capitalism;
Human power structures; National
Illiteracy. See: Literacy: Illiteracy;
Speech patterns
Immigration. See: Migration & immigration
Immortality. See: Life is not physical
"In." See: World power structure,
"outs" vs "ins"
In & out, 55
See also: Orientation; Up & down
of nations & tribes, 11
of nationalities, 218
of special capabilities, 6-7
specialization fomented by, 8, 215
See also: Cross-breeding; Divide &
conquer; Genetics; Nation; Specialization:
Incas, 49
Income tax, 80, 83
See also: taxes
Incorporated (Inc.), xxi
See also: Fundamental risk
airports designed for, 57, 78
hydroelectric program of, 205-6
irrigation canal of, 208
See also: Rivers of Asia
Indian Ocean
crossing of, by Phoenicians, 34
early humans on, 5-6
early ships of, 24
origins of ocean trade on, 22-24
U.S.S.R. access to, 188, 193, 194,
See also: Geopolitics; Line of vital
supply; World ocean
Individual human. See: Human individual
banking in, 13, 15
population density of, 20
See also: Bali
Industrial Revolution, 53
Indus River, 20
See also: Rivers of Asia
as class-one evolution, 240
as comprehensive, 53-54
as exterior metabolic system, 250
defined, 130
financing of, 77
first tool of, 240
in Los Angeles, 278
in Japan, 109-10, 299
navy yard, 239
of U.S., 82-84, 85, 86
of U.S.S.R., 138, 191, 288-91
vs. business, 130
See also: Evolution: Class-one evolution;
Ford, Henry; Mass production;
Naval prognosticating science
& art; Production tools
need for helium, 221
need for water, 221
See also: World resources inventory
Infinite: Infinity. See: Finity & infinity
as awareness of "otherness, " xi-xii
relevant & irrelevant, . 240
critical, 232
See also: Design as orderly pattern;
Secret (critical information); Sensing;
Syntropy & entropy
Information access
audio-visual documentation on RBF
for, 134-35
future, 263
library for, xxxv, 331-32
memory bank for, 160
newsclippings on RBF for, 134-37,
through interactive video, xxxv, 26,
223, 224, 253, 265-66, 267
video encyclopedia for, 264
See also: Communication; Communication
satellite; Computer; Education;
Geoscope; Pattern reading;
Remote sensing; Secret (critical
information); Television
Information display, 168-69, 180-84
omnidirectional, 168, 172-74, 179-
television, 231
See also: Computer; Dymaxion SkyOcean
Map; Geoscope; Model:
Modelability; Pure science isolations
chart; Synergetics;
Information-gathering, 161, 199
as critical necessity, 161
as function of humanity, xxxvi
data rates of, 231, 235, 238-39, 284
in class-one evolution, 230
in space program, 247
in Universe-event prognostication,
spoken word in, 240
via radio, 230-31
via television, 231
youth's, 232
See also: Appendix I & II; Communication;
"Electronic democracy";
Humans, function of; Radio-triangulation
mapping; Remote sensing;
Syntropy & entropy
Information inventorying, 28, 126,
168-69, 202, 203, 253
by Malthus, xxii
data rates of, 250
in architecture, .329
in decision-making, 342
in Design Science, 255-57
in Fortune (magazine), 103-4
omnidirectional, 224
in space program, 247
synergetic realization in, 213
See also: Appendix I & II; Chemical
elements, relative abundance of;
Critical-path planning; Design science;
East India Company College;
Malthus, Thomas; Human
limits of observation; Information-gathering;
mapping; Remote sensing; World
Game; World resources inventory
as world resource, 221
freedom of, 197
in World Gaming, 225
Obnoxico and, 225
of individual, xi, xxxviii, 127, 197
See also: Doing one's own thinking;
"Guinea Pig B"; Self-education
Inquisition. See: Church-state
Insideness & outsideness
in Greek mathematics, 46
of empire, 44, 46
of systems, 46-47
of triangle, 46-47
Inside-outing, ix
Insurance company, investments of,
conservation of, 157
of eternal regeneration, 159
of God, 157, 159, 346
of humanity, 119
of individual, xi, xii, xxxvii, 125
of intellect, 154, 345
of regenerative Universe, 159, 225
of Universe, 159, 246
See also: "Ever Rethinking the
Lord's Prayer"; Self-disciplines;
Integrity: Loss of integrity
loss of educational, 236
loss of economic, 235-36
loss of, of U.S., 101, 114
See also: "Legally Piggily"
Intellect, 25-29
and inbreeding, 7
cosmic, 152
integrity of, 154
origins of, 24
See also: God, as intellectual integrity;
Intellectual integrity of Universe &
See: Integrity
earning a living and, 144, 145
in design science revolution, 199-
in ecology, 143, 246
in self-disciplines, 151
Intercontinental ballistic missile
See: Atomic war; Ballistics
payment in "kind, " 76, 201
depreciates capital, 76
See also: Money; Making money
with money
Interest controls
Eisenhower ends, 103
of New Deal, 91, 96
See also: Banks: Banking; New Deal
Interior & exterior ballistics
See: Ballistics, interior & exterior
Interior & exterior metabolics, 250
Interior tools in humans, 250
See also: Human tool complexes;
Machine tools; Naval prognosticating
science & art
Internal Revenue Service, 262
See also: Taxes
International balance-of-trade accounting
See: Balance-of-trade accounting
International banking
earliest, 201
effect on trade, 81
gold moneylenders in, 76-77
See also: Balance-of-trade accounting
International Business Machines
(IBM), 273
International Telephone & Telegraph
(ITT), 273
military or medical, 263-64
See also: Employment: Unemployment;
Fellowship; Work week
Intertransformable, ix
Intuition, xi
in children, 129
individual, xiii
in adult geniuses, 26
See also: Artist-scientist; Awareness
of child; Mind
reduction to practice. 125
World Game and, 225
See also: Artifacts, development of;
Critical-path artifacts; Human inventiveness;
Patents; Reduction to
Inventory of technological accomplishments.
See: Appendix I & II; Critical-path
artifacts; Ford, Henry; World resources
Inventorying. See: Information inventorying
Invisible: Invisibility, 161
affect on gestation rate,
cheating by U.S. automobile business, 101
as mystical or magical, 54
evolutionary trendings. 161, 162-63
in metallurgy, chemistry, electronics,
xxiii-xxiv, 54, 108, 206, 219
industrial transformation, 83
of cipher, 37
of technology gains, xxiii, xxiv, xxv,
of syntropic loci, 275
on-the-sea power structure. 72
structuring unknown to economists,
warfare, 235-37
See also: Alloys; Behind-the-scenes
power structures; Ephemeralization;
Evolution: Class-one evolution;
Human limits of
observation; Metallurgy; Metaphysical
vs. physical; More with
less; Scientific & technical knowhow
Invisible importing centers
See: Design (of Universe); Earth;
Syntropy & entropy
Invisible reality (dawning of), 53, 54,
108, 128, 161
Ionization. See: Electrolysis
Iowa State University, 328
Iran, 193
radio-triangulation mapping of, 188
U.S.S.R. controls borders of, 196
See also: Asia to Europe; Geopolitics;
Indian Ocean
Iron, 81, 242
conservation and, 270
in Asia, 205-6, 208
in Egypt, 51
with terraced paddies, 6
See also: Hydraulic technology
Isaiah, as prophet, 48
Islands, 11, 12-13, 66
See also: Atolls, propitious for survival;
Israeli "shelterbelts, " 271
Isthmuses & peninsulas, 11, 12
See also: Ice ages
Italy, automobile production in, 101
See also: Europe; World War I;
World War II

Jane's Annual World Inventory of
Ships, 197
Japan, 20, 57, 167, 168
automobile production in, 101
basketry interweaving in, 13
international industrial perspective,
101, 109-10, 299
use of scrap copper, 284
See also: Tokyo Tower; Triton
Floating City; World War II; Water-
Japan Current, 13, 24, 34, 285
Java, 11, 13, 15, 20
See also: Water-people
Jeans, Sir James, 43
Jericho, as city-state, 68
Jerusalem, 55
Jet engine, efficiency rating of, xxiv,
Jewelry, as artifact record, 25
Johnson, Lyndon Baines, xxx, 334
Junks, origin of, 24
Jupiter, as sphere, 34

Kabul, Afghanistan, 188
See also: Afghanistan; Trade fair
Kahn, Albert, 304
Kamchatka hydroelectric program,
xxxi, 206
See also: Electric utilities
Karachi, Pakistan, 20
Kennedy, John Fitzgerald, xix, xviii
Kepler, Johannes, 37
religious sense of, 152-53
Khrushchev, Nikita, 117
Khwarizmi, al-, on the function of the
cipher, 32, 37
Khyber Pass, as caravan trade route,
70, 71, 71, 72
See also: Afghanistan; Land & sea
Killingry, xxiii, 130, 186-87, 190, 191,
192, 232, 234
cost of, xxiii, 116, 117, 118
fallout into consumer economy,
inspection of facilities, 187-88
performance per weight, 116, 234-
scrapping of hardware, 101, 109,
205, 284
"Killingry" -- poker game, 116-18, 203
See also: Communism vs. capitalism;
Darwin: Reverse evolution; Human
power structures; Life support
inadequacy; Livingry vs.
killingry; Malthus, Thomas;
Weaponry; Weaponry industry;
World War I; World War II;
World War III; World War IV
Kilowatt-hour accounting
See: Cosmic accounting; Electric
current currency; Monetary accounting
See: Behind-the scenes power structure;
Big man; Church-state hierarchy;
God-king; Human power
Kipling, Rudyard, 20, 223-24
See: Direct experience; Metaphysical
& physical; Scientific & technical
know-how; Wealth
See: Direct experience; Human limits
of observation; Metaphysical
know-how; Information
Kurds, 196
See also: Iran

and New Deal, 95
in Brazil, 297
demands of, xxviii-xxix
farm, 271-73
in cotton industry, 324
U.S.S.R. farm, 288-89
See also: Work week
Labor unions
acknowledgment of child, 26
teachers, xxxv
See: Employment: Unemployment
Land & sea transport
Asia to Europe, xx-xxii, 17, 42, 69-
71, 71, 72, 193
displayed on Geoscope, 168, 182
east-west pattern of, 205
ephemeralization and, xx, 132-33,
lines of vital supply and, xx-xxii
metals industry and, 98
naval prognosticating science & art
in, 238
See also: East India Company; Harbors;
Lines of vital supply; Phoenicians;
Pirates; Ship
Land & soil conservation, 270-75
See also: Air Pollution; Cosmic accounting;
Ecology; Farms: Farming;
Land barons, 68, 76
Land-based capitalism
See: Metals & mining capitalism
among American Indians, 64-66
as land-based capitalism, 98
by corporations, 273
in American colonies, 77, 78-79
origin of, 67-68
sanctioned by church, 79, 89
replaced by metaphysical know-how,
sharecropping farmers, 79
"Wealth"-poker and, 79-80
See also: Capitalism; Farms & farming;
Metals & mining capitalism;
early history of, 33-34
improved by radio, 230-31
"Mr. Languageman" and, 62
proliferation of, xxviii, 75
power-structure-maintained. 214
See also: Communication; Literacy:
Illiteracy; Science, language of;
Speech patterns; Word
as copper source, 21
water-people in, 20
See also: Vietnam, Puppet wars of
Southeast Asia
Laser (ruby), 225
Lateen sail (of dhow), 23
See: Westbound man
Latitude & longitude
correspondence of Geoscope to
Earth, 172
grid, 186, 187-88
on map of Ptolemy, 43, 45
See also: Cartography; Constant zenith
model; Radio-triangulation
Law (civil & social), xxx
Lawrencium, 244
Laws of motion in socioeconomics,
132, 144-45
See also: Newton's second law of
motion; Precession
Lawyer capitalism (LAWCAP)
and FINCAP, 114-16
Atomic energy industry and, 106-8,
corporate management and, 97-98
foreign aid and, 105-6
includes one percent of U.S. population,
origin of, 118
post-World-War-II strategy of, 98,
transnationalizing of U.S. corporations
113, 116
World War II and, 116, 117
World War IV and, 117
See also: Balance-of-trade accounting;
Capitalism; Communism vs
capitalism; Finance capitalism
(FINCAP); Free enterprise; Fundamental
risk enterprise; National
sovereignty; Wall Street lawyer
Lead, 242
"Lead-ins, " xviii
Leakey family, 11
See also: Helpless: Humans born
helpless & ignorant; Prehistory;
Human tolerance limits
Learning through trial-and-error, 126,
137, 143, 146, 151, 230, 246, 248,
See also: Experience; Evolution:
Class-one evolution; Evolution:
Class-two evolution; Self-disciplines
Least effort
See: Design science; Mechanical efficiency;
More with less; Performance
per weight; Structural
efficiency; Work effectiveness
Lee, Tsung Dao, 7
"Legally Piggily, " 59, 60-120, 240,
247, 270
in business, 101, 275
in business schools, 220
in farming, 272-76
in lawyer activities, 114
See also: Corruption; Doing the
wrong things for the right reasons;
Integrity: Loss of integrity;
Making money with money; Obnoxico
Length-to-girth ratio. See: Slenderness
Length-to-surface ratio
of dome, 209
of ships, 233
See also: Performance per weight;
Volume-area ratio; Volume-weight
Leonardo da Vinci, xxiii, 26
See also: Artist-scientist; Behind-the-scenes
power structures; "Scaffolding"
Letter on "doers & thinkers, " xxxviii
Lever (principle of), 50, 51
Library, xxxv, 331-32
See also: Information access
of individual, xii, 8, 119-20
playing the game of, 123
See also: Afterlife; Death; "First
life;"; Humans, function of; New life
Life alters environment, 130
See also: Environment: Altering the
Life and death in two Universe world,
49-53, 54
See also: Afterlife
Life expectancy, 49, 59, 216, 233, 263
See also: Birth rates & energy production;
Work week
Life is not physical, 8, 342-43
See also: Afterlife; DNA-RNA; Environment:
Altering the environment;
Scanning transmission of
humans by radio
Life support inadequacy, 10, 123, 127,
140, 149, 190, 198, 203, 213, 253,
as portrayed in books on economics,
as reason for war, 232, 234
according to Malthus, xxii, 149,
190, 253
as fostered by politics, religion, business,
xxvii, 217
See also: Communism vs capitalism;
Earth, as sphere; Finite & infinite;
Free enterprise; Human power
structures; "Killingry" -- poker
game; Human power structures;
Line of vital supply; Livingry vs.
killingry; Malthus, Thomas;
Marx, Karl; Nourishment: Undernourishment;
"Survival only of
the fittest"; "Wealth"-poker
game; World resources inventory
Light. See: Photosynthesis
Light, speed of, 158, 231
See also: Electromagnetic radiation,
speed of; Electromagnetic wave
Limit condition
See: Boundary: Boundary conditions;
Human limits of observation; Human
tolerance limits
Limited liability (Ltd.), xxi
See also: Bankruptcy; Corporation;
Fundamental risk enterprise
"Limits to Growth, " 284
Line (in topology), 7, 8
See also: Length-to-surface ratio;
Linear A (written language), 3
Linear B (written language), 3
Lines of vital supply
historical development of, xx-xxii,
69-70, 71, 72
in city-state, 69-70
in World War I, 81-82
metals industry and, 99
sea battles over, 72
U.S.A.-U.S.S.R. competition for,
118, 193
See also: East India Company;
Food; Geopolitics; Land & sea
transport; Nourishment: Undernourishment;
One world ocean;
Petroleum industry; Shipbuilding
technology; Trade; Weaponry
Literacy: Illiteracy
in U.S.S.R., 287-88
of the masses, 25-26, 27, 58, 214,
See also: Communication; Helpless:
Humans born helpless & ignorant;
Speech patterns; Word
Little individual: Little man
commitment to humanity, xxi, 124,
humanity's fate and, xxxvi-xxxvii
integrities of, xxxvi-xxxviii
on horseback, 67-68
patents and, 149, 150
precession and, 143-44, 145
problem-solving of, 48, 248
reorientation of, after 1927 crisis,
124-27, 150-51
self-development of, 237
world effectiveness of, xii, xxxvii,
149, 231, 346
See also: Appendix II; Commitment
to humanity; David & Goliath
story; "Guinea Pig B"; Human
individual; Problem-solving; Self-disciplines;
Livingry, xxv, 268
See also: Design Science; Environment:
Altering the environment;
Ephemeralization; Omnisuccess
Livingry vs. killingry, xxv, xxvii, 132-
33, 197, 203
among automobile manufacturers, 101
as self-discipline, 140
in critical-path planning, 253
precession in, 142-43
ten years ago, 254
See also: Critical moment; Environment:
Altering the environment;
Ephemeralization; Evolution:
Class-one evolution; Humans,
function of; Omnisuccess; World
Gaming vs. World War gaming
Livingry service. See: Service industry
Lobbying, 59, 192, 281, 286
"Lobsters." See: Lobbying
Local Universe, 224
See also: Extraterrestrial life; Human
limits of observation; Information
inventorying; Problem-solving;
Lockheed, 87
Logistics, 62, 82-83, 182
See also: Line of vital supply
London, England, 57, 167
Loomis, W. Farnsworth, 9
Lord Brice, 299
Lord's Prayer. See: "Ever Rethinking
the Lord's Prayer"
Los Angeles, 168, 180, 277-80
as metaphysical gravity, 156
as world resource, 221
of God, 346
of work, 224
thy neighbor, 123
See: Conservation of integrity
Lowell, Abbot Laurence, 299
Loyalty, xi, 231-32
Luce, Henry, 96
Lunatics, xviii, 58
Lungs, 8-9
See also: Inbreeding; Specialized

Machine tools, 249-50
alloys in, 216
in German & Japan, 109
in World War I, 81-82
modernized for World War II, 95-
soft-tooling kirksite and, 205
See also: Production tools
Macrocosm: Microcosm, 7, 47,
See also: Human limits of observation;
System geometry; Universe
Mackinder, Sir Halford, geopolitics of,
Madison Avenue. See: Advertising:
Madison Avenue
Madras, India, 78
Magellan, Ferdinand, xxi, 245
See also: Circumnavigation of
Maginot Line, 194
Magna Carta, 53
Mahabalipurim, 71
See also: Bali; Phoenicians
Mahogany, 10
"Main effect, " 143
See also: Precession
Maine, RBF residence in, 131
Making money with money, xxvi, 76,
88, 89-90, 91, 100-101, 103, 110,
113, 114-16, 119, 198
Making money vs. making sense, 225
See also: Obnoxico
Malay Peninsula, 11, 181
as tin ore source, 21, 205
during ice ages, 66
population of, 20
See also: Water-people
Malay Straits
ocean trade of, 22, 24
westbound man begins at, 24
Malaysia. See: Malay Peninsula
Malthus, Thomas, xxii
as first economist of closed system
world, 58
as professor of political economics
of East India Company College,
1805 pronouncement of, 80, 133,
1810 assumption of, xxii, 140, 213
on life support inadequacy, xxii
"you or me" doctrine of, 149, 190"
See also: Earth, as sphere; East India
Company; "Killingry" -- poker
game; Life support inadequacy;
Marx, Karl; "Survival only of the
fittest"; World resources inventory
Mammoth (elephant), 342-43
Managerial capitalism
during World War II, 103
responsible to stockholders, 99-100
See also: Finance capitalism (FINCAP);
Lawyer capitalism; Morgan,
J. P.; Stockholders
Manganese, 80
Manhattan dome as proposed for New
York City, xxiv
See also: Domed-over cities
Manhattan Project, 106
See also: Atomic bomb; Expenditures,
Map: Mapping
See: Aerial photomosaicing; Cartography;
Dymaxion Sky-Ocean
Map; Whole Earth map
Maple, 10
Marine Corps Air-Delivered Dome,
Marx, Karl, xxii-xxiii, 10
See also: Communism vs. capitalism;
Darwin, Charles; "Killingry" poker
game; Life support inadequacy;
Malthus, Thomas;
"Survival only of the fittest";
Working class
Mars, 34, 55
Marshall Plan, 105
Masey, Jack, 195
Mass attraction: Mass interattraction,
See also: Critical proximity; Generalized
principles, family of; Gravity;
Invisible: Invisibility; Newton's
second law of motion; Precession
Mass production
experience in, 128
in World War I, 82, 83, 84
origin, 53-54
See also: Automobile; Environment:
Altering the environment; Industrialization;
Livingry vs. killingry;
Machine tools; Production tools;
"Universal Dwelling Requirements"
Mass-production housing
See: Dwelling machine; Fly's Eye
dome; "Universal Dwelling Requirements"
Mast, in early navigation, 23, 29-31,
See also: Navigation
Materials, desirable properties of, 268
as eternal, 158
as language of science, 108
as mind's most powerful faculty, 29
as tool, 48
decline of, 32, 33
"Mr. Arithmetic" and, 62
physical laws and, 152
positioning of numbers in, xxi
See also: Abacus; Cipher; Geometry;
Greek schools; Multiplication &
division; Plane trigonometry;
Spherical geometry; Synergetics:
Synergetics; Systems geometry;
Matter as energy, 109
See also: Conservation of energy;
Einstein's formula: E = Mc'
Mayas, 49
Mayflower (ship), 285
Mechanical efficiency, 324-25
defined, 209
liquid fuel and, 208
of engines, xxiv, 208, 209
using alloys, 216
World Game and, 219
See also: Accelerating acceleration;
Ephemeralization; More with less;
Performance per weight; Structural
efficiency; Work effectiveness
Mechanical exploration theory, 256
Medical care. See: Health care
Mediterranean Sea, xxi, 44
Mekong River, 20
See also: Rivers of Asia
Melanin, 9
Memory, as significance from experience,
See also: Information access
Mendeleyev, Dmitri, 7
Mercator projection, 44, 164, 165, 165
"Merchant of Venice, " 76
See also: Making money with money
Mercury (chemical element), 242
Mercury (planet), 34
and Phoenicians, 22
early history of, 17, 49-52
as traditional site of origin of human
civilization, 15
westbound man crosses, 24
See also: Garden of Eden story;
Metabolic accounting
See: Cosmic accounting; Energy accounting,
income; Human tool
complexes; Wealth, metabolic
accelerating acceleration in, 132-33,
alloying in, 216
as class-one evolution, 284-86
origins of, 15-16, 22, 61, 62
fallout into consumer economy,
opens new era of technology, 80
space program and, 247
strength of new alloys, 198
See also: Bronze; Ephemeralization;
Industrialization; Invisible: Invisibility;
Livingry vs. killingry; More
with less; Tensile strength
Metals, 284-85, 286
coinage of, 80, 201, 275
locations of, 81, 201-2, 208
nonsparking, 282
use inventory of, 282
See also: Aluminum; Bronze; Copper;
Electrical conductivity of
metals; Electrolysis; Gold; Iron;
Manganese; Silver; Tin
Metals & mining capitalism, 98-99,
201-2, 208, 281-84
See also: Finance capitalism (FINCAP);
Land-based capitalism;
Landownership; Metallurgy;
World War I
Metals industry, 84, 205, 281-84, 285,
alloys in, 216, 284
farming & fishing and, 81
in U.S.S.R., 289
in World War I, 80-81
See also: Copper; Industrialization;
Invisible reality (dawning of);
Mass production; Phelps Dodge
Company; Recirculation of metals;
World resources inventory
Metaphysical & physical, 109, 198,
as capital, 109
aspects of Universe, 109
patentability of, 109
powers of emperor, 43
resources, 241
See also: Ephemeralization; Life is
not physical; Scientific & technical
know-how; Wealth; Universe
Metaphysical environment, 27
Metaphysical equipment
See: Generalized tools
Metaphysical know-how, 108-10, 111-
12, 234
can only increase, 198
of individual, 124
See also: Generalized principles,
family of; Scientific & technical
RBFstudy of, 126
on Geoscope, 181-82
in exterior ballistics, 239
See also: Navigation; Temperature
Methane gas generation, xvii, 212, 315
See also: Energy accounting, income
Metric system, 296
Mexico, 168
cross-breeding in, 218
electric grid and, 206
population of, 271
Microcosmic structuring, confirmations
of RBF thesis, 136
Microprocessor chips, 268
See also: Miniaturization
Middle-class society, afterlife of, 51
Migration & immigration
in Brazil, 295
of farm labor, 272-73
of U.S.A. family, 131
See also: Mobility; National sovereignty;
Military expenditures (U.S.S.R. &
U.S.A.), xxiii
Military forces
See: Navies & armies
Millionaires (in U.S.), 217
See also: Commonwealth accounting;
Humans, as unknowing billionaires
Mind, 230
access to design principles, xxxvi,
63, 247
as information-gatherer & problem
solver, 246
as highest human faculty, 27-29,
143, 159, 345, 346
deals with interrelationships, 159
discovers physical laws, 163
function of, 27-28, 47, 246, 343, 345
generalized principles and, xxxviii
mathematical functioning of, 28
syntropic function of, 28
unique to humans, 63
See also: Brain & mind; Generalized
principles, family of; Humans,
function of; Intellect; Metaphysical
& physical; Metaphysical
know-how; Scientific & technical
know-how; Syntropy & entropy
Mind vs muscle, xxxvi, 27, 29
in early weaponry, 64
in development of tools, 250
in survival, 119-20
on production teams, 267
power structure manipulation of, 62
See also: David & Goliath story;
Design science vs political revolution;
Life is not physical; Little
individual: Little man; Livingry vs.
killingry; Metaphysical & physical;
Problem-solving; World
Gaming vs. War gaming
Miniaturization, 233-34, 305
in warfare, 235
See also: Ephemeralization; Invisible
reality (dawning of); Livingry vs.
killingry; More with less
Minoan bull, 73, 74
Minoan civilization
See: Cretans
"Mirror image." See: Conservation of
Mission Control Center (Houston),
Mobil (oil company), 241
Mobility, 247
artifacts for, 337
cities and, 315
computer facilitated, 215, 216-17
displayed on Geoscope, 182
farm labor, 272-73
future, 263, 266, 338, 341
increasing, 129-30, 216, 217
in U.S.A. & advanced countries,
in World Game, 171
of astronauts, 131
of average U.S.A. family, 131
of humans, 131
of RBF, 131
space program and, 247
world-wide, 285
See also: Accelerating acceleration;
Circumnavigation of Earth; Environment
control; Ephemeralization;
Hockey player; Land & sea
transport; Migration & immigration;
Pure Science Acceleration
Chart; Scanning transmission of
humans by radio; Television
Model: Modelability
See: Constant zenith model; Earth,
as sphere; Geoscope; Synergetics;
Systems geometry; World Game
Mohammed, ascension of, 55
See also: Muslims
Molecules, 144, 343
See also: Chemical elements; Hydrocarbon
Monetary accounting
atomic technology and, 192
cattle in, 201
commonwealth credits, 215
computer facilitated, 216
as disparate-value interexchanging,
xxvi, 198, 201
gold, silver, and copper coinage, 275
Great Crash effects in, 88
in banks, 89
investment dollars in, 103
in food marketing, 271
in nature's petroleum production,
xxxv, 222
in recent U.S. economics, 105-6
manipulation of, 139
Obnoxico and, 225-26
of gold & petroleum, 111, 214
of non-wealth-producing work,
xxxv, 263
Phoenicians, 73-75
recent U.S.A.-U.S.S.R., 113-14,
systems, 213
using gold, 75-76
using metal coinage, 74-75
using kilowatt-hour, uniform-energy,
xxxi, xxxii. xxxiii. xxxiv. 215,
219, 253
vs. metabolic wealth, 214
See also: Banks: Banking; Cattle;
Electric current currency; Gold;
Metals; Wealth, metabolic
as metabolic wealth exchanging,
xxvi, 198, 201
as livestock, xxvi, 73-74, 76, 201,
is not wealth, xxvi
use of metal as, xxvi
working for, 224
See also: Earning a living; Monetary
accounting; Wealth, metabolic
as entropic, 276
honey-money bee and, 142-43
Obnoxico and, 225-26
vs. common sense-making, 197
See also: Earning a living; Evolution:
Class-two evolution; "Legally
Piggily"; Making money with
money; Precession; Profit motive;
Syntropy & entropy
Monsoon, reverse pattern of, 22
and lunatics, xviii, 58
as permanent sky advantage, xviii
as spherical body, 34
assumed unreachable by humans,
environment controls on, 344
excursions to, 58
into, as specific direction, 55
orbiting of, 144
youth born after humans reached,
See also: Apollo Project; Astronautics;
Co-orbiting of Earth & Moon
Moon rocks, as world resource, 221
Moonshine, xviii
More with less, 133, 206, 216, 233-34
See also: Design science revolution;
Ephemeralization; Evolution:
Class-one evolution; Invisible: Invisibility;
Mechanical efficiency;
Miniaturization; Structural efficiency;
Work effectiveness
More-with-lessing. See: World Game
Morgan, J. P., 288
as banking magnate, 76-77
banking houses of, 76-77, 80, 81
in World War I, 81-83
loses control of corporation boards,
on change, 10
on metals mining, 99, 100
See also: Banks: Banking; Finance
capitalism (FINCAP); World
War I
Morgan and Company, 80, 91
Mortgages, 90
Moscow-Leningrad Dartmouth Conference,
Most effective. See: Work effectiveness
Movable type, 52
Mule, as domesticated animal, 11
Multiplication & division, 30-31, 32,
See also: Abacus; Cipher
Murphy, Franklin, 189
Mushrooms, 212
Muslims, 44, 196
Mycenae, xx, 68-69
See also: City-state; Phoenicians
Mylar, as used in Gossamer Albatross.
See also: Materials, desirable properties
Mystery, 54, 155
God and, 159
of Allegra's birth, 127
See also: Beliefs

Names of corporations (acronyms),
See also: Conglomerates (business)
Names of individuals, 273
Nash, Ogden, 91
defined, 218
physiognomies and, 218
U.S. as a, 218, 285
U.S.S.R. as a, 11
See also: Cross-breeding; One world
family; Race: No race, no class
NASA (National Aeronautics & Space
Administration), 24, 241, 248
See also: Apollo Project; Astronautics
National City Bank, 91
National debt (U.S.), 113, 115
National sovereignty
and birth rates, 206, 207
and energy production, 206, 207
and international trade-balancing
system, 202, 214
as "blood clots, " 217-18, 286
desovereignization and, 202, 217-18,
253, 286-87, 309
divine mandate sanctions, 214
front for behind-the-scenes power,
nationalistic celebrating and, 174
obsolescence of, 285
origins of, 286
power of leader within, 287
World Game and, 202
See also: Behind-the-scenes power
structure; Cross-breeding; Divide
& conquer; Humanity's option to
"make it"; One world family;
Spaceship Earth; Survival; Transnationality
Nature as designer, 345-46
Naval architecture
See: Architectural profession; Shipbuilding
Naval ballistics. See: Ballistics
Naval prognosticating science & art,
237-41, 246-47, 250-51
See also: Ballistics, interior & exterior;
Machine tools; Navigation;
Prognostication; Shipbuilding
Naval supremacy, xx-xxii, 69-70, 193
of British Empire, xxii, 201
of U.S.S.R., 117-18, 193
sea battles over, 72
See also: British Empire; "Killingry" --
poker game; Line of vital
supply; World ocean
Navies & armies to protect private enterprise,
celestial, 29-32, 31, 185, 238, 239
early, xxi, 29-33, 69-71
prognostication in, 133
Ptolemaic data and, 43
space program and, 247
windward, x
See also: Circumnavigation of Earth;
Dhow captains; Phoenicians; Sailing;
Sailor-navigator; Ship; Westbound
as architect, 49
as behind-the-scenes power, 29
as magician, 29
omnidirectional geometry of, 32-33
successors to, 52
See also: Sailor-navigator
Necklaces used in calculation, 30
See also: Abacus
Negative & positive, ix, 146
See also: Binary; Coexisting: Only &
always; Good & bad
Negentropic. See: Syntropy & entropy
Neutrino, 7
Neutron, 7
New Deal, 89-98, 100-103, 105, 114-
16, 272
defense industry grants of, 114
Eisenhower ends controls of, 103
"ever-normal-grainery" of, 272-73
farm grants of, 270-73
interest controls of, 91, 96
price controls of, 272, 282
See also: Great Crash; Roosevelt,
Franklin Delano; Socialism vs.
capitalism; and listings under
names of individual programs
New Delhi, India, 57, 78
New Guinea, 11
New life, 119-20, 127, 128
New Year's Eve (dawning of century),
New Year's Day, in Los Angeles, 279-
New York, 57. 167, 168, 174
New York Con Edison Company, 200
New York Studio School, 136
New York Times. 17, 108, 135-37, 135
New York University, 136, 219
Newton, Sir Isaac
mass-interattraction law of, 240
"normally at rest" Universe of, 129
socioeconomic behavior and, 144-45
Newton's second law of motion, 63,
144-45, 240
See also: Einstein's formula:
E = Mc2;
Mass attraction: Mass
Niagara Falls, 84
Ninety-two (regenerative) elements
See: Chemical elements
Nine Chains to the Moon. 136
FINCAP and, 114
prognostication in, 133, 136, 237,
Nile River reached by westbound man,
Nixon, Richard, 110
No beginnings & endings, 7
Nobel Prize in physics, 7
Noble class
afterlife of, 151
working class and, 10
See also: Race: No race, no class
Noncorruption, of generalized principles,
See also: Corruption
Nonmirror image. See: Conservation
of parity
Nonrenewable energy resources. See:
Energy accounting, savings
Normandy landing
radio-triangulation mapping and,
Norsemen, horned headdress of, 73, 74
See also: Viking; Phoenician; Venetian
North America
cross-breeding in, 218
European colonization of, 77
farms of, 271
migration to, 286
population of, 271
North Carolina State University, 323-
North Pole, integration over, 205
North Star (Polaris), in navigation, 31
See also: Constant zenith model
Noun: No nouns, 132
Nourishment: Undernourishment
and brain damage, 10
as chromosomically programmed,
as early city-state strategy, 69-70
as human drive, 27, 246
carnivorous diet vs. vegetarian in, 10
in U.S.S.R., 289
in wartimes, 80
life-support, 213
research on, 202, 219
safe edibles as, 49, 67
wealthy vs poor in, 10
See also: Farms: Farming; Food;
Life support inadequacy
positioning of, xxi
symbols for, 32
See also: Arabic numerals
Site Admin
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Re: Critical Path, by R. Buckminster Fuller

Postby admin » Tue Jul 28, 2015 6:58 am


Oak, 10
Obsolescence, 199, 283
See also: Emergence through emergency;
Gestation rates
Observatory (ancient), 49
Observer: Observing
See: Earth, as sphere; Geoscope
Human limits of observation
Obnoxico, xxxiv, 225-26
See also: profit motive
Ocean, temperature stability of, 5
See also: Atolls, propitious for human
survival; Currents (ocean);
Dymaxion Sky-Ocean Map;
Floating cities; Islands; Navigation;
Phoenicians; Reefs; Ships;
Water; Water-people; World
Oil. See: Petroleum
Old Man River's City, 209, 315-23,
318, 319, 320
Old Testament, 48, 52
OIds, Glenn T., 66
Olduvai Gorge, 17
Olfactory. See: Smelling
Omnidirectional information sweepout.
See: Geoscope; Human limits of observation;
Information display; Information
inventorying; Local
Omnisuccess, xx, xix, 119, 128, 133,
198, 199, 201, 203-4, 217, 237,
241, 251, 252-55, 285
See also: Commonwealth accounting;
Design science vs political
revolution; Humanity's option to
"make it"; Humans, as unknowing
billionaires; Livingry vs. killingry;
Standard of living; Wealth,
metabolic; World Game
One: Oneness
See: Atom; Cosmic accounting; Integrity;
One world family; Race:
No race, no class; Space-Ship
Earth; Whole Earth map; World
ocean; Universe
One world family, xix, 202, 218, 285,
See also: Cross-breeding; Humans;
National sovereignty; Race: No
race, no class; Spaceship Earth
Openings (in systems geometry), 7, 8
See also: Area
Open vs closed system. See: Systems
Operating Manual for Spaceship Earth.
198, 213
Orbital feedback circuits
in adoption of artifacts, 283
in cybernetics, 342
of Universe, 157
to correct socioeconomic errors,
xxxvii, 146, 151
to correct missile trajectory, 239
See also: Critical-path planning;
Ecology; "Electronic democracy";
Information-gathering; Intercomplementation;
Learning through
trial-and-error; Naval prognosticating
science & art; Self-discipline,
of learning from mistakes
Orbiting (as precessional), 144-45
Orbiting of Earth
See: Co-orbiting of Earth & Moon;
Co-orbiting of Earth & Sun
Order vs randomness
See: Design as orderly pattern; Information-
gathering; Syntropy &
Organization of Petroleum Exporting
Countries (OPEC), 111
Organizations (political, religious, economic,
social), xi, 140, 285, 346
See also: Church-state hierarchy;
Design science vs. political revolution;
Human power structures
Orient, xxi, xxxii-xxxiii, 18, 19, 20,
See also: Asia to Europe; East India
Company; Rivers of Asia; Waterpeople
See: Celestial navigation; Constant
zenith model; Directions (in &
out); Eastbound man: Westbound
man; Geoscope; Up & down;
Westbound man
Otherness, as information, awareness,
See also: Orbital feedback circuits;
See: Directions (in & out); Geoscope;
Up & down; World power
structure, "outs" vs. "ins"
Overlapping. See: Scenario Universe
0-Volving shelves & storage walls,
136, 329-32, 330, 331, 332
Oxford University, 62
Oxygen, 221, 232

Pacific Ocean, migrations across, 23-
See also: Water-people
Paganism, 58
Paffrath, Leslie, 188
Pakistan, 196
of banks, 87-88
of power structure, xxvii
Pantheon dome, 179
Parallax (in astronomy), 172-73
Parents. See: Child's, parents
Parent-teacher associations, acknowledgment
of child, 26
Parity. See: Conservation of parity
Parthenon, 56
Passport, 105
See also: Corporation; Migration &
as capital, 109
as public record, 126
claims, 147
cost of, 147
expiration of, 149
strategic, 104
of RBF, 146-50
Patent attorneys, 147
Pattern integrity of DNA-RNA, 342-
Pattern reading, 158, 230
of experience, 129, 153-55
on Geoscope, 180-84
See also: Design as orderly pattern
"Pecking order, " 60, 88
Peninsulas. See: Isthmuses & peninsulas
Penobscot Bay, Maine, 185-86
People. See: Humans; Water-people
Performance per weight, 148
charts of, 245
in ballistics, 234-35
in building industry, 303-4
in technical evolution history, 103,
in transportation, 302-3
of chemistries & electronics, 198-99
of geodesic dome, 190, 209
See also: Design science; Ephemeralization;
Mechanical efficiency;
Miniaturization; More with less;
Structural efficiency; World
Game; Work Efficiency
Perpetual motion machine, Universe
as minimum, 157
Personal authority in politics & corporations,
Persian Gulf, 22-24
See also: Indian Ocean; Iran
Petroleum, xvii, 219
as capital, III
as impounded solar energy, 28
at a million dollars a gallon, 200
atomic energy technology and, 192
critical moment and, 248
critical path and, 254
depletion of, 118
in World War I, 84
limited supply of, 110, 223
monetary accounting of, 214
nature's production of, xxxiv-xxxv,
222, 223, 262-63
phasing out of, 199
U.S. dependence on Arab, 118
U.S.A.-U.S.S.R. competition for
Arabian, 196
See also: Energy accounting, savings
Petroleum industry, 110-13, 116, 118,
in U.S.S.R. 289
of Los Angeles, 278
record profits of, 241
refining & distribution network of,
Saudi Arabia and, 110-12
Pewter, 205
Pharaoh, 49-51
afterlife of, 50-51, 52
See also: Human power structures;
"Scaffolding" technology
Phelps Dodge Company, 282-84, 289-90
See also: Copper
Philippine Islands, 11
population of, 20
See also: Water-people
Philolaeus (of Croton), 34, 35
See also: Greek schools
as carriers of technology, 24
circumnavigation of Earth by, 34,
35, 38-39, 40-41, 42, 44
early coins of, 74-75
early trade in Indian Ocean, 15-16
headdress of, 73, 74
in Carthage, 70
in seige of Troy, 69
Indian Ocean voyaging of, 22-23
invention of letter pronunciation, 3
on the Atlantic, 72
records of, 15-16
sailing ships of, xx
trade using cattle, 73-75
See also: Water-people
Phoenician code (prephonetic period), 35
Phonetic pronunciation & spelling, 33-
34, 75
See also: Communication
Phosphorus, 244
Photoelectric cell, 268-69
Photosynthesis, 275, 327
as class-one evolution, 246
as wealth impoundment, 79
description of, 28
in petroleum production, 222
in trees, 62
within geodesic dome, 210
zoological counterpart of, 9
See also: Energy accounting, income;
Petroleum, nature's production of
Physical & metaphysical, 27, 109, 198,
234, 342-43
See also: Environment: Altering the
environment; Life is not physical;
Metaphysical know-how
Physical laws
See: Generalized principles, family of
Physical "scaffolding" activities
See: "Scaffolding" technology
Physical Universe
as technology, xxvii, xxviii
coordinate system of, xxvii
entropy in, 28
See also: Cosmic accounting; Energy
accounting; Syntropy & entropy;
Physiognomy & physiology
as a result of inbreeding, 9, 10-11
of nations, 218
See also: Human body
Pine, 10
Pipes, waterlines & sewage
See: Building industry, tied to highways,
sewers, waterlines
Pirates, 58-59, 238
and Orient trade, 75
Gold on trade ships and, 75, 201
of the Barbary Coast, 72
secret closed-system, world of, 59
See also: British Empire
Plastics industry
celluloid development of, 267
polyester resin development of, 149
Planning & manipulation, evolution
transcends all, 230
See: Evolution: Class-one evolution
Plane geometry. See: Geometry
Plane trigonometry, 29-31
Platinum, 244
Plato, 37
Plutonium, 244
Plywood, 297-98
Pneumatic compression, 212
Pneumatic tools, 212
Poet as one who feels, xii
"A Poet's Advice, " (e. e. cummings),
Point. See: Vertex
Poker game
See: "Killingry" -- poker game;
"Wealth" -- poker game
Polar azimuthal projection (map), 44,
164, 165, 165
Polaris in Geoscope-Earth orientation,
Political divisions. See: National sovereignty
Political reform. See: Design science vs
political revolution
Politics, 140
concerns of, 127
corruption in, xxviii
See also: Organizations (political, religious,
Polonium, 244
as result of profit motive, 143
nature has no, 277
recirculation of by-products, 220
See also: Air pollution; Ecology;
Land & soil conservation; Profit
Polygon, 46
Polyhedra, of systems geometry, 47
See also: Geodesic sphere; Icosahedron;
Sphere; Tetrahedron
Pompey the Great, 43
Popes, succession of, 43
See also: Church-state hierarchy;
Emperor-pope; God-king
Population distribution, xxxii; xxxiii,
18-19, 20, 119, 168, 205, 306
Population growth, xxii, 181, 216
See also: Birth rates & energy production
Porpoises. See: Whales & porpoises
Portuguese. See: Phoenicians
Positioning of numbers
cipher in, 37
in ship technology, 72-73
See also: Abacus
Positive. See: Negative & positive
Posturanium elements, 242, 244
See also: Atomics
Pound, Ezra, 75
Power structures
See: Behind-the-scenes power structure;
Church-state hierarchy;
Human power structures; "Legally
Piggily"; Ideologies; Organizations
(political, religious,
economic, social); World power
as "worthwhile, " 58
of no avail according to Malthus,
See also: Earth, as sphere; Earth,
flat-out view of
as noncompetitive, 144
as self-discipline, 13 7
defined, 141, 141. 142, 143
in biology, 142
in physics, 141-43
socioeconomic, 138, 141-46
See also: Evolution: Class-one evolution;
Honey-money bee; "Main effect";
"Side effect"
Precious metals & jewels, 225, 245,
See also: World resources inventory
Pregnancy & abortion, 48
See also: Church-state hierarchy;
Confession of sin; Life support inadequacy
Prehistory (of humanity), speculative
view of, 3-24, 25, 229
See also: Helpless: Humans born
helpless & ignorant; Human .limits
of tolerance
Presidential election, xxx, 88-89, 103
Price controls
Eisenhower ends, 103
New Deal and, 96, 272, 282
See also: New Deal
Christian, 37
Egypt, 50-51
power of, 52-53
Roman, 37
See also: Church-state hierarchy
Prime contractors
and Reconstruction Finance Corp.,
defined, 94
New Deal and, 101, 116
socialization of, 95-96
U.S.S.R. industrial planning and,
See also: Fundamental risk enterprise;
Weaponry industry
Prime numbers, 33
Priorities. See: Critical-path tasks
Private enterprise
See: Capitalism; Free enterprise;
Public & private sectors
Probability mathematics
electrical utilities use of, xxxix
in computing actuarial curves, 263-
Problem-solving, 204
as function of humanity, xxxvi
by computers, 262-63
by individual, 125, 127
complex, 239
in livingry, 125, 266, 268
most effective, 251
most urgent problem and, 344-45
short-range, 127
space program and, 247
traditional political, 219
using new inventions, 216
with artifacts, 309
World Game and, 204
See also: Critical-path planning;
Critical-path tasks; Humans,
function of; World Game
Profit, 229
as motivation of business, 130
corporate, 220
corporate shareholders', 113
from industrial "waste, " 220
of free enterprise, xxviii-xxix, xxx
of 12 percent on war production,
petroleum company, 241
resulting from know-how, 147
stockholders and, 100-101, 103, 127
stockholders' cumulative, 116
Profit motive
and management, 100
business hungry for, xvii, 130
in business & politics, 240
in seeking patents, 149
origin of corporations and, 273-74
pollution and, 143, 220
vs. cosmic accounting, 275
waiting in lines and, 276
Prognostication (scientific)
accuracy in, 240
as an objective science, 247
astronomical, 240, 251
cosmic-scale, 241-42
Critical Path and, 190
educational, 137
like archery, 229
naval science & art of, 238
navigation & ballistics, 247
of evolutionary trending, 237
of 1927, 136
of time of arrival of a ship, 238
RBF and, 133, 136, 137, 196
RBF's applications of, 241-51
subjective & objective, 237-38
Universe-event, 239-40
using Geoscope, 182-83
World Game and, 219
world resources inventory and, 241
Prognostication (subjective)
as a subjective science, 246-47
at Dartmouth Conference, 189
distant, 261
early, by navigators, 133
of events, 150
Old Testament, 48, 52
unconceivability of future and, 57-
Production tools, 130, 202, 249, 260, 267
Henry Ford and, 53-54
in Brazil, 297
in naval science & art, 238
in World War I, 81-82
RBF study of, 126
secondhand, 288
See also: Industrialization; Tools
Production teams
admission to, 266-67
for forestry conservation, 270
tasks of, 268
See also: Employment: Unemployment
Promethium, 242
as a bluff, 89
earliest, 67--68
See also: Human power structures
Proton, 7, 242
Proton & neutron, 7
See also: Coexisting: Always & only;
Proto typing, 202
in space program, 247
locale, 24
ship, 22
"Universal Dwelling Requirements, "
in U.S.S.R., 290
Psychoguerrilla warfare
See: Psychological warfare; World
Psychological warfare, 191-93, 232,
in Afghanistan, 188
in Iran, 196
in U.S., 116-19
in World War I, 82-83
industrialization's, 240
See also: World War III
Ptolemy, Claudius, world map of, 43,
45, 172
Public & private sectors, xxix-xxx
Pulling & pushing, 141-43, 141
See also: Precession; Tension &
Pun, as root syllable, 17, 73
Pun, Land of, 17, 71
Pure principle, 158--60
cosmic effectiveness in, 47
See also: Mind
Pure science
defined, 237
in academic curricula, 244 ,
See also: Applied science; Science;
Pure Science Acceleration Chart, 242-
45, 243, 342
See also: Accelerating acceleration;
Chemical elements
building of, in Egypt, 49, 50-51
in Egypt and Central America, 49
See also: Pharaoh; "Scaffolding"
and Buddha, 47-48
spherical world view of, 34
theorem of, 30
See also: Greek schools

Queen Mary (ship), 233
Questions & answers (cosmic magnitude),

Race: No race, no class, to-II, 204,
214, 218, 232
See also: One world family
Radar, 192
as energy (dissociative), t09
compared to gravity as energy (associative
as matter), 156
See also: Conservation of energy; Energy
accounting, income; Energy
accounting, savings; Physical Universe;
Syntropy & entropy
improves spoken language, 230-31
RBF hears early, 129
See also: Speech patterns; Scanning
transmission of humans by radio
Radio-triangulation mapping, 175,
179, 185-88
See also.' Cartography
Radomes, 136
Rafts, 11-12, 13, 69, 285
See also: Ships; Water-people
Railroad industry
in Brazil, 302-3
gestation rates in, 148, 283
Mackinder's views of, 193
performance per weight and, 302-3
RCA (Radio Corporation of America), 307
Randomness, design vs, 152
See also: Design as orderly pattern;
Syntropy & entropy
Real estate, 89
instrument- and mind-apprehended,
as sense apprehendible, 161
See also: Human limits of observation;
Invisible reality (dawning of)
Recirculation of metals, xxxiv, 308
after World War II, 104
"blood clots" in, 217-18
blocks to, 286
by Japan, 109
copper and, 84, 281-84
cycles in, xxxiv, 208, 281-84
ephemeralization and, 284-85
FINCAP and, 98-100
"mine above ground" and, 308
no further mining through, 205, 208
on Geoscope, 181
tin in, 205
U.S.S.R. and, 197
World Game and, 205, 216
See also: Metals; Metals & mining
capitalism; Metals industry
Reconstruction Finance Corporation
(RFC), 93, 95, 114
Red Sea, 22-24, 71
Reduction to practice, 125, 136, 144,
145, 146, 147-51, 233
See also: Artifacts, development of;
Design science revolution; Environment:
Altering the environment;
Livingry vs killingry; Selfdisciplines;
World Game
Reefs, coral, 15
Reform of organizations
See: Design science vs political evolution;
Organizations (political, religious,
social, economic)
Reforming the environment, not humans,
27, 125, 129, 130, 134, 136,
140, 252, 254-55
See also: Design science vs political
revolution; Environment: Altering
the environment; "Scaffolding"
Refrigeration 271
as integrity of eternal, 159
as recirculation of terrestrial ecology,
See also: Ecology; Species regeneration
Regenerative system, Universe as one
& only eternal, 157
See also: Universe
division into, xxviii
leaders, 346
monks & missionaries, 285
strong churches of, 59
traditional, 151
transnational, 218, 285, 286
See also: Church-state hierarchy
Religious freedom, 77
Religious organizations (formal), 153
Remote sensing
by satellite, 341-42
for world polling, 197
instrumentation for, 238, 343
through picture transmission from
Moon, 163
through Earth-landing tests, 8
See also: "Electronic democracy";
Human tolerance limits; Radiotriangulation
mapping; Sensing
Renewable energy resources
See: Energy accounting, income
Rent controls
Eisenhower ends, 103
New Deal and, 96
Renting automobiles, 131
Renting & leasing See: Service industry
Republican party, 102
Republican & Democratic parties, xxx
Research & development
by U.S. government, 108
costs of, 225
desiderata in, 267-68
financing of, xx, 96, 97, 114
in atomic energy field, 106-8
in critical path, 255-57
World Game and, 202, 219, 222
See also: Scientific & technical
know-how; Secret; U.S. Bureau of
Reuther, Walter, xxviii-xxix
Revenue. See: Taxes
Rhenium, 244
cultures of Japan & Southeast Asia,
early shipping of, 22
paddy as artifact, 15
Right things for right reasons
See: Critical-path planning; Design
science; Doing the right things for
the right reasons; World Game
Right triangle, 31, 31
See also: Spherical right triangle
Rings, in calculation, 30
See: Abacus
Rivers of Asia, 11, 20-21, 205
"Roaring Forties, " 35
See also: Eastbound man: Westbound
man; Phoenicians; Winds,
Roberts, Walter Orr, 182
Robeson, Paul, 315
Robin Hood, as RBF hero, 134
Rockefeller, David, 189
delivery times of, 192
German development of, xviii
in warfare, 234
research & development funds for,
See also: Astronautics; Atomic war;
Ballistics; Space program
Rome, ancient
See: Burial urns & mausoleums; Roman
Roman Catholic Church 88-89
as landowner, 88-89
excommunication of heretics, 152
nurturing of poverty by, 48
monastery & college construction of,
See also: Church-state hierarchy
Roman Empire
and burning of Alexandrian library,
Constantinople in, 70, 72
flat concept of, xxii, 44
highway of, 72
overland trade of, 72
power of, 37
rise of, 70
See also.: Church-state hierarchy;
Emperor; Human power structures
Roman numerals, 32
Roosevelt, Franklin Delano, 186
advertising subsidy and, 96
and Brazil, 288-89
corporate managers and, 100
encourages research & development,
establishes New Deal, 89
inauguration of, 88, 89
Manhattan Project and, 106
subject to discredit attempts, 90-91
World War II and, 186, 287-89
See also: New Deal
Rosewood, 10
Ross, Betsy, 78
Rubber (hard), 267
Rubies, 225
Rural Electrification Administration
established, xxx
financing of electric grid, xxx
See also: Electric utilities; New Deal
See: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
(U.S.S.R.); U.S.S.R.-U.S.A.
Rust: Nonrusting, 22

"beating to windward", x
celestial navigation and, 29-31, 31
tacking to port & starboard, x
See also: Dhow; Phoenicians
Sailing ships
deep-bellied, stoutly ribbed, 44
circumnavigation in, 245
of Cretans, xx
See also: Shipbuilding
Sailor-navigator, 29-32
See also: Navigation; Navigator-priest
St. Peter's dome, 179
Saladin, 44
Salween River. See: Rivers of Asia
Sampan, as gondola prototype, 24
San Francisco, 57
Satellite, 268
research & development funds for, xx
telemetry, 341-42
See also: Communication satellite;
Remote sensing
Saturn, 34
Saudi Arabia
acquires banking know-how, 111
buying power of, 110-12
"cold war" and, 111
See also: Petroleum industry
"Scaffolding" technology, 50-54, 302
See also: Environment: Altering the
Scanning transmission of humans by
radio, 8, 245, 342
as episode-interweavings, xi
cosmic, xi
Scenario Universe, 27, 154-57
See also: Universe
School as least favorable learning environment
See: Child: Childhood; Education;
Experience; Experiment; Fellowship;
Genius, Initiative; Self-disciplines;
Specialization: Overspecialization
Science, 244
and theology, 158-60
defined, 43, 153
in Brazil, 296
language of, xxvii
See also: Applied science; Naval
prognosticating science & art;
Pure science
Science (journal), 9
Scientific & technical know-how, 201
acquired by corporations, 108-10,
111, 112
as capital, 109
as monopoly of corporations, 107-8,
109, 110
in atomic energy field, 107-8, 109
in post-World-War-II industry, 101
primacy of, 108
sent to U.S.S.R., 289
sold to Japan, 109-10
See also: Metaphysical know-how;
Secret (critical information)
Scientific American, 108
Scientific journals, 146
Scientific laboratories, 221
Scientists, ix
experiments of, 265
first records of, 34
generalized principles and, 160
isolation of chemical elements, 242-
Morgan, J. P. and, 100
misconditioned reflexes of, 253
persecution of, 152
pure, 110
test, 160
See also: Artist-scientists; Behind-the-
scenes power structure; Design
science revolution; Engineers;
Invisible reality (dawning of); Research
and development;
Scrap metal
See: Recirculation of metals
Scribe, as tool of Greek mathematicians,
Sea technology, origin of, 21, 22, 24
Sea-people. See: Water-people
Seattle (Chief of the Suquamish), 64-
Secret (critical information), x-xi
of atomic energy, 107-8
of closed world system, 59
psychological war and, 232
strategic patents and, 104
technical development and, 108
total of, 232
weaponry and, 192
See also: Behind-the-scenes power
structure; Communication; Design
science revolution; Design science
vs political revolution; Invisible:
Invisibility; Mathematics; Scientific
& technical know-how
Securities & Exchange Commission
See also: Banks: Banking; New Deal
Seeing, 63
ourselves as others see us, 124, 134,
outside ourselves, 343
rates of motion and, 162
See also: Geoscope; Human limits of
observation; Invisible: Invisibility;
Invisible reality (dawning of); Remote
sensing; Sensing; Television
Self-disciplines, 123-60
and the all-important commitment, 151
commitment to humanity as a, xi,
124, 125, 128, 137, 139, 149, 197,
202, 232, 248, 250, 264
diversions from, 150-51
educational, 125
experimentation as a, xxxviii, 128, 265
of artifact development, 125, 144, 145
of avoiding procrastination, 126, 137
of avoiding threatening power structure,
215, 261
of being informed by nature, 145
of concentrating on "Ever Rethinking
the Lord's Prayer" when going
to sleep, 153
of demonstrating competence, 266-67
of documentation, 128, 133, 134-37
of doing one's own thinking, 125,
151, 231
of doing only what no one else is
doing, xxxviii, 145
of economic evaluation, 145
of following experience, not belief,
125, 127-28, 151-57, 265, 283
of information gathering & problem
solving, xxxvi, 125, 127
of learning from mistakes, 126, 137,
143, 146, 151, 230, 246, 248, 262
of never disadvantaging others, 125,
169, 171
of never seeking publicity, 261
of no promotion of ideas, 125, 134, 323
of not showing half-finished work, 261
of operating intuitively, individually,
of patenting inventions, 146-50
of positive thinking, 146
of producing desired results, 268
of reduction to practice, 125, 136,
146, 147-51, 233
of reforming the environment, not
behavior, 27, 125, 129, 130, 134,
136, 140, 252, 254-55
of self-employment, 144
of speaking only on invitation, 145
of thought, action, initiative, xxxviii
of working effectively, 250
of understating advantage, 261
of using a dictionary, xxxviii
on funding, 141
origin of, xxxvii
1927 commitment to, 248-49
precessional principles and, 137,
prognostication as a, 150
See also: Appendix II; Artifacts;
Commitment to humanity; Design
science vs political revolution;
Doing one's own thinking; Earning
a living; "Ever Rethinking the
Lord's Prayer"; Experience; Experiment
(undertaken by the individual);
"Guinea Pig B"; Human
individual; Humans, function of;
Information-gathering; Learning
by trial-and-error; Little individual:
Little man; Orbital feedback
circuits; Patents; Precession;
Problem-solving; Reduction to
practice; Reforming the environment,
not humans; Thought & action;
World Game
Self-education, 264, 265-66
See also: Academic disciplines
by brain, 343-44
differentiation of individual faculties,
human & animal, 63
of "otherness, " xi-xii
See also: Brain & mind; Human limits
of observation; Human tool
complexes; Orbital feedback circuits;
Remote sensing
Sentence construction, 75
Service industry, 310, 313-14, 337
for dwelling machine, xxv
renting replaces owning in, 267
Sewer & water-line connections, xxv
See also: Building industry, tied to
highways, sewers, waterlines;
Dry-packaging toilet; Dwelling
machine; Fog gun
Shakespeare, William, on banker's interest,
Shale (petroleum-bearing), 112
Shannon, Claude, 342
Shareholder. See: Stockholder
Shelter, 221
See also: Dwelling machine; Dymaxion
house; Environment control;
Fly's Eye dome; Single-family
Shelter (magazine), 133, 135
"Shelterbelts, " 271, 274-75
aircraft carrier as, 118
as line-of-vital-supply control, xx,
72, 73
battleship as a, 234
history of, xx-xxii
hull of early, 22, 69
in Roman Empire, 70
navigation of, 29-32
Queen Mary performance as, 233
ribs of, 30
scale of, 180
size of, 233
surface-to-volume ratio of, 233
target & firing, 239
Trojan horse as, 69-70
See also: Dhow; Environment control;
Land & sea transport; Line
of vital supply; Logistics; Naval
prognosticating science & art;
Navigation; Phoenicians; Sailing
ship; Water-people
Ship of state with 150 admirals, xxxiv
See also: National sovereignty;
Spaceship Earth
Ship technology, 21-22
and mathematics, 72-73
world-around materials of, 72-73
See also: Naval prognosticating science&
and architecture, 49
ephemeralization in, 233-34
in Bangkok, 21-22
in Egypt, 17
in Mediterranean area, 72
in naval science & art, 238
navy yard, 239-40
of British Empire, 58
origins of, 22
RBF experience in, 128
wood to steel technology in, 77
See also: Boat; Environment control;
Naval prognosticating science &
art; Ship technology
Shoemaker's milk cow, xxvi
Shoriki, Matsutaro, 136, 337-38
Siberia, 11
Sicily, U.S. landing on, 186, 287
"Side effect, " 142-43
See also: Precession
Sifr, 32
after World War II, 104
as early money, 75
as electrical conductor, 84
co-occurring with copper, 282
discovery of, 242
See also: Metals
Simon, Norton, 188
Simple to complex evolution
See: Darwin: Reverse evolution
Singapore, population of, 20
Single-family dwelling, 310
gestation rate for, 283
See also: Dwelling machine; Housing
Six: Sixness, ix
Six permitted moves, 247
Sixtyness in Babylonian geometry, 33
"Skin Pigment Regulation of Vitamin
D Biosynthesis in Man, " 9
Skin pigmentation
and race, 10-11
and vitamin D, 9
resulting from specialization, xxviii
See also: Physiognomy & physiology;
Race: No race, no class; Specialization:
Skyscraper, air-deliverable, 337
and afterlife, 52
in building of pyramids, 49, 50-51
in Russia, 289
See also: Race: No race, no class
Slenderness ratio, 158
Sling (weapon), 64
Smelling, 63
See also: Sensing
Smith, Adam, 79
"Smog." See: Air pollution
Snow-loading, in geodesic dome, 190
Snyder, Allegra (Fuller), 124, 127, 128
Socal (oil company), 241
Socialism, described, 88
Socialism vs. free enterprise, 191, 197,
Bank Moratorium and, 88
Eisenhower and, 102-3, 106, 108
in atomic energy field, 106-8
in New Deal, 89, 96
in U.S. banks, 89-90
in U.S. corporations, 97-98
in U.S. government subsidies, 87
in World War II, 191-92
LAWCAP on, 106-9, 113
prime contractors and, 94-96
socialization of stockholders in, 101
See also: Capitalism; Communism
vs capitalism; Finance capitalism
(FINCAP); Free enterprise; Fundamental
risk enterprise; Lawyer
capitalism (LAWCAP); New
Socializability of resources, 221, 224
See also: Life support inadequacy;
World resources inventory
Socioeconomic behavior
accelerating acceleration in, 132
laws of motion and, 144-45
See also: Precession
Socioeconomic laws
existence of, 132-46
Solar system
concept of, 35, 37
Greek concept of, 34, 35-36
of Alexandrian Greeks, 43
operational patterning of, xxi
See also: Co-orbiting of Earth &
Solid: No solids, 158
See also: Invisible reality (dawning
Sound, speed of, 231
South America, migration to, 286
South Pacific
and early humans, 5-6
as origin of navigation, 29-32
basketry interweaving in, 13
navigators of, 52
See also: Water-people; World ocean
Southeast Asia hydroelectric program,
Southern Illinois University, 136, 174,
Space program
as class-one & class-two evolution,
critical-path planning in, 247
See also: Apollo project; Astronautics;
Critical-path planning; Rocket;
Spaceship Earth
accounting system of, 202
as sphere, 184
burning hull of, 219, 223
operation of, 309
orientation & course of, 55, 184
passengers in peril on, 215
passengers on board, 131, 132, 202,
trends affecting, 241
with 150 admirals, 217-18
Spain, 72, 77
See also: Europe
Spear, 64, 67
Specialization: Overspecialization,
xxviii, 162, 215
by color, xxviii
by language, xxviii, 75
by religion, xxviii
extinction in biological species and,
from inbreeding, 6-7
in adults, 63
in animals, 63
in economics, 133
of humanity, xxviii
of tribes, 215
origins of, 61-62
world electric energy network and,
See also: Awareness of child; Divide
& conquer; Genius; Human power
structures; One world family;
Specialized equipment, 130, 250, 345,
of animals, 63
lungs as, 8-9
of humans, 63, 215, 249, 343-44
See also: Human tool complexes;
Species regeneration, as human drive, 27
"Speculative Prehistory of Humanity, "
basis for, 229
Critical Path and, 229
See also: Helpless: Humans born
helpless & ignorant; Human tolerance
Speech patterns
esoteric dialects, 75, 214, 230
ignorance of local dialects in, 25-26
universal, 230-31
See also: Communication; Literacy:
Illiteracy; Language; Word
Speed-of-light magnitude (light-year),
as finite, closed system, 58
as omnidirectional wave front of
light, 158
as planet, 34
perpendiculars to the surface of, 55,
56, 57
surface-to-volume ratio of, xxiv
Spherical cube, 184, 185, 185
Spherical right triangle, 33
Spherical geometry, 250
Spherical trigonometry, 44
Spying. See: Espionage
Standard of living, higher, xix, xx,
xxv, xxxiv, 53-54, 112, 116, 128,
133, 199, 217, 236, 237, 254, 276
as class-one evolution, 233
improvement extended to everyone,
in unfamiliar form, 237
in U.S., 102
U.S.S.R.-U.S. competition for, 191-
93, 197
See also: Commonwealth accounting;
Consumer goods; Ephemeralization;
Livingry vs. killingry
Standardization, 296, 305
See also: Electric current currency;
Monetary accounting; U.S. Bureau
of Standards
Stanley Steamer, 131
and interstellar distances, 172
as entropic, 223
as navigational fix, 29-31, 31
as spherical body, 34
at zenith, 173
catalog, 43
constellations, 29, 30, 31, 35
energy as cosmic dividends, xvii
evolution of, 28
Geoscope view of, 173
in cosmic accounting, 120
orbiting of, 144
populations, 345
See also: Energy accounting, income;
Navigation; Solar system;
Syntropy & entropy
Stardust particles, 144
"Start-ups" in critical-path planning,
Steamship, circumnavigation in, 245
Steam turbine, 84
Steel, 205, 284
as sparking metal, 282
construction, 304-5
gestation rate, 284
in Los Angeles, 278
in U.S.S.R., 289
origins of production, 80, 98
See also: Industrialization; Metallurgy;
Metals; Metals industry; Production
Stockade building system, 124, 135
Stockholders, 86, 91, 94, 96, 100
after World War II, 102, 103
concerns of, xxviii-xxix
managerial capitalism and, 99
$100, 000 dole to, 114, 275
profits of, 116
socialization of, 10 I
war profiteering and, 84
See also: Capitalism; Corporations;
Free enterprise; Lawyer capitalism
(LAWCAP); Profit motive
Straightedge, as tool of Greek mathematicians,
Strauss, Lewis, 106-8
Stresemann, Fritz, 106
Structural efficiency
alloys in, 216
cathedral vs geodesic dome in, 190
defined, 209
in Brazil, 303-4
in heating & cooling, xxiv, 211, 211,
320, 324, 336-37
of conventional buildings, xxiv
World Game and, 219
See also: Building industry; Design
science; Ephemeralization; Geodesic
dome; Mechanical efficiency;
Metallurgy; More with less;
World Game
Structural exploration theory, 256
as tetrahedral system, 240
for atoll-dwellers, 13
in systems geometry, 7, 8
intensive & compressive balance, 4
microcosmic, 136
See also: Synergetics; Tetrahedron .
Structuring principles of synergetics,
See also: Geodesic dome
in World War I, 81, 82, 83
islands, 337
nuclear, 117
Vertol launched from, 193
Subsidies. See: Expenditures, public
Subversion, 235-37
in Afghanistan, 196
in Iran, 196
See also: Espionage; Psychological
Suez Canal, 70-71
Sulawesi, 11
discovery of, 242
precipitation of, 280
recirculation of, 219-20
Sumatra, 11
banking in, 13, 15
population of, 20
See also: Water-people
as atomic-energy plant, 345, 346
as spherical body, 34
classification of, 345
never sets on British Empire, xxixxii
path of stars and, 54, 55
radiation of, 275
See also: Co-orbiting of Earth &
Sun; Energy accounting, income;
Solar system
Sun energy
as cosmic dividends, xvii
at optimum distance, 345, 346
impoundment of, in Growth House,
See also: Energy accounting, income
and synthesis of vitamin D, 9
as world resource, 221
See also: Photosynthesis
Sung family, 15, 104
See also: Banks: Banking; Gold bullion
Sunset & sunrise, 173
See also: Up & down
See: Electric energy network grid;
Electrical conductivity of metals
Surface ignored by Greek mathematicians,
See also: Systems geometry
Surface tension, 158
Surface-to-volume ratio
See: Volume-area ratio
among American Indians, 65-66
characteristics of noble class, 10
characteristics of workers, 10
competition for, 123
critical-path tasks and, 266
Geoscope and, 180, 184
in cold areas, 3-4
no longer necessitates selfishness, xxv
of humanity, xi, 112, 346
of sailor-navigator, 133
of "you or me, " 128
self-regenerative drives for, 27
requires environment control, 5
requires water, 4, 5, 6, 12, 15
specialization vs. general adaptability
in, 6-7
See also: Darwin, Charles Robert;
Design science vs political revolution;
Helpless: Humans born helpless
& ignorant; Human tolerance
limits; Livingry vs. killingry; National
sovereignty; One world
family; Specialization: Overspecialization
"Survival only of the fittest, " xxiixxiii,
7, 8, 58, 60, 140, 203, 213
See also: Darwin, Charles Robert;
Life support inadequacy; "Killingry"
-poker game; Marx, Karl
Swimmers, inbreeding of, 8-9
Synergetics: Synergetic geometry, 46,
and prognostication, 242
as nature's coordinate system, xxviii
in information inventorying, 213
in structuring, 189-90
of Universe, 156
See also: System: Systems: Systems
geometry; Tetrahedron; XYZ coordinate
Synergetics, Vols. 1 & 2, xxviii, 136,
159, 241-42
Synergy, defined, 251
Synergy of synergies, 159
"Synthetics, " 204
Syntropy & entropy, 27-28, 276
and functioning of mind, 27-28
description of, 275
in evolution, 246
photosynthesis and, 246
See also: Energy accounting; Evolution:
Class-one evolution; Evolution:
Class-two evolution;
Gravitation; Information; Mind;
Physical & metaphysical; Physical
Universe; Radiation; Tension &
compression; Universe
System: Systems: Systems geometry
closed-system in, 58
concept of, 249
divides inside from outside, 7, 8
energy transformations and, 276
four' groups of system variables' in,
in synergetics, 46-47
in Universe, 7-8
See also: Spherical geometry; Synergetics;
Synergy; Tetrahedron

Tactile. See: Touching
Tanganyika, tin from, 205
Tanks (armored)
Chrysler Corporation as U.S. manufacturer
of, 101
in Mackinder view, 194
in World War I, 82
Tartarian picto-linguistic, 33
Tax credits for recirculation of byproducts,
collection of, xviii
fundamental risk enterprise and,
government hungry for, xvii-xviii
in city-state, 68
U.S. corporations escape, 105,
See also: Expenditures, public; Income
used in boatbuilding, 21-22
Sun-filtering of, 10
Technetium, 244
as not a "new" phenomenon, xxvii
as tension-interfastening capability,
early history of, 50-54
metallurgy and, 80
origins of, 22, 24
use of computer in
See also: Applied science; Appendix
I & II; Automation; Ephemeralization;
Industrialization; Information-
gathering; Metallurgy; Metals
industry; Problem-solving; Research
& development; Scientific
& technical know-how; World resources
Technological revolution, 148, 232-33,
critical path tasks in, xix
synergetically methodical, xix
See also: Appendix I & II; Criticalpath
planning; Design science revolution;
Design science vs
political revolution; Ephemeralization;
Invisible revolution; Livingry
vs. killingry
Tectonics, Geoscope and, 180-81
Telegraph (wireless), 80, 128
See also: Invisible reality (dawning
Telemetry. See: Remote sensing
Telephone companies, 83
See also: Service industry
Television, 26, 163
as seeing metaphor, 344
computer-augmented, 224
future education and, 253, 265-66
history's inventory of discovery and,
influence on college students, 231
omnidirectional picture tube and,
transmission towers for, 337-38
World Game and, 218
See also: Broadcasting; Communication;
Remote sensing; Video
cosmic, 345
determines social patterns, 3-4
differentials, 277, 278
on Dymaxion Sky-Ocean Map, 3
stability of water, 5
variation determined by maximum
lows, 3
See also: Environment control; Human
tolerance limits
Tennessee Valley Authority, xxix-xxx
See also: Electric utilities; New Deal
icosahedron, 209
model at Dartmouth Conference,
principles, 190
projects, 136
See also: Coexisting: Always & only;
Synergetics; Tension & compression
Tensile strength, 24
See also: Alloys; Invisible reality
(dawning of); Metallurgy; Performance
per weight; Technology
Tension & compression
as structuring principles, 190
in modeling of precession, 141, 141
study of, 256
See also: Coexisting: Always & only;
Compressional capability; Precession;
Pulling & pushing
Tensional capability, 24
See also: Invisible: Invisibility; Mass
attraction: Mass interattraction;
Synergetics; Technology
Territoriality, among American Indians,
See also: Landownership
Test & testing, xxxviii, 223
by God, 156-57, 159
by scientists, 160
of species, 8
using Geoscope & World Game, 309
See also: Integrity; Prototyping
as minimum structural system, 240
as minimum system of Universe,
7, 8
as most surface with least volume, 333
of variable design factors, 239-40
tree as, 62
See also: Synergetics; System: Systems:
Systems geometry
Texaco (oil company), 241
as tin & copper source, 21
bronze first produced in, 16-17
water-people in, 20
See also: Rivers of Asia; Vietnam,
Puppet wars of Southeast Asia;
Thant, U, 184
Theology & science, 158-160
See also: Generalized principles,
family of; Pure science
Things: No things, 158
by youth, 123
experience engendered, 153
realistic vs unrealistic, 47
See also: Doing one's own thinking;
Experience; Experiment; Metaphysical
know-how; Thought &
"Third World, " 202
metal ores and, 202
Vietnam and, 235
See also: World resources inventory
Thirst, as human drive, 27
Thought & action, xiii, xxxviii, 125 of
human individuals, xi, xxxviii, 346
See also: Doing one's own thinking;
Reduction to practice; Self-disciplines
Thoughts, as ramifications of systems,
See also: Synergetics; System: Systems:
Systems geometry
Tibet, Dalai Lama at source of water
in, 21
See also: Rivers of Asia
Tidal power, xvii
See also: Energy accounting, income
Tiger, 11
Time as frequency, 160
See also: Cycles; Human limits of
Time (magazine), 240-41, 274
discovery of, 242
recirculating of, 205
softness of, 15
See also: Bronze; Metals
Tin cans, 204, 205
as value-added-by-manufacture, 98
foods distributed in, 80-81
Tokyo, Japan, 57, 167, 168
Tokyo Bay, 332-33
Tokyo Tower, 136, 337-38, 339, 340
craft & industrial, defined, 240
human organism as, 249
interior & exterior, 249
special-case, 238
See also: Artifacts; Ballistics, interior
& exterior; Craft tools; Human
tool complexes; Industrialization;
Machine tools; Pneumatic tools;
Production tools; Specialized
equipment; Word
Topology, 7, 46
See also: System: Systems: Systems
Toronto, Canada, 334
Touching, 63
See also: Sensing
Tower of Babel story, 75
between Asia & Europe, 68, 70-71,
72, 73
cattle to gold exchange, 75
earliest, 201
East India Company role in world,
financing of ship enterprising, 75
in aluminum, 201-2
Post-World-War-I boom in U.S., 84
sea to air, 194
See also: Balance-of-trade accounting;
Capitalism; Gold; Land & sea
transport; Metals & mining capitalism;
Mobility; World resources
Trade fair domes, 136, 167, 195
Trade winds, 35
See also: Phoenicians
Trafalgar, Battle of, xxi-xxii, 75
See also: British Empire
in ballistics, 238-39
in socioeconomics, 146
in systems geometry, 7, 8
See also: Ballistics, interior & exterior;
Critical-path planning; Line;
Orbital feedback circuit
Transformational projection
See: Dymaxion transformational
Transistors, xx, 268
Transnational, 310
business, 98-99, 104, 105-6, 111,
113, 114, 116
ideologies, 285, 286
religion & business, 218
Transport (magazine), 135
See: Air transport; Airplane; Automobile;
Automobile industry;
Land & sea transport; Mobility;
Railroad industry; Travel
Trans-Siberian railway, 193
accommodations, 338, 341
computer-facilitated, 215, 216-17
of RBF, 131
vehicular, 310
waiting in airport lines for, 221
Tree, 10
as tetrahedron, 62
See also: Hardwoods; Land & soil
conservation; Plywood; "Shelterbelts"
Trends to invisible
See: Ephemeralization; Invisible: Invisibility;
Invisible reality (dawning
of); Miniaturization; More
with less
Trial by jury, xxxvii
See: Learning through trial-and-error
Greek definition of, 47
Spherical, 164
See also: Right triangle
origins of, 29-31
spherical, 184-85
See also: Pythagoras
Triton Floating City, 136, 332-35, 334
Trojan horse, as large wooden ship,
Troy, 69-70
Mycenaeans' siege of, xx
See also: City-state; Lines of vital
Trudeau, Pierre, xxxi
absolute, unattainable, xxxvi, 157
as God, xxxvii
as guide to individual human,
daring to tell the, xi
love of, xxxvii
only apprehended by mind, xxxvi
See also: Integrity; Learning through
trial-and-error; Orbital feedback
See: Invisible: Invisibility
Tuning-in & tuning-out, 54
See also: Human limits of observation;
Invisible reality (dawning of)
Turbine engine, efficiency rating of,
xxiv, 208, 212
Turks, 70
See: Electric energy network grid
Ultraviolet rays, in synthesis of vitamin
D, 9
Uncertainty principle, xxxvii
See also: Truth
Underdeveloped countries
See: "Third World"
Underground Silo Library, 136, 331-
332, 332
See also: Information access
Union Tank Car Company dome, 179
United Auto Workers, xxviii-xxix
United Nations Geoscope, 174-77,
176, 177, 178, 182, 183-84
Unity is plural, ix
United States of America (U.S.A.)
and military supremacy, xviii
bankrupt, 113-14, 116, 118, 286, 287
cross-breeding in, 218
economic history of, xxiii, 59, 76-
119, 270-77, 280-85, 287, 289
electric grid and, 206
enters World War I, 82-83
family mobility in, 131, 217, 309-10
flag, origin of, 78
fume precipitation in, 280
immigration to, 285
increase in millionaires in, 217
lawyer capitalism in, 118
loss of integrity of, 86, 101, 114, 188
national debt of, 321-22
population of, 119
prestige declines, 101, 167, 193
role of president in, 119
See a/so: Communism vs capitalism;
Capitalism; Free enterprise; "Killingry" --
poker game; New Deal;
Socialism vs. free enterprise;
"Wealth" -- poker game
U.S. Air Force, 175, 179-80
U.S. Board of Economic Warfare, 104,
U.S. Bureau of Standards, 108, 149
U.S. corporations
escape taxes, 105
foreign aid and, 105-6
World War I production of, 81-84
World War II production of, 103
See also: Atomic energy industry;
Automobile industry; Banks:
Banking; Corporations; Electric
utilities; Fundamental risk enterprise;
Great Crash; Lawyer capitalism
(LAWCAP); "Legally
Piggily"; Metals industry; Morgan,
J. P.; New Deal; Petroleum
industry; Prime contractors; Scientific
& technical know-how; Socialism
vs. free enterprise;
U.S. Department of Housing & Urban
Development, 333
U.S. Geological Survey, 185-86
U.S. Hydrographic Survey, 185
U.S. Information Agency, 165, 195
U.S. Meteorological Service, 181-82
U.S. Navy, 123, 124, 129, 135, 185-86,
U.S. Post Office Department, 106
U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee,
U.S. State Department, 290
U.S. Steel Corporation, 96
U.S. Supreme Court, 88
U.S. Treasury Department, 96, 262
"Universal Dwelling Requirements-
Part IV"
Critical path-individual phase,
" 255-57
Critical path-collective phase, 257-
Critical path-public relations, 261
See also: Critical-path planning; Design
science revolution
as dynamic, changing, 129
as generalized principles, 7
as minimum eternally regenerative
system, 109, 157
as "normally at rest" according to
Newton, 129
as physical & metaphysical, 109
as regenerative, 281
as scenario, 27
as system, 7, 8
direct experience of, 153
complexity of, 7
expanding, ix
micro- & macro-events of, 155,
mind function in respect to, 27-28
mind functions to conserve, 27-28
omni-interrelatedness of, 47
pulsings of, 120
relative abundance of chemical elements
in, 222, 224
structure of, 7, 8
See also: Design (of Universe); Local
Universe; Physical Universe; Scenario
University of California, 231
University of Massachusetts, 136, 219
University of Minnesota, 174
University of Pennsylvania, 17, 136,
University of Southern California, 136,
University presidents, subject to attacks,
See: Academic degrees; Appendix
II; College; Education
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Academy of Sciences of, 188, 189
and military supremacy, xviii
anti-German feelings of, 191
commitment to atheism, 152
communist party in, 118, 287
composed of many nations; 11, 218
concern for standard of living, 197
"containment" in World War III, 103
economic planning, 300-01
electric grid and, 206
engineers in, 138
hydroelectric-power program of,
xxxi, 206
in Iran, 196
industrial planning, 138, 288-91,
industrialization of, 152
naval & conventional weaponry
power, 286
occupation of Afghanistan, 193, 195
starvation in, 289
U.S. grain embargo to, 87
See also: Communism vs capitalism;
"Killingry" -- poker game
Dartmouth Conference, 188-93
intercontinental atomic bombing
strategy, 187-88
radio-triangulation mapping, 187-88
space program competition, 247
technological competition, xviii
See also: Livingry vs. killingry;
World Gaming vs. War gaming
Up & down
in flat-out world, 49, 54-55
misconception of, 253-54
See also: Earth, as sphere; Geoscope;
Uranium. See: Atomic energy industry
Utchmann, Carl, 323
U-2 (airplane), 175, 179

Value-added-by-manufacture, 98
Vargas, Getulio, 288-92
Vase as artifact, 25
Vatican. See: Roman Catholic Church
Veeking. See: Viking
See: Line; Trajectory
Veenetian. See: Venetian
Veering, xxxvii
See also: Courage; Navigation; Orbital
feedback circuits
Vegetation, 212, 222
See also: Alcohol (vegetation-produced);
Ecology; Energy accounting;
Evolution: Class-one
evolution; Intercomplementation;
Venice, xx, 70
as canal city, 24
merchant bankers of, 76
See also: Water-people
Venus as spherical body, 34
Verkhoyansk, 3
Vertex, 7, 8
Veterans organizations, 26
Victorian Age, 53, 161
See also: Invisible reality (dawning
Victory Loans, 83
See: Computer; Communication;
Education; Information access;
Seeing; Television
Vietnam, puppet wars of Southeast
Asia, 20, 21, 192
See also: Water-people; World War
Viking, 73, 74
Vision, 218, 221, 230
See also: Courage
See: Human limits of observation;
Invisible: Invisibility
Visual. See: Seeing
Vitamin D, 9-10
See also: Photosynthesis; Skin pigmentation
Vladivostok, U.S.S.R., 193, 196
Vocabulary development, xxxviii
Volcano. See: Vulcanism
Volta River basin, 202
Volume-area ratio, xxiv, 158, 209, 233.
311, 327, 333
See also: Geodesic dome; Sphere;
Structural efficiency
Volume-weight ratio, 158, 190, 336-37
See also: Dwelling machine; Environment
control; Geodesic dome;
Performance per weight; Structural
efficiency; Work effectiveness
Vulcanism, xvii, 5, 49, 222, 282
See also: Energy accounting, income

in 19208, 80
minimum established, 95, 100
See also: Employment: Unemployment
Wall Street lawyers, 102-8
and widow's interests, 59
outside of New York, 59
See also: Lawyer capitalism
Walls, as artifact record, 25
"Wallsters." See: Wall Street Lawyers
and profiteering, 84, 100
as obsolete, xxv
as test of which system is fittest, xxi
causes of, 47
elimination of, 237 ,
"to save democracy, " 82-83
See also: Killingry; "Killingry"-poker
game; Military expenditures
(U.S.S.R. & U.S.A.); Navies & armies;
World Gaming vs War
gaming; World War I; World
War II; World War III; World
War IV
conventional, 117-18
horsemounted, 68
See also: Atomic war; psychological
Washington, George, 78
Washington University, 323
Wat & gat, as cosmological models, 49
amount of, on Earth, 4
as world resource, 221
as saltwater tears, 6
biology and, 4-5
consumption of, 343
control of for survival, 15
freezing & boiling point of, 5
fresh & salt, 5-6, 12
function of fresh, 15
gains & loses heat slowly, 5
known only on Earth, 4, 5
noncompressibility of, 4
surface tension of, 158
temperature limits of, 345
temperatures, in navigation, 29
use in cleaning, 212
use in heat storage, 212
See also: Fog gun; Fresh water; Human
tolerance limits; Hydraulic
tools; Hydroelectric power; Land
& sea transport; World ocean
Water buffalo, 11
Water cycle, 13
Water recirculation of Fly's Eye dome,
Water system
topsoil and, 270-71
as early celestial navigators, 29-32
atoll-dwellers as, 204
basketry interweaving of, 13, 14
canoes, clothing, tents of, 12
cross-breeding of, 74
during ice ages, 11
hydraulic technology of, 12, 13
in development of trigonometry,
inbreeding of, 8
invent rafts, 13
land in Southeast Asia, 20
origins of, 5-6
reach Europe, 17
vs land people, 12
world view of, 71-72
See also: Dhow captains; Friesians;
Navigator-priests; Phoenicians;
Sailor-navigators; Venetians; Vikings
Waterpower, xvii
and cotton mills, 323-24
See also: Energy accounting, income;
Hydroelectric power
Waterwheel, 249
Wave propagations (spherical), 33
See also: Electromagnetic wave
Wavepower, xvii, 221
See also: Energy accounting, income
and "the Wealthy, " 79-80
as energy & know-how, 198
as forward days of life support, 125,
146, 199, 221
as land, 80
as life advantaging, 125
as life support, 79, 80, 262
defined, xxvi, 199
European banking families and, 76
metabolic, 199, 201, 213, 223
metaphysical know-how as, 112
petroleum & gold as, 111
RBF boyhood view of, 79-80
regenerative, metabolic, 73, 213
See also: Commonwealth accounting;
Humans, as unknowing billionaires;
Life support inadequacy;
Life expectancy; Livingry vs. killingry;
One world family; World
Game; World resources inventory
"Wealth" -- poker game
and cosmic costing, 119
begins, 79
hands revealed in, 83, 88
hidden hands in, 80
early ballistics, 64
evolution of, 234
"Mr. Swordmaker" and, 62
obsolescence of, 27
See also: "Killingry" -- poker game
Weaponry industry
conversion to livingry, xxv
financing of, 94-96
in World War I, 82
in World War II, 101
post-World-War-II, 103
See also: Livingry vs. killingry;
World gaming vs. War gaming
Wells, H. G., 57-58
Westbound man, 302
loss of mathematical facility, 31-32
reaches Nile, 24
See also: Eastbound man: Westbound
Westchester, New York, Dartmouth
Conference, 188
Whale & porpoise
evolution of, 8-9
saltwater tears of, 6
Whale blubber as vitamin D source, 9
Wharton School of Finance, 220
White, Paul Dudley, 188
Whole Earth map
globe as, 163, 164
icosahedron as, 164, 168
projections, 164, 165, 165
See also: Dymaxion Sky-Ocean
Map; Geoscope
Wichita House
See: Dwelling machine; Dymaxion
Widows, and LAWCAP, 59
Wiener, Norbert, 342
Wild animals
lack of, on atolls, 5
during ice ages, 11, 66
hunting of, 13
skins of, 12
Willkie, Wendell, xxix
as world resource, 221
drafting of, 253
prevailing, 34, 277
southeast drafts of, 277
tween-monsoon easterlies, 17
See also: "Roaring forties"; Trade
Wind-loading, in geodesic dome, 190,
Windmill, 249
Window (in topology)
See: Area; Opening
electric power generation and, 208
geodesic dome and, 210, 211-12
petroleum industry and, xvii, 110
See also: Energy accounting, income
Windworks, 208 .
Wing foils, 63
Winged bean, 212, 329
Wisdom, 27
cosmic 345
of God, 157
of the majority, 346
See: Hardwood; Plywood
Wood-log roller as artifact, 50
Wool, 289
Word, as tool, xxxviii, 25, 48, 130,
230, 240
See also: Communication; Industrialization;
Language; Sentence;
Speech pattern; Tool
Work effectiveness, 125, 126, 137, 155,
233, 250, 251
Work, love of, 224
Work week, 263-64
See also: Employment: Unemployment
Working class, 10
See also: Race: No race, no class
Works Progress Administration
(WPA), 93-94
World Game, 136, 169, 171, 198-226,
anticipatory, 203
communication and, 218
computer and, 215-16, 219, 221, 225
cosmic accounting and, 222-23
design science revolution and, 198-
201, 203-226
Dymaxion Sky-Ocean Map and, 205
electric energy network grid and,
202, 215
employment and, 223
environment control and, 209-12
ephemeralization and, 203, 204, 216
Geoscope as tool of, 184
human initiative and, 225
income energy sources and, 208
metabolic wealth and, 199, 213, 223
national sovereignty and, 202
news dissemination and, 224
objective of, 169, 171
on corporations, 220
on petroleum, 222
problem-solving and, 204
recirculation of metals and, 205
research & development and, 202,
seminars & symposia of, 206, 219
strategies of, 309
vs. Obnoxico, 226
windpower and, 208
World resources inventory and, 203,
213, 221, 224
See also: Critical-path planning;
Critical-path tasks; Design science;
Design science revolution;
Design science vs. political revolution;
Livingry vs. killingry; Omnisuccess;
Spaceship Earth
World Gaming vs War gaming, 202-3
World resources inventory, 103-4,
136, 202, 205, 241
computer and, 220
Geoscope and, 168-69, 180-84
human individual and, 124
needs of industry and, 221
needs of scientific laboratories and,
of metals data, 205, 282
of socially abundant resources, 221
on farm production, 271-72
on food & energy, 219
World Game and, 203, 213, 221, 224
World resources inventorying
See: Information inventorying; Malthus,
World Man Territory Trusteeship, 136
World ocean
British control of, 75, 82
control of, xx-xxii, 58, 193, 238
during ice ages, 11, 66
early exploration of, 69, 72
map of, 164
temperature stability of, 5
See also: British Empire; Land &
sea transport; Navigation; Phoenicians;
Water; Water-people;
World War I
World power structures
critical path and, 161
control in hands of few
"outs" vs. "ins" in World War I,
See also: Behind-the-scenes power
structure; Human power structures
World Trade Center, 56
World War I
cost of, 113
ephemeralization in, 133
history of, 80-84
metals production in, 99, 282, 283-84
naming of, 80, 98, 99
power production in, 282
RBF and, 123, 124, 129, 135
World War II
Bay of Fundy meeting, 287
economic history of, 100-107, 109
foreign investments during, 104
German energy program in, 307
metals industry in, 109, 284
Normandy landing in, 186-87
observational advantage in, xviii
preparation for, 95-96, 100
radio-triangulation mapping in, 186,
Sicily landing in, 186, 287
socialism vs free enterprise in, 191-
U.S. rises to powerful position in,
war production of, 101, 103
World War III, 175
funding of new technologies in, xx
guerrilla warfare in, 236
military supremacy and, xviii
objectives of, 103, 116, 234-37
psycho-guerrilla warfaring of, 232,
U.S.S.R.-U.S.A. socio-technological
competition of, 190-93
Vietnam and Korea and, 192
See also: Psychological warfare
World War IV, 117-18, 190-91, 192,
193, 200, 234
See also: Atomic war
World wars as of 1980, 57
World War gaming
See: "Killingry" -- poker game
Wright, Wilber & Orville, 63, 129
Writing, 33
See also: Communication; Information
access; Word

X-rays discovered, 128
See also: Invisible reality
XYZ coordinate system,
of ancient Greece & Egypt, 33
of science, xxvii
See also: Greek geometry; Synergetics

Yang, Chen Ning, 7
Yangtze River. See: Rivers of Asia
Yale University, 136
Yellow River. See: Rivers of Asia
Younge, Wyvetter, 323
at universities & colleges, xxxvii,
can do, xxxviii
committed to humanity, 232
e. e. cummings advice to, xii
familiarity of, with critical-path
planning, xix
in 1989, xix
in peace movement, 235-37
thinking and, xxxviii, 123
unemployment and, 102
See also: Awareness of child; Child:
Childhood; Child's parents; College;
Design science vs political
revolution; Fuller, R. Buckminster;
"First life"; Idealism; New
Yurt, 195

Zenith. See: Constant zenith model
Zero. See: Cipher
Ziggurat as cosmological model, 49
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