India's Childhood in the "Pits": A Report on the Impacts of

Re: India's Childhood in the "Pits": A Report on the Impacts

Postby admin » Tue Mar 10, 2020 3:14 am


Adivasi: The term used to refer to the indigenous or tribal population of India (Sanskrit language adi=beginning; vasi=dweller).

Anganwadis: A government sponsored child care and mother care centre in India. It caters to children in the 0–6 age group. The word means ‘courtyard shelter’ in the Hindi language. They These were started by the Indian government as a part of the ICDS programme to combat child hunger and malnutrition.

Artisanal mining: An artisanal or small-scale miner is not officially employed by a mining company, but rather works independently, mining or panning using his/her own resources. Artisanal miners often undertake the activity of mining seasonally.

Assessment Survey Evaluation Report (ASER): Facilitated by Pratham, a NGO, ASER (meaning impact in Hindi) is the largest household survey undertaken in India by people outside the government. It annually measures the enrolment as well as the reading and arithmetic levels of children in the age group of 6–14 years.

Below Poverty Line (BPL): An economic benchmark and poverty threshold used by the Government of India to indicate economic disadvantage and to identify individuals and households in need of government assistance and aid. It is determined using various parameters which vary from state to state and within states.

Block: Block is a district sub-division in India.

Cent: Unit of measure of land commonly used in southern India and equals 1⁄100 acre (40.468 sq m).

Central Empowered Committee (CEC): Constituted on 17 September 2002 by the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India, the CEC’s broad task is to monitor and ensure the compliance of the orders of the Supreme Court (apex court of India) concerning the subject matter of forests and wildlife and other issues regarding environment.

Crore: Unit in Indian numbering (1 crore=10 million).

Dal: Dhal (also spelled Dahl, Dal, or Daal) is a dish made of lentils commonly eaten in several parts of India.

Dalit: This is a self-designation for a group of people traditionally regarded as low caste. Dalits are a mixed population of numerous caste groups all over South Asia, and speak various languages. The word ‘Dalit’ comes from the Marathi language, and means ‘ground’, ‘suppressed’, ‘crushed’, or ‘broken to pieces’.

Dhaba: Small local restaurants usually found on roadsides and frequented my truck drivers.

District Information System for Education (DISE): Developed as a monitoring tool of the governments flagship education programme, Sarva Siksha Abhiyan, for all the districts of the country.

District: Local administrative units that generally form the tier of local government immediately below that of India's sub-national states and territories.

Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA): In India a major legislative measures for the purpose of environmental clearance was in 1994 when specific notification was issued under the Environment Protection Act 1986 called the ‘Environment Impact Assessment Notification 1994’. The legislation called for the assessment of long term and short term impacts of major projects undertaken and to evaluate beneficial and adverse impacts on the environment.

Fifth Schedule: The Fifth Schedule [under Article 244 (1) of the Constitution of India] essentially provides a historic guarantee to the adivasi people in the country on the right over their lands. The Fifth Schedule deals with the administration and control of specified areas (termed Scheduled Areas) and the adivasis living in these areas.

Free Prior and Informed Consent (FPIC): Exercise of the right to FPIC derives from indigenous peoples’ (tribals/ adivasis) right to self-determination and is closely linked to peoples’ rights to their lands and territories based on the customary and historical connections with them. As most commonly interpreted, the right to FPIC is meant to allow for indigenous peoples to reach consensus and make decisions according to their customary systems of decision-making.

Gram panchayat: Local governments at the village or small town level in India that can be set up in villages with minimum population of 300.

Greenfield area: Term used to describe a piece of previously undeveloped land, in a city or rural area, either currently used for agriculture or landscape design, or just left to nature.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP): A basic measure of a country's overall economic output. It is the market value of all final goods and services made within the borders of a country in a year.

Gutka: Gutka (also spelled gutkha, guttkha, guthka) is a preparation of crushed betel nut, tobacco, catechu, lime and sweet or savory flavorings. It is consumed much like chewing tobacco, and like chewing tobacco it is considered responsible for oral cancer and other severe negative health effects.

Hectare (ha): A unit of area commonly used for measuring land area (1 ha = 10,000 sq m).

Human Development Index (HDI): Composite statistic used as an index to rank countries by level of ‘human development’ combining three dimensions of health, literacy and standard of living.

Infant Mortality Rate (IMR): Number of newborns dying under a year of age divided by the number of live births during the year times 1,000.

Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS): The scheme was launched with the primary objective of improving the nutritional and health status of children in the age group 0–6 years.

Jansankhya Sthirata Kosh: Or the National Population Stabilisation Fund, under the Ministry of Family Health and Welfare, Government of India, the fund aims to promote and undertake activities aimed at achieving population stabilisation at a level consistent with the needs of sustainable economic growth, social development and environment protection, by 2045.

Jowar: Or sorghum, is the major staple food grain crop in many parts of India and is cultivated mostly under rain-fed conditions.

Kaccha: Refers to temporary or not so strong structures.

Kharif: A crop that is the autumn harvest. It is also known as summer or monsoon crop in India and is sown in the beginning of first rains in July.

Lakh: Unit in Indian numbering [10 lakh (1,000,000)=1 million].

Lokayukta: Helps people bring corruption to the fore mainly amongst the politicians and high ranking officers in the government service.

Mahua: Or Madhuca longifoila is an Indian tropical tree of great importance in the life of adivasis. Different parts of the tree have different uses — as food, for medicine and for the preparation of an alcoholic drink.

Main workers: Those workers who had worked for the major part of the reference period (i.e. 6 months or more).

Mandal: Mandal, taluk or tehsil is an administrative level in India below states and districts.

Maoists: Also known as Naxals are an extremist group operating in different states in the country.

Marginal workers: Those workers who had not worked for the major part of the reference period (i.e. less than 6 months).

Mid-day meal: Popular name for school meal programme in India. It involves provision of lunch free of cost to school children on all working days. The key objectives of the programme are: protecting children from classroom hunger, increasing school enrolment and attendance, improved socialisation among children belonging to all castes, addressing malnutrition, and social empowerment through provision of employment to women.

Millennium Development Goal (MDG): These are eight international development goals that all 192 United Nations member states and at least 23 international organisations have agreed to achieve by the year 2015. They include reducing extreme poverty, reducing child mortality rates, fighting disease epidemics such as AIDS, and developing a global partnership for development.

Mini-ratna: The Government of India seeks to make public sector more efficient and competitive by granting enhanced autonomy and delegation of power to make them a consistently profit-making units. By attaining the mini-ratna status, a public sector unit will have certain amount of autonomy with regard to capital expenditure, establishing joint venture companies, entering into Transfer of Technology agreements and implementation of schemes relating to human resources management.

National AIDS Control Organisation (NACO): National organisation that comes under the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, and is concerned with the prevention, care and support on the issue of HIV/AIDS in India.

National Child Labour Project (NCLP): Scheme under the Ministry of Labour and Employment, Government of India that envisages running of special schools for child labour withdrawn from work.

National Family Health Survey (NFHS): A large-scale, multi-round survey conducted in a representative sample of households throughout India. The survey provides state and national information on fertility, infant and child mortality, the practice of family planning, maternal and child health, reproductive health, nutrition, anaemia, utilisation and quality of health and family planning services.

National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 2005 (NREGA): Renamed as the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 2005 it aims at enhancing the livelihood security of people in rural areas by guaranteeing 100 days of wage employment in a financial year to a rural household whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manual work.

National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO): Organisation in the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation of the Government of India that conducts a nationwide, largescale, continuous survey operation in the form of successive rounds.

Other Backward Castes (OBC): In the Indian Constitution, OBCs are described as ‘socially and educationally backward classes’, and the government is enjoined to ensure their social and educational development.

Panchayat Raj (Extension to Scheduled Areas) Act 1996: Progressive legislation passed through the 73 Amendment of the Indian Constitution that paved the way for a separate and progressive legal and administrative regime for genuine adivasi self-rule in Scheduled Areas.

Panchayat: Literally means assembly (yat) of five (panch) wise and respected elders chosen and accepted by the village community. Traditionally, these assemblies settled disputes between individuals and villages.

Parateacher: Covers a wide range of recruitment for teaching in schools and alternative learning centres. In a broad sense, any appointment, that is a deviation from the past practice in any particular state, is referred to as a parateacher. This broadly refers to large number of teachers recruited by the community (though not always), at less than the regular teacher pay scale, for the formal as well as alternative schools, to meet the demand for basic education within the limited financial resource available, in the shortest possible time.

Pattas: Title deeds for lands or houses in India.

Primary Health Centre (PHC): These are the cornerstone of rural healthcare in India that supposed to meet the health care needs of rural populations. Each PHC covers a population of 100,000 and is spread over about 100 villages. A Medical Officer, Block Extension Educator, one female Health Assistant, a compounder, a driver and laboratory technician are assigned to look after each PHC. It is equipped with a jeep and necessary facilities to carry out small surgeries. The PHCs are established and maintained by the state governments.

Public Distribution System (PDS): Facilitates the supply of food grains to the poor at a subsidised price.

Public Information Officer (PIO): Under the RTI Act all government departments must appoint a PIO to whom the applications requesting information are sent. It is the PIO's obligation to provide information to citizens of India who request information under the Act.

Pucca: Refers to permanent and strong structures.

Rat hole mining: Mining done in the form of a long narrow tunnel.

Ration cards: An important part of the PDS in India. On the basis of their economic condition, people can buy goods like food grains, sugar, kerosene, etc. at varying prices, with the help of their ration cards.

Right to Information Act 2005 (RTI): Act that mandates timely response to citizen requests for government information.

Rotis: Unleavened flat bread made from flour.

Rupees (Rs.): Official unit of currency in India.

Sahayak: assistant or helper.

Salwa Judum: Meaning ‘peace march’ in the Gondi language this is the controversial state supported anti-Maoist movement in the state of Chhattisgarh, India.

Samatha Judgement: The judgment given by the Supreme Court of India was the result of Samata’s, a grassroots organisation’s, decade long struggle against mining and protection of adivasis land rights.

Sarpanch: The Sarpanch or Chairperson is the head of the Gram panchayat.

Sarva Siksha Abhiyan: Or the 'Education for All' movement, is a flagship programme of the Government of India for achievement of universalisation of elementary education in a time bound manner.

Scheduled Area: Those regions with a predominantly adivasi population. Scheduled Areas are spread across nine states in India.

Scheduled Caste (SC): Any of the historically disadvantaged Indian castes of low rank, now under government protection. Some Scheduled Castes are also known as dalits.

Scheduled Tribe (ST): Specific indigenous peoples whose status is acknowledged to some formal degree by national legislation in India.

Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act 2006: This Act is a key legislation passed in India and is concerned with the rights of forest-dwelling communities to land and other resources, denied to them over decades.

Sex ratio: Defined as the number of females per 1,000 males in the population. It is expressed as 'number of females per 1000 males'.

Special Economic Zone (SEZ): A geographical region that has economic laws that are more liberal than a country's typical economic laws.

State Domestic Product (SDP): Aggregate of the economic value of all goods and services produced within the geographical boundaries of the state, counted without duplication during a specified period of time, usually a year.

Taluka: see mandal.

Under five mortality: This is the probability of a child born in a specific year or period dying before reaching the age of five, if subject to age specific mortality rates of that period.

Vimukta Jati: Nomadic tribes in India who due to wandering traditions of over hundreds of years without any good means of life under the influence of caste system, were forced to live under sub-human conditions.
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