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Trump White House EXPOSED as PILL-MILL in SHOCKING Report
MeidasTouch
Jan 29, 2024

MeidasTouch host Ben Meiselas reports on the release of the Department of Defense Inspector General report on unlawful prescriptions of hard drugs in the Trump White House and how the White House became a pill-mill under Donald Trump.



Part 1 of 3

https://media.defense.gov/2024/Jan/09/2003373440/-1/-1/1/DODIG-2024-044_REDACTED%20SECURE.PDF

Report No. DODIG‑2024‑044

Inspector General
U.S. Department of Defense
JANUARY 8, 2024

Evaluation of the DoD Internal Controls Related to Patient Eligibility and Pharmaceutical Management Within the National Capital Region Executive Medicine Services

Results in Brief: Evaluation of the DoD Internal Controls Related to Patient Eligibility and Pharmaceutical Management Within the National Capital Region Executive Medicine Services


January 8, 2024

Objective

The objective of this evaluation was to determine the extent to which the DoD implemented appropriate controls for executive medicine services in the DoD’s National Capital Region related to identifying eligible patients and accounting for pharmaceuticals.

Background

In 2018, the DoD Office of Inspector General (DoD OIG) Hotline received complaints alleging that a senior military medical officer assigned to the White House Medical Unit engaged in improper medical practices. Additionally, several of the Hotline complaints were regarding the pharmaceutical practices and eligibility for care of some patients treated at DoD executive medicine facilities within the National Capital Region. In May 2018, the DoD OIG initiated an investigation of the allegations about the White House Medical Unit senior military medical officer.

In September 2019, the DoD OIG announced this evaluation to determine how executive medicine facilities within the National Capital Region, including the White House Medical Unit, implement internal controls to ensure safe pharmaceutical practices and patient eligibility. We conducted site visits to meet with key officials and observe executive medicine eligibility and pharmaceutical management practices. We interviewed over 120 officials, including interviews of hospital administrators, military medical providers, and pharmacists. We analyzed the transcripts of 70 interviews conducted by the DoD OIG Administrative Investigations (AI) Component of former White House Military Office employees who served within the White House between 2009 and 2018. This evaluation incorporates direct quotes from the testimony of these witnesses. We reviewed over 200 documents, including Federal criteria, DoD guidance, military Service policies, MTF internal standard operating procedures, and pharmacy procurement and inventory records.

For this report, we define Executive Medicine as the comprehensive primary and specialized medical care provided to senior military members (active and retired), eligible family members, and Government leaders. National Capital Region executive medicine services consist of services located at the White House Medical Unit Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Fort Belvoir Community Hospital, DiLorenzo TRICARE Health Clinic, Fort McNair Army Health Clinic, and Andrew Rader U.S. Army Health Clinic.

Findings

We concluded that, except for the White House Medical Unit, the National Capital Region executive medicine clinics that we visited did not procure, store, or dispense controlled substances or other prescription medications; rather, they relied on full‑service military treatment facility pharmacies for all pharmaceutical support. The National Capital Region executive medicine clinics relied on full‑service base or post pharmacies for all pharmaceutical support. Additionally, other than the White House Medical Unit, the Joint Commission, an independent-health care accreditation agency, accredited all National Capital Region pharmacy operations, as required by DoD Manual 6025.13.

Conversely, the White House Medical Unit’s pharmaceutical services included the full scope of pharmacy operations, including storage and inventory, prescribing and dispensing, procurement, and disposal, and was not credentialed by any outside agency. We concluded that all phases of the White House Medical Unit’s pharmacy operations had severe and systemic problems due to the unit’s reliance on ineffective internal controls to ensure compliance with pharmacy safety standards. In addition, the Military Health System senior leaders did not oversee the White House Medical Unit’s pharmacy operation. Without oversight from qualified pharmacy staff, the White House Medical Unit’s pharmaceutical management practices may have been subject to prescribing errors and inadequate medication management, increasing the risk to the health and safety of patients treated within the unit. Additionally, the White House Medical Unit’s pharmaceutical management practices ineffectively used DoD funds by obtaining brand‑name medications instead of generic equivalents and increased the risk for the diversion of controlled substances.1 [Diversion is the unlawful distribution or use of prescription medications in any manner not intended by the prescriber.]

We found that the White House Medical Unit provided a wide range of health care and pharmaceutical services to ineligible White House staff in violation of Federal law and regulation and DoD policy. Additionally, the White House Medical Unit dispensed prescription medications, including controlled substances, to ineligible White House staff. In analyzing the testimonies of former White House Military Office employees, we found that White House Medical Unit senior leaders directed eligibility practices that did not comply with DoD guidance. This analysis also found that several former White House Medical Unit military medical providers stated that they were unable to act outside of the White House Medical Unit’s historical practices and that they were not empowered to deny requests from senior White House Medical Unit leaders. Additionally, we found that the White House Medical Unit did not follow DoD guidelines for verifying patient eligibility, and the Defense Health Agency and Service Surgeons General did not oversee the White House Medical Unit’s eligibility practices, as required by Public Law 114‑328, “National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2017,” section 702.

As a result, the Military Health System did not bill non‑DoD beneficiaries for services rendered, and we found that the DoD funded and resourced care for an average of 6 to 20 non‑DoD beneficiary patients per week. Multiple former White House Medical Unit medical providers stated that they requested an early departure from the unit due to the unit’s practices.

Furthermore, we found that the National Capital Region Medical Directorate executive medicine facilities did not have consistent eligibility criteria for determining eligibility or access to care. This occurred because of a lack of oversight of executive medicine services. As a result, medical care was prioritized by seniority rather than medical need, which increased the risk to the health and safety of non‑executive medicine patients.

Recommendations

We recommend that the Director of the Defense Health Agency, in coordination with the White House Medical Unit Director, develop policy and procedures to manage controlled and non‑controlled medications, including, at a minimum, procurement, storage and inventory, prescribing and dispensing, and disposal.

We recommend that the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Health Affairs), in coordination with the Defense Health Agency and the Service Surgeons General, develop a pharmaceutical oversight plan for the White House Medical Unit.

We recommend that the Director of the Defense Health Agency, in coordination with the White House Medical Unit Director, establish controls for White House patient eligibility within the Military Health System.

We recommend that the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Health Affairs), in coordination with the Defense Health Agency Director and the Service Surgeons General, establish an oversight plan for the White House Medical Unit’s eligibility practices.

We recommend that the Defense Health Agency Director develop policy and an oversight plan for executive medicine services. This policy should include eligibility criteria and access to care practices for executive medicine services.

We recommend that the Defense Health Agency Director establish controls for billing and cost recovery for outpatient medical services provided to non‑military senior officials of the U.S. Government, as outlined in the Code of Federal Regulations.

Please see the Recommendations Table on the next page for the status of recommendations.

Management Comments and Our Response

The Assistant Secretary of Defense (Health Affairs) agreed with the recommendations and described the actions they plan to take to address the recommendations. The Assistant Secretary also agreed with the recommendations directed to the DHA Director, on their behalf. The Assistant Secretary’s planned actions meet the intent of the recommendations.

Therefore, the recommendations are resolved and will remain open until we verify that the actions were taken. Please see the Recommendations Table on the next page for the status of recommendations.

Recommendations Table

Management / Recommendations Unresolved / Recommendations Resolved / Recommendations Closed

Assistant Secretary of Defense for Health Affairs / None / A.2.a., A.2.b, A.2.c, A.2.d, A.2.e, B.2 / None

Defense Health Agency Director / None / A.1, A.2.a., A.2.b, A.2.c, A.2.d, A.2.e, B.1, B.2, C.1, C.2 / None


Note: The following categories are used to describe agency management’s comments to individual recommendations.

• Unresolved – Management has not agreed to implement the recommendation or has not proposed actions that will address the recommendation.
• Resolved – Management agreed to implement the recommendation or has proposed actions that will address the underlying finding that generated the recommendation.
• Closed – The DoD OIG verified that the agreed upon corrective actions were implemented.

***

OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL
DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE
4800 MARK CENTER DRIVE
ALEXANDRIA, VIRGINIA 22350‑1500

January 8, 2024

MEMORANDUM FOR ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (HEALTH AFFAIRS) DIRECTOR, DEFENSE HEALTH AGENCY DIRECTOR, WHITE HOUSE MEDICAL UNIT

SUBJECT:
Evaluation of the DoD Internal Controls Related to Patient Eligibility and Pharmaceutical Management Within the National Capital Region Executive Medicine Services (Report No. DODIG‑2024‑044)

This final report provides the results of the DoD Office of Inspector General’s evaluation. We previously provided copies of the draft report and requested written comments on the recommendations. We considered management’s comments on the draft report when preparing the final report. These comments are included in the report.

A draft of this report was under review by the White House Military Office from May 2020 to July 2023. During this time we maintained contact with the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Health Affairs, the Defense Health Agency, and the White House Military Office to provide updates on the status of the report. This final report includes our findings and recommendations.

The Assistant Secretary of Defense (Health Affairs) agreed to address all the recommendations presented in the report; therefore, we consider the recommendations resolved and open. We will close the recommendations when you provide us documentation showing that all agreed‑upon actions to implement the recommendations are completed. Therefore, please provide us your response concerning specific actions in process or completed on the recommendations within 90 days. Send your response to either [DELETE] if classified SECRET.

We appreciate the cooperation and assistance received during the evaluation. If you have any questions, please contact [DELETE]

FOR THE INSPECTOR GENERAL:

Michael J. Roark
Deputy Inspector General for Evaluations

***

Contents

Introduction
Objective ...........1  
Background .....1  
Findings
Finding A. The White House Medical Unit Pharmaceutical Management Practices Did Not Comply with Federal and DoD Guidance ..............6  
The White House Medical Unit Pharmaceutical Management Practices Did Not Comply with Federal and DoD Guidance, While All Other NCR Executive Medicine Clinics’ Pharmaceutical Practices Complied with Federal and DoD Guidance .....8  
The White House Medical Unit Lacked Effective Internal Controls to Ensure Compliance With Safety Standards Throughout Its Pharmaceutical Practices ...22  
Senior Military Health System Leaders Did Not Provide Oversight of the White House Medical Unit’s Pharmacy Operations .........23  
The White House Medical Unit Pharmaceutical Management Practices Increased the Risk to Patient Health and Safety and the Risk of Diversion of Controlled Substances ...25  
Recommendations, Management Comments, and Our Response ......29  
Finding B. The White House Medical Unit Routinely Provided Free Medical Care to Ineligible White House Staff in Violation of Federal Law and DoD Guidance .....31  
The White House Medical Unit Routinely Provided Free Medical Care to Ineligible White House Staff in Violation of Federal Law and DoD Guidance .... 32  
The White House Medical Unit’s Senior Leaders Directed Eligibility Practices That Did Not Comply with DoD Guidance ........37  
The MHS Did Not Bill Ineligible Patients for Services Rendered Within the DoD Health Care System ..........40  
Recommendations, Management Comments, and Our Response .......41  
Finding C. The Defense Health Agency Did Not Establish Policies, Procedures, and Guidance for Executive Medicine Services Within the National Capital Region Medical Directorate ...... 43  
The Defense Health Agency Did Not Establish Policies, Procedures, and Guidance for Executive Medicine Services Within the National Capital Region Medical Directorate ...... 44  
The Military Health System Is at Risk for Expending Resources on Medical Activities Outside of Its Primary Mission ..... 54  
Recommendations, Management Comments, and Our Response ...... 55  
Appendix  
Scope and Methodology ........... 57
Criteria for Executive Medicine ....... 58  
Use of Computer‑Processed Data ......61 
Prior Coverage ........ 6
Management Comments
Assistant Secretary of Defense (Health Affairs)
............ 63  
Acronyms and Abbreviations 64
Glossary ............. 65  

***

Introduction

Objective


The objective of this evaluation was to determine the extent to which the DoD implemented appropriate controls for executive medicine services in the DoD’s National Capital Region (NCR) related to identifying eligible patients and accounting for pharmaceuticals.

Background

In 2018, the DoD Office of Inspector General (DoD OIG) Hotline received complaints alleging that a senior military medical officer assigned to the White House Medical Unit engaged in improper medical practices. Additionally, several Hotline complaints were made regarding the pharmaceutical practices and eligibility for care of some patients treated at DoD executive medicine facilities within the NCR.

In May 2018, the DoD OIG initiated an investigation of the allegations regarding the White House Medical Unit senior military medical officer. Subsequently, in September 2019, the DoD OIG initiated this evaluation to examine how executive medicine facilities within the NCR, including the White House Medical Unit, implemented internal controls to ensure safe pharmaceutical practices and patient eligibility. We interviewed Defense Health Agency (DHA) and National Capital Region Medical Directorate (NCRMD) executive medicine and senior pharmacy officials. We conducted site visits at pharmacies, primary care facilities, and executive medicine facilities at the White House Medical Unit, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Fort Belvoir Community Hospital, DiLorenzo TRICARE Health Clinic, Fort McNair Army Health Clinic, and Andrew Rader U.S. Army Health Clinic. Additionally, we analyzed the transcripts of 70 interviews conducted by DoD OIG Administrative Investigations (AI) team members with former White House Military Office employees who served within the White House between 2009 and 2018. This evaluation incorporates direct quotes from the testimony of these witnesses.

Governance and Administration of Medical Operations Within the National Capital Region

The Military Health System (MHS) is the DoD’s global health system that provides health care services and support to active duty Service members, military retirees, and their eligible family members. The Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Health Affairs (ASD[HA]) manages health policy and budgeting across the Military Health System and directs the activities of the DHA.

In 2013, the Secretary of Defense directed the establishment of the DHA as part of the DoD’s effort to reform the MHS. The DHA supports the delivery of health care services to DoD beneficiaries and integrates clinical and business processes across the MHS. The DHA also manages the TRICARE health care plan, which provides comprehensive medical coverage to uniformed Service members, military retirees, and their families. The DHA develops guidance and regulations, as required, to manage TRICARE and to support the ASD(HA) in administration of all DoD medical and dental programs.

The National Capital Region Medical Directorate (NCRMD) is a directorate of the DHA and manages integrated health care delivery at MTFs within the NCR. The NCRMD exercises authority, direction, and control over Walter Reed National Military Medical Center (Walter Reed), Fort Belvoir Community Hospital, and Walter Reed and Fort Belvoir Community Hospital subordinate clinics, which includes the DiLorenzo TRICARE Health Clinic (DiLorenzo).2 [On January 30, 2020, the DHA disestablished the NCRMD and implemented the National Capital Region Market. The Market Director oversees, manages, and directs all health care delivery of the Military Medical Treatment Facilities and Dental Treatment Facilities in the National Capital Region Market.]

The Army, Navy, and Air Force Surgeons General serve as the principal advisors on all health and medical matters for their respective Services. In addition, the Service Surgeons General serve as medical advisors to the DHA Director on matters pertaining to military health readiness requirements and safety of their Service members.

Executive Medicine Services in the National Capital Region

Executive medicine within the DoD developed out of a need to provide focused medical care for flag and general officers that ensures the availability, security, and confidentiality of health care services for these senior leaders. Although executive medicine is not defined in DoD or MHS guidance, DoD health care officials generally described executive medicine as comprehensive primary and specialized medical care provided to senior Service members (active and retired), eligible family members, and senior Government leaders who are authorized to receive medical care under title 32 of the Code of Federal Regulations. According to DoD health care officials, as their responsibilities increased, senior military officers found themselves with less time and opportunity to tend to their health care needs. Additionally, medical providers stated that the presence of high‑ranking officers at military treatment facilities frequently disrupted medical care provision to the general population. Executive medicine facilities were created to provide coordinated care to accommodate senior leaders’ professional and personal schedules and to allow medical treatment facilities to provide uninterrupted routine medical care to other beneficiaries.

Since 1946, U.S. presidents, Cabinet secretaries, and top military leaders have received private, very important person (VIP) medical treatment within the NCR at either the National Naval Medical Center or the Walter Reed Army Medical Center.3 [In 2011, because of the Base Realignment and Closure Act, the National Naval Medical Center and the Walter Reed Army Medical Center were merged to create the Walter Reed National Military Medical Center.] Franklin Roosevelt was the first President to be seen at the National Naval Medical Center, which would later be known as the “President’s Hospital.” In 1977, a secure facility called the Eisenhower Executive Nursing Unit was established at the Walter Reed Army Medical Center to treat not only the President, but also high‑ranking military and Government officials. Now, these executive medicine services are provided at Walter Reed, Fort Belvoir Community Hospital, DiLorenzo TRICARE Health Clinic, Fort McNair Army Health Clinic, Andrew Rader U.S. Army Health Clinic, and the White House Medical Unit. However, the eligible population has expanded to include family members of active duty flag and general officers, retired flag and general officers and their families, and retired military who are now Senior Executive Service leaders and their families.

Walter Reed National Military Medical Center Executive Medicine

The Walter Reed Executive Medicine Clinic provides personalized health care to senior military and Government leaders, including coordination with other health care providers for preventive and specialty care. Walter Reed does not have written guidance that establishes eligibility for executive medicine services. However, Walter Reed’s official website identified the following categories of Government officials as eligible for its executive medicine services:

• Active duty and retired flag and general officers and their beneficiaries

• Current Senior Executive Service personnel that are retired service members

• Members of the President’s Cabinet

• Members of the U.S. Congress

• U.S. Supreme Court Justices

• The Secretary, Deputy Secretary, and Assistant Secretaries of Defense and the Military Departments

Fort Belvoir Community Hospital Executive Medicine

The Fort Belvoir Community Hospital Executive Medicine Health and Wellness Clinic provides care for “authorized individuals, general officers of the armed services, and their eligible family members.” Fort Belvoir Community Hospital also provides assistance with the specialty referral process and expedites administrative paperwork for its patient population. Fort Belvoir Community Hospital’s eligible population mirrors that of Walter Reed. However, Fort Belvoir Community Hospital Administrative Instruction 6010.03 also designated the following individuals as eligible for its executive medicine services:

• Foreign military flag officers and their family members (including personnel from North Atlantic Treaty Organization members and allied nations with orders);

• the Sergeant Major of the Army, Master Chief Petty Officer of the Navy, Sergeant Major of the Marine Corps, Chief Master Sergeant of the Air Force, Master Chief Petty Officer of the Coast Guard, and their family members; and

• Medal of Honor recipients and their family members.


DiLorenzo TRICARE Health Clinic Executive Medicine

The DiLorenzo Executive Medicine Clinic is a subordinate facility of the Fort Belvoir Community Hospital. The clinic provides care to active duty and retired flag and general officers, current Senior Executive Service personnel that are retired service members, and individuals designated by the Fort Belvoir Community Hospital Director or the DiLorenzo Clinic Director as eligible for care. The clinic also arranges patient referrals with sub‑specialty clinics within the National Capital Region.

Fort McNair and Andrew Rader Executive Medicine

The Director of the National Capital Region Medical Directorate exercises enhanced Multi‑Service Market (eMSM) authorities over both Andrew Rader U.S. Army Health Clinic and Fort McNair Army Health Clinic. Fort McNair Army Health Clinic and Andrew Rader U.S. Army Health Clinic do not operate executive medicine clinics that are separate from the general medical treatment facility; however, both facilities offer specialized primary care services to general officers, flag officers, and their family members. Although the executive medicine patients are part of the general clinic population, they still receive coordinated care to accommodate their professional and personal schedules, similar to those patients who are seen at executive medicine clinics independent from the general treatment facility.

White House Medical Unit

The White House Medical Unit is a Joint Service military unit under the authority of the White House Military Office and was established in the West Wing in 1945. White House Medical Unit staff members are military and DoD civilian employees selected by the Executive Secretary of the Department of Defense. The staff is composed of physicians, physician assistants, nurses, clinical psychologists, administrators, and medics, and has tripled in size over the past 15 years. In 2019, the unit reported 60 medical personnel on staff, up from 20 medical personnel in 2005. White House Medical Unit officials stated that the Navy Bureau of Medicine and Surgery (BUMED) medical policies govern the White House Medical Unit’s medical practices. According to a BUMED historian, “Navy medical personnel have played an integral role in developing the very concept of the White House Medical Unit and defining the field of “Chief Executive Medicine.”4 [Sobocinski, André B., “Ten Curious Facts about Navy Medicine’s Presidential History,” HTTPS://NAVYMEDICINE. NAVYLIVE.DODLIVE.MIL/ARCHIVES/8049, accessed March 10, 2020.]

The White House Medical Unit comprises several medical clinics, including facilities at the Eisenhower Executive Office Building (EEOB), the New Executive Office Building (NEOB), the White House Communications Agency (WHCA), the White House Residence Clinic, the Medical Evaluation and Treatment Team at Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, and travel medicine for official travel. The primary mission of the White House Medical Unit is to complete all mission‑essential tasks related to the health and safety of the President and Vice‑President of the United States. The secondary mission of the White House Medical Unit is to ensure the health and safety of all individuals on the White House 18‑acre compound. The White House Medical Unit Executive Medicine Program provides special medical access to the Presidential Cabinet and Assistants to the President under the Secretarial Designee Program.5 [The Secretarial Designee Program establishes an eligibility for health care services in military treatment facilities for individuals who do not have pre-established eligibility.] Executive medical care consists of annual physicals, preventive medical care, acute medical care, travel medicine, vaccinations, wellness evaluations, pharmaceutical services, diagnostic procedures, and specialty consultation services.

Finding A

The White House Medical Unit Pharmaceutical Management Practices Did Not Comply with Federal and DoD Guidance


We concluded that, except for the White House Medical Unit, the NCR executive medicine clinics that we visited did not procure, store, or dispense controlled substances or other prescription medications. The NCR executive medicine clinics relied on full MTF pharmacies for all pharmaceutical support. These MTF pharmacies were accredited by the Joint Commission, as required by DoD Manual 6025.13.6 [DoD Manual 6025.13, “Medical Quality Assurance and Clinical Quality Management,” October 29, 2013.] Conversely, the White House Medical Unit’s pharmaceutical services, which were not accredited by the Joint Commission or any other outside agency, included the full scope of pharmacy operations, consisting of storage and inventory, prescribing and dispensing, procurement, and disposal. Additionally, we found that all phases of the White House Medical Unit’s pharmacy operations had severe and systemic problems. Specifically, we concluded that the White House Medical Unit implemented:

• Storage and inventory processes that were ineffective. In our analysis of the White House Medical Unit’s controlled substance records, we found that medications, such as opioids and sleep medications, were not properly accounted for, in violation of title 21 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) section 1304.22 (2019).7 [Unit doses include tablets, vials, patches, and lozenges.] In addition, the White House Medical Unit used handwritten records to track the inventory of controlled substances. These records frequently contained errors in the medication counts, illegible text, or crossed out text that was not appropriately annotated.

• Prescribing practices that did not comply with the Code of Federal Regulations and Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) policy, 21 CFR sec. 1306 (2019).8 [Title 21, chapter 2 of the Code of Federal Regulations establishes the roles and responsibilities of the DEA in the manufacture and distribution of controlled substances.] White House Medical Unit medical providers wrote prescriptions for controlled substances that often lacked the medical provider and patient information mandated by DEA policy.

• Dispensing practices that did not comply with Navy Manual of the Medical Department, NAVMED P‑117. NAVMED P‑117 requires that prescriptions be filled only for eligible beneficiaries with a valid identification check, and the guidance prohibits dispensing over the counter medications, such as Tylenol and cold medications, without a prescription. The White House Medical Unit dispensed non‑emergency controlled medications, such as Ambien and Provigil, without verifying the patient’s identity.9 [Ambien is a sedative medication used to treat insomnia, and Provigil is a stimulant medication used to promote wakefulness.] The White House Medical Unit also left over‑the‑counter medications in open bins for patient retrieval and use.

• Medication procurement practices that did not comply with 32 CFR sec. 199.21 (2019), which establishes requirements for the TRICARE Pharmacy Benefits Program. The regulation states that the “pharmacy benefits program generally requires mandatory substitution of generic drugs … for brand name drugs.” The White House Medical Unit routinely requested brand‑name drugs rather than generic equivalents when ordering controlled substances from Walter Reed. For example, over a 3‑year period, the White House Medical Unit spent an estimated $46,500 for brand name Ambien, which is 174 times more expensive than the generic equivalent. Over the same period, the White House Medical Unit also spent an estimated $98,000 for brand name Provigil, which is 55 times more expensive than the generic equivalent.

• Medication disposal practices that did not comply with Federal and Service policy. For example, 21 CFR Part 1317 (2019) requires the use of a reverse distributor, or on‑site destruction of controlled substances that renders the medication non‑retrievable. When disposing of controlled substances, the White House Medical Unit did not employ a reverse distributor or render the medications non‑retrievable, as required by the CFR. Additionally, the White House Medical Unit improperly disposed of both controlled and non‑controlled substances in sharps containers, which violates Service guidance.10 [Sharps containers are rigid, leak-proof plastic containers used to dispose of medical sharps, such as needles and syringes.] The Navy Pharmacy Advisory Board prohibits the disposal of medication in sharps containers and requires the use of specific pharmaceutical waste containers for medication disposal.

We concluded that these problems occurred because White House Medical Unit officials did not consider their operations to be a pharmacy and, therefore, relied on internal White House Medical Unit controls to ensure compliance with safety standards throughout its pharmaceutical practices. We concluded that the White House Medical Unit’s internal controls were ineffective. In addition, senior officials at the DHA and the Service Surgeons General stated that they did not provide oversight of the White House Medical Unit’s pharmacy operations and did not establish which organization would exercise primary authority for oversight of the White House Medical Unit.

Without oversight from qualified pharmacy staff, the White House Medical Unit’s pharmaceutical management practices might have been subject to prescribing errors. Additionally, the White House Medical Unit’s practices demonstrated inadequate medication management and increased risk to the health and safety of patients treated within the unit. Additionally, the White House Medical Unit’s pharmaceutical management practices ineffectively used DoD funds to purchase brand‑name medications instead of generic equivalents; this increased the risk for the diversion of controlled substances by not accounting for them appropriately.11 [Diversion is the unlawful distribution or use of prescription medications in any manner not intended by the prescriber.]

The White House Medical Unit Pharmaceutical Management Practices Did Not Comply with Federal and DoD Guidance, While All Other NCR Executive Medicine Clinics’ Pharmaceutical Practices Complied with Federal and DoD Guidance

We concluded that, except for the White House Medical Unit, the NCR executive medicine clinics did not procure, store, or dispense controlled substances or other prescription medications; rather, they relied on full‑service MTF pharmacies for all pharmaceutical support. We interviewed DHA and NCR executive medicine and senior pharmacy officials, and we conducted site visits at pharmacies, primary care facilities, and executive medicine facilities at the White House Medical Unit, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Fort Belvoir Community Hospital, DiLorenzo TRICARE Health Clinic, Fort McNair Army Health Clinic, and Andrew Rader U.S. Army Health Clinic. We found that full‑service MTF pharmacies provided all pharmaceutical support for the NCR executive medicine clinics, except the White House Medical Unit. Additionally, executive medicine clinics had limited stocks of pharmaceutical medication stored within their local electronic medication storage units. The MTF pharmacy maintained responsibility for inventorying all medications in the local electronic medication storage units. None of the executive medicine clinics stored controlled medications within the clinic. Executive medicine providers stated that they never fill prescriptions within the clinic; rather, all prescriptions for medications were entered into the patient’s official electronic medical record. Executive medicine patients were required to retrieve their medication at the MTF pharmacy. With the exception of the WHMU’s pharmaceutical operations, the Joint Commission accredited all NCR pharmacy operations, as required by DoD Manual 6025.13.12 [DoD Manual 6025.13, “Medical Quality Assurance and Clinical Quality Management,” October 29, 2013.]

On the other hand, the White House Medical Unit’s pharmaceutical services included the full scope of pharmacy operations, which includes storage and inventory, prescribing and dispensing, procurement, and disposal. The White House Medical Unit’s clinical and pharmaceutical operations were not credentialed by an outside agency. We concluded that all phases of the White House Medical Unit’s pharmacy operations had severe and systemic problems due to the unit’s reliance on ineffective internal controls to ensure compliance with pharmacy safety standards. In addition, senior officials at the DHA and the Offices of the Service Surgeons General did not provide oversight of the White House Medical Unit’s pharmacy operations, as required by Public Law 114‑328, “National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2017,” section 702.

The White House Medical Unit’s Internal Controls for Pharmacy Operations Did Not Comply with Federal and DoD Guidelines

The White House Medical Unit conducted pharmacy operations with internal controls that did not comply with Federal Regulations and DoD guidelines. We interviewed White House Medical Unit senior leaders, reviewed White House Medical Unit’s pharmacy operations policy and records, and conducted site visits at the White House Medical Unit’s Eisenhower Executive Office Building, New Executive Office Building, and White House Communication Agency clinics. White House Medical Unit officials emphasized that the White House Medical Unit does not operate a true pharmacy, stating that the unit does not handle a large enough volume of pharmaceuticals to qualify as a pharmacy or to require a full time pharmacist. We did not find DoD guidance that outlines the volume of pharmaceutical services that would require a full time pharmacist. However, we concluded that while the White House Medical Unit may be performing a smaller number of pharmaceutical tasks, those tasks entail the full universe of pharmaceutical operations. During our site visits, we observed White House Medical Unit staff performing tasks customarily associated with those of a pharmacy, such as ordering and storing a variety of prescription and non‑prescription medications and dispensing medications to patients in conventional, amber‑colored pill bottles that were marked “White House Medical Unit” (see Figure 1). Additionally, at the WHCA clinic, we observed a sign that read “Pharmacy” outside a room housing the MedSelect unit.

Although the DoD does not define the term “pharmacy” in any of its published guidance, we concluded that White House Medical Unit’s pharmaceutical operations sufficiently resembled those of a traditional pharmacy, and we evaluated them against pharmaceutical‑related DoD policies and Federal regulations. Our analysis of White House Medical Unit pharmaceutical operations showed that the White House Medical Unit implemented:

• storage and inventory processes that were ineffective;

• prescribing practices that did not comply with the Code of Federal Regulations and DEA policy, 21 CFR sec. 1306 (2019), to include specific patient and provider information;

• dispensing practices that did not comply with Service guidance to maintain records of medications dispensed and to restrict access to over‑the‑counter medications;

• medication procurement practices that did not comply with TRICARE policy to purchase generic medications when available; and

• medication disposal practices that did not comply with Federal and Navy policies to either use the services of a reverse distributor or to render the medications non‑retrievable.

Additionally, White House Medical Unit officials stated that the unit receives its funding from the Navy Bureau of Medicine and Surgery (BUMED) and that BUMED policies govern White House Medical Unit practices. Therefore, we also applied relevant Navy policy and guidance to our evaluation of White House Medical Unit operations.

[x]
Figure 1. White House Medical Unit Pill Bottle Source: The DoD OIG.

The White House Medical Unit Implemented Storage and Inventory Processes That Were Not Effective

The White House Medical Unit operated a pharmacy with storage and inventory processes that did not comply with Federal Regulations and DoD guidelines for pharmacy operations. We examined records and storage of medications, including controlled substance medications, at the White House Medical Unit. Controlled prescription medications (controlled substances) are a special class of drugs regulated by the DEA under the authority of the Controlled Substances Act.13 [Public Law 91-513, “Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970,” October 27, 1970.] All legitimate handlers of controlled substances (such as manufacturers, distributors, physicians, pharmacies, and researchers) must be registered with the DEA (as was the White House Medical Unit) and maintain strict accounting for all distributions.

SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES

The Controlled Substances Act regulates five classes of drugs: narcotics (opioids), depressants, stimulants, hallucinogens, and anabolic steroids.14 [The DEA assigns the same meaning to the terms “narcotic” and “opioid;” for this evaluation, we use the term “opioid.”] The Act places these drugs into one of five schedules (I, II, III, IV, and V) based on the drug’s medical use, potential for abuse, and potential for physical or psychological dependence:

• Schedule I: These drugs have a high potential for abuse and no currently accepted medical treatment use in the United States.

• Schedule II: These drugs have a high potential for abuse that may lead to severe psychological or physical dependence. They have an accepted medical treatment use in the United States with severe restrictions. Schedule II includes opioid pain medications.

• Schedule III: These drugs have a potential for abuse less than those drugs in Schedules I and II and may lead to moderate psychological or physical dependence. They have an accepted medical treatment use in the United States.

• Schedules IV and V: These drugs have a low potential for abuse and may lead to limited psychological or physical dependence. They have an accepted medical treatment use in the United States.

TYPES OF MEDICATIONS MAINTAINED AT THE WHITE HOUSE MEDICAL UNIT

We visited three clinics at White House offices in the NCR that store prescription medications: The Eisenhower Executive Office Building (EEOB), the New Executive Office Building (NEOB), and the White House Communication Agency (WHCA). White House Medical Unit officials stated that the EEOB clinic served as the central facility for receipt and storage of White House Medical Unit’s inventory of non‑prescription and prescription medications. White House Medical Unit staff distributed controlled substances from the EEOB to all other White House Medical Unit clinics. Some examples of non‑prescription medications in the White House Medical Unit’s standard inventory supply include allergy, pain relief, and cold and flu medications. Prescription medications are classified as either non‑controlled or controlled medications. Non‑controlled prescription medications include antibiotic, anti‑inflammatory, and asthma medications.

FEDERAL RECORD‑KEEPING REQUIREMENTS FOR CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES

The Code of Federal Regulations requires that all persons who manufacture, distribute, or dispense controlled substances obtain a registration number from the DEA. These registration numbers allow the DEA to trace controlled substances from initial manufacture through final dispensing to the patient. The CFR also requires that registered pharmacies maintain inventories and records of Schedule II controlled substances separately from all other pharmacy records.15 [21 CFR SEC. 1304.04 (2019).] DEA registrants must also maintain an inventory record that lists the number of controlled substance units distributed or disposed of, including the date and manner of distribution or disposal.

On September 24, 2019, we sent a request for information to Walter Reed and White House Medical Unit officials for five years of data (January 1, 2014, through December 31, 2018) related to the ordering, storing, dispensing, and accounting for controlled medications. White House Medical Unit officials stated that the unit only maintains pharmaceutical records for two years and provided us with data from 2017 to 2019. Walter Reed Pharmacy also provided us with the White House Medical Unit’s controlled substance requisition records from 2017 to 2019. Additionally, in January 2020, we requested that NCRMD pharmacy officials provide five years of data (January 1, 2014, through December 31, 2018) on all medications obtained under the White House Medical Unit’s DEA number. NCRMD pharmacy officials stated that, due to system limitations, they were only able to provide two years of data (February 2018 to February 2020) from a DoD pharmaceutical supplier.

We used data provided by the NCRMD, Walter Reed, and the White House Medical Unit to generate a list of all medications ordered by the White House Medical Unit. We also used tracking forms provided by the White House Medical Unit to generate a list of all controlled substances received from Walter Reed Pharmacy. We also used inventory forms provided by the White House Medical Unit to generate a list of controlled substances that the White House Medical Unit dispensed or disposed of. We then analyzed these lists to assess the White House Medical Unit’s controlled substance inventory tracking process and the accuracy of its inventory records.

The Code of Federal Regulations requires that registered pharmacies maintain inventories and records of Schedule II controlled substances separately from all other pharmacy records.16 [21 CFR sec. 1304.04 (2019).] In our site visit to the EEOB Clinic, we concluded that the clinic maintained the controlled substance inventory records in a binder on hand‑written paper logs, stored in the EEOB clinic’s medication dispensing area. The inventory records showed that White House Medical Unit stocked four different types of Schedule II opioid pain medications (fentanyl, hydrocodone, morphine, and oxycodone), as well as medications from Schedules III through V, such as stimulants and sedatives. However, White House Medical Unit kept the records for its Schedule II medications in the EEOB’s inventory binder together with records for all other controlled medications and not maintained separately as required by the CFR.

The Code of Federal Regulations also requires that registrants’ inventory records list the number of controlled substance units distributed or disposed of, including the date and manner of distribution or disposal.17 [21 CFR sec. 1304.22 (2019).] White House Medical Unit staff used a medication receipt log, called CSIB (Controlled Substance Inventory Board) Receipt Tracking, to record the receipt of controlled substance orders at the EEOB. The receipt log records the number of medication units ordered and the number of medication units actually received. They also used an inventory log, called the Narcotic and Controlled Drug Account Record (NAVMED form), to track each controlled substance order by unit.18 [NAVMED Form 6710/1, “Narcotic and Controlled Drug Account Record”, January 2002.] The inventory log records the number of medication units dispensed to patients, distributed to other White House Medical Unit clinics, or disposed of, accounting for the total number of units received.

In our analysis of White House Medical Unit’s inventory records, we concluded that White House Medical Unit’s controlled substance records did not accurately reflect the unit’s procurement, inventory, or disposal of controlled substances.

As shown in the White House Medical Unit Controlled Substance Requisition form (Figure 2) and the White House Medical Unit Controlled Substance Receipt Tracking form (Figure 3), the White House Medical Unit’s hand‑written inventory logs frequently contained errors in the medication counts, illegible text, or crossed out text that was not appropriately annotated, making it hard to accurately track the disposition of controlled substances. A DHA pharmacy official also stated that the DHA did not have oversight of the controlled medications that Walter Reed supplied to the White House Medical Unit.


[x]
Figure 2. Sample of the White House Medical Unit Controlled Substance Requisition Form Source: White House Medical Unit.[/b]

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[i]Figure 3. Sample of the White House Medical Unit Controlled Substance Receipt Tracking Form Source: White House Medical Unit.


We observed that each White House Medical Unit clinic used an automated medication dispensing cabinet called MedSelect to store both controlled and non‑controlled medications, with the two types of medications stored in separate modules of the dispensing cabinet. At the three clinics, we observed the process for retrieving non‑controlled medications from the MedSelect, as well as the process for dispensing medications to patients. We observed the retrieval process for controlled medications only at the EEOB clinic, as White House Medical Unit officials stated that they did not store or distribute controlled medications at the NEOB and WHCA clinics. However, we could not verify the contents of the controlled substance module in the MedSelect at the NEOB or the WHCA. This was because officials at the WHCA clinic stated that staff were unable to open the controlled medication storage drawers and stated that the drawers were empty.

The White House Medical Unit Implemented Prescribing Practices That Did Not Comply with the Code of Federal Regulations and DEA Policy

The White House Medical Unit providers’ prescribing practices did not comply with the Code of Federal Regulations and DEA policy. We reviewed White House Medical Unit guidance on prescribing practices, DEA requirements for written prescriptions, and White House Medical Unit prescriptions. DEA policy requires that prescriptions for controlled substances contain the patient’s full name and address, as well as the name, address, and DEA registration number of the prescribing practitioner. The DEA policy also states that practitioners serving in the U.S. military must state their Service branch on controlled substance prescriptions as well as their Service identification number instead of a DEA registration number.

We concluded that the White House Medical Unit’s internal policy for controlled substance prescriptions was insufficient to meet the DEA requirements for controlled substance prescriptions, omitting the requirements for patient address and practitioner address, branch of Service, and Service identification number. We requested examples of White House Medical Unit provider prescriptions, and White House Medical Unit officials provided us with 11 examples of controlled substance prescriptions. We concluded that none of the prescriptions met all the DEA requirements for written prescriptions nor did they meet the requirements of White House Medical Unit’s Controlled Substances Inventory and Management Policy.19 [WHMU SOP 20-08, “Controlled Substances Inventory and Management Policy,” August 30, 2019.] In particular, the provider’s full name, address, Service branch, and Service identification number were missing from the prescriptions we reviewed.


White House Medical Unit officials redacted all patient information on the prescription examples they provided, so we were unable to determine whether the prescriptions met the DEA’s patient‑specific information requirements. Figure 4 demonstrates three examples of prescriptions for controlled substances that are missing information required by the DEA. The first example is missing the date and patient’s address, the second example is missing all of the provider’s information except the signature, and the third example is missing the provider’s address and DEA or Service number.

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Figure 4. Samples of White House Medical Unit Controlled Substance Prescriptions Source: White House Medical Unit.

The White House Medical Unit Implemented Dispensing Practices That Did Not Comply with Service Guidance

We concluded that the White House Medical Unit dispensed non‑emergency controlled medications, such as Ambien and Provigil, without verifying the patient’s identity. The White House Medical Unit senior leaders stated that the White House Medical Unit provided pharmaceutical support for travelers on White House official travel. This included the dispensing of controlled substances, such as Ambien and Provigil. In our review of the White House Medical Unit’s controlled substance disposition forms, we concluded that the White House Medical Unit also dispensed Schedule II and Schedule III controlled substances, which were generally outside the scope of outpatient care.

At the EEOB and WHCA clinics, we observed several self‑service, open‑access containers offering a limited selection of common over‑the‑counter medications, such as Motrin, Pepto‑Bismol, or cough drops. Patients and staff at these clinics retrieve the over‑the‑counter (OTC) medications as needed, without cost and without being seen by a medical provider. However, the Navy Manual of the Medical Department expressly prohibits this practice.

Under no circumstances will a patient be authorized to select their own medications. A health care screener (Hospital Corpsman that has completed the sick call screener course or nurse) must either assess a patient’s symptoms, select the appropriate item(s) on the approved list, and send the list with the patient to the pharmacy, or refer the patient for more definitive care.20 [NAVMED P-117, “Manual of the Medical Department U.S. Navy”, Change 163, March 5, 2018.]


As part of this evaluation, we analyzed the transcripts of 70 DoD OIG AI team interviews with DoD staff assigned to the White House Military Office between 2009 and 2018. This evaluation incorporates direct quotes from the testimony of these witnesses. The DoD OIG AI team interviewed former White House Medical Unit medical staff members who had direct responsibility for dispensing prescription medications. Several of these former staff members expressed concerns about the White House Medical Unit’s policies and procedures pertaining to the distribution of prescription medications. The following are examples of the responses from these witnesses that illustrate that the White House Medical Unit’s medication dispensing practices did not comply with military guidance.

Witness #1: Anything that took place at the White House Clinic was never written down, never recorded. [However,] the only record that you ever had that a patient came in and got any sort of medication would have been if it was a controlled substance that we were required to document for the pharmacy. But if you came in and got any other prescription medication that wasn’t classified as a controlled substance there would be no record that you came in and did anything.

Witness #2: So, traditionally, we would ‑‑ as part of the duty there in the President’s clinic, we would go ahead and make prepacks of medications. . . . Well, before we would get ready for a big overseas trip, one of our requirements was to go ahead and make packets up for the controlled medications. And those would typically be Ambien or Provigil and typically both, right. So we would normally make these packets of Ambien and Provigil, and a lot of times they’d be in like five tablets in a zip‑lock bag. And so traditionally, too, we would hand these out. . . . But a lot of times the senior staff would come by or their staff representatives . . . would come by the residence clinic to pick it up. And it was very much a, hey, I’m here to pick this up for Ms. X. And the expectation was we just go ahead and pass it out.

Witness #3: Dr. [X] asked if I could hook up this person with some Provigil as a parting gift for leaving the White House. And at the time, the corpsmen and the medics, the enlisted corpsmen and the medics, it was okay for us to dispense Provigil and Ambien without having a provider present. I’m not sure if it was okay as far as, like, what’s medically allowed. But in the unit, it was authorized for us to do that kind of stuff.
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The White House Medical Unit Implemented Medication Procurement Practices Did Not Comply with TRICARE Pharmacy Requirements or White House Medical Unit’s Internal Policy

The White House Medical Unit medication procurement practices did not comply with TRICARE Pharmacy requirements or the White House Medical Unit’s internal policy. We examined records of White House Medical Unit medication procurement practices and policies. TRICARE policy in the Code of Federal Regulations governs the pharmacy benefits program and “generally requires” that military pharmacies use generic medications to reduce the cost to the DoD.21 [32 CFR sec. 199.21 (2019).] Moreover, TRICARE’s generic drug policy states that brand‑name drugs with a generic equivalent may be dispensed only after the prescribing provider completes a clinical assessment indicating the necessity of the brand‑name drug. The TRICARE policy also states that brand‑name drugs may be dispensed if TRICARE determines that they are a better value than their generic equivalents.

However, from 2017 to 2019, the White House Medical Unit’s controlled substance requisition forms showed regular requests for medication orders to be filled using brand name drugs instead of generic equivalents. We analyzed all medications from the White House Medical Unit’s controlled substance requisition forms that specified name brand medication in the request. We concluded that, over a 3‑year period, the White House Medical Unit spent an estimated $46,500 for brand name Ambien, which is 174 times more expensive than the generic equivalent. Over the same period, the White House Medical Unit also spent an estimated $98,000 for brand name Provigil, which is 55 times more expensive than the generic equivalent. White House Medical Unit officials explained that their patients prefer using the brand name drugs Ambien, Provigil, and Sonata, which were specifically requested in the White House Medical Unit’s controlled substance orders from Walter Reed.22 [Sonata is a sedative medication used to treat insomnia.] The team observed that the MedSelect units at the NEOB and WHCA clinics also stocked brand name, non‑controlled medications rather than generic equivalents.

Table 1. Generic and Brand Name Medication Costs for Select Controlled Substances Ordered by the White House Medical Unit

Medication / Total Count of Unit Doses / Unit Dose Cost of Name Brand / Total Cost of Name Brand Paid by the White House Medical Unit / Unit Dose Cost of Generic Equivalent / Total Cost of Generic Equivalent

2017

Ambien 5mg & 10 mg / 4,200 / $5.22 / $21,924.00 / $.03 / $126.00
Provigil 100 mg / 1,150 / $23.46 / $26,979.00 / $.43 / $494.50
2018
Ambien 5mg & 10 mg / 2,700 / $5.22 / $14,094.00 / $.03 / $81.00
Provigil 100 mg / 750 / $23.46 / $17,595.00 .43 / $322.50
2019
Ambien 5mg & 10 mg / 2,000 / $5.22 / $10,440.00 / $.03 / $60.00
Provigil 100 mg / 2,280 / $23.46 / $53,488.80 / $.43 / $980.40

Source: The DoD OIG, using data from Walter Reed National Military Medical Center.

We requested all controlled substance procurement records for the White House Medical Unit from 2014 to 2018. White House Medical Unit officials stated that the unit only maintains records for two years and provided us with controlled substance requisition requests from 2017 to 2019. The requisition requests showed the controlled medications that the White House Medical Unit requested from Walter Reed Pharmacy.

The White House Medical Unit’s controlled substance policy states that the working stock custodian at the EEOB is responsible for the procurement and receipt of controlled substances, which are then distributed to White House Medical Unit’s satellite locations.23 [The working stock custodian is responsible for the management and accountability of the entire controlled substance inventory of the White House Medical Unit.] A review of White House Medical Unit’s controlled substance requisition forms, however, showed that White House Medical Unit providers other than the working stock custodian at the EEOB were ordering controlled substances. Between January 2017 and October 2019, providers assigned to the Medical Evaluation and Treatment Team (one of White House Medical Unit’s satellite locations) submitted 24 controlled substance requests directly to Walter Reed, bypassing the working stock custodian. These requests included orders for four Schedule II medications that were not stocked in the EEOB’s standard inventory supply. White House Medical Unit’s controlled substance policy also states that the “White House Medical Unit will only maintain a ‘working stock’ of controlled substances.” However, White House Medical Unit officials stated that the White House Medical Unit did not have guidance for establishing minimum inventory levels for controlled substances and that inventory levels are determined at the medical providers’ discretion.

The White House Medical Unit Medication Disposal Practices Did Not Comply with Federal and Navy Policy

The White House Medical Unit medication disposal practices did not comply with Federal and Service policy. We examined White House Medical Unit medication disposal policies and practices. DEA policy for the disposal of controlled substances identifies on‑site destruction and reverse distribution as approved disposal methods.24 [21 CFR part 1317 (2019).] While DEA policy does not require a particular method of destruction, any method used must render the controlled substance “non‑retrievable.” The DEA policy defines these disposal methods as follows:

• “Non‑retrievable” means permanently altering a controlled substance’s physical or chemical condition through irreversible means, thereby rendering the controlled substance unavailable and preventing diversion of any such substance for illicit purposes.

• “Reverse distribution” means transferring controlled substances to a DEA‑registered reverse distributor for returning them to the manufacturer or for destruction.

Pharmacy policies from the DHA, the Services, and other medical treatment facilities (MTFs) within the NCR identify reverse distribution as the required method of disposal for controlled substances. However, White House Medical Unit officials stated that they do not use reverse distribution to dispose of their expired controlled substances because of the strict security requirements for access to the White House Medical Unit facility.

White House Medical Unit’s policy on the management of controlled substances states that expired or contaminated controlled substances will not be returned to the clinic stock and will be “properly” disposed of. Further review of the policy, though, did not include any additional references to medication disposal or the definition of proper disposal. White House Medical Unit officials stated that the clinic’s expired controlled substances are disposed of in sharps containers and that this method meets the DEA requirement of rendering the medication non‑retrievable.

The disposal of controlled substances in sharps containers does not meet the DEA requirement for rendering a substance non‑retrievable through the permanent alteration of its physical or chemical condition through irreversible means. Additionally, Navy pharmacy guidance on medical waste disposal guidelines specifically states that “No medications” are to be disposed of in sharps containers (see Figure 5).

White House Medical Unit officials stated that, when full, the sharps containers holding the expired controlled substances are transferred to Walter Reed for disposal; however, an analysis of White House Medical Unit’s tracking and inventory records showed that White House Medical Unit did not consistently document this process. Walter Reed Pharmacy officials stated that they do not support White House Medical Unit with medication disposal. Walter Reed’s Biohazardous Waste officials stated that they do not dispose of pharmaceutical waste. These officials stated that disposal of pharmaceutical medications and controlled substances require different controls than all other biohazardous waste. The same officials at Walter Reed stated that the White House Medical Unit is responsible for ensuring that pharmaceutical waste is sorted by type into color‑coded pharmaceutical waste bins and properly disposed of.

Figure 5. Navy Pharmacy Guidance on Medical Waste Disposal Guidelines Source: Navy Pharmacy Advisory Board-March 2018.

CLEAR (TRASH BAGS) / SHARPS / BIOHAZARDOUS WASTE / NON-REGULATED PHARMACEUTICAL WASTE

• Empty IV bags / • Needles / • Bloody tubing / • Waste medications
• IV tubing / • Blades / • Any material capable of releasing blood or other potentially infectious materials / • Dropped or Refused tablets, capsules, vials, syringes
• Urinals / • Catheters
• Bedpans / • Broken and empty ampules
• Diapers / • No medications
• Tissues
• Paper towels


The White House Medical Unit Lacked Effective Internal Controls to Ensure Compliance With Safety Standards Throughout Its Pharmaceutical Practices

We concluded that White House Medical Unit pharmaceutical management practices did not comply with Federal and DoD guidance. White House Medical Unit officials stated that, because the White House Medical Unit does not operate a pharmacy, Federal and DoD pharmacy standards do not apply to the unit’s pharmaceutical operations. Instead, the White House Medical Unit relied on internal quality control mechanisms to ensure compliance with safety standards throughout its pharmaceutical practices. However, we discovered that the unit did not follow its own internal control policies.

White House Medical Unit senior leaders told us that they did not establish internal controls for non‑controlled pharmaceutical medications. However, the White House Medical Unit’s Controlled Substances Inventory and Management Policy outlines the unit’s internal controls for each phase of pharmaceutical operations involving controlled substances:

• Storage and inventory: The Controlled Substances Inventory and Management Policy states that the White House Medical Unit will only maintain a working stock of controlled substances; however, the working stock level is not defined. White House Medical Unit officials stated that they attempt to maintain a minimal inventory of controlled substances, but they also stated that most medications stocked are not used and are disposed of due to expiration.

• Prescribing and dispensing: The Controlled Substances Inventory and Management Policy requires that all controlled substance prescriptions contain specific patient and provider information; however, in our review of sample prescriptions, the required information was missing. The policy also states that the individual requesting (prescribing) a controlled substance will not be the same individual dispensing the medication. However, when reviewing White House Medical Unit’s controlled substance inventory records, we frequently found that the same individual would both prescribe and dispense controlled substances to patients.

• Procurement: The Controlled Substances Inventory and Management Policy requires that the ordering and receipt of controlled substances be performed by different individuals. However, in our review of White House Medical Unit’s controlled substance receipt records, we noted several instances in which the same individual was responsible for both ordering and receiving medications.

• Disposal: The Controlled Substances Inventory and Management Policy states that expired or contaminated controlled substances will be properly disposed of; however, the disposal process is not explained. We asked White House Medical Unit officials about the proper disposal of controlled substances; however, White House Medical Unit officials identified internal controls that did not comply with federal and Navy guidelines.

DoD Manual 6025.13 requires that all MTFs maintain the standards of appropriate external accrediting bodies. An MTF is an inpatient or outpatient facility established for furnishing medical and dental care to eligible individuals. White House Medical Unit officials stated that the White House has a “unique mission”. White House Medical Unit officials also stated that it was their belief that the White House Medical Unit is not required to maintain external accreditation because the White House Medical Unit is an operational medical unit.25 [Accreditation allows health care institutions to demonstrate their ability to meet regulatory requirements and standards established by an organization with recognized standard-setting authority.] We discovered that, at times, that unit’s functions were similar to a military treatment facility, and, at other times, the unit’s functions were similar to an operational unit. While DoDM 6025.13 does exempt operational health care units from the accreditation requirement, the White House Medical Unit is not an operational health care unit as defined in the manual. According to DoDM 6025.13, operational health care units are “[t]hose deployable units that while at home station are treating only active duty personnel and Reserve Component members on duty status and not a component of an accredited MTF.”26 [DoD Manual 6025.13, “Medical Quality Assurance and Clinical Quality Management,” October 29, 2013.] The White House Medical Unit does not limit its treatment to active duty and reserve military members, although the majority of patients treated at the WHMU are civilians.

Senior Military Health System Leaders Did Not Provide Oversight of the White House Medical Unit’s Pharmacy Operations

We also found that the DHA did not establish authority over the White House Medical Unit. Therefore, the unit lacked oversight of its clinical and pharmaceutical operations. Public Law 114‑328, “National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2017,” section 702, requires that the DHA provide policy and oversight for the administration of military MTFs.

Senior MHS leaders that we interviewed stated that the White House Medical Unit’s clinical and pharmaceutical operations lacked oversight by the MHS. Specifically, these senior leaders were unable to identify the MHS component that was responsible for oversight of the White House Medical Unit:

• Navy Surgeon General: The Navy Surgeon General and senior officials at BUMED stated that the White House Medical Unit is not a Navy facility and that DHA and Walter Reed are responsible for clinical oversight of the White House Medical Unit. Senior BUMED Navy officials also stated that, although BUMED and the Navy Surgeon General provide administrative oversight of the White House Medical Unit, neither office provides oversight of the White House Medical Unit’s pharmacy operations.

• DHA: Senior officials at the DHA stated that the White House Medical Unit had no clear line of oversight and that the DHS does not have purview over the White House Medical Unit’s clinical activities. The White House Medical Unit did not appear in DHA tracking records nor was it recognized as a subordinate unit to any MHS facility.27 [Defense Medical Information System identification numbers are used throughout the MHS to identify DoD medical facilities. As of March 2020, a review of these medical facility identification numbers on the MHS website did not include the White House Medical Unit.] Additionally, according to the DHA Chief of Pharmacy Operations Division, the DHA did not have a role within the White House Medical Unit and did not provide pharmacy oversight of the White House Medical Unit.

• NCRMD: Senior officials at the NCRMD stated that the White House Medical Unit reports to the White House Military Office. NCRMD officials also stated that the White House Medical Unit is not part of Walter Reed or Fort Belvoir Community Hospital and does not fall under a military MTF.

• Walter Reed: Senior officials at Walter Reed Pharmacy Operations stated that Walter Reed supports the White House Medical Unit by providing the unit with pharmaceutical supplies. However, senior officials at Water Reed stated that Walter Reed Pharmacy Operations has no oversight of White House Medical Unit operations or its pharmacy management practices.

• White House Medical Unit: Senior officials at the White House Medical Unit stated that the White House Medical Unit falls under the military authority of the White House Military Office and that the unit’s practices are governed by Navy policies. They also stated that Walter Reed does not have clinical authority over the White House Medical Unit and that no formal relationship between the White House Medical Unit and the DHA exists.

The White House Medical Unit Pharmaceutical Management Practices Increased the Risk to Patient Health and Safety and the Risk of Diversion of Controlled Substances

Without oversight from qualified pharmacy staff, the White House Medical Unit’s pharmaceutical management practices may have been subject to prescribing errors, such as over‑prescribing controlled substances, and inadequate medication inventory management, increasing the risk to the health and safety of patients treated within the unit.

The White House Medical Unit Pharmaceutical Management Practices Did Not Meet Guidelines and Its Drug Handling Processes Did Not Deter Diversion Risk

We concluded that the White House Medical Unit’s pharmaceutical management practices did not meet the intent of Federal and DoD guidance. Additionally, the White House Medical Unit did not implement pharmaceutical management processes to deter the risk of diversion. We examined policies that govern White House Medical Unit pharmaceutical management and their practices: for example, 21 CFR sec. 1301.73 mandates the use of effective controls and procedures to guard against theft and diversion of controlled substances. DEA registrants must ensure the adequacy of the system for monitoring the receipt, distribution, and disposition of controlled substances in its operations.

Navy pharmacy policies state that the commanding officer is responsible for the operation of the pharmacy and must establish adequate safeguards to mitigate or prevent drug diversion.28 [NAVMED P-117, Chapter 21, “Pharmacy Operation and Drug Control,” March 5, 2018.] When a commissioned officer (pharmacist) is not assigned to an MTF, a civilian pharmacist or a Medical or Dental Corps officer must be assigned supervisory responsibilities. The commanding officer or officer in charge at such a facility must ensure that pharmacy operations are reviewed by a pharmacist through site visits and inspections.

Navy policies also establish responsibilities for the Controlled Substances Inventory Board (CSIB), which aids in preventing the diversion of controlled substances by conducting quarterly, unannounced audits of the controlled substance inventory at an MTF’s pharmacy. Guidance for conducting CSIB audits is detailed in NAVMED P‑117, Manual of the Medical Department and BUMED Instruction 6710.70A. The White House Medical Unit’s Controlled Substance Inventory and Management Policy was developed in accordance with these two Navy policies and requires the establishment of a CSIB to conduct unannounced quarterly audits of the unit’s controlled substance inventory.

According to White House Medical Unit officials, no licensed pharmacist or pharmacy support staff are assigned to the White House Medical Unit. At the EEOB, a military nurse was responsible for managing all of the White House Medical Unit’s medications. White House Medical Unit officials stated that the unit’s operations do not warrant a full time pharmacist. White House Medical Unit officials told us that, before the start of our evaluation in September 2019, they submitted a request to the White House Military Office for a new pharmacy technician billet. However, eight months later, they are still awaiting approval for the requested billet.

White House Medical Unit officials stated that, although no pharmacist was assigned to the unit, controlled substance audits are performed quarterly as part of the unit’s CSIB program. Navy policy and White House Medical Unit policy require unannounced CSIB audits and inspections.29 [NAVMED P-117, Chapter 21, “Pharmacy Operation and Drug Control,” March 5, 2018.] However, White House Medical Unit officials stated that all quarterly audits are planned in advance due to the security requirement for entry into the White House compound. Two individuals conduct these quarterly audits. One is external to the White House Medical Unit and the other is a White House Medical Unit staff member. The external CSIB officer is a faculty member at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences and performs audits for the White House Medical Unit as a special duty assignment. The internal CSIB officer is the unit’s working stock custodian and is responsible for the management and accountability of the entire controlled substance inventory. However, the use of a staff member as a CSIB auditor is contrary to the White House Medical Unit’s policy that states, “the CSIB will consist of two disinterested officers, not directly involved in the ordering, dispensing, or stocking of controlled substances.”30 [BUMED Instruction 6710.70A, “Guidelines for Controlled Substances Inventory,” February 16, 2010.]

White House Medical Unit officials stated that they selected the pharmacist who serves as the external auditor. The unit has used the same auditor since 2014. White House Medical Unit officials stated that the auditor was selected based on his knowledge of the unique mission and pharmaceutical methodology of the White House Medical Unit. White House Medical Unit officials also told us that the purpose of the auditor was to act as a consultant to the White House Medical Unit.

The auditor stated that, in past audits, they reviewed the White House Medical Unit’s pharmacy processes to ensure that they were similar to those at Walter Reed, as the White House Medical Unit did not have internal pharmacy policy or an assigned pharmacist on staff. The auditor also stated that they did not review the full range of the White House Medical Unit’s pharmacy operations, but that his primary focus was the White House Medical Unit’s inventory records and medication counts for drugs stored in the unit’s MedSelect. The auditor stated that they randomly selects one to three controlled substances to review. However, this is contrary to White House Medical Unit Policy, which requires that the CSIB ensure a complete audit trail of all transactions for each controlled substance within the unit’s inventory.

Additionally, the auditor explained that they provided a written summary of his conclusions and recommendations at the conclusion of the audit. The audit results remain internal to the White House Medical Unit, recommendations are implemented at the discretion of White House Medical Unit leadership, and written responses from White House Medical Unit or documentation of actions taken are not required. However, Navy policy requires that the CSIB follow up on any recorded discrepancies and recommendation. Additionally, the policy requires that branch clinic pharmacies CSIB forward inventory reports to the parent MTF’s pharmacy department.31 [Branch clinic pharmacies are pharmacies that do not order controlled substances directly from a prime vendor. Instead, the pharmacy requests and receives bulk quantities of controlled substances from the parent MTF’s main pharmacy.]

White House Medical Unit officials provided us with two pharmacy audit reports. One audit report noted that the White House Medical Unit auditor found a discrepancy in the medication inventory counts. The report notes that the issue was brought to the attention of White House Medical Unit leadership and the inventory record was corrected. White House Medical Unit officials told us that the White House Medical Unit’s Controlled Substance Inventory and Management Policy outlines how the unit will address internal pharmaceutical management discrepancies if they arise.32 [WHMU SOP 20-08, “Controlled Substances Inventory and Management Policy,” August 30, 2019.] However, we concluded that the policy does not address how the White House Medical Unit will handle discrepancies found by the CSIB in the quarterly inspections. White House Medical Unit senior officials told us that the majority of inventory errors are administrative, such as an error in documentation. When an administrative error occurs, the White House Medical Unit staff attempts to identify the provider who created the error and correct the official inventory count.

Without a pharmacist on staff, there may be an increased risk to the health and safety of patients to whom the White House Medical Unit dispenses medications. Under the Code of Federal Regulations, pharmacists are responsible for evaluating the appropriateness of prescriptions for controlled substances such as type and quantity of medications prescribed.33 [Title 21, Code of Federal Regulations, section 1306.04 (2019).] In a publication discussing the safe distribution of medication to patients, the American Pharmacists Association stated that pharmacists’ actions regularly contribute to improving patient safety by supplying important medication information and evaluating medication appropriateness.34 [American Pharmacists Association, “Pharmacists’ Impact on Patient Safety,” June 2016.] The Institute for Safe Medication Practices also issued a publication that discussed the unintended consequences of physicians dispensing medications without a pharmacist’s review for safety and appropriateness and the potential for increased risk of medication errors.35 [Institute for Safe Medication Practices, “Good Intention, Uncertain Outcome… Our Take on Physician Dispensing in Offices and Clinics,” March 2012.]

Pharmacists also play a role in medication inventory management and record keeping, which are essential for medication accountability. Proper inventory management requires pharmacies to maintain complete and accurate records of medications, received, stored, distributed, dispensed, and disposed of. In turn, this can help minimize the risk of diversion from the overstock waste or loss of medication accountability.

According to the American Pharmacists Association, as medication experts, pharmacists’ knowledge of proper medication disposal can also reduce the risk of diversion because medications that are thrown away improperly are susceptible to theft or abuse. White House Medical Unit officials stated that they disposed of the unit’s controlled substances in sharps containers. Not only is this practice in direct violation of DEA and Navy policies, but it has also been shown to create a high‑risk for diversion as medications can be illicitly retrieved from sharps containers.

The White House Medical Unit’s Pharmaceutical Management Practices Ineffectively Used DoD Funds

A review of controlled substance requisition forms showed that the White House Medical Unit procured brand‑name medications that were not cost‑effective to the DoD. From 2018 to 2019, the White House Medical Unit spent an additional $100,000 above the generic cost for three controlled medications (Ambien, Provigil, and Sonata) by requesting that Walter Reed fill orders using brand named medication. White House Medical Unit officials were unable to provide proper justification for the unit’s practice of preference over cost. White House Medical Unit officials were unable to identify a rationale for using brand name medications over generic equivalents. In addition, requests for brand name controlled substances were processed by bypassing the White House Medical Unit’s internal controls for the requisition of controlled medications.

Recommendations, Management Comments, and Our Response

Recommendation A.1

We recommend that the Director of the Defense Health Agency, in coordination with the Walter Reed National Military Medical Center Director, develop policies and procedures for the White House Medical Unit to manage controlled and non‑controlled medications, including procurement, storage and inventory, prescribing and dispensing, and disposal.

Assistant Secretary of Defense (Health Affairs) Comments


The Assistant Secretary of Defense (Health Affairs), responding for the Defense Health Agency Director, agreed with the recommendation and stated that the Defense Health Agency Director will evaluate and develop policies and procedures to manage the White House Medical Unit’s controlled and non‑controlled medications, medication procurement, storage, inventory, prescribing, dispensing, and disposal. The Assistant Secretary stated the Defense Health Agency Director would do this in addition to new procedures already put in place by the White House Medical Unit.

Our Response

Comments from the Assistant Secretary addressed the specifics of the recommendation; therefore, the recommendation is resolved, but will remain open. We will close the recommendation once the Defense Health Agency Director provides us documentation showing that they have developed and implemented these policies and procedures.

Recommendation A.2

We recommend that the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Health Affairs, in coordination with the Defense Health Agency and the Service Surgeons General, develop a pharmaceutical oversight plan for the White House Medical Unit. At a minimum, the oversight plan should:

a. Designate an organization to have oversight responsibility for the White House Medical Unit.

b. Establish procedures the auditor should perform and written verification of corrective actions taken in response to auditor recommendations.

c. Reconcile medication inventory counts, including disposition of controlled substance unit doses registered to the White House Medical Unit.

d. Justify the purchase of brand name medications in writing, including the quantity.

e. Designate the use of specific waste containers for medical disposal that comply with Federal and Service policy.

Assistant Secretary of Defense (Health Affairs) Comments


The Assistant Secretary of Defense (Health Affairs) agreed with the recommendation and stated that they will develop policies and procedures for items a. through e. in the recommendation, in addition to new procedures already put in place by the White House Medical Unit.

Our Response

Comments from the Assistant Secretary addressed the specifics of the recommendation; therefore, the recommendation is resolved, but will remain open. We will close the recommendation once the Assistant Secretary provides us documentation showing that they have developed and implemented these policies and procedures.

Finding B

The White House Medical Unit Routinely Provided Free Medical Care to Ineligible White House Staff in Violation of Federal Law and DoD Guidance


The White House Medical Unit provided a wide range of health care and pharmaceutical services to ineligible White House staff. White House Medical Unit officials stated that they see between 9 and 30 total patients each week; however, we discovered that an average of 6 to 20 of these patients per week were not DoD beneficiaries. Specifically, the White House Medical Unit provided medical care to non‑DoD beneficiaries in violation of the following authorities:

• Title 10 United States Code (U.S.C.) sections 1074(a), 1079, and 1086(c)‑eligibility for access to care within the Military Health System

• 10 U.S.C. sec. 1074g ‑ eligibility for access to military pharmacy benefits

• 32 CFR sec. 108.5 and DoD Instruction 6025.23 ‑ eligibility under the Secretarial Designee (SECDES) Program

The White House Medical Unit uploaded DoD beneficiaries’ medical records into the Military Health System databases, but did not upload non‑DoD beneficiary medical records. Therefore, the MHS did not track medical care provided to non‑DoD beneficiaries.

Former White House Medical Unit medical providers stated that ineligible White House staff members received free specialty care and surgery at military medical treatment facilities. Additionally, the White House Medical Unit dispensed prescription medications, to ineligible White House staff, including controlled substances.

The White House Medical Unit provided medical care to ineligible individuals because:

• White House Medical Unit senior leaders directed eligibility practices that did not comply with DoD guidance.

• the White House Medical Unit did not follow DoD guidelines for verifying patient eligibility, as outlined in DoD Manual 1000 Volume 1 and DoD Instruction 6025.23, which requires the use of the DoD identification card to verify eligibility for care within the MHS.

• the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Health Affairs, the Defense Health Agency Director, and the Service Surgeons General did not provide oversight of the White House Medical Unit’s eligibility practices.

As a result, the Military Health System did not bill non‑DoD beneficiaries for services rendered, and the DoD funded and resourced care for an average of 6 to 20 non‑DoD beneficiary patients per week.

The White House Medical Unit Routinely Provided Free Medical Care to Ineligible White House Staff in Violation of Federal Law and DoD Guidance

In violation of Federal law and regulation and DoD policy, the White House Medical Unit provided a wide range of health care and pharmaceutical services to ineligible White House staff. Additionally, the White House Medical Unit dispensed prescription medications, including controlled substances, to ineligible White House staff.

The White House Medical Unit Provided a Wide Range of Health Care and Pharmaceutical Services to Ineligible White House Staff in Violation of Federal Law and Regulation and DoD Policy

The White House Medical Unit provided free medical care to ineligible White House Staff. White House Medical Unit officials told us that former White House Military Unit Directors instituted an internal “health care by proxy” practice. According to the White House Military Unit Director, “health care by proxy” allows White House Medical Unit medical providers to render acute health care services to any individual working within the proximity of the President, Vice President, or a presidential Cabinet member.36 [Health care by proxy is a White House Medical Unit practice and is not defined by DoD guidance.] We examined MHS eligibility policies and White House Medical Unit’s health care eligibility practices. The United States Code and DoD guidance govern eligibility for care within the MHS. Section 1073d, title 10, United States Code (10 U.S.C. § 1073d) states that military medical treatment facilities are to provide care to service members and covered beneficiaries, and sections 1074(a), 1079, and 1086(c) (10 U.S.C. §§ 1074[a], 1079, and 1086[c]) establish that active duty military members, retirees, and their families are entitled to medical and dental care within the MHS.37 [Title 10 U.S.C. 1086(c) establishes eligibility for retirees and their family members.]

Section 32, part 108.5 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) extends eligibility for care within the MHS to senior officials of the U.S. Government. The CFR designates that senior officials of the U.S. Government are eligible for space‑available inpatient and outpatienthealth care services from the Military Health System. The CFR and DoDI 6025.23 require that these officials reimburse the Military Health System for all medical services rendered unless the reimbursement requirement is waived by the Under Secretary of Defense (Personnel & Readiness) or a Secretary of a Military Department.38 [DoD Instruction 6025.23, “Health Care Eligibility Under the Secretarial Designee (SECDES) Program and Related Special Authorities,” October 2, 2013.] We could find no documentation authorizing the waiver of these fees for these senior Government individuals. According to the CFR, eligible individuals include:

• the President and Vice President and their spouses and minor children,

• members of the Cabinet,

• officials of the DoD appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate,

• assistants to the President,

• Director of the White House Military Office, and

• Former Presidents of the United States and their spouses, widows, and minor children.39 [There are 14 Assistants to the President, including the White House Chief of Staff, Chief of Staff to the First Lady, and Counsel to the President.]

DoDI 6025.23, “Eligibility under the Secretarial Designee (SECDES) Program”, establishes policy and outlines responsibilities for the health care services provided under the SECDES Program. DoDI 6025.23 also states that emergency patients are eligible for health care from the Military Health System. However, these patients must pay for all services provided. BUMED Instruction 6010.32, Patient Registration Program, states that medical personnel may not provide non‑emergency care to ineligible patients.

According to the White House Medical Unit’s EEOB Clinic Orientation Guide, the White House Medical Unit Executive Medicine Program provides special medical access to the Presidential Cabinet and Assistants to the President under the SECDES Program. The White House Medical Unit’s EEOB Orientation Guide instructs executive medicine providers to “cater to the needs” of the “highest of Presidential appointees.” White House Medical Unit senior officials estimated that the White House Medical Unit Executive Medicine clinic has 60 enrolled patients. Standard executive medicine services consist of the following:

• annual executive physicals

• preventive medical care

• acute medical care

• travel medicine

• vaccinations

• wellness evaluations

• pharmaceutical support

• diagnostic procedures

• specialty consultation services

According to the U.S. Army Physician Assistant Handbook and White House Medical Unit senior leaders, the White House Medical Unit also provides what they describe as “health care by proxy” for 6,000 White House employees, contractors, and Government employees that support the Office of the President of the United States. White House Medical Unit officials stated that the unit estimated that it treated between 9 and 30 White House employees, contractors, and Government employees that support the Office of the President of the United States each week; further, according to White House Medical Unit officials, an average of 6 to 20 of these patients were not DoD beneficiaries. The United States Code and Code of Federal Regulations does not identify non‑DoD beneficiaries as eligible for care within the MHS.

White House Medical Unit officials stated that health care by proxy services are the free treatment of emergency and urgent medical issues and include the provision of cold medications, antibiotics, or sleeping aids. According to the American Academy of Urgent Care Medicine, urgent care focuses on low severity medical issues, while emergency medicine focuses on critically ill patients. DoDI 6025.23 does not allow for the provision of urgent care services or free emergency care services to non‑DoD beneficiaries. Additionally, the Service Surgeons General, DHA senior officials, and NCRMD senior officials denied knowledge of the White House Medical Unit’s health care by proxy practice. The Navy Surgeon General stated that this was not an approved Navy Medicine practice.

The MHS Did Not Track Medical Care Provided To Non‑DoD Beneficiaries

The White House Medical Unit does not upload non‑DoD beneficiary data into the Military Health System database, thereby not allowing visibility over extensive non‑DoD beneficiary medical and pharmaceutical care and tracking of associated costs. We examined the MHS and the White House Medical Unit medical record‑keeping practices. The MHS uses electronic medical record systems to record and track care delivered to patients. Armed Forces Health Longitudinal Technology Application (AHLTA) is the DoD’s global electronic health record. AHLTA is the primary clinical information system used by the military’s medical community to help generate, maintain, store, and securely access data for 9.6 million beneficiaries. The MHS also imports AHLTA clinical data for enterprise‑level data analysis to support MHS senior leaders’ decision‑making related to eligibility and enrollment.

White House Medical Unit officials stated that the White House security systems do not allow for the use of the AHLTA system. For this reason, the White House Medical Unit uses AHLTA‑Theater (AHLTA‑T) to document all patient care for DoD and non‑DoD beneficiaries. AHLTA‑T is the electronic health record used in military operational settings. AHLTA‑T does not automatically connect to the Military Health System’s databases. The program stores patient information in a local database until users upload the files to the central database.

White House Medical Unit officials stated that the White House Medical Unit uploads DoD beneficiary data to the Military Health System database. However, the White House Medical Unit does not upload non‑DoD beneficiary medical data. Non‑DoD beneficiary data is stored within the White House Medical Unit’s local AHLTA‑T database. Therefore, the MHS was not able to view and track medical care provided to non‑DoD beneficiaries.

Former White House Medical Unit Medical Providers Identified That Ineligible White House Staff Members Received Free Specialty Care and Surgery at Military Medical Treatment Facilities

We analyzed the transcripts of 70 DoD OIG AI team interviews with former White House Military Office employees who served within the White House between 2009 and 2018. Former White House Medical Unit officials stated that the organization had a culture of implementing flexible, internal eligibility practices to treat high‑ranking officials. Additionally, several former White House Medical Unit medical staff members made allegations related to eligibility for care. One individual stated that the White House Medical Unit implemented its own internal patient eligibility policies. Several former White House Medical Unit staff members stated that the unit altered practices to cater to high‑ranking officials, to include providing free specialty care. In addition, we found one instance in which a White House Medical Unit staff member stated that the White House Medical Unit provided free elective surgery to an ineligible White House staff member. One White House Medical Unit medical staff member told us the following:

[I]n some people’s minds they think they have to change the way they do their medicine because of its an executive world and their not normal patients, but that’s pretty much everything that I’ve been taught against regardless of if it’s the richest man in the world or a man on the street. You treat them the same. And so that didn’t happen at the White House, and we bent knees and we bent the rules to meet this very weird, strange culture that was there, and I think it was really to just impress people. And so I understand it’s almost like the culture of D.C. and politics, and somehow the Medical Unit got sucked up into that culture as well.


One individual stated that the White House Medical Unit used alias accounts to provide free specialty care and surgery to ineligible White House staff members at military medical treatment facilities. Alias medical accounts provide alternate demographic data, such as name, date of birth, social security number, and military affiliation, in the electronic medical record. The alias account is not connected to the patient’s true name, and cannot be tracked or audited. As a result, we were not able to review the allegations related the provision of free specialty care and surgery to ineligible White House Medical Unit staff members.

The White House Medical Unit Dispensed Prescription Medications, Including Controlled Substances, to Ineligible White House Staff

The White House Medical Unit used practices such as health care by proxy to justify dispensing medications to ineligible beneficiaries, contrary to statute and Navy guidance. We examined Federal and Military Service medication dispensing policies and White House Medical Unit medication dispensing practices. United States Code and Service guidance govern eligibility for prescription medications within the MHS. Section 1074g, title 10, United States Code (10 U.S.C. § 1074g), establishes that the Military Health System will provide prescription medications to all covered beneficiaries through the Pharmacy Benefits Program. Chapter 21 of the Navy Manual of the Medical Department (NAVMED) P‑117 notes that Navy members must ensure that prescriptions are filled only for eligible beneficiaries via a valid identification check or a Defense Enrollment Eligibility Reporting System (DEERS) eligibility check.

The White House Medical Unit senior leaders stated that White House Medical Unit medical providers offered prescription and over‑the‑counter medications to all White House staff members. Additionally, the White House Medical Unit provided pharmaceutical support for travelers on White House official travel. This includes the dispensing of controlled substances, such as Ambien and Provigil. White House Medical Unit senior officials stated that medical providers do not verify patient eligibility before dispensing medications, as these patients are part of the health care by proxy medication operation. However, 10 U.S.C. § 1074g and NAVMED P‑117 state that prescription and OTC medication pharmacy benefits are available only for beneficiaries in the Military Health System. We questioned White House Medical Unit officials about the unit’s health care by proxy practices. White House Medical Unit officials could not explain how their health care by proxy practices were in accordance with the statute and Navy guidance.

The White House Medical Unit’s Senior Leaders Directed Eligibility Practices That Did Not Comply with DoD Guidance

In our analysis of AI interview transcripts from former White House Military Office employees, we determined that White House Medical Unit senior leaders directed eligibility practices that did not comply with DoD guidance. This analysis also noted that several former White House Medical Unit military medical providers stated that they were unable to act outside of the White House Medical Unit’s historical practices and that they were not empowered to deny requests from senior White House Medical Unit leaders.

We analyzed 70 interview transcripts, conducted by the DoD OIG AI team, of former White House Military Office employees who served within the White House between 2009 and 2018. We found that the White House Medical Unit maintained historical patient eligibility practices that did not follow DoD guidelines. One former White House Medical Unit medical provider stated that the unit “. . . work[ed] in the gray . . . helping anybody who needs help to get this mission done.” Another staff member highlighted the inconsistencies within the unit’s practices. This staff member stated:

[There] were several concerns about we’re not accomplishing the mission the right way. Is stuff getting done? Yeah. Is it being done appropriately or legally all the time? No. But, are they going to get to that end result that the bosses want? Yeah.


Several former White House Medical Unit staff members stated that they questioned the unit’s historical patient eligibility practices; however, White House Medical Unit senior leaders did not address the concerns. Several former staff members stated that when they expressed concerns about patient eligibility practices, the White House Medical Unit Director or the Physician to the President disregarded their concerns and instructed them to provide care to the ineligible individual. One former staff member stated that they expressed his concern to the White House Military Unit Director, stating, “This doesn’t look right. I’m not certain if this is legal as far as the DoD beneficiary.” However, the former staff member stated that his concern was disregarded.

Several former White House Medical Unit staff members stated that they felt unable to act outside of the will of the Physician to the President or the White House Medical Unit Director. One former White House Medical Unit medical provider stated that White House Medical Unit staff members were fearful of “making independent decisions” without the approval of the Physician to the President or the Director of the White House Medical Unit. Several former staff members stated that senior leaders admonished staff who expressed concerns about patient eligibility. Former staff members stated that acting outside the will of White House Medical Unit senior leaders would negatively impact their military career. Several staff members stated that they feared they would receive negative work assignments or be “fired” from the unit if they complained. Another former White House Medical Unit medical provider expressed concerns that complaining about the White House Medical Unit’s procedures would harm future career opportunities. This provider stated the following:

[W]e’re all in the military, and you know, most of us still had a lot of time left in the military. And we thought, we’re dealing with very high‑ranking individuals here, people that have a lot of power and authority. And we just feared a lot of the long‑term repercussions of that. You know, these are people that are high ranking and know a lot of people. And so we feared mostly, you know, for evaluations, for follow‑on assignments, for credibility as a professional in our own branches and specialties.


The White House Medical Unit Did Not Follow DoD Guidelines for Verifying Patient Eligibility

We found that ineligible individuals affiliated with the White House received free care from the Military Health System because the White House Medical Unit did not follow the eligibility verification guidelines outlined in DoD and Service guidance. DoDI 1341.2, “Defense Enrollment Eligibility Reporting System (DEERS) Program and Procedures”, notes that DEERS maintains records of eligible individuals and benefits. BUMED Instruction 6010.32, Patient Registration Program, requires that Navy personnel confirm the identity of all patients and verify entitlement to health care by completing a DEERS and DoD ID card check. In addition, the Joint Commission National Patient Safety Goals requires that medical providers “use at least two patient identifiers when providing care, treatment, and service.” The use of two patient identifiers reduces the risk of patient errors throughout the diagnosis and treatment of patients.

White House Medical Unit officials stated that White House Medical Unit staff retrieved a list of all active White House staff members once a month. White House Medical Unit staff reviewed the list to identify new Cabinet members and assistants to the President. Once a new staff member was identified, the White House Medical Unit Chief of Executive Medicine took the photo of the member and placed it on a “photo sheet.” The photo sheet became the primary way that White House Medical Unit staff identified eligible executive medicine patients. The White House Medical Unit officials stated that their staff verified all other White House employees’ eligibility for health care by proxy services by checking the staff member’s employee ID card.

White House Medical Unit officials stated that they offered Executive Medicine patients the opportunity for enhanced privacy by removing the patient’s real name from the electronic medical record and using an alias account to track all medical care. An alias account provides an alternate demographic data, such as name, date of birth, social security number, and military affiliation, in the electronic medical record. Walter Reed Patient Administration officials told us that they could not track medical services provided under an alias because the alias account is not connected to the patient’s true name. White House Medical Unit officials stated that these patients were not required to present identification when they arrived for care at MTFs within the NCRMD. The White House Medical Unit officials explained that executive medicine patients notify White House Medical Unit staff of their appointment and a White House Medical Unit staff member escorts the patient to the medical appointment, bypassing hospital front‑desk staff.

Senior Military Leaders Did Not Provide Oversight of the White House Medical Unit’s Eligibility Practices

We found that the White House Medical Unit provided free medical care to ineligible White House staff because the White House Medical Unit operated internal policies that were in violation of the Federal statutes and Navy guidance. Additionally, the White House Medical Unit was not assigned to any part of the MHS for clinical operational oversight, and Service Surgeons General, the DHA, and the NCRMD did not provide oversight of the White House Medical Unit’s eligibility practices to ensure unit compliance with Federal and DoD guidelines, as required by Section 702 of the Fiscal Year 2017 NDAA.

White House Medical Unit senior leaders stated that the Service Surgeons General, the DHA, and the NCRMD do not provide oversight of the unit’s eligibility practices. We reviewed testimonies from former White House Medical Unit staff members interviewed by the DoD OIG AI team. Several former White House Medical Unit medical staff members stated that the White House Medical Unit lacked oversight.

We conducted interviews with the Army, Navy, and Air Force Surgeons General. All three Service Surgeons General denied responsibility for oversight of the White House Medical Unit’s eligibility practices. The Navy Surgeon General noted that BUMED provided clinical oversight and eligibility support for the White House Medical Unit Secretarial Designee population until 2010. After 2010, the responsibility transferred to the National Capital Region Medical Directorate. BUMED senior officials stated that it was their understanding that Walter Reed and the DHA were responsible for oversight of the White House Medical Unit.

We conducted interviews with DHA senior leaders from the Health care Operations, Medical Affairs, and Executive Medicine offices. DHA senior leaders stated that they did not have oversight of the White House Medical Unit nor could they identify who had responsibility for the White House Medical Unit’s eligibility practices. We conducted interviews with the NCRMD Clinical Operations and Executive Medicine senior leaders and found that the NCRMD did not provide oversight of the White House Medical Unit’s policies and practices. NCRMD officials noted that Walter Reed provided clerical support for the White House Medical Unit’s eligibility practices but did not provide oversight.

The MHS Did Not Bill Ineligible Patients for Services Rendered Within the DoD Health Care System

As a result of the White House Medical Unit’s eligibility practices, the MHS did not bill non‑DoD beneficiaries for services rendered. Based on testimony from White House Medical Unit officials, we found that the DoD funded and resourced care for an average of 6 to 20 non‑DoD beneficiary patients per week. The White House Medical Unit did not input the medical data of non‑eligible patient population into the MHS databases. As a result, the full cost of ineligible care could not be determined.

Recommendations, Management Comments, and Our Response

Recommendation B.1

We recommend that the Director of the Defense Health Agency, in coordination with the White House Medical Unit Director, establish controls for White House patient eligibility within the Military Health System.

Assistant Secretary of Defense (Health Affairs) Comments


The Assistant Secretary of Defense (Health Affairs), responding for the Defense Health Agency Director, agreed with the recommendation and stated that they will develop policies and procedures regarding patient eligibility and establish controls for White House patient eligibility within the Military Health System. The Assistant Secretary stated that to develop these policies and procedures they will consider the historical practices of the White House Medical Unit, the DoD’s health care support for non‑military U.S. Government senior officials, and the need for strict security protocols to protect the health and safety of White House principals.

Our Response

Comments from the Assistant Secretary addressed the specifics of the recommendation; therefore, the recommendation is resolved, but will remain open. We will close the recommendation once the Defense Health Agency Director provides us documentation showing that they have established controls for White House patient eligibility.

Recommendation B.2

We recommend that the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Health Affairs, in coordination with the Defense Health Agency Director and the Service Surgeons General, establish an oversight plan for the White House Medical Unit’s eligibility practices.

Assistant Secretary of Defense (Health Affairs) Comments


The Assistant Secretary of Defense (Health Affairs) agreed with the recommendation and stated that they will develop policies and procedures to establish an oversight plan for the White House Medical Unit’s eligibility practices. The Director stated that to develop the oversight plan they will consider the historical practices of the White House Medical Unit, the DoD’s health care support for non‑military U.S. Government senior officials, and the need for strict security protocols to protect the health and safety of White House principals.

Our Response

Comments from the Assistant Secretary addressed the specifics of the recommendation; therefore, the recommendation is resolved, but will remain open. We will close the recommendation once the Assistant Secretary provides us documentation showing that they have developed the oversight plan for the White House Medical Unit’s patient eligibility.
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Re: Trump lashes out at Gov. Doug Ducey following certificat

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Part 3 of 3

Finding C

The Defense Health Agency Did Not Establish Policies, Procedures, and Guidance for Executive Medicine Services Within the National Capital Region Medical Directorate


The DHA did not establish policies, procedures, and guidance for executive medicine services in the National Capital Region Medical Directorate (NCRMD). The NCRMD’s executive medicine facilities did not have consistent eligibility criteria for determining enrollment into executive medicine services. Some NCRMD executive medicine facilities allowed certain senior officials of the U.S. Government, active duty flag officers and general officers, and their families, to enroll in care while other facilities extended eligibility to military‑enlisted senior leaders, retired flag officers and general officers, and their families.

Specifically, NCRMD executive medicine facilities implemented access to care practices inconsistent with Health Affairs Policy 11‑005, which established that active duty members have priority for health care services within the Military Health System. However, certain facilities prioritized seniority over acuity (severity of the medical condition). These facilities provided access to care for executive medicine patients over active duty military patients that had acute needs. For example, executive medicine patients and their family members received priority access for pharmacy services over non‑executive active duty patients, regardless of the acuity of the diagnoses for which medication is prescribed.

Additionally, the MHS did not bill non‑military executive medicine patients for services rendered. The Code of Federal Regulations (32 CFR § 108.5) states that senior officials of the U.S. Government are eligible for care within the MHS on a reimbursable basis. However, due to limitations within the hospital electronic administrative systems Walter Reed Patient Administration Division officials told us that they are not able to bill non‑military executive medicine patients for outpatient care.

The problems with NCRMD executive medicine business practices occurred because of a lack of oversight of the executive medicine services. The Service Surgeons General stated that the Service medical departments did not provide executive medicine services. However, historical practice indicates that executive medicine services existed before the establishment of the DHA. DoDD 5136.13 established the DHA’s oversight of the NCRMD in 2013, but the DHA did not establish policies, procedures, and guidance for executive medicine services in the NCRMD. This allowed executive medicine historical practices to continue, inconsistent with DoD guidance related to priority access to care. Additionally, the NCRMD’s patient administration system did not have the ability to bill for outpatient medical services rendered to senior officials of the U.S. Government.

As a result, prioritizing medical care by seniority over medical need increased the risk to the health and safety of the non‑executive general patient population. Additionally, the Military Health System is at risk for expending resources on medical activities outside of its primary mission of maintaining a medically ready fighting force and a ready medical system that is prepared to respond to the full spectrum of military operations.

The Defense Health Agency Did Not Establish Policies, Procedures, and Guidance for Executive Medicine Services Within the National Capital Region Medical Directorate

The DHA did not establish policies, procedures, and guidance for executive medicine services in the NCRMD. The NCRMD executive medicine facilities did not have consistent eligibility criteria for determining eligibility or access to care.

The NCRMD’s Executive Medicine Facilities Did Not Have Consistent Eligibility Criteria for Determining Enrollment Into Executive Medicine Services

The NCRMD’s executive medicine facilities did not have consistent eligibility criteria for determining enrollment into executive medicine services, and it was not clear who was allowed to utilize these services. We reviewed the DHA policies that govern eligibility for executive medicine services and NCRMD executive medicine population data. According to DHA and NCRMD officials, executive medicine within the DoD developed out of a need to provide focused medical care for flag and general officers that ensures the availability, security, and confidentiality of these senior military leaders.

Initially, only active duty Service members were eligible for executive medicine services; however, the eligible population later expanded to include active duty family members and retired flag and general officers and their families. Although executive medicine is not defined in DoD or Military Health System guidance, DoD health care officials generally described executive medicine as comprehensive primary care provided to senior Service members (active and retired), eligible family members, and senior Government leaders. Executive medicine patients receive coordinated care to accommodate their professional and personal schedules.

The lack of clear guidance for determining enrollment into executive medicine services has been a long‑standing issue in the DoD health care system. In a 1974 report, the Government Accountability Office concluded that the DoD was providing health care to government VIPs in its military hospitals but had not clearly defined the eligibility requirements for VIP status. According to the 1974 report, minimum ranks for VIP eligibility ranged from E‑9 (Sergeant Major) to general officers or Ambassadors. Additionally, hospital commanders’ individual definitions of VIP varied widely regarding the eligibility of family members, military retirees, non‑DoD civilians, and foreign government officials.40 [GAO Report No. 090137, “Military Hospitals Should Be Provided Criteria for Presidential and VIP Accommodations, and Instructed To Discontinue Separating Officer and Enlisted Patients,” December 24, 1974.]

A DHA official stated that the primary mission of executive medicine services is to provide expedited medical care to senior leaders in the active duty population. According to Assistant Secretary of Defense for Health Affairs Policy 11‑005, active duty Service members and their family members are a higher access to care priority level than retirees, their family members, and survivors.41 [Assistant Secretary of Defense for Health Affairs Policy 11-005, “Tricare Policy For Access To Care,” February 23, 2011.] As of January 2020, military retirees and their family members comprised the majority of the assigned patient population within the Walter Reed and Fort Belvoir Community Hospital executive medicine facilities (see Figure 7, Beneficiary Category Enrollment Distribution at NCRMD Executive Medicine Clinics). DiLorenzo Clinic officials told us that they served a smaller military retiree population due to the limited access to that facility.

A DHA official explained that executive medicine services is a tradition‑based system. Figure 7 illustrates the numbers of active duty, active duty family members, military retirees, and military retiree family members who were among the patient populations at four different Executive Medicine Clinics in the National Capital Region. The graphic shows that the majority of patients seen at these clinics are not active duty service members. The DiLorenzo Clinic is an exception because of limitations on physical access to the facility.

Figure 6. Patient Population Assigned to Executive Medicine Facilities Within the NCRMD

[x]
Walter Reed Executive Medicine Clinic

[x]
[i]Fort Belvoir Community Hospital Executive Medicine Clinic


[x]
DiLorenzo Clinic Executive Medicine Clinic

[x]
Andrew Radar/McNair Executive Medicine Clinic

Source: Data from the Defense Health Agency National Capital Region Medical Directorate and the Andrew Rader U.S. Army Health Clinic.

From October 1, 2019, to January 28, 2020, military retirees and their family members made up 79.8 percent of NCRMD executive medicine population (Walter Reed–90.3 percent, Fort Belvoir Community Hospital–76.4 percent, and DiLorenzo–14.9 percent). Figure 7 shows that the majority of patients assigned to NCRMD Executive Medicine were military retirees and their family members. These patients received special medical access throughout NCRMD MTFs, disrupting care for active duty service members.

Figure 7. Beneficiary Category Enrollment Distribution at NCRMD Executive Medicine Clinics: Military Retirees and Their Family Members Compared to Active Duty and Their Family Members

NCRMD Executive Medicine Enrollment Distribution

Active Duty and Family Members / Retirees and Family Members


20.2 % / 79.8%

Source: DoD OIG, using data from the Defense Health Agency National Capital Region Medical Directorate.

NCRMD Executive Medicine Facilities Implemented Access to Care Practices Inconsistent With Health Affairs Policy 11‑005

As a result, prioritizing medical care by an executive’s status over medical need increased the risk to the health and safety of patients. We reviewed NCRMD executive medicine access to care practices and DoD policy. Assistant Secretary of Defense for Health Affairs Policy 11‑005 establishes the DoD’s policies related to Executive Medicine Service. This policy outlines the access to care standards for the MHS by beneficiary status prioritization, categorizing them as follows:

• Priority 1: active duty service members

• Priority 2: active duty service members’ family members

• Priority 3: military retirees and their family members

• Priority 4: active duty family members not enrolled in TRICARE Prime, traditional survivors of deceased active duty Service members not enrolled in TRICARE Prime. TRICARE Reserve Select beneficiaries

• Priority 5: military retirees, family members, and survivors who are not enrolled in TRICARE Prime, as well as TRICARE Plus beneficiaries being appointed for specialty care at the MTF where they are enrolled

• Priority Exceptions (granted at the MTF commander’s discretion): bonafide medical emergencies and Secretarial designees to the extent appropriate to the context in which Secretarial designee status is given

We determined that executive medicine patients within the NCRMD received Priority 1 access to care within the NCRMD. Additionally, executive medicine patients received services that were beyond that of a primary care clinic. Walter Reed Executive Medicine Clinic and Fort Belvoir Community Hospital Executive Medicine Clinic maintained separate call centers for booking appointments. This is an additional benefit for these executive medicine patients as it reduces the call wait time and enables patients to make direct appointments.

The goal of executive medicine is to provide comprehensive primary care for senior personnel where they can receive confidential care in a more expedited manner to accommodate their busy schedules. However, these expedited services are not only offered to active duty general and flag officers but also active duty family members, military retirees, and their family members. For example, the Fort Belvoir Community Hospital Executive Medicine Services Clinic provided reserved parking for all of its patients. Walter Reed and Fort Belvoir Community Hospital Executive Medicine provided escorts for patients to aid the patients in navigating the hospital. Walter Reed Executive Medicine had the Command Distinguished Visitor Escort Program, which provided privileged escort services for its patients. Fort Belvoir Community Hospital Executive Medicine officials told us that during duty hours, their patients are allowed to wait within the Executive Medicine Clinic until a bed is available for them at the Emergency Department. The provider then ensures that the executive medicine patient is connected to the emergency room medical provider.

At several NCRMD pharmacy locations, the pharmacy electronic queuing system allowed patients to self‑identify as executive medicine patients (see Figure 8). These executive medicine patients’ prescriptions were processed and filled at the same level of urgency as patients discharged from the emergency room and same day surgery.

An NCRMD pharmacy official stated that at pharmacy services throughout the NCRMD, executive medicine patients were prioritized over‑non‑executive medicine patients for pharmacy services. At one NCRMD pharmacy site visit, all pharmacy staff members expressed frustration about the prioritization and filling of executive medicine prescriptions. This prioritization of executive medicine prescriptions diverted the pharmacist from filling prescriptions for patients diagnosed with conditions that are more urgent. This practice disrupts pharmacy operations. Another NCRMD pharmacy official stated that the majority of executive medicine patients receiving pharmacy services were military retirees and their family members.

Figure 8. Pharmacy Kiosk Selections at Army Radar US Army Health Clinic Source: The DoD OIG.

[x]
Andrew Rader US Army Health

Please select the option that applies to you:

Active Duty

All Others

Executive Medicine


One practice of executive medicine clinics is to provide medication pick‑up and sometimes delivery for patients. Staff members of the executive medicine clinic can pick up a patient’s prescription as a faster, more convenient option. At times, these practices went against MHS guidance. In response to a request for information, we obtained a hand‑written policy that authorized Executive Medicine staff to pick up prescription medications for executive medicine patients (see Figure 9). Specifically, this policy allows staff to pick up controlled medications for patients without the patient’s identification. We could not find DoD or Service guidance that allows these practices.

Figure 9. Handwritten Executive Medicine Policy on Retrieving Pharmaceuticals for Executive Medicine Patients
Source: Data from the Defense Health Agency National Capital Region Medical Directorate.


[x]

Executive Medicine Staff has authorization to pick up/sign for receipt of medications, including all controlled substances - without the need to present the patients' ID. card. If questions - call me immediately.


The MHS Did Not Bill Non‑Military Executive Medicine Patients for Services Rendered

Because the MHS did not bill non‑military executive medicine patients for rendered services, the MHS may have inappropriately provided free outpatient medical care to individuals in violation of Code of Federal Regulation requirements guidance stated in the Code of Federal Regulations (32 CFR sec. 108.5). The Code of Federal Regulations (32 CFR sec. 108.5) establishes responsibilities related to implementation of health care eligibility practices under the Secretarial Designee (SECDES) Program. It extends eligibility for care within the Military Health System to senior officials of the U.S. Government. The CFR designates certain senior officials of the U.S. Government as eligible for space‑available inpatient and outpatient-health care services from the Military Health System. The CFR also requires that these officials reimburse the Military Health System for all medical services rendered, unless the reimbursement requirement is waived by the Under Secretary of Defense (Personnel & Readiness) or a Secretary of a Military Department. We could find no documentation authorizing the waiver of these fees for these senior individuals.

According to DoD Instruction 6025.23, “certain senior officials of the U.S. Government” are eligible for space‑available care in the Military Health System on a reimbursable basis, unless specified otherwise by a Service Secretary.42 [DoD Instruction 6025.23, “Health Care Eligibility Under the Secretarial Designee (SECDES) Program and Related Special Authorities,” October 2, 2013.] We noted that the NCRMD executive medicine provided care to these officials. The DHA and NCRMD officials told us that the MHS systems lacked the processes to verify and track the eligibility for certain senior officials of the U.S. Government. DHA officials stated that they had not implemented guidance regarding executive medicine’s role in managing the care of certain senior officials of the U.S. Government with SECDES status.

The Walter Reed Patient Administration Division (PAD) stated that Walter Reed waived outpatient fees for certain non‑military senior officials of the U.S. Government. A staff member explained that the PAD registers senior official SECDES patients according to the direction of the White House Medical Unit or Walter Reed Executive Medicine. A Walter Reed PAD official reiterated that the patient does not provide a verification of identity to the PAD.

The Chief of Patient Administration for the DHA stated that the MHS did not have a process in place to prevent a SECDES patient from receiving care outside the approved services. A DHA PAD official stated that the MHS systems did not provide an expiration date for SECDES status. A Walter Reed PAD official stated that an automatic way to dis‑enroll the patient from the system did not exist and PAD officials must manually change the eligibility status of SECDES patients. The Walter Reed official explained that it was possible for an ineligible patient to receive care if Executive Medicine schedules an outpatient appointment without verifying that the patient is still eligible for care.

Walter Reed PAD officials told us that they did not have a process to dis‑enroll certain senior officials of the U.S. Government with SECDES status, including Members of Congress and White House officials. Additionally, a Walter Reed PAD official told us that they do not receive updates from the White House when White House staff members end their service.

The Walter Reed PAD official explained that senior official SECDES patients are coded as “Member of Congress” or “Supernumerary” and that those patient categories have specific billing codes attached to them.43 [Supernumerary” is a patient category code used in AHLTA and CHCS. The patient category determines how the pay status for a patient is executed.] These categories are made up of White House staff members who are not in the “Member of Congress” or “Supernumerary” categories. The PAD official stated that the patient category determines how the payment status for a patient is executed.

White House Medical Unit senior officials told us that White House executive medicine patients were routinely offered the opportunity to use an alias in their official electronic medical record for enhanced privacy. The Walter Reed PAD official explained that alias patients could not be billed for care because the PAD does not have the patient’s real name, address, or insurance information.

The DHA and the Service Surgeons General Did Not Provide Oversight of Executive Medicine Services Within the NCRMD

The DHA and Service Surgeons General did not provide oversight of executive medicine services within the NCRMD. Senior officials at the DHA stated that the agency lacked policies and processes related to executive medicine services. The Army, Navy, and Air Force Offices of the Surgeon General stated that they do not have separate executive medicine clinics. Senior officials at the Offices of the Service Surgeons General also stated that executive medicine is a function of the MTFs in the NCRMD, which falls under the DHA.

The DHA Division Chief of Health care Operations stated that no DHA‑level policy exists for eligibility for executive medicine. The Division Chief noted that the DHA had no visibility of the scope of executive medicine throughout the DoD and that the DHA did not establish oversight for executive medicine within the NCRMD after the transition to the DHA authority. Before the start of this evaluation, DHA officials began an assessment of their executive medicine services. In November 2019, the DHA sent out a request for information to MTFs to determine the current scope of executive medicine services available.

In October and November 2019, we asked DHA and NCRMD senior officials about executive medicine practice within the NCRMD. The Deputy Assistant Director for Medical Affairs and the Deputy Assistant Director for Health care Operations at the DHA stated that executive medicine can, “mean anything to anyone.” Both officials noted that the DHA lacked guidance pertaining to executive medicine and stated that the DHA needs to provide a clear definition of executive medicine. The NCRMD Director of Clinical Medicine identified a need for a DHA policy on executive medicine care to outline access, enrollment, and eligibility, and acknowledged that guidance pertaining to executive medicine services was inconsistent throughout the NCRMD. The DHA Division Chief of Health care Optimization stated that the DHA had not published guidance related to executive medicine practice. This lack of guidance at both the DHA and NCRMD level indicated an overall lack of oversight of executive medicine services across the DoD.

The NCRMD’s Patient Administration System Did Not Have the Ability to Bill for Outpatient Medical Services Rendered to Senior U.S. Government Officials

As a result of Walter Reed’s patient administration system not having the ability to bill for outpatient medical services rendered to senior U.S. Government officials, the MHS may have inappropriately provided free outpatient medical care. We discovered that Walter Reed was unable to bill for outpatient medical services for some patients who were senior U.S. Government officials. The Composite Health Care System (CHCS) enables DoD providers to document patient-health information and history, electronically order laboratory and radiology tests and services, and retrieve test results and order and prescribe medications, allowing clinicians to electronically perform the business functions of the Military Health System. CHCS serves as the foundation for AHLTA, the DoD’s current electronic health record. CHCS allows the system to break down the patient population by category type.

The Army, Navy, Air Force, and DHA establish and operate Uniform Business Office (UBO) offices at MTFs throughout the MHS. The UBO is responsible for all patient billing and ensures that billable services are identified, payer information is available, accurate and complete claims are generated, and appropriate collections are received.

A Walter Reed PAD official explained that the Walter Reed UBO was unable to bill for care provided to patients who were coded with the “Supernumerary” patient category in CHCS because CHCS does not delineate between billable or non‑billable care when the “Supernumerary” patient category code is used.

Certain senior officials of the U.S. Government in the SECDES program who were seen as patients at Walter Reed and registered with the “Supernumerary” patient category code did not have an expiration date associated with their benefits and were not billed for outpatient services received. Walter Reed officials stated that CHCS does not have the ability to execute an expiration date or to bill for outpatient medical services rendered to certain senior officials of the U.S. Government. As a result, the Walter Reed UBO, in effect, waives the outpatient fees accrued by this population.

We requested information from the Walter Reed UBO on the total cost of outpatient care waived for certain senior officials of the U.S. Government over the past three fiscal years. Walter Reed UBO officials stated that the patient category for certain senior officials of the U.S. Government includes other Federal agency or department employees. Data from the Walter Reed UBO found that Walter Reed waived over $496,000 worth of outpatient fees for this patient population for FYs 2017, 2018, and 2019.

Prioritizing Medical Care by Seniority over Medical Need Increases the Risk to the Health and Safety of Patients

Prioritizing medical care by seniority over medical need increases the risk to the health and safety of patients. Senior officials at the NCRMD told us that executive medicine is a practice that is based on the seniority of patients. Care for executive medicine patients is prioritized over general patient population based on seniority rather than medical need. A senior official at the DHA stated that one of the primary causes of unexpected negative medical outcomes is delay in care. A BUMED official noted that unexpected negative medical outcomes result from multiple factors. However, the prioritization of executive medicine patients may contribute to unexpected negative medical outcomes. The DHA official stated that moving people in the queue due to rank instead of clinical need potentially puts all patients at risk.

The Military Health System Is at Risk for Expending Resources on Medical Activities Outside of Its Primary Mission

By including military retirees, their family members, and non‑military civilians in executive medicine services and in services available to certain unauthorized non‑military members of the U.S. Government, the DoD is at risk of expending resources outside of its primary mission. The MHS is the global health system of the DoD with the principal mission of maintaining a medically ready fighting force and a ready medical system that is prepared to respond to the full spectrum of military operations. According to DHA officials, the stated mission of Executive Medicine services is to provide expedited medical care to senior leaders in the active duty population. The majority of patients assigned to NCRMD Executive Medicine were military retirees and their family members.

Fort Belvoir Community Hospital senior officials told us that care for executive medicine often required additional time from hospital staff. For example, an executive medicine patient requested a refill of a controlled medication from the Fort Belvoir Community Hospital pharmacy staff two weeks early. Pharmacy staff told the patient that the request was outside of the Fort Belvoir Community Hospital Administrative Instruction 6025.04, and told the patient to come back in two weeks. The patient reportedly complained to hospital leadership and senior hospital leaders instructed the pharmacy team to fill the prescription as the patient requested.44 [Fort Belvoir Community Hospital Administrative Instruction 6025.04, “Medication Use Policy,” April 4, 2017.] The staff stated that this specific request for care required a large amount of coordination with medical providers and hospital administrators, resulting in an estimated 30 hours of additional work.

Recommendations, Management Comments, and Our Response

Recommendation C.1

We recommend that the Defense Health Agency Director develop policy and an oversight plan for executive medicine services that includes eligibility criteria and access to care practices for executive medicine services.

Assistant Secretary of Defense (Health Affairs) Comments


The Assistant Secretary of Defense (Health Affairs), responding for the Defense Health Agency Director, agreed with the recommendation and stated that they will develop policies and procedures to establish an oversight plan for executive medicine services that includes eligibility criteria and access to care practices. The Assistant Secretary stated that to develop the oversight plan they will consider the historical practices of the White House Medical Unit, the DoD’s health care support for non‑military U.S. Government senior officials, and the need for strict security protocols to protect the health and safety of White House principals.

Our Response

Comments from the Assistant Secretary addressed the specifics of the recommendation; therefore, the recommendation is resolved, but will remain open. We will close the recommendation once the Defense Health Agency Director provides us documentation that showing that they have developed the oversight plan for executive medicine services.

Recommendation C.2

We recommend that the Defense Health Agency Director establish controls for billing and cost recovery for outpatient medical services provided to non‑military senior officials of the U.S. Government, as outlined in 32 Code of Federal Regulations section 108.

Assistant Secretary of Defense (Health Affairs) Comments


The Assistant Secretary of Defense (Health Affairs), responding for the Defense Health Agency Director, agreed with the recommendation and stated that they will establish controls for the billing and cost recovery for outpatient medical services provided to non‑military senior officials of the U.S. Government, consistent with applicable law, regulation, security protocols, and policy. The Assistant Secretary stated that to develop the oversight plan they will consider the historical practices of the White House Medical Unit, the DoD’s health care support for non‑military U.S. Government senior officials, and the need for strict security protocols to protect the health and safety of White House principals.

Our Response

Comments from the Assistant Secretary addressed the specifics of the recommendation; therefore, the recommendation is resolved, but will remain open. We will close the recommendation once the Defense Health Agency Director provides us documentation showing that they have established controls for the billing and cost recovery for outpatient medical services provided to non‑military senior officials.

Appendix

Scope and Methodology


We conducted this evaluation from September 2019 through February 2020 in accordance with the “Quality Standards for Inspection and Evaluation,” published in January 2012 by the Council of Inspectors General on Integrity and Efficiency. Those standards require that we adequately plan the evaluation to ensure that objectives are met and that we perform the evaluation to obtain sufficient, competent, and relevant evidence to support the findings, conclusions, and recommendations. We believe that the evidence obtained was sufficient, competent, and relevant to lead a reasonable person to sustain the findings, conclusions, and recommendations.

A draft of this report was under review by the White House Military Office from May 2020 to July 2023. During this time we maintained contact with the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Health Affairs, the Defense Health Agency, and the White House Military Office to provide updates on the status of the report. This final report includes our findings and recommendations.

This evaluation’s scope included DoD offices, activities, officials, and guidance related to patient eligibility and pharmaceutical practices for executive medicine services within the NCRMD.45 [NCRMD is discussed in detail within the background of this report.] The Office of the Attending Physician of the United States Congress is staffed with military personnel and provides care to members of Congress and the Supreme Court. However, the Office of the Attending Physician is not a DoD facility, and was not within the scope of this evaluation.

We interviewed over 120 officials during this evaluation, including interviews of hospital administrators, military medical providers, and pharmacists. We also analyzed the transcripts of 70 DoD OIG Administrative Investigations team interviews with former White House Military Office employees who served within the White House between 2009 and 2018. We reviewed over 200 documents, including Federal criteria, DoD guidance, military Service policies, MTF internal standard operating procedures, and pharmacy procurement and inventory records.

Criteria for Executive Medicine

We reviewed the following criteria and policies.

Federal Criteria

• Public Law 91‑513, “Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970,” October 27, 1970.

• Section 1073(d), title 10, United States Code

• Section 1074, title 10, United States Code

• Section 1079, title 10, United States Code

• Section 1086(c), title 10, United States Code

• Title 21 Code of Federal Regulations, Section 827 (2019)

• Title 21 Code of Federal Regulations, Section 1301.73 (2019)

• Title 21 Code of Federal Regulations, Section 1304.22 (2019)

• Title 21 Code of Federal Regulations, Section 1305.17 (2019)

• Title 21 Code of Federal Regulations, Section 1306 (2019)

• Title 21 Code of Federal Regulations, Section 1317 (2019)

• Title 32 Code of Federal Regulations, Section 108 (2019)

• Title 32 Code of Federal Regulations, Section 199.21 (2019)

DoD Criteria

• Assistant Secretary of Defense for Health Affairs Policy 11‑005, “TRICARE Policy for Access to Care,” February 23, 2011

• DoD Instruction 1341.2, “Defense Enrollment Eligibility Reporting System,” August 18, 2016

• DoD Instruction 6025.23, “Health Care Eligibility Under the Secretarial Designee (SECDES) Program and Related Special Authorities,” October 2, 2013

• Defense Health Agency Procedural Instruction 6025.31, “Military Medical Treatment Facility Pharmacy Operations,” December 20, 2019

• DoD Manual 6025.13, “Medical Quality Assurance and Clinical Quality Management,” October 29, 2013

• Navy Manual of the Medical Department, NAVMED P‑117, Chapter 21, March 5, 2018

• BUMED Instruction 6010.32, “Patient Registration Program,” June 13, 2017

• Navy Pharmacy Standard Operating Procedures, Version 5.0, July 23, 2018

Organizational Responsibilities for Executive Medicine in the NCR

We interviewed officials, in person or via teleconference, about patient eligibility and pharmaceutical management policies and oversight plans. Specifically, we interviewed officials from:

• The Defense Health Agency

• The Office of the Surgeon General of the U.S. Army

• The Office of the Surgeon General of the U.S. Navy

• The Office of the Surgeon General of the U.S. Air Force

• The National Capital Region Medical Directorate

We conducted site visits to meet with key officials and observe executive medicine eligibility and pharmaceutical management practices.

• At the White House Medical Unit, we interviewed senior leaders and medical providers, and we observed patient administration and pharmacy operations at the Eisenhower Executive Office Building, New Executive Office Building, White House Communication Agency, and Medical Evaluation and Treatment Team Clinics.

• At the Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, we interviewed senior leaders and medical providers, and we observed patient administration and pharmacy operations at the Primary Care Clinic, Executive Medicine Clinic, Pharmacy, and Patient Administration Division office.

• At Fort Belvoir Community Hospital, we interviewed senior leaders and medical providers, and we observed patient administration and pharmacy operations at the Family Medicine Clinic, Executive Medicine Clinic, Pharmacy, and Patient Administration Division office.

• At DiLorenzo TRICARE Health Clinic, we interviewed senior leaders and medical providers, and we observed patient administration and pharmacy operations at the Executive Medicine Clinic and the Pharmacy.

• At Andrew Rader U.S. Army Health Clinic and Fort McNair Army Health Clinic, we interviewed senior leaders and medical providers, and we observed patient administration and pharmacy operations at the Family Medicine Clinic and the Andrew Radar Pharmacy.

Documentary Evidence

On September 24, 2019, we sent a request for information to NCRMD and the White House Medical Unit officials for data related to identifying eligible patients and ordering, storing, dispensing, and accounting for pharmaceuticals. All requests for data were for the period of January 1, 2014, through December 31, 2018. We reviewed and analyzed the following pieces of evidence:

• NCRMD Criteria for Enrollment in Executive Medicine

• NCRMD Pharmacy Governance Policy

• NCRMD Formulary Management Standard Operating Procedures

• WRNMMC Administrative Instruction 6025.01 Secretarial Designee Program

• Walter Reed Department Of Patient Administration Standard Operating Procedure

• Walter Reed Medical Staff By Laws

• Walter Reed AI 6000.11 Medication Management, April 8, 2015

• Walter Reed Executive Medicine Pharmacy Support Policies

• Walter Reed records of medications supplied to the White House Medical Unit

• Fort Belvoir Community Hospital White House Medical Unit MOA

• Fort Belvoir Community Hospital Administrative Instruction 6010.03 FBCH Executive Medicine Clinic Eligibility, August 1, 2017

• Fort Belvoir Community Hospital Administrative Instruction 6025.04, April 4, 2017

• Fort Belvoir Community Hospital Memorandum for the Record—Exec Med Clinic Access to Care November 7, 2016

• Fort Belvoir Community Hospital Memorandum for the Record CODEL

• Fort Belvoir Community Hospital Medication Use Policy

• Fort Belvoir Community Hospital Standard CODEL Drug List

• The White House Medical Unit EEOB Clinic Orientation Guide

• White House Medical Unit Narcotic/Controlled Inventory requisition forms

• White House Medical Unit CSIB Inventory forms

• White House Medical Unit Controlled Medication Receipt Tracking—2018‑2019

• White House Medical Unit Formulary

• White House Medical Unit Staff Assistance Visit and Medication Safety Review, March 4, 2019

• White House Medical Unit Staff Assistance Visit and Medication Safety Review, November 8, 2019

• White House Medical Unit DoD Form 1289 Controlled Substance Prescription Examples

Use of Computer‑Processed Data

We used computer‑processed data for this evaluation. We used data reported by Walter Reed UBO to determine the total cost of outpatient care waived for certain senior officials of the U.S. Government over the past three fiscal years. To assess the reliability of this data, we interviewed agency officials and reviewed UBO documentation. Specifically, we interviewed Walter Reed UBO officials and discussed the mechanisms they use to assess the quality of their data and the extent to which the UBO employs quality control mechanisms. We also analyzed Walter Reed UBO’s records of outpatient care fees waived for certain senior officials of the U.S. Government over the past three fiscal years. In January 2019, Walter Reed UBO informed us that its data on the total cost of outpatient care waived for certain senior officials of the U.S. Government may not be complete. The incomplete data was due to an inability to separate SECDES patients by patient category type. As a result, the total cost of outpatient care waived for certain senior officials of the U.S. Government could be understated. Despite this limitation, we determined that Walter Reed UBO’s data was sufficiently reliable for the purposes of reporting the NCRMD’s PAD system’s ability to bill for outpatient medical services rendered to senior U.S. Government officials.

Additionally, we used computer‑processed data to determine the number of medications. To assess the reliability of this data, we interviewed agency officials and reviewed documentation related to the federally mandated tracking of medications. Based on an analysis of interviews with knowledgeable officials and medication records, we determined that the provided data was sufficiently reliable for the purposes of verifying the White House Medical Unit’s controlled substance medication inventory.

Prior Coverage

During the last five years, the DoD Office of Inspector General (DoD OIG) issued one report discussing pharmaceutical management. Unrestricted DoD OIG reports can be accessed at http://www.dodig.mil/reports.

DoD OIG

Report No. DODIG‑2020‑048, “Audit of Controls Over Opioid Prescriptions at Selected DoD Military Treatment Facilities,” January 14, 2020

This report determined that MTFs potentially overprescribed opioids from 2015 through 2017 because the DHA and Military Departments did not have policies and processes in place to identify and monitor beneficiaries who were prescribed medication doses that were over the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA)/DoD “Clinical Practice Guideline for Opioid Therapy for Chronic Pain” recommendations.


Management Comments

Assistant Secretary of Defense (Health Affairs)


THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF DEFENSE
1200 DEFENSE PENTAGON
WASHINGTON, DC 20301-1200

HEALTH AFFAIRS

MEMORANDUM FOR THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE INSPECTOR GENERAL

SUBJECT:
Review of the Department of Defense Inspector General Draft Report “Evaluation of the DoD Internal Controls Related to Patient Eligibility and Pharmaceutical Management Within the National Capital Region Executive Medicine Services” (Project No. D2019-DEV0PB-0196.000)

This is the Department of Defense (DoD) response to the DoD Inspector General Draft Report “Evaluation of the DoD Internal Controls Related to Patient Eligibility and Pharmaceutical Management Within the National Capital Region Executive Medicine Services” (Project No. D2019-DEV0PB-0196.000).

The Department acknowledges receipt and concurs with all recommendations. This includes the recommendations assigned to the Director, Defense Health Agency, as well as those assigned to me. Our concurrence is attached.

My point of contact for this issue is [DELETE]

MARTINEZ-LOPEZ.LESTER [DELETE]

Digitally signed by MARTINEZ-LOPEZ.LESTER [DELETE]
Date: 2023.11.13 16:07:42 -05'00'

Lester Martinez-Lopez, M.D., M.P.H.

Attachments:
As stated


Acronyms and Abbreviations

AHLTA Armed Forces Health Longitudinal Technology Application
AI Administrative Investigations
ASD(HA) Assistant Secretary of Defense (Health Affairs)
BUMED Bureau of Medicine and Surgery
CFR Code of Federal Regulations
CHCS Composite Health Care System
CSIB Controlled Substance Inventory Board
DEA Drug Enforcement Administration
DEERS Defense Enrollment Eligibility System
DHA Defense Health Agency
DODI Department of Defense Instruction
DoD OIG Department of Defense Office of Inspector General
EEOB Eisenhower Executive Office Building
eMSM Enhanced Multi-Service Market
HA Health Affairs
MHS Military Health System
MTF Military/Medical Treatment Facility
NCR National Capital Region
NCRMD National Capital Region Medical Directorate
PAD Patient Administration Division
SECDES Secretarial Designees
SES Senior Executive Service
SOP Standard Operating Procedures
U.S.C. United States Code
WHMU White House Medical Unit
WRNMMC Walter Reed National Military Medical Center

Glossary

Accreditation. Process of review that allows health care organizations to demonstrate their ability to meet regulatory requirements and standards established by a recognized accrediting organization.

Active Duty. Refers to Service members who are on active duty or members of the Reserve components who are in active duty status.

Armed Forces Health Longitudinal Application (AHLTA). The electronic medical record system used by the DoD since its initial implementation in January 2004. Automated dispensing system. A mechanical system that performs operations or activities, other than compounding or administration, relative to the storage, packaging, counting, labeling, and dispensing of medications, and which collects, controls, and maintains all transaction information.

Beneficiary. A person eligible to receive care in an MTF.

Composite Health Care System (CHCS). Serves as the foundation for AHLTA, the Department of Defense’s (DoD) current electronic health record. CHCS enables DoD providers to document patienthealth information and history, electronically order laboratory and radiology tests and services, retrieve test results, and order and prescribe medications.

Controlled Substance. A drug or other substance, or immediate precursor, included in Schedule I, II, III, IV, or V of the Controlled Substances Act.

Drug Diversion. Drug diversion, broadly defined, is when the legal supply chain of prescription analgesic drugs is broken, and drugs are transferred from a licit to an illicit channel of distribution or use.

Eligible Family Member. A family member eligible for care under the TRICARE managed health care system and the Secretarial Designee (SECDES) program.

Enhanced Multi‑Service Market (eMSM). An eMSM is a geographic area where at least two medical hospitals or clinics from different services have overlapping service areas. This geographic area is provided enhanced authorities including the authority to manage the allocation of the budget for the market, direct the adoption of common clinical and business functions for the market, optimize readiness to deploy medically ready forces and ready medical forces, and direct the movement of workload and workforce between or among the medical treatment facilities.

Government Leader. In this report, this term is an alternative term used to describe a senior official. See the definition below.

Health Care. Care, services, or supplies related to the health of an individual. Health care includes, but is not limited to, preventive, diagnostic, therapeutic, rehabilitative, maintenance, or palliative care; counseling, service, assessment, or procedure with respect to the physical or mental condition, or functional status, of an individual or that affects the structure or function of the body; and sale or dispensing of a drug, device, equipment, or other item in accordance with a prescription.

Market. The DHA construct of MTFs within a contained region.

Medical Provider. A military or civilian health care professional who, under regulations of a Military Department , is granted specific clinical practice privileges to provide health care services in a military medical or dental treatment facility. A provider may be classified as “privileged” or “non‑privileged.”

Medical treatment facility. An inpatient or outpatient facility (owned, staffed, and managed by the Military Departments) established for the purpose of furnishing medical and dental care to eligible individuals.

Military Health System. All DoD health plans and all DoD health care providers that are, in the case of institutional providers, organized under the management authority of, or in the case of covered individual providers, assigned to or employed by, the DHA, the Surgeon General of the Army, the Surgeon General of the Navy, or the Surgeon General of the Air Force.

Military Retiree. Any member or former member of the uniformed services, who is entitled, under statute, to retired, retirement, or retainer pay on account of service as a member, or who receives military retired or retainer pay.

National Capital Region. The region that consists of the District of Columbia; Prince Georges and Montgomery Counties in Maryland; Arlington, Fairfax, Loudoun, and Prince William Counties in Virginia; and lastly, all cities and towns within the outer boundaries of the foregoing counties.

National Capital Region Medical Directorate. A directorate of the DHA that manages integrated health care delivery within the NCR. The NCRMD exercises authority, direction, and control over Walter Reed National Military Medical Center (Walter Reed), Fort Belvoir Community Hospital, and Walter Reed and Fort Belvoir Community Hospital subordinate clinics, which includes the DiLorenzo TRICARE Health Clinic (DiLorenzo).

Operational Health care Units. Those deployable units that, while at home station, are treating only active duty personnel and Reserve Component members on active duty status and are not a component of an accredited MTF.

Outpatient. Outpatient care consists of care in emergency rooms, same‑day surgery centers, and ambulatory procedure clinics for patients who are not subsequently hospitalized overnight during the episode of care.

Over the counter medications. Over‑the‑counter medicine is also known as OTC or nonprescription medicine. All these terms refer to medicine that an individual can buy without a prescription. They are safe and effective when the directions on the label are followed and taken as directed by a health care professional.

Pharmacist. A person who is trained specially in the scientific basis of pharmacology and who is licensed to prepare and sell or dispense drugs and compounds and to make up prescriptions ordered by a physician.

Pharmaceutical Management. All activities related to procuring, storing, securing, prescribing, transcribing, preparing, dispensing, and administering medications.

Prescription medications. Medications an individual can get only with a prescription (order) from a physician and which are dispensed from a pharmacy.

Reverse distributor. A person who receives controlled substances acquired from another DEA registrant for the purpose of returning unwanted, unusable, or outdated controlled substances to the manufacturer or the manufacturer’s agent, or, where necessary, processing such substances or arranging for processing such substances for disposal.

Secretarial Designee. Eligible senior officials of the U.S. Government for space‑available care in MTFs on a reimbursable basis, unless specified otherwise by a Service Secretary.

Senior officials. The CFR designates that certain senior officials of the U.S. Government are eligible for space‑available inpatient and outpatienthealth care services from the Military Health System. See the individuals listed in this category on page 33 of this report. Generally, these are persons employed by the White House and executive agencies, including independent agencies, at a rate of pay equal to or greater than the minimum rate of basic pay for the Senior Executive Service. Exempted from this definition are active duty military officers.

The Joint Commission. An independent, not‑for‑profit organization that accredits and certifies more than 20,500 health care organizations and programs in the United States reflecting an organization’s commitment to meeting certain performance standards

Treatment. The provision, coordination, or management of health care and related services by one or more health care providers, including the coordination or management of health care by a health care provider with a third party; consultation between health care providers relating to a patient; or the referral of a patient for health care from one health care provider to another.

TRICARE. The DoD health care program that provides health care coverage for medical services, medications, and dental care for military families, military retirees and their families, and survivors.

Whistleblower Protection

U.S. Department of Defense


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Re: Trump lashes out at Gov. Doug Ducey following certificat

Postby admin » Thu Feb 01, 2024 9:33 am

Man Posted YouTube Video With Father’s Severed Head While Ranting About Joe Biden: Justin Mohn was arrested in Pennsylvania after his mother found the headless corpse. His social media shows a long history of troubling far-right conspiracy theories and talking points.
by Mack Lamoureux & Tess Owen
Vice
January 31, 2024, 11:15am
https://www.vice.com/en/article/7kxjwg/ ... vered-head

Image
​An image from the YouTube video before it was taken down.

A man who police allege killed and decapitated his father, posted a YouTube video showing off the head while calling for violence and railing against Joe Biden, a “communist takeover of America” and “far-left woke mobs.”

A 14-minute video titled “Mohn’s Militia—Call to Arms for American Patriots” appeared on YouTube on Tuesday afternoon. In the video, a man identified as 32-year-old Justin Mohn, sits at a desk in a bedroom wearing plastic gloves. He picks up a severed head, wrapped in plastic. “This is the head of Mike Mohn,” he says to the camera. “A federal employee of over 20 years, and my father.”

Mohn, who appeared to be reading from a script, delivered a conspiracy-laden speech that would not be out of place on widely-watched, far-right broadcasts.

“The federal government has declared war on America’s citizens and the American states,” he said. “America is rotting from the inside, as far-left woke mobs ravage our once prosperous country.”

He ranted about “the globalist, communist takeover of America” and “bribed members of the deep state.” He went on against “fifth column” groups, which he said includes undocumented immigrants, the LGBTQ community, Black Lives Matter and antifa, who are working in concert with the “traitorous” federal government to destroy the U.S.


Image
@vicenews
"This is the head of Mike Mohn. He is now in hell for eternity as a traitor to ..."


In the video Mohn declared himself the “the commander of America's national network of militias” and issued a call to “patriots and militia members” for violence.

“All federal employees are to be killed on site,” he said. “All FBI, IRS and other federal law enforcement offices, as well as federal courthouses, are to be sieged around the country. All federal agents, U.S. marshals, federal judges and border patrol are to be killed or else captured, tortured for information, and publicly executed for betraying their country. Earn your place in heaven by sending a traitor to hell early.”

He also went on about a number of other rallying points, ones often spoken about by mainstream right-wing politicians and media figures, including “legitimate” election results and returning to Judeo-Christian roots.


The gruesome video racked up more than 5,000 views before YouTube removed it for violating its policies on graphic violence and violent extremism. Like many other videos that feature mutilations and death, the video showing his father's head initially went viral on Twitter (now called X) where it was shared widely by “verified” users. X is now sending anyone searching for keywords relating to the video to a blank page.

Police responded to the Mohn residence in Levittown, a suburb of Philadelphia, after receiving a call from Mike Mohn’s wife. The Bucks County DA said that they discovered Mike Mohn’s headless body in the downstairs bathroom, and a machete and a large knife in the bathtub.

They discovered the head in a cooking pot in a bedroom, as well as bloody rubber gloves.

Mohn fled the scene in his father’s car and was later apprehended 100 miles away by officers from the Fort Indiantown Gap Police Department. He’d jumped a fence surrounding a National Guard Training Facility there. Police tracked him by pinging his cellphone.

Mohn’s simmering anti-government hostilities and messianic delusions are something that shined through the man’s robust online footprint. Mohn has self-published multiple books that he sold on Amazon and other online marketplaces, the books ranged in topics but some focused on the political divisions he referred to in the video where he showed off the decapitated head of his father.

On a now-removed Facebook author page that VICE News viewed when it was active, his latest publication was an essay called “America's Coming Bloody Revolution.” He purported to be the author of seven books one of which was entitled “The Second Messiah, King of Earth”. In a 2017 book entitled "The Revolution Leader’s Survival Guide," Mohn wrote a letter to Donald Trump in which he promised to lead a “ peaceful revolution.”

Mohn also had an account on Spotify where he hosted several albums, one of the albums was called “Justin’s Stalkers” and is still currently available online.

Image
Justin's Stalkers
Justin Mohn
2019
Justin's Stalkers, Pt. 1
Justin Mohn: The Movie
Justin's Stalkers, Pt. 2
Escaped
They Came for Justin Mohn


Mohn also was seemingly involved in several lawsuits with the government that focused on affirmative action. In the lawsuit, which was dismissed, Mohn states that the government caused him harm by allowing him to take out student loans and that affirmative action made it so he couldn’t get work. In the video where he brandishes his father’s decapitated head, Mohn mentions the judge who dismissed his lawsuit by name, gives out his address, and calls for a $100,000 bounty on the “heads of all federal judges.”

Mohn has been denied bail and is still in custody, his next court date is unknown.
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Re: Trump lashes out at Gov. Doug Ducey following certificat

Postby admin » Sun Feb 04, 2024 4:32 am

Part 1 of 3

Democracy on Trial (full documentary)
FRONTLINE PBS
Jan 30, 2024

788,008 views Jan 30, 2024 #January6 #DonaldTrump #Documentary
FRONTLINE investigates the roots of the federal criminal case against former President Donald Trump stemming from his 2020 election loss.

This journalism is made possible by viewers like you. Support your local PBS station here: https://www.pbs.org/donate

In March, 2024 Republican presidential nomination front-runner Trump is scheduled to begin standing trial on federal charges, including conspiracy to defraud the U.S., in connection with efforts to overturn his 2020 election loss. He says the charges against him are politically motivated.

“Democracy on Trial” traces the road to this unprecedented moment, and examines the implications of the historic criminal case unfolding in the midst of a presidential election year. Drawing on court documents and revelatory interviews with elected officials, former government lawyers, House Select Committee witnesses and former committee staffers, authors and journalists, the documentary reports that the work of the House Select Committee investigating the Jan. 6 Capitol attack provided the groundwork for special counsel Jack Smith’s indictment of Trump and may offer insights into how the trial unfolds.

The documentary chronicles how the committee built its case against Trump and tried to prove his intent, how it chose to present its case to the American public, and criticisms of its work. Key witnesses who testified before the committee and whose firsthand accounts are now evidence in the federal case speak out in the documentary — including Georgia Secretary of State Brad Raffensperger, Georgia election official Gabriel Sterling and former Arizona Speaker of the House Rusty Bowers.

Gripping and illuminating, “Democracy on Trial,” the newest film from FRONTLINE’s award-winning political team, Michael Kirk, Mike Wiser and Vanessa Fica, also examines how Trump has challenged the case. Trump has pleaded not guilty and made the legal argument, now being reviewed by an appellate court, that he has “absolute immunity” from prosecution for his actions while in office.

“Democracy on Trial” is a FRONTLINE production with the Kirk Documentary Group. The director is Michael Kirk. The producers are Michael Kirk, Mike Wiser and Vanessa Fica. The writers are Michael Kirk and Mike Wiser. The reporters are Vanessa Fica and Brooke Nelson Alexander. The editor-in-chief and executive producer of FRONTLINE is Raney Aronson-Rath.

CHAPTERS:

00:00 - Prologue
00:43 - Donald Trump, the First Former U.S. President Charged With Crimes in Office
05:10 - How the House Jan. 6 Committee Was Formed
26:14 - What Did Former President Trump Know About the 2020 Election Results and When Did He Know It?
44:06 - A Georgia Election Official’s Warning to Trump About Potential for Violence
51:17 - Arizona Lawmaker Rusty Bowers Recalls Call With Trump: ‘You’re Asking Me to Break My Oath’
1:03:02 - Poll Workers Caught in an Election Fraud Conspiracy
1:16:37 - Brad Raffensperger Describes His Georgia Election Phone Call With Trump
1:24:21- Trump’s Call for a “Big Protest” in D.C. on Jan. 6, 2021
1:34:23 - The Pressure on Trump’s Justice Department in the 2020 Election’s Aftermath
1:42:10 - President Trump, Vice President Pence and the Jan. 6 Election Certification
1:54:04 - Trump White House Aide Cassidy Hutchinson Testifies Before the Jan. 6 Committee
2:05:21 - House Select Committee Examines What President Trump Did for 187 Minutes on Jan. 6
2:17:55 - Former President Donald Trump’s Looming Trial
2:21:58 - Credits



Prologue

0:02
>> The President's intent was to stay in power at all costs.
0:08
>> This election was stolen. >> I flat out said, I swore an oath. I'm not gonna break it. I'm not putting on no stinking circus.
0:13
>> They put their faith in Donald Trump, and he deceived them. >> I don't think, by any large stretch, can you characterize it as bipartisan.
0:19
>> The Select Committee laid the path down for the Department of Justice. >> Donald Trump is going to be the defendant and the candidate.
0:26
It's hard to imagine how it's going to play out. >> Now on FRONTLINE, Democracy on Trial.

Donald Trump, the First Former U.S. President Charged With Crimes in Office

0:43
♪ ♪ >> An historic day here in Washington.
0:48
A federal grand jury here has indicted former President Donald Trump... >> Mr. Trump is charged with three counts of conspiracy
0:54
and one count of obstruction. >> This is the third criminal case brought against the former president this year.
1:01
>> He will now head to appear in federal court for the arraignment. This was not quite the return to Washington
1:07
this former president had envisioned for himself. ♪ ♪
1:17
>> We were getting ready to win this election. Frankly, we did win this election.
1:23
(cheers and applause) ♪ ♪
1:29
(siren blaring) I won this election by hundreds of thousands of votes.
1:35
There's no way I lost Georgia, there's no way. I only need 11,000 votes, fellas,
1:41
I need 11,000 votes. Give me a break. ♪ ♪
1:49
(sirens blaring) Make no mistake, this election was stolen
1:56
from you, from me, from the country. ♪ ♪
2:04
And we fight. We fight like hell, and if you don't fight like hell
2:10
you're not going to have a country anymore. (camera shutter clicks)
2:20
(typewriter keys echoing)
2:29
>> NARRATOR: For the first time in American history-- a president charged with crimes in office.
2:35
♪ ♪ >> A major development in Special Counsel Jack Smith's investigation into former president Trump.
2:42
>> Special Counsel Jack Smith will make remarks at a news conference from the Justice Department shortly.
2:48
>> This is a climactic moment, certainly, in this investigation. >> An indictment was unsealed
2:54
charging Donald J. Trump with conspiring to defraud the United States,
3:00
conspiring to disenfranchise voters, and conspiring and attempting to obstruct
3:05
an official proceeding. Since the attack on our Capitol, the Department of Justice
3:11
has remained committed to ensuring accountability for those criminally responsible for what happened that day.
3:18
>> Jack Smith is sort of like the, uh... (clears throat) central casting career federal prosecutor.
3:25
He's been doing this for 20 years. He has a reputation for being thorough and methodical.
3:33
He's fairly aggressive, but not reckless aggressive. He's a very formidable opponent for Trump's lawyers.
3:41
>> In this case, my office will seek a speedy trial so that our evidence can be tested in court
3:47
and judged by a jury of citizens. >> NARRATOR: In the middle of a presidential election,
3:55
a critical moment for American democracy. >> It lands us right in the middle
4:00
of a presidential campaign. It is unavoidably going to be tainted
4:06
with the appearance of politics at play. Obviously, that's the card that Donald Trump will play.
4:14
>> They waited right to the middle of an election until I became the dominant force in the polls.
4:19
I got indicted over bull (bleep). I got indicted. Bull (bleep). I get indicted for saying the election was rigged.
4:26
>> If he's convicted, then he's, you know, running for president
4:32
as someone who has been found guilty of federal crimes. >> I love that mugshot.
4:38
I love that beautiful woman right there with a mugshot. >> To say the stakes for that trial are high
4:43
doesn't even begin to cover it, really. We often, in the media, use the phrase "trial of the century"
4:49
for this sensational trial or that one. But really, this would be, I think,
4:54
the trial of the century. Because I cannot imagine anything more important
4:59
than a former president on trial, charged with trying to subvert American democracy.
5:09
(sirens blaring) (indistinct radio chatter)

How the House Jan. 6 Committee Was Formed

5:16
>> Tensions are still high following the chaos at the Capitol. >> NARRATOR: The federal indictment
5:22
has its roots in the aftermath of the January 6th attack. >> The chaos here has shaken the U.S. Capitol
5:27
and the country. >> Our nation's capital under a state of emergency, under a city-wide lockdown.
5:34
>> NARRATOR: In Congress there were calls to create a blue-ribbon bipartisan commission.
5:41
>> ...a 9/11 style commission to look into the causes of the attack. >> A bill to create a bipartisan commission
5:46
faces an uphill battle in the Senate. >> What was amazing was that the Senate Republicans
5:53
refused to do that. To do what Congress has done in many previous incidents
5:59
of great national catastrophe or crisis or controversy, which is to create a bipartisan special committee
6:07
across both chambers. >> NARRATOR: Republicans in Congress led by Senator Mitch McConnell wouldn't support
6:14
forming a commission that might go after Trump. >> Leader McConnell almost instinctively
6:20
goes into damage control mode. He's not necessarily gonna go out on a limb when the rest of his caucus isn't going to go with him.
6:27
>> NARRATOR: In the face of Republican opposition, the Democratic Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi
6:33
created a committee of her own. >> Morning. With great solemnity and sadness,
6:39
I'm announcing that the House will be establishing a select committee on the January 6th insurrection.
6:49
>> The House of Representatives today did what the Senate would not-- voted to create a select committee.
6:54
>> It was the hope of Pelosi and the Democratic majority that they'd be able to pick off
7:00
at least some Republican support, that there wouldn't be that great a pushback, but, in fact, there was.
7:05
And in the end, only two Republicans voted for the formation of that committee.
7:10
In fact, those two Republicans, Adam Kinzinger and Liz Cheney, were the two Republicans who ended up serving
7:16
on the committee. >> The fact that Liz Cheney and Adam Kinzinger are the only two House Republicans
7:21
who believe that we should know what happened on January 6th, that people should obey subpoenas from Congress,
7:27
that people should provide documents when requested-- that's itself incredibly astonishing.
7:34
>> NARRATOR: They would spend a year and a half examining the evidence. Tim Heaphy was the chief investigator.
7:42
A former U.S. attorney, Heaphy led the independent review of the violence in Charlottesville in 2017
7:49
and was now taking on January 6th. >> We ended up hiring, I think it was
7:55
14 or 15 former prosecutors. Lawyers that have the skill set to interview witnesses,
8:01
to digest a large amount of documents, and to sort of discern what's relevant,
8:06
and separate that from what's not. That skill set is developed largely by trying cases,
8:11
by investigating cases in federal and local prosecutors' offices. >> NARRATOR: They conducted more than 1,000 interviews.
8:18
>> The House Select Committee is shifting into high gear preparing to do battle with some pretty big names in the Trump world.
8:24
>> NARRATOR: Reviewed millions of documents... >> The House Committee probing the January 6th Capitol riot has issued ten new subpoenas.
8:30
>> NARRATOR: Thousands of hours of video evidence. >> These subpoenas brings the focus to the actions of former president Donald Trump
8:36
in the days and weeks leading up to the insurrection. >> They're con people. They're con artists.
8:43
>> NARRATOR: From the beginning Trump denounced the committee. >> The Select Committee on January... You know, like these people are legitimate.
8:49
Every one of them is a radical left hater. >> The committee issued a subpoena to none other than
8:55
former president Trump himself. >> NARRATOR: He refused to cooperate. >> Trump suing the January 6th committee
9:01
to block a subpoena for his testimony... >> NARRATOR: And while many of his aides did testify, others followed his lead.
9:07
>> Criminal contempt charges against former White House chief of staff Mark Meadows. >> Peter Navarro refusing to cooperate
9:14
with the January 6th committee... >> NARRATOR: The committee's final report spans 692 pages,
9:20
a case against Donald Trump. A blueprint for Special Counsel Jack Smith.
9:26
>> We saw our work as the first step in a process
9:32
and not the end of the process. It's very clear that the select committee
9:37
laid the path down for the Department of Justice. >> The January 6th case that will be heard
9:43
in Judge Chutkan's courtroom in Washington, D.C., has the most striking resemblance to what
9:50
unspooled itself from the January 6th committee. The basis of the indictment
9:57
looks like a carbon copy of what the January 6th committee uncovered.
10:04
>> A lot of the evidence that we uncovered is now in the hands of the Department of Justice.
10:10
I just think all what we see now is a by-product of the work
10:16
of the January select committee. >> NARRATOR: Bennie Thompson--
10:22
a longtime Democratic congressman-- chaired the committee. >> Bennie Thompson is a Mississippi congressman,
10:29
a Black man who grew up during the Civil Rights era in Mississippi, during the last vestiges of Jim Crow...
10:38
>> ♪ Glory, glory hallelujah ♪ >> ...and saw how hard-fought
10:43
the franchise to vote was for so many Black Americans.
10:51
>> NARRATOR: In January 6th, Thompson saw parallels.
10:56
>> One of the symbols of Southern resistance
11:02
to voting rights and equal opportunity was the Confederate battle flag.
11:09
(crowd clamoring) And to see that flag being waved by many of the protestors
11:17
brought back those memories.
11:23
>> When he saw rioters storm the Capitol, carrying the Confederate battle flag,
11:29
essentially trying to take away the votes of the American people... >> (crowd chanting): Fight for Trump!
11:35
>> ...that I know affected him profoundly. And certainly was a driving factor in the way
11:41
that he led the select committee. >> NARRATOR: Thompson's committee had gathered a trove of information.
11:47
The challenge: what do with it. >> The one thing that we knew
11:54
was the information that we have is compelling. The thing we needed to do was tell that to the American people in a compelling way.
12:01
So that's why we brought in a former president of ABC News.
12:07
>> Yeah, I got a call pretty much out of the blue from the January the 6th committee.
12:13
They wanted, they wanted a storyteller. And while they were brilliant, they were brilliant lawyers,
12:18
storytelling for a mass audience is not what they do.
12:23
>> To bring in a guy like this who would think outside the box really did prove to be fruitful.
12:28
And it was Goldston who really began to envision this as, in a way, a kind of miniseries, that there would be, you know,
12:34
sort of nine episodes, and that these episodes would tackle particular themes. >> "Attack on the Capitol: The Investigation."
12:42
>> NARRATOR: The first hearing was primetime television. >> ...the nation is about to witness a defining moment. The first hearing before the country,
12:49
the results of the January 6th investigation. >> This is an extraordinary moment in American history.
12:54
>> When it came to that first hearing we knew how high the stakes were. >> ...is about to hold its first primetime hearing.
13:02
>> We were either going to, you know, make people realize that this is important, you know, or once you've lost them, you've lost them for good.
13:11
>> On the evening of June 9, 8:01 p.m., the doors opened.
13:17
My heart was beating pretty fast on June 9, and it was a real question of is this going to work or not?
13:27
>> All right everybody, here we go, five on the line please. >> I'm in this tiny control room
13:32
right up the stairs from Cannon Caucus. And we count down to the start the hearing,
13:40
and at that point, what can you do? >> Here we go, in three, two, one.
13:49
>> The select committee to investigate the January 6th attack on the United States Capitol
13:56
will be in order. >> We wanted to make sure
14:01
that this was a presentation that would grab the audience and hold onto 'em. Chairman Thompson loved to say, "It's gotta pop!"
14:07
>> NARRATOR: To get it to "pop" they had just the thing. >> Donald Trump lost the presidential election in 2020.
14:16
Don't believe me? Hear what his former attorney general had to say about it.
14:22
>> (on video): Not just what I... I'd been through, I've had... I had three discussions with the president that I can recall.
14:28
>> NARRATOR: Former Attorney General Bill Barr. >> This is the Attorney General of the United States of America.
14:37
For him to come forth under oath, I think was very powerful.
14:44
>> (on video): I made it clear I did not agree with the idea of saying the election was stolen and putting out this stuff,
14:50
which I told the president was bull (bleep). >> Bill Barr, who had been hated by the left,
14:58
and who had been beloved by Trump all the way until December of 2020,
15:04
to hear him say, mincing no words, that there was all this bull (bleep)
15:11
that was being perpetrated by Trump made you realize that okay, we're now about to walk into
15:18
a portal of evidence that is, um, that is in fact different
15:23
than everything else. >> NARRATOR: Following Barr: shocking video.
15:31
>> Most of the footage we are about to play has never been seen.
15:37
The select committee obtained it as a part of our investigation.
15:42
(shouting) >> Hold the line! Hold the line! Hold the line! >> Break the line! (shouting)
15:48
>> We have a breach of the Capitol, breach of the Capitol, on the upper level!
15:53
>> We can't hold this, we're gonna get too many (bleep) people. Look at this (bleep) vantage point-- we're (bleep).
15:58
>> We need to hold the doors of the Capitol. (shouting)
16:05
I need (indistinct) support! (shouting) We lost the line!
16:11
We've lost the line! All MPD fall back. (on video): All MPD fall back up to the upper deck!
16:20
All MPD fall back to the upper deck, ASAP! (crowd shouting on video)
16:25
(crowd chanting "Nancy") >> In the room that moment,
16:30
we had officers that had been there on January 6. (crowd shouting on video)
16:37
(indistinct shouting, struggling)
16:47
(shouting, struggling continue) >> There was a real gravity that
16:55
we wanted to bring to that first hearing, that that video really put in perspective for us there.
17:01
>> ...get him out, get him up! Get him up! Officer down! >> Get him up!
17:07
(officers shouting) >> Get him up! >> Hold up! Hold up! >> Get him up!
17:13
(shouting continues) >> I don't think anyone, until that footage was shown,
17:19
had really fully understood the violence of the day. (crowd cheering)
17:27
(crowd shouting) >> Help! (shouting continues on video)
17:35
>> Those law enforcement personnel, here are people who were sworn
17:41
to protect the Capitol, come to work on that day to do just that,
17:47
and they are assaulted. (crowd cheering on video)
17:54
>> NARRATOR: Paying special attention to the hearing, Donald Trump, who responded on his own social media platform.
18:01
>> (dramatized): The so-called "Rush on the Capitol" was not caused by me, it was caused by a rigged and stolen election!
18:09
(indistinct radio chatter) >> NARRATOR: The committee continued laying out its evidence to the contrary.
18:15
>> The attack on our Capitol was not a spontaneous riot.
18:20
President Trump summoned the mob, assembled the mob, and lit the flame of this attack.
18:27
>> NARRATOR: Vice chair at the hearing: Liz Cheney, a lifelong Republican
18:33
and rock-ribbed conservative. >> ...or destroy by force, the government... >> I chose Liz Cheney as my vice chair.
18:42
she had Republican credibility in the broader sense.
18:48
So you take an African American liberal and a white female conservative
18:57
to lead this committee.
19:03
>> Liz Cheney is Republican royalty in many ways. She's the daughter of Dick Cheney,
19:11
the vice president. She's very conservative, she represents Wyoming.
19:18
No one would mistake her for a liberal, but she also was someone
19:25
who broke very publicly with Donald Trump. >> And there is no RINO in America who has thrown in
19:31
her lot with the radical left more than Liz Cheney. (crowd booing)
19:37
She has gone crazy! >> I will do everything I can to ensure the former president
19:43
never again gets anywhere near the Oval Office. >> She's been so strong on,
19:48
"We need to have the truth about January 6. "We need to have the truth about "what happened before January 6. We can't have Trump again, he can't be president again."
19:57
>> I talked to her about what was motivating her. And she said every time she sees the video...
20:03
>> (crowd chanting): ...Mike Pence! >> ...of Mike Pence being rushed to safety,
20:08
for fear of his life on January 6... >> Evacuate so we can secure the members on the other side, copy!
20:14
>> ...she saw, in her mind, the image of her father. >> A plane has just crashed into the World Trade Center here in New York City.
20:21
(explosion) >> Oh, my God! >> That looks like a second plane. >> Dick Cheney, the vice president, being rushed away from his office in the White House
20:28
to the bunker on 9/11. >> It is one of the darkest days in America, attacked in an act of terrorist war.
20:35
>> Tremendously sad day, insurrectionists have stormed the U.S. Capitol,
20:40
and they have been cheered on by the president. >> And suddenly I got it.
20:46
Suddenly I got it-- for her, this was what Al Qaeda and 9/11 were to her father.
20:53
To the extent that her father became really quite driven by his view of the mission to protect America after 9/11,
21:02
she saw her mission the same way, to protect America from Donald Trump.
21:07
♪ ♪ >> NARRATOR: Now helping to lead the January 6th committee,
21:13
Cheney was determined to lay out the case against Donald Trump. >> Over multiple months,
21:19
Donald Trump oversaw and coordinated a sophisticated plan to overturn the presidential election
21:26
and prevent the transfer of presidential power. >> In the very first hearing, she kind of laid out
21:32
the theory of the case, right, the opening statement where she puts forth this multi-part plan.
21:37
I think that will sound very much like Jack Smith's opening statement in the trial in March.
21:43
It is a summary of how all of this fits together. >> In our hearings, you will see evidence
21:50
of each element of this plan. >> Frankly, we did win this election.
21:55
(crowd cheering) We did win this election. >> Donald Trump and his advisors knew that he had in fact lost the election,
22:03
but despite this, you will see evidence that President Trump corruptly pressured state legislators
22:08
and election officials to change election results. (telephone dialing out, picks up) >> I only need 11,000 votes!
22:14
Fellas, I need 11,000 votes, give me a break. (telephone hangs up)
22:20
♪ ♪ >> What you saw at that hearing, methodically laid out by Liz Cheney,
22:28
showed that it wasn't just some sort of like random, off the cuff, impulsive actions on his part,
22:35
but that there was, in fact, a strategy and a pattern and a methodology to what he was doing.
22:43
>> President Trump's efforts to pressure Vice President Pence to act illegally likely violated two federal criminal statutes.
22:52
>> Because if Mike Pence does the right thing, we win the election. >> If I could have been a fly on the wall
22:59
in the Department of Justice during that, I certainly probably expect everybody sat up and took notice
23:04
of what she said after that. >> In our final hearings, you will hear how President Trump summoned a violent mob
23:11
and directed them, illegally, to march on the United States Capitol. >> We fight like hell,
23:18
and if you don't fight like hell, you're not going to have a country any more. ♪ ♪
23:28
>> And with that, the committee stands adjourned. (bangs gavel)
23:35
>> NARRATOR: The hearings got the public's attention. >> The first primetime January 6th hearing laying the foundation for a specific case against Trump.
23:42
>> The House Committee went into graphic detail on the results of... >> To put it crassly,
23:47
the January 6th committee was a ratings hit. >> From NBC News, January 6th revelations will "blow the roof off the House."
23:54
>> The very first one, the primetime viewing was at 19.4 million, which was really, really remarkable.
24:01
>> Huge-- surprisingly huge numbers last night, that's on par with events like Sunday Night Football games.
24:06
There were still multiple, multiple, brand-new revelations last night that took us by surprise.
24:11
>> NARRATOR: But for his supporters, Trump had a different story. >> (dramatized): The unselect committee of political hacks
24:19
refuses to play any of the many positive witnesses and statements. >> It's a broadside.
24:24
And it's not just one broadside, it is a continuous series of broadsides. >> (dramatized): Bill Barr was a weak and frightened
24:32
attorney general who was always being "played" and threatened by the Democrats.
24:37
>> It's just so relentless, it's so constant, it's so loud,
24:42
that in parts of MAGA America, that MAGA barrage drowns out anything else. >> (dramatized): Warmongering and despicable human being
24:49
Liz Cheney, who is hated by... >> NARRATOR: And on the conservative airwaves, they amplified Trump's message.
24:55
>> Every news network in this country but this one faithfully surrendered its entire prime time lineup.
25:02
The effect was North Korean, every channel the same. >> A full-on Hollywood, multimedia extravaganza.
25:11
>> ...to prosecute Trump with this show trial, with this kangaroo court...
25:16
>> I don't think, really by any large stretch, can you characterize it as bipartisan.
25:22
And this is, I guess, a consequence of bigger issues about the evenly divided country that we're in
25:27
and extreme partisanship in the political process. >> Can they show us one damned sentence
25:33
in the hundreds of thousands of documents that they have collected, the thousand witnesses they've had--
25:38
anything, anywhere that links Donald Trump to directing or ordering an attack
25:44
on the Capitol building? Where is it? >> If you're talking to somebody who's deep in MAGA America,
25:50
they didn't pay attention to the January 6th commission. They were told not to pay attention to it.
25:56
That whatever was going to come out it was going to be fake or fake news. And this is the way a lot of Americans live their lives.
26:03
It's not just red Americans, blue Americans as well. We, we live in bubbles. And this is the way millions upon millions of Americans live.
26:11
(siren blaring) ♪ ♪

What Did Former President Trump Know About the 2020 Election Results and When Did He Know It?

26:21
>> NARRATOR: In the weeks that followed, the committee laid out the details of their case.
26:27
>> This morning we'll tell the story of how Donald Trump lost an election, and knew he lost an election,
26:34
and as a result of his loss decided to wage an attack on our democracy.
26:40
>> NARRATOR: A central question: what the president knew and when he knew it.
26:46
>> For a long time people who have pursued Donald Trump tripped up on the question of whether they could prove
26:51
that he knew what he was doing was wrong, or that he knew what he was saying was a lie. The January 6th committee got past that
26:59
by demonstrating that he was told, time and time again, that he did not win the election--
27:04
not by Democrats, not by the media, but by his own people. >> I want to start by showing a video that tells the story
27:13
of what was going on in the Trump White House on election night in November of 2020.
27:20
>> (on video): The Fox News Decision Desk is calling Arizona for Joe Biden. That is a big get for the Biden campaign.
27:29
>> Arizona is called, do you remember that? >> I do. >> What do you remember happening
27:35
where you were when Arizona was called? >> Um, I, uh, there was surprise at the call.
27:44
>> After Fox News called Arizona for Biden, there was discussion about whether President Trump
27:51
should say something and should declare victory. The consensus of almost all of his advisors
27:57
was that he should not. >> It was far too early to be making any calls like that.
28:04
Um, ballots, ballots were still being counted.
28:10
Ballots were still going to be counted for days, and it was far too early
28:15
to be making any proclamation like that. >> The professionals on his campaign staff are telling him,
28:22
you know, "We can't claim victory, "either, you know, you lost or we have to at least
28:27
wait and see what's going to happen." And Trump makes the choice that he wants to listen instead
28:34
to Rudy Giuliani. >> Were you part of any discussions about whether the president should make any sort of speech on election night?
28:42
>> I, I mean I spoke to the president. They may have been present, but the president--
28:49
but I spoke to the president several times that night. >> NARRATOR: Rudy Giuliani's advice was very different
28:56
than that of Trump's political advisors. >> His personal lawyer, Giuliani, tells Trump,
29:02
"Keep fighting. "We will have a legal crusade, "a political crusade
29:07
to keep you in power." Trump loves the idea.
29:13
>> Rudy Giuliani is one of the most prominent figures in American politics in the last 25 years,
29:18
who is remembered fondly for his leadership post-9/11.
29:25
>> But over the years he drifted towards Donald Trump.
29:32
Towards being someone that would be essentially a yes man to Donald Trump and some of his worst impulses.
29:41
>> NARRATOR: And on election night, Giuliani insisted Trump should fight.
29:46
>> The president ignores the sound advice that he's getting from Bill Stepien, from the political professionals around him,
29:53
and he's listening to one voice that is telling him something different,
29:58
and that's Giuliani saying, "You should go out there and declare victory."
30:05
>> And did anybody disagree with your message? >> Yes. >> Who was that?
30:13
>> The president disagreed with that. He thought I was wrong, he told me so, and, you know, that they were going to, you know, go in a--
30:21
you know, he was gonna go in a different direction. (cheers and applause)
30:30
>> I think the most dangerous speech that Donald Trump ever gave was not the one that he gave on January 6.
30:36
I think it's the speech that he gave at 2:30 in the morning the night of the election. >> This is a fraud on the American public.
30:43
This is an embarrassment to our country. We were getting ready to win this election.
30:50
Frankly, we did win this election. (cheers and applause) We did win this election.
30:55
>> Trump knew that the trends looked bad. Trump knew that there were hundreds of thousands of votes
31:02
still to be counted and he came out and he said, "Frankly, we did win the election."
31:09
>> We want all voting to stop. We don't want them to find any ballots at 4:00 in the morning
31:17
and add them to the list. Okay? (cheers and applause) >> NARRATOR: In the years since, Trump has claimed
31:23
that he believed what he said that night. >> I saw what happened. I watched that election, and I thought the election
31:29
was over at 10:00 in the evening. >> NARRATOR: But according to the committee, his claims of fraud were part of a well-established plan.
31:38
>> The moment when he said, "Frankly, I won this election," was telegraphed many, many times
31:45
and throughout the campaign of 2020, he repeatedly cast doubt on the legitimacy of the outcome,
31:52
cast doubt on absentee ballots, et cetera. >> As early as April 2020,
32:01
Mr. Trump claimed that the only way he could lose an election would be as a result of fraud.
32:09
>> (on video): The only way we're gonna lose this election is if the election is rigged. Remember that, it's the only way
32:15
we're going to lose this election. This is going to be a fraud like you've never seen. Did you see what's going on?
32:21
Take a look at West Virginia, mailmen selling the ballots, they're being sold, they're being dumped in rivers.
32:26
This is a horrible thing for our country. >> There is no-- there is no evidence of that. >> This is not going to end well.
32:32
>> NARRATOR: For the January 6th committee, it was crucial evidence of Trump's intent.
32:39
>> He makes numerous speeches and, and TV... comments in TV interviews. >> You're going to see corruption
32:45
like you've never seen, you're going to see a rigged election. It'll be the greatest rigged election in history,
32:51
it'll be the greatest fraud ever perpetrated. >> It's all a big fraud.
32:56
>> It's a crooked deal, it's a rigged deal, new ballots are coming out that are thrown in garbage cans with the name Trump on it.
33:02
>> This was part of the scheme of getting his supporters sensitized to the fact that
33:08
"There's going to be some fraud here." >> Because the only way they're going to win is by a rigged election, I really believe that.
33:15
>> This is a pattern for Trump. He has done this every step of the way through his career,
33:20
long before politics. >> My name's Donald Trump, and I'm the largest real estate developer in New York.
33:26
>> When "The Apprentice" lost an Emmy to "The Amazing Race," he claimed that the Emmy contest was rigged.
33:31
>> (dramatized): "Amazing Race" winning an Emmy again is a total joke. The Emmys have no credibility. (Twitter chime)
33:37
The Emmys are all politics, that's why "The Apprentice" never won. (Twitter chime)
33:42
>> The public is smart. They know it's a con game. >> I have just called President Obama
33:48
to congratulate him on his victory. >> He claimed that the election was rigged in 2012 when Mitt Romney, whom he had endorsed,
33:55
lost to Barack Obama. >> (dramatized): This election is a total sham and a travesty. We are not a democracy. (Twitter chime)
34:01
More reports of voting machines switching Romney votes to Obama. (Twitter chime) Let's fight like hell and stop this great
34:07
and disgusting injustice! (Twitter chime) We can't let this happen. We should march on Washington. (Twitter chime)
34:13
>> Every step along the way anything he has ever lost is because somebody else has cheated and stolen it from him.
34:20
>> Fox News can now project that Texas senator Ted Cruz has won Iowa. >> Ted Cruz wins the Republican contest here in Iowa.
34:29
>> The big question now: how is Donald Trump going to handle a loss? >> (dramatized): The State of Iowa should disqualify Ted Cruz
34:36
from the most recent election on the basis that he cheated-- a total fraud. (Twitter chime)
34:41
>> You have tweeted that Senator Ted Cruz stole the Iowa election. >> Everything about it was disgraceful.
34:47
It was a fraud as far as I was concerned. >> Knowing what we know now-- I think you would go back to February 1 of 2016.
34:56
>> It's a total voter fraud when you think of it and actually I came in probably first if you think about it.
35:03
>> That episode was a bright red blinking light
35:08
foreshadowing everything that was to come. >> The portrait that both prosecutors
35:14
and the January 6th committee are trying to paint is that Trump knows what's going on.
35:20
That this wasn't something spontaneous. This wasn't something that the president truly believed. That it was all part of an overall and illegal--
35:28
according to prosecutors and the committee-- strategy to remain in power unlawfully. >> NARRATOR: And in court filings,
35:35
prosecutors have said Trump's statements are evidence of the criminal conspiracy at the heart of the case.
35:42
>> "They demonstrate the defendant's common plan "of falsely blaming fraud for election results "he does not like, as well as his motive, intent,
35:50
"and plan to obstruct the certification of the 2020 election results and illegitimately retain power."
35:58
>> Intent is the whole ball game. The jury is making an evaluation of that. Um, that's the most difficult thing to prove.
36:06
Not impossible, but it is the most difficult thing to prove. >> NARRATOR: Robert Ray was an independent counsel
36:13
who investigated President Bill Clinton, and helped get Trump acquitted in his first senate impeachment trial.
36:20
>> Our system requires that a jury of 12 unanimously, meaning all of them, all 12 of them,
36:27
find the defendant guilty beyond a reasonable doubt. (gavel bangs) >> NARRATOR: To try to show the president's intent,
36:34
the committee focused on his own statements after election night. >> Although he publicly claimed
36:42
that he had won the election, privately he admitted that Joe Biden would take over as president. >> I remember maybe a week after the election was called,
36:50
I popped into the Oval just to like give the president the headlines and see how he was doing,
36:55
and he was looking at the TV and he said, "Can you believe I lost to this effing guy?" >> At the same time that President Trump
37:01
was acknowledging privately that he had lost the election, he was hearing that there was no evidence of fraud
37:07
or irregularities sufficient to change the outcome. >> His campaign team,
37:14
and this included his son-in-law Jared Kushner, went to him after the election was declared.
37:21
And they didn't just rebut the claims of voter fraud. They explained to him their analysis of why he lost.
37:29
They showed him the numbers state by state in the swing states.
37:34
>> I made this case, I know Hope Hicks and others did to him, which was, "You should kind of make this a victory lap.
37:40
"Go around the country, talk about what have accomplished, "and you're going to be in a great place in 2024
37:45
to win the presidency back." ♪ ♪ >> But then you had Rudy Giuliani
37:52
who was whispering in his ear what Trump wanted to hear. Trump likes the people who tell him what he wants to hear.
38:00
And he picked, in effect, Rudy Giuliani in order to go down the road of challenging the election.
38:06
>> There is strong evidence that this was an election that in at least three or four states, and possibly ten,
38:13
they, they... it was stolen. Bringing in 100,000 ballots in garbage cans,
38:20
and every single one of them was for Biden. >> NARRATOR: The federal indictment alleges that
38:25
by the middle of November, Trump's conspiracy to overturn the election was underway.
38:31
>> November 14, 2020, is an important date in the federal indictment of Donald Trump.
38:38
It is the moment when Donald Trump said, "Rudy Giuliani-- "he's the only one who's providing me
38:45
with a plausible path forward, and I'm going to take it." >> Look, you can fight it all you want.
38:51
The reality is dead people voted. Over 300,000 ballots were counted in secret...
38:59
>> Rudy Giuliani was central to a lot of these schemes, framing them, orchestrating them, directing other people,
39:07
being in on the communications. And so once Trump made a decision
39:12
to defer to Rudy Giuliani as the person who was setting the tone and giving people their talking points
39:19
for what the approach was, that's when he decided to go after these nutty theories. >> 8,021 ballots from dead people,
39:28
mail-in ballots for dead people. We're checking the records of the cemeteries around Philadelphia. (audience laughter)
39:36
>> NARRATOR: During that period, Giuliani and Trump would repeat dozens of false allegations
39:41
and the committee believed they had evidence it wasn't an honest mistake.
39:47
>> One of the things the committee did that was critical was putting together this timeline in which they showed, very clearly,
39:53
the president would be told one thing one day, not true, don't say that.
39:58
And he would go right back out and say it the next day anyway. That's really important toward, I think,
40:04
establishing intent to lie, intent to defraud. >> Each ballot went three times,
40:10
here's ballot number one, here it is a second time, third time, next ballot.
40:15
>> I told the president myself that these allegations about ballots run through the machine several times,
40:21
it was not true. >> In several counties in Georgia, there's clear evidence that tens of thousands of votes
40:28
were switched from President Trump to Biden. >> Well, Mr. President, we did a hand re-tally
40:33
of all the ballots and compared that to what the machine said, and it came up with virtually the same result.
40:38
>> In Detroit a vote dump came in unexpectedly. I'll tell you what's wrong: voter fraud.
40:46
>> And then he raised the big vote dump in Detroit and I said, "There's no indication of fraud in Detroit."
40:53
>> Over 10,300 ballots in Georgia were cast by individuals who died prior to the election.
41:00
>> The actual number were two, two people that were dead that voted. >> You have Dominion, which those machines are fixed,
41:08
they're rigged. You can press Trump and the vote goes to Biden. >> I specifically raised the Dominion voting machines.
41:15
I saw absolutely zero basis for the allegations. I told him that it was crazy stuff.
41:22
>> Stretching the truth in a campaign ad or on the debate stage is one thing.
41:27
But when you are using that lie to subvert the democratic process, and to convince people that they need to overturn the election,
41:35
now you're talking about conspiracy. And that's what he's charged with.
41:43
>> NARRATOR: Trump wouldn't talk to the committee, but he did talk to NBC News. >> The most senior lawyers in your own administration
41:51
and on your campaign told you that after you lost more than 60 legal challenges, that it was over.
41:57
Why did you ignore them and decide to listen to a new outside group of attorneys? >> Because I didn't respect them.
42:02
As lawyers. >> You'd hired them. >> Sure. But that doesn't mean-- you know, you hire them, you never met these people, you get a recommendation.
42:08
They turn out to be RINOs, or they turn out to be not so good. In many cases, I didn't respect them. But I did respect others.
42:15
I respected many others that said the election was rigged. >> Were you calling the shots, though, Mr. President, ultimately?
42:22
>> As to whether or not I believed it was rigged? Oh sure. >> Okay. >> It was my decision. >> NARRATOR: One of the allegations in the charges
42:29
against Trump is that he used lies to carry out his criminal conspiracy. >> "The Defendant's knowingly false statements
42:36
were integral to his criminal plans." >> NARRATOR: But to the president's defenders,
42:42
his statements about the 2020 election, true or not, should be protected under the constitution.
42:48
>> You will see Trump and those who defend him, essentially using the free speech defense,
42:55
and saying that these are just words and in the end, it's not a crime in America to lie to the American public,
43:01
even though Donald Trump lied to the American public a lot. >> This is a central area of the president's defense.
43:08
He does have First Amendment rights, and particularly as president.
43:14
And trying to turn words into criminal conduct is a very slippery road
43:20
for the prosecution under the First Amendment. And in the event of a conviction,
43:25
I can guarantee you this-- this will be point one in the brief on appeal.
43:31
>> Lying to the government is not protected by the First Amendment. Obstructing justice is not protected
43:38
by the First Amendment. >> NARRATOR: Ken White is a prominent criminal defense lawyer, and a First Amendment expert.
43:45
>> And so here, the government's position is going to be, "We are not going after him for, you know,
43:51
"what he said on the news, that's not the crime. "The crime is he's specifically pushed
43:58
to derail specific government functions."
44:05
♪ ♪
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Re: Trump lashes out at Gov. Doug Ducey following certificat

Postby admin » Sun Feb 04, 2024 4:38 am

Part 2 of 3

A Georgia Election Official’s Warning to Trump About Potential for Violence

44:11
>> NARRATOR: As they gathered their evidence, the January 6th committee returned again and again to one state: Georgia.
44:19
>> When Donald Trump tried to overturn the election results, he focused on just a few states.
44:25
The former president had a particular obsession with Georgia.
44:30
>> I think that Trump chose us because Republicans did control basically every level of government.
44:38
You got the House, you got the Senate, all Republican controlled, not even close. I think he thought he could come here
44:45
and basically just by some kind of fiat, say, "Okay, make it happen."
44:51
>> NARRATOR: And it was in Georgia that Donald Trump received a stark warning from Gabriel Sterling, an election official.
44:59
>> Gabriel Sterling explicitly warned President Trump about potential violence on December 1, 2020,
45:04
more than a month before January 6. You will see excerpts from that video repeatedly today.
45:12
>> Mr. President, it looks like you likely lost the state of Georgia.
45:18
Stop inspiring people to commit potential acts of violence. Someone's going to get hurt, someone's going to get shot,
45:23
someone's going to get killed, and it's not right. >> Gabe Sterling called out Donald Trump.
45:31
He was the first to really, as far as I remember, to really come out and say, "There's going-- like, this is going to lead to violence."
45:38
>> We're investigating, there's always a possibility, I get it. You have... >> Gabe Sterling is not listed as some kind of Republican in name only
45:45
or some kind of liberal Republican prior to that moment. >> I've been a Republican since I was about nine
45:51
when Reagan was running for reelection. I was nine years old when I first kind of declared myself.
45:56
My mother was not very happy. But my dad was pleased.
46:01
I was working campaigns in the late '80s and early '90s.
46:07
So yeah, I've been in Republican politics as an operative and a volunteer since before I could drive a car.
46:13
So yeah, I've been at it for a while. >> The chair recognizes
46:19
the gentleman from California, Mr. Schiff, for an opening statement. >> Mr. Sterling, thank you also for being here today.
46:28
>> Schiff-- I remember they told me he was going to question me, I'm like, "Damn it."
46:33
I can't stand that guy. (laughs) He irritates me to death because I think he's wrong
46:39
and doesn't tell the truth a lot. But I said, you know what? I'm just going to play this straight. I'm a fact witness, just answer the questions.
46:46
>> Donald Trump claims that there was "massive voter fraud in Georgia." Mr. Sterling, that was just plain false, wasn't it?
46:53
>> Yes, sir. (interview): I want to give some perspective for this. I was a voting systems implementation manager.
47:01
I was a bureaucrat of all bureaucrats, basically, at that time. No one should know who the hell I am.
47:08
I just was doing my job. >> NARRATOR: Sterling was on the frontline as Trump attacked the Georgia election results.
47:16
>> (dramatized): Thousands of uncounted votes discovered in Georgia counties. (Twitter chime) Big voter fraud information
47:22
coming out concerning Georgia. (Twitter chime) Georgia Republicans are angry, all Republicans are angry.
47:28
Get it done! (Twitter chime) >> The people in Georgia are mad. They know their votes were stolen.
47:34
>> Georgia, of the six states I looked at, is a cesspool. >> Georgia's probably going to be the first state
47:40
I'm going to blow up and the secretary of state need to go with it. >> Everyone must go to the capitol of Georgia now.
47:47
We need to see people power and this will do it. >> (chanting): We want Trump!
47:54
>> NARRATOR: On the ground, tensions were mounting.
48:00
>> I mean you have a whole voting population out there who still, today, believes that this election
48:07
was stolen. >> (chanting): America First!
48:15
And I they think that, you know, some fraud happened. And that's how you end up in situations where they're
48:22
threatening the election officials in Georgia. (chime) >> "Keep opposing the audit, and somebody in your family is going to have a very unfortunate incident."
48:30
"Please pray. "We plan for the death of you and your family every day. I'm sorry."
48:36
"You and your family will be killed very slowly." >> It wasn't fun, I can tell you that. Um...
48:43
We were in the mix of... a...
48:49
radicalized lie, essentially.
48:54
And it just kept on escalating. (chime) >> Y'all oughta blow your (bleep) brains out
49:00
you piece of (bleep). >> NARRATOR: The threats poured into the voicemails of election officials. (chime)
49:06
>> Hope you're happy with the way (bleep) going 'cause you know who's fault this is when the (bleep) (bleep) hits the goddamn fan
49:12
'cause you know it's coming. >> We're coming after you and every mother (bleep) with our Second Amendment.
49:19
(Bleep) enemy communist (bleep) sucker, you will be served lead."
49:26
♪ ♪ >> It's all gone too far.
49:36
All of it. It has to stop!
49:41
(interview): I had no script. In fact, I didn't realize I was going to call out the president until I was literally saying the words out loud at the time.
49:48
Mr. President, you have not condemned these actions or this language. This has to stop.
49:56
We need you to step up and if you're going to take a position of leadership, show some.
50:07
>> After you made this plea to the president, did Donald Trump urge his supporters to avoid the use of violence?
50:13
>> Not to my knowledge. >> Now, as we know, the president was aware of your speech because he tweeted about it later that day.
50:20
(Twitter chime) >> The president retweeted a criticism
50:25
of Gabriel Sterling's press conference. So the president was aware that there were threats of violence,
50:30
and he persisted in the Big Lie. >> You have Gabriel Sterling saying, "People will die."
50:37
This was the warning and Donald Trump was unmoved by it.
50:43
Was there any sort of a sense that maybe we ought to dial down the rhetoric, that maybe this is getting out of hand, maybe this is dangerous? No.
50:51
>> Gabriel Sterling's warning that someone could get killed, I think that still remains true today.
50:56
Because you still have the president targeting judges and law clerks and witnesses.
51:03
And I think it is remarkable that no one has been physically hurt. But I think time will tell whether something does happen.

Arizona Lawmaker Rusty Bowers Recalls Call With Trump: ‘You’re Asking Me to Break My Oath’

51:17
(sirens wailing, horns honking)
51:23
>> The committee plans to reveal even more evidence former President Trump pressured state officials to overturn the results of the 2020 election.
51:30
>> NARRATOR: Rusty Bowers, the Speaker of the Arizona House and lifelong Republican,
51:35
was a crucial witness to Trump's campaign of pressure on local officials. >> Arizona House Speaker Rusty Bowers testifying today
51:42
he received numerous calls asking him to decertify the Arizona electors. >> NARRATOR: Bowers would testify
51:48
about his private conversations with the president. >> Going in the room, we walked down through the hall,
51:54
and there's lots of people in the hallways, and then guards,
51:59
and then there's a doorway, and, you know, I'm thinking, "Okay, how big is this room?"
52:05
And then I walk in the room and I'm thinking, "Oh, my word.
52:10
(cameras clicking) This is one big room." (laughs)
52:21
I'm like, "Wow." And there's ten million photographers
52:29
all jammed together, jostling in front of us.

52:34
And I'm trying to maintain composure and not run screaming off down the Mall,
52:41
down towards the Lincoln Memorial. But I saw Liz Cheney
52:46
and she was looking at me and that kind of calmed me down.
52:52
(gavel bangs) >> I now welcome Rusty Bowers, a distinguished legislator from Arizona.
52:59
Speaker Bowers, thank you for being with us today.
53:04
>> This is a loyal, lifelong Republican. He's a conservative who fought to get Trump reelected.
53:10
>> Arizona House Speaker Rusty Bowers, come on up here! (cheers and applause)
53:16
>> Rusty Bowers is a compelling person. It's hard to talk to him and not believe him.
53:22
And the stories that he told about his direct communications with the president were just so indicative and so powerful
53:30
that he was kind of an obvious choice, frankly, for somebody that America needed to hear from directly.
53:37
>> After the election, you received a phone call from President Trump and Rudy Giuliani, in which they discussed the result
53:43
of the presidential election in Arizona. If you would, tell us about that call.
53:50
>> Mr... the president initially laid out the broad claim of fraud across the country--
53:58
named different states, including my own. >> What was the ask during this call?
54:05
He was making these allegations of fraud, but he had something, or a couple things, that they wanted you to do-- what were those?
54:13
>> They said, "Well, we have heard "via an official high up in the Republican Legislature,
54:20
"that there is a legal theory, or a legal ability in Arizona,
54:25
"that you can remove the, um, electors of President Biden and replace them."
54:35
(chuckles) Well... for them to say to me, "Yeah, we just want you to throw out those electors
54:42
and put in Trump's." I'm thinking, "Have, have I gone to another planet?"
54:47
I mean, it's like, what? I'm not gonna do that!" I mean, I wanted him to win, okay, so what?
54:53
I'm not gonna cheat, I'm not gonna cheat to win. What, what's that? I flat out, flat out said,
55:00
"You're asking me to break my oath. "I swore an oath-- I'm not gonna break it, period.
55:07
Not gonna break it." I said, "Well, if you're talking this,
55:13
I gotta have the proof." I said, "Rudy, do you have the names of the dead people who voted?"
55:19
He goes, "Yes." "And do you have the names of the 200,000 illegals who voted in our election?"
55:27
"Yes." I said, "I want those names." And the president says, "Rudy, give the man what he wants,
55:33
give him what he wants." He says, "Yeah, we've got them, Mr. President, and I'll get them to him."
55:38
>> NARRATOR: In the criminal indictment, Jack Smith saw the call as evidence of a crime.
55:44
>> "The Defendant and Co-Conspirator 1 "asked the Arizona House Speaker to use the legislature
55:49
"to circumvent the process by which legitimate electors would be ascertained." >> If you are calling a state official,
55:56
and you're asking them to nullify lawful votes, and to replace them with unlawful votes,
56:02
that is squarely within federal statutes regulating election conspiracy.
56:10
>> NARRATOR: Not long after the call, Rudy Giuliani himself arrived in Arizona.
56:16
>> Did you meet with Mr. Giuliani and his associates while they were in Phoenix? >> Yes, I did, sir.
56:21
There was a row of people and-- Giuliani and Jenna Ellis, I recognized them.
56:28
And I sat down on the opposite side. And I just said, "Did you bring me the proof?" And he said, "What?"
56:35
I said, "Do you remember our phone call when you said you were going to bring me the proof?"
56:41
And he said, "Oh, yeah." I said, "Did you bring it?" And he looked-- turned to Jenna Ellis,
56:47
and he says, "Do you have the proof?" And she said, "Yeah."
56:53
"Well, can we see it?" She leans over and fumbles through her briefcase and says, "Oh no, I don't have it here--
56:59
must be at the hotel room." >> This meeting or at any other later time,
57:05
did anyone provide you with evidence of election fraud sufficient to affect the outcome
57:10
of the presidential election in Arizona? >> No one provided me, ever, such evidence.
57:19
(interview): Giuliani was kind of frustrated with us all and he said, "You know we've got a lot of theories, we just don't have the evidence."
57:27
(chuckles) And I, when I heard him say that, I, I said...
57:34
"Did he just say what I thought he said?" (laughs) And they all looked at me, like, the same thing on their mind,
57:41
like, "Whoa!" (laughs) You know, that, "Yeah, he just said that!" That was like a rocket's red glare moment.
57:48
Like, wow! (laughs) That's... you gotta be kidding, this is like a, this is the clown show-- they're out hunting,
57:56
they're trying to find something, and, and they're wanting us to participate in this, and, and he says that?
58:03
Holy moly, we can't do this stuff, you know, it's like...
58:08
>> NARRATOR: Rudy Giuliani refused to answer questions from the committee about his conversations with Bowers.
58:14
Trump attorney Jenna Ellis also refused. For the January 6th committee,
58:20
that meeting with Bowers was a bombshell revelation. >> "We have a lot of theories, but we don't have any evidence."
58:27
That shows that none of this had to do with evidence or reality, right? This is all about just making stuff up
58:34
in order to justify keeping Trump in power. >> NARRATOR: The phrase Giuliani uttered would become iconic
58:39
and Giuliani a central figure in Trump's indictment: listed as Co- Conspirator Number 1.
58:46
>> "Co-Conspirator 1 responded with words to the effect of, 'We don't have the evidence, but we have lots of theories.'"
58:55
>> It shows Rudy Giuliani admitting that there's no evidence for the theories they had,
59:01
that these are just talking points, not backed with any fact. And that's exactly the theory of the government.
59:09
>> During the conversation, did he bring up the fact that you shared a similar party? >> He would say, "Aren't we all Republicans here?
59:17
"I would think we would get a better reception, "I mean, I would think you would listen a little more open
59:22
to my suggestions-- we're all Republicans."
59:28
For someone to ask me to deny my oath and just let the courts figure it out,
59:35
or let somebody else, punt it to someone else,
59:40
is not something I will do. >> What you have to understand here is that Rusty Bowers,
59:47
this guy who worked for Trump, wanted Trump to be reelected in Arizona, worked for Trump's reelection is given a choice--
59:53
he can choose between his oath to the Constitution or President Trump. And he stays loyal to the Constitution.
59:59
That is, in effect, what... the choice that he's given. >> Even in the past when there have been... >> Rusty Bowers speaks with a moral and legal clarity
1:00:07
that's very necessary to understand. >> We choose to follow the outcome of the will of the people.
1:00:14
It's, it's my oath.
1:00:19
And, and I hope that I'll never break that. I know I'm not, you know, I'm not perfect.
1:00:24
I'm certainly not a perfect witness. But I am a witness.
1:00:30
And, uh...
1:00:35
I had my say. And I wasn't trying to flower it up, I wasn't trying to be
1:00:43
anything other than just Rusty. ♪ ♪
1:00:54
>> NARRATOR: Rusty Bowers is now a key witness on a central charge of the indictment. >> "The Defendant and his co-conspirators
1:01:01
"executed a strategy to use knowing deceit "in the targeted states to impair, obstruct
1:01:06
and defeat the federal government function." >> NARRATOR: In their filings, Trump's lawyers have argued
1:01:13
he is immune from prosecution because was doing his job as president when he worked to change the election results.
1:01:20
>> "The indictment is based entirely "on alleged actions within the heartland "of President Trump's official duties,
1:01:26
"or at the very least, within the 'outer perimeter' of his official duties."
1:01:31
>> The former president has a motion claiming that he is immune from criminal process
1:01:38
with regard to these charges which involve his official acts as president of the United States.
1:01:45
>> "As President Trump is absolutely immune "from criminal prosecution for such acts, the Court should dismiss the indictment."
1:01:52
>> Donald Trump's legal team suggesting that even a president who had a political rival assassinated
1:01:57
could still be immune from criminal prosecution.
1:02:03
>> NARRATOR: The federal judge presiding over the case has already rejected Trump's immunity claims,
1:02:08
saying a president is not entitled to a life-long, get-out-of-jail-free pass.
1:02:15
>> The questions being raised right now regarding presidential immunity, are absolutely key to the very foundation,
1:02:22
the very philosophical foundation of this republic. Because if you take an oath of office
1:02:29
in the United States of America, you're swearing an oath to our system of government.
1:02:35
And so, if a president is not subject to that system of government, if he's not subject to that code of laws,
1:02:42
we don't have quite the republic that we thought we had. (siren wailing)
1:02:49
>> NARRATOR: An appeals court is now considering the question of immunity. Whatever the decision, both sides could appeal
1:02:56
to the United States Supreme Court.

Poll Workers Caught in an Election Fraud Conspiracy Theory

1:03:05
(indistinct chatter)
1:03:10
♪ ♪ The committee's investigation kept bringing them back to what happened in Georgia.
1:03:17
(laughter) >> Mr. Giuliani, what are you doing here in Georgia? >> You'll see. >> NARRATOR: Giuliani was there
1:03:24
to make his case to the Republican state legislature. >> Bless you, too. >> Don't give up. >> Oh, I'm not giving up. >> Never, never give up.
1:03:31
>> Nope. >> He was very jovial, I have to tell you. I think he had gotten
1:03:37
basically a king's welcome by all the Republicans. (cameras clicking) It was like, you know, he was their superstar or whatever.
1:03:46
(man laughs) They all wanted pictures with him. They were all so impressed with him
1:03:51
and couldn't believe that he was there. Um, very obsequious.
1:03:57
(cheers and applause) >> We appreciate you, Rudy. We love you, Rudy! >> NARRATOR: Giuliani and others from Trump's team
1:04:04
had come with a conspiracy theory: election workers were counting suitcases of illegal ballots.
1:04:11
>> Thank you, Mr. Chairman. >> Thank you-- Senator Jordan? >> Thank you, Mr. Chairman. >> NARRATOR: Jen Jordan, a Democratic state senator,
1:04:18
was in the room with Giuliani, Jenna Ellis, and Trump's other lawyers. >> They are going to pull ballots out
1:04:26
from underneath a table. Watch this table. >> You had the woman who was narrating.
1:04:33
>> This table, the black one, was placed there by the lady with the blonde braids.
1:04:40
>> And saying, "You see this woman here? You see her here?" >> At about 8:00 in the morning,
1:04:45
we're going to roll this back and show it to you-- there you go-- so now they're going to start pulling these ballots out from under this table.
1:04:52
I don't know the name of the lady in the blonde braids, but one of them had the name Ruby across her shirt somewhere.
1:04:58
>> "She's taking the ballots out, and now she's, you know, filling them in or she's stealing these ballots."
1:05:05
>> NARRATOR: It was an allegation Trump personally amplified. >> There's even security camera footage from Georgia
1:05:12
that shows officials telling poll watchers to leave the room before pulling suitcases of ballots
1:05:18
out from under the tables and continuing to count for hours.
1:05:24
>> They kept on recycling these things. >> The footage appears to show poll workers pulling ballots out of suitcases...
1:05:31
>> It's like playing whack-a-mole. >> Yeah, how about those suitcases that were pulled out from the table in Georgia. >> Looking at ballots, they're finding them under the tables.
1:05:38
I mean, this is like a banana republic. >> NARRATOR: But the full surveillance video didn't show
1:05:43
what Trump and Giuliani claimed. >> The magic suitcases, which were really just ballot carriers
1:05:48
that had been put under the table about an hour earlier and they were placed under there with the monitors and the press in the room. >> NARRATOR: A day after Giuliani's presentation,
1:05:55
the video aired on local TV. Their claims were debunked. >> This is the short section of the video
1:06:02
the Trump team has shared. It's not suitcases being pulled from under that table, but official sealed ballot containers.
1:06:08
If we go back in the video to hours before, you can see that table being brought into the room at 8:22 a.m.
1:06:15
Nothing underneath, no hidden suitcases. As ballots that have been opened, but not counted, are placed in the boxes, sealed up
1:06:22
and stored under the table. >> No magical appearing ballots. These were ballots that were processed in front of the monitors,
1:06:27
put in the boxes in front of the monitors and placed there in front of the monitors. And I, I'll go to my deathbed,
1:06:33
knowing that they knowingly lied. They looked in the state senators' eyes, the people of Georgia, the people of America and lied to them about this,
1:06:38
and knew they were lying, to try to keep this charade going on that there was fraud in Georgia.
1:06:45
>> NARRATOR: But the conspiracy theories continued. >> This is not a conspiracy theory, those are legitimate questions.
1:06:52
>> I think the woman in charge here is named Ruby Freeman, and I think her daughter Shay Freeman Moss,
1:06:57
either was helping here or helping her earlier. >> NARRATOR: Giuliani had called out by name two election workers--
1:07:04
Shaye Moss and Ruby Freeman. >> After pulling out hidden boxes stuffed with ballots,
1:07:09
Ruby Freeman, as seen here in this video, repeatedly scanned the same batch of ballots
1:07:15
at least three times. >> NARRATOR: Like the claim about suitcases of ballots, it wasn't true.
1:07:21
>> The secondary part of that was, "They were scanning multiple times, multiple times." And a standard operating procedure is,
1:07:27
if there's a mis-scan, you delete that batch and straighten it up like you do. And then run it through again-- and that's what they were doing.
1:07:33
And the reason we know that's the case is because we had a hand tally that showed the number of ballots matched what was counted.
1:07:40
So we know that they didn't do that.
1:07:46
>> I now welcome Andrea "Shaye" Moss.
1:07:51
In December 2020, Miss Moss and her mother, Ms. Ruby Freeman became the target...
1:07:57
>> People say, "You know, I know somebody just like those two ladies in my community
1:08:04
who work elections." And they're just everyday people.
1:08:10
To have them as a witness for our committee, I think, was very powerful.
1:08:16
I understand that you are here along with your mother today. Uh, would you like to introduce your momma?
1:08:28
Hi, Ma. (chuckles) >> Well, I know the events that we're here to talk about today
1:08:35
are incredibly difficult to relive. I'd like to show you some of the statements
1:08:40
that Rudy Giuliani made a week after that video clip from State Farm Arena was first circulated
1:08:46
by Mr. Giuliani and President Trump. I want to advise viewers that these statements
1:08:51
are completely false and also deeply disturbing. >> Tape earlier in the day
1:08:58
of Ruby Freeman and Shaye Freeman Moss and one other gentleman quite obviously, surreptitiously, passing around USB ports
1:09:06
as if they're vials of heroin or cocaine. >> He sounded a lot more desperate.
1:09:12
Quite frankly, he seemed more unhinged. He made some overtly racist comments.
1:09:20
>> They look like they're passing out dope, not just ballots. It is quite clear they are stealing votes.
1:09:27
They're still walking around Georgia, lying. They should have been, they should have been,
1:09:33
they should have been questioned already. Their places of work, their homes should've been searched
1:09:39
for evidence of ballots, evidence of USB ports, for evidence of voter fraud.
1:09:50
>> NARRATOR: But there was no evidence that they were passing USB drives. >> In one of the videos we just watched,
1:09:56
Mr. Giuliani accused you and your mother of passing some sort of USB drive to each other.
1:10:02
What was your mom actually handing you on that video? >> A ginger mint.
1:10:09
>> Passing along a ginger mint back and forth gets spun up into this baseless theory, not an accident.
1:10:17
It is meant to stir up people's anger. >> It wasn't just Rudy Giuliani. >> And these two Black women
1:10:23
who are doing their civic duty are vilified. >> It really does end up ruining people's lives.
1:10:31
I mean, I can't tell you how many emails I got with respect to Shaye Moss and Ruby Freeman and that they should be strung up.
1:11:07
>> Were a lot of these threats and vile comments racist in nature? >> A lot of them were racist, a lot of them were just hateful.
1:11:16
A lot of threats, um, wishing death upon me, um...
1:11:23
Telling me that, you know, I'll be in jail with my mother and saying things like,
1:11:31
"Be glad it's 2020 and not 1920."
1:11:38
>> These women, whose lives had been completely destroyed,
1:11:43
that's where the story about the state pressure campaign becomes real.
1:11:50
>> I felt horrible. I felt like it was all my fault, like, if I would have never decided
1:11:58
to be an elections worker, like, I could have done anything else, but that's what I decided to do.
1:12:05
And now people are lying and spreading rumors and lies and attacking my mom.
1:12:12
I'm her only child. I just felt like it was, it was my fault
1:12:18
for putting my family in this situation. ♪ ♪
1:12:25
>> There are real-world consequences to lying and attacking and demonizing innocent people in this country.
1:12:35
And Donald Trump has always been very heedless of the human costs of his lies and his gaslighting.
1:12:41
And this is a very painful example of that.
1:12:46
>> Ms. Moss, I want to thank you for coming in to speak with us, and to thank you for your service to our democracy.
1:12:54
With your permission, I would like to give your mother the last word.
1:13:00
>> My name is Ruby Freeman. I've always believed it when God says that He'll make your name great,
1:13:07
but this is not the way it was supposed to be. (soft chuckle)
1:13:12
I built my own business around that name, LaRuby's Unique Treasures,
1:13:19
a pop-up shop catering to ladies with unique fashions.
1:13:24
I wore a shirt that proudly proclaimed that I was and I am Lady Ruby.
1:13:32
Actually, I had that shirt on-- I had that shirt in every color.
1:13:38
I wore that shirt on Election Day 2020. I haven't worn it since,
1:13:43
and I'll never wear it again. Now I won't even introduce myself by my name anymore.
1:13:53
There is nowhere I feel safe. Nowhere. Do you know how it feels to have
1:14:01
the president of the United States to target you?
1:14:06
The president of the United States is supposed to represent every American.
1:14:12
Not to target one. But he targeted me, Lady Ruby,
1:14:19
a small business owner, a mother, a proud American citizen
1:14:24
who stand up to help Fulton County run an election
1:14:29
in the middle of the pandemic. ♪ ♪
1:14:39
>> NARRATOR: Federal prosecutors have cited the lies about Freeman and Moss in their indictment.
1:14:45
>> "Co-Conspirator 1 orchestrated a presentation "to a judiciary subcommittee of the Georgia state senate,
1:14:51
"with the intention of misleading state senators into blocking the ascertainment of legitimate electors."
1:14:58
>> Breaking news in Georgia's investigation into alleged interference in the 2020 presidential election.
1:15:04
>> NARRATOR: In Georgia, prosecutors have also weighed in with their own charges. >> "Members of the enterprise,
1:15:10
"including several of the defendants, "falsely accused Fulton County election worker Ruby Freeman
1:15:15
of committing election crimes in Fulton County, Georgia." (flash bulb pops) >> NARRATOR: Trump, Giuliani and others
1:15:22
have been charged in Georgia with a host of crimes related to their attempts to overturn the 2020 election.
1:15:28
While Trump and Giuliani await trial, four of their codefendants have pled guilty,
1:15:35
including Jenna Ellis. >> If I knew then what I know now, I would have declined to represent Donald Trump.
1:15:42
I look back on this whole experience with deep remorse for those failures of mine, Your Honor.
1:15:48
>> It's very important that Jenna Ellis pled guilty to criminal charges. Because it raises the point that, "Wait a minute,
1:15:54
this wasn't a traditional lawyer-client relationship." And so when you have lawyers pleading guilty to crimes,
1:16:01
that is broadcasting loudly that they were not providing conventional legal advice.
1:16:08
>> NARRATOR: In a separate civil case, a federal court ordered Rudy Giuliani to pay $146 million for defaming Freeman and Moss.
1:16:16
>> A legal loss for Rudy Giuliani that could cost him millions. >> Rudy Giuliani, the once-respected New York mayor
1:16:23
and former attorney for Donald Trump, has filed for bankruptcy. >> Forced to declare bankruptcy,
1:16:28
the latest chapter in a dramatic fall for the man once dubbed "America's mayor."

Brad Raffensperger Describes His Georgia Election Phone Call With Trump

1:16:41
>> NARRATOR: As the January 6th hearings continued, the committee linked the efforts in Georgia to Trump personally.
1:16:48
(gavel bangs) They had evidence and a witness.
1:16:53
>> Brad Raffensperger is the 29th Secretary of State of Georgia, serving in this role since 2019.
1:17:02
>> My job as secretary of state is to make sure we have honest, fair, and accurate elections.
1:17:09
>> He's a very strong Christian, he's a very strong Republican, and he's very conservative. He was an engineer.
1:17:16
Now, being an engineer allowed him to lean into the numbers, and lean into the data. He felt very comfortable with that,
1:17:23
which is, you know, a rare thing for anybody in politics, because engineers are very mathematical, very linear, you know,
1:17:30
not always the biggest personalities. >> I looked at, as the office of secretary of state,
1:17:36
as how do we really improve the process of elections. All 159 counties had new election equipment
1:17:43
with a verifiable paper ballot ready for the election of 2020.
1:17:49
>> NARRATOR: It was a phone call from the president that put Raffensperger at the center of the hearings.
1:17:55
(dial tone, phone dialing out)
1:18:04
>> That phone call is one of the most powerful pieces of evidence that's come out of
1:18:10
this, this post-election period. (electronic beeping, indistinct chatter) (connecting tone)
1:18:20
>> Oh-- uh... >> Mark Meadows reached out to
1:18:26
my deputy secretary of state, and she called me, and I told her
1:18:31
I didn't think that was a good idea. And we were kind of told that,
1:18:37
no, we definitely need to have this conversation. (on recording):
1:19:07
>> It shows how frantic and desperate President Trump had become by that phone call.
1:19:14
I think it shows how his demands were fully removed from any kind of evidence.
1:19:33
>> I just listened to him talk. I was making some notes. "Okay, 5,000.
1:19:39
Okay, great," and I'll respond to that. But when I got an opportunity to,
1:19:44
you know, speak, then I, I just said, "Well, Mr. President, the challenge that you have is your data is wrong."
1:19:50
(on recording):
1:20:02
My job was just to respond with the facts. And if I had a different set of facts,
1:20:07
I would have responded with whatever they were. We just... our job was to give him the true data,
1:20:12
which I did.
1:20:31
>> The former president was pushing to see if he could somehow, you know...
1:20:36
it would move me somewhere, someplace. Because I think that's been an effective strategy for him
1:20:42
over his business career and political career. That people tended to buckle
1:20:48
instead of stand firm on their principles. >> NARRATOR: In Georgia,
1:20:54
Trump had lost to Biden by 11,779 votes.
1:21:16
>> Trump didn't understand, it just doesn't click... didn't click with him that someone wouldn't just give in.
1:21:25
It just did not occur to him that there was some higher level of loyalty to the law and the Constitution.
1:21:34
>> I knew that we had followed the law, we had followed the Constitution, and I think sometimes moments require you to stand up
1:21:41
and just take the shots. You're doing your job, and that's all we did. You know, we just followed the law
1:21:47
and we followed the Constitution, and at the end of the day, President Trump came up short.
1:21:52
But I had to be faithful to the Constitution, and that's what I swore an oath to do.
1:21:58
>> This call becomes critical, because it's recorded. We get to hear in the president's own voice
1:22:05
how he's doing it, what he's doing, how he's putting pressure on these people. >> So look, all I want to do is this.
1:22:12
I just want to find, uh... 11,780 votes.
1:22:21
>> This is a scheme to overthrow an election. He knew the number that he needed to hit
1:22:27
to change the outcome of the election. >> NARRATOR: And Trump accused Raffensperger himself of a crime--
1:22:33
allowing election fraud.
1:22:46
>> The president of the United States demanding that an election official find thousands of votes,
1:22:52
and then strongly implying that there would be criminal sanction in the event that those votes were not found.
1:22:58
I mean, that is terrible evidence for the president. >> What I knew is that we didn't have any votes to find.
1:23:05
We continued to look, we investigated-- like I just shared the numbers with you-- there were no votes to find.
1:23:12
>> That call is damning and I think it's going to be damning potentially in front of a jury, because juries, when they can hear
1:23:19
a defendant's voice on tape, when they can hear something that is that real and that visceral,
1:23:25
it can be incredibly powerful testimony.
1:23:37
(call ends) >> "The Defendant said that he needed to 'find'
1:23:44
11,780 votes." >> It shows him demanding a remedy
1:23:50
that doesn't make any sense in the context of anything lawful. That's just asking,
1:23:56
"I want to win, you've gotta do it." I think it's going to be a very powerful call for that jury.
1:24:01
>> NARRATOR: For his part, Trump has defended the phone call with Raffensperger-- describing it as "perfect."
1:24:08
>> "A 'perfect' phone call "to discuss a rigged and stolen election, "and what to do about it,
1:24:14
"with many people, including lawyers and others, knowingly on the line."

Trump’s Call for a “Big Protest” in D.C. on Jan. 6, 2021

1:24:24
♪ ♪ >> After weeks of trying to overturn
1:24:29
the results of the election, his legal team has come up with nothing. >> NARRATOR: In the middle of December 2020...
1:24:35
>> In the courts, where evidence gets scrutinized, authenticated, and tested, they're getting hammered.
1:24:40
>> NARRATOR: As the president was failing in his attempts to reverse the election... >> All but now ending the president's attempt
1:24:47
to reverse his election loss. >> NARRATOR: A new phase began. >> And it comes as the electoral college
1:24:52
is set to cast their votes for president tomorrow. >> On December 14, 2020,
1:24:58
the presidential election was officially over. The electoral college had cast its vote.
1:25:04
Joe Biden was the president- elect of the United States. >> The president has reached the end of the road.
1:25:12
The electoral college certified the election. His legal team and allies lost more than 50 challenges.
1:25:17
>> The cases run their course, the electoral college meets, people are saying no. So he's running out of options, right?
1:25:24
The sequence is increasingly desperate. >> On Friday, December 18, his team of outside advisors
1:25:30
paid him a surprise visit in the White House that would quickly become the stuff of legend.
1:25:38
>> This meeting is one of the most extraordinary meetings that ever happened in that building, in more than 200 years of history.
1:25:45
Here you had a president of the United States who had lost an election, in the Oval Office, being advised by...
1:25:52
a swarm of colorful characters, to say the least. >> NARRATOR: At the meeting:
1:25:58
former national security advisor Michael Flynn and attorney Sidney Powell,
1:26:03
by then both known for their embrace of conspiracy theories about the election.
1:26:11
>> You had people in there counseling Donald Trump that he should explicitly order martial law,
1:26:18
that he should create a special czar. The person they had in mind for this was Sidney Powell,
1:26:25
that she should become the special elections czar and be empowered to use the machinery of government itself
1:26:33
to overturn the election. >> NARRATOR: As word of the meeting spread,
1:26:38
senior White House lawyers rushed to the oval office, including White House counsel Pat Cipollone.
1:27:01
>> President Trump's close advisors, White House Counsel Pat Cipollone,
1:27:06
Eric Herschmann, advisor to the president, and others who were in that room
1:27:11
who were saying to this group, "What evidence do you even have that there was fraud in the election?"
1:27:17
>> NARRATOR: The White House lawyers were insistent that the president shouldn't declare martial law to overturn the election
1:27:23
or empower Sidney Powell. >> At times there were people shouting at each other,
1:27:29
hurling insults at each other.
1:27:50
(chuckles)
1:28:05
>> The president is taking all of this in, mostly a passive observer in this meeting, but he is watching this play out.
1:28:11
His close advisors telling his lawyers, "You have no evidence that there was fraud in the election.
1:28:18
"And you've lost every case. Every case you brought in to court, you've lost." And Sidney Powell says, "The judges were corrupt.
1:28:24
That's why we lost." And Eric Herschmann, supporter, close advisor to the president, says,
1:28:29
"What are you talking about? "Every case? "The judges? We appointed many of those judges.
1:28:34
"You're saying they're all corrupt? Like you people have nothing, you're crazy." >> I think that it got to the point where the screaming was
1:28:40
completely, completely out there. I mean, you get people walk in, it was late at night,
1:28:46
it'd been a long day, and... what they were proposing, I thought was nuts.
1:28:52
Flynn screamed at me that I was a quitter and everything, kept on standing up and turning around and screaming at me. And at a certain point, I had it with him.
1:29:00
So I yelled back. "Better sit your effing ass back down."
1:29:05
>> I'm gonna categorically describe it as...
1:29:10
"you guys are not tough enough." Or maybe I put it another way, "You're a bunch of pussies."
1:29:16
Excuse the expression. >> At the end of it, Trump sees that there is so much opposition,
1:29:23
including from his White House counsel. He understands that people would very likely resign,
1:29:29
And so, it seems that he reluctantly concludes that he's not going to declare martial law.
1:29:37
>> NARRATOR: Instead, late that night, after the meeting had broken up, the president turned to Twitter.
1:29:45
>> "Statistically impossible to have lost the 2020 election. "Big protest in D.C. on January 6th.
1:29:51
Be there, will be wild!" (Twitter chime) >> Dissatisfied with his options,
1:29:57
Donald Trump decided to call for a large and wild crowd on Wednesday, January 6,
1:30:03
the day when Congress would meet to certify the electoral votes.
1:30:10
>> While he doesn't actually go ahead with martial law, he is embracing a path that is, in fact, radical anyway.
1:30:17
He's not using the United States military, but he's summoning his own army of supporters to Washington,
1:30:22
some of whom are known to be extremists, and in some cases violent, to help him stay in office,
1:30:29
over the will of the voters. >> It's Saturday, December 19.
1:30:35
And one of the most historic events in American history has just taken place.
1:30:41
President Trump, in the early morning hours today, tweeted that he wants the American people
1:30:47
to march on Washington D.C. on January 6.
1:30:52
>> This wildly inflammatory tweet was a bullhorn that immediately went out to
1:30:58
some of the more violent, organized Trump supporters-- The Oath Keepers.
1:31:05
>> "He called us all to the Capitol "and wants us to make it wild. "Gentlemen, we are heading to D.C.
1:31:11
Pack your (bleep)." >> The Proud Boys... >> "It's all or nothing, patriots.
1:31:16
Boldness and bravery is necessary." >> They heard it as a message from their leader,
1:31:24
"Come to Washington." >> The "Will be wild!" tweet
1:31:30
was the call in a call and response. They mobilized to come to Washington. These individuals came to Washington
1:31:36
because Donald Trump told them to be there. Because Donald Trump told them the election was rigged. Because Donald Trump told them
1:31:42
that someone was trying to take their votes away from them, and silence their voices. They believed it.
1:31:48
>> This could be Trump's last stand. And it's a time when he has specifically called on
1:31:53
his supporters to arrive in D.C. >> The time for games is over. The time for action is now.
1:32:00
Where were you when history called? Where were you when you and your children's destiny
1:32:05
and future was on the line? >> NARRATOR: For prosecutors, that tweet,
1:32:12
the call to march on Washington, represents a crucial step in Trump's criminal conspiracy.
1:32:19
>> Jack Smith's theory is that that was part of the attempt to obstruct the proceedings on January 6.
1:32:27
That Trump wanted a large, at least boisterous, if not violent,
1:32:32
crowd there to interfere with the proceedings, maybe stop them,
1:32:38
put pressure on the people there. And that was one component of his obstruction.
1:32:43
>> "After cultivating widespread anger and resentment for weeks "with his knowingly false claims of election fraud,
1:32:50
"the Defendant urged his supporters "to travel to Washington on the day of the certification proceeding."
1:32:57
>> The special counsel is sort of situating it as this hinge, where things sort of really start to go wrong.
1:33:03
That shows that this was part of a plan. And if they can convince the jury of that,
1:33:10
that's a huge portion of the ball game. >> NARRATOR: In their filings, Trump's attorneys have argued
1:33:17
that his statements were protected by the First Amendment. >> "The indictment therefore attempts to criminalize
1:33:23
"core political speech and political advocacy, "which is categorically impermissible
1:33:28
under the First Amendment." >> There should be room under the First Amendment and otherwise
1:33:33
for the president to say an awful lot without having to tag him with a criminal offense. And that's why there's a First Amendment.

1:33:40
You're given a big amount of latitude to say a lot of wild and crazy, even stupid, things,
1:33:48
without having to worry about somebody afterwards deciding that you should be sent to jail for it.
1:33:54
>> While prosecuting the president in an electoral context is new,
1:34:00
prosecuting people for electoral fraud is not new at all.
1:34:06
There are burdens of proof, there are legal tests, there are jury instructions, and if you can meet those elements,
1:34:11
then you're outside of the protection of the First Amendment. This is not a novel legal theory here.
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Re: Trump lashes out at Gov. Doug Ducey following certificat

Postby admin » Sun Feb 04, 2024 4:39 am

Part 3 of 3

The Pressure on Trump’s Justice Department in the 2020 Election’s Aftermath

1:34:26
(siren wailing) >> NARRATOR: As January 6 approached,
1:34:31
Trump refocused his efforts closer to home at his own Department of Justice.
1:34:37
>> Today, we'll tell the story of how the pressure campaign also targeted the federal agency,
1:34:43
charged with enforcement of our laws, the Department of Justice.
1:34:50
>> Trump tried to weaponize the Department of Justice against our own democracy.
1:34:55
Bill Barr is the first one to stand up and say, "No, I'm not going to do that." He steps aside, he resigns.
1:35:01
And he's replaced by Jeff Rosen and Richard Donoghue as a sort of tag team here. (keyboard keys clacking)
1:35:07
>> NARRATOR: Rosen was a Republican political appointee who had served throughout Trump's administration.
1:35:12
Donoghue, also a Republican, had spent much of his career as a government lawyer--
1:35:18
in the Army and at the Department of Justice. >> These are folks who were appointed by Donald Trump.
1:35:24
They are aligned with him politically. >> Pretty much every day after Barr left,
1:35:31
Trump would call Jeffrey Rosen at the Justice Department or his deputy, Richard Donoghue, and try to put pressure on them
1:35:38
to get the department to go along with this narrative that there were serious questions about the integrity of the election.
1:35:46
>> Mr. Donoghue, you had a conversation with the president where he raised false claim after false claim
1:35:53
with you and Mr. Rosen. How did you respond to what you called a "stream of allegations"?
1:36:00
>> I wanted to try to cut through the noise, because it was clear to us that there were a lot of people whispering in his ear,
1:36:05
feeding him these conspiracy theories and allegations, As the president went through them, I went piece by piece
1:36:11
to say, "No, that's false, that is not true." And to correct him, really, in a serial fashion
1:36:18
as he moved from one theory to another. >> How did the president respond to that, sir?
1:36:24
>> He responded very quickly and said, essentially, "That's not what I'm asking you to do. "What I'm just asking you to do is just say it was corrupt
1:36:31
and leave the rest to me and the Republican congressmen." ♪ ♪
1:36:39
>> He's saying, "Don't care about evidence, "don't care about facts, just say this.
1:36:44
"And then I'm going to be able to use that "to give people political cover "to do what I want them to do,
1:36:50
which is to overturn the vote." >> I-- look, I think that's a very
1:36:56
unfortunate statement on the, on the president's part, but it wouldn't be the first time
1:37:01
that a president made a, a conscious decision to reject advice from his legal advisers, including the Department of Justice.
1:37:09
Is that evidence of criminal misconduct? Could be. Could be.
1:37:15
But sorting that out before a fair-minded jury, assuming that there's a fair-minded jury,
1:37:20
is, I think, another question. >> NARRATOR: As it became clear Rosen and Donoghue wouldn't go along,
1:37:27
Trump looked for someone who would. >> Trump turns to this
1:37:32
mid-level Department of Justice employee, Jeff Clark, and he says, "Let's put him in
1:37:37
as the acting attorney general." >> He had been an environmental prosecutor.
1:37:47
Clark's official role has nothing to do with anything involving election fraud. He had no business at all being involved in this.
1:37:55
>> NARRATOR: Clark drafted a letter that would claim publicly that the department was concerned about serious allegations of election fraud,
1:38:03
even though his superiors had said there was no such evidence.
1:38:09
>> That letter of course was never sent. Clark tried to push for it to be sent, by sort of attempting to dethrone
1:38:16
acting attorney general Jeffery Rosen. >> NARRATOR: According to testimony and evidence before the committee,
1:38:21
Trump told Clark that he was going fire Rosen and make him the new attorney general.
1:38:27
>> Well, Clark makes an incredibly stupid mistake, which is that he tells Jeffrey Rosen,
1:38:35
the acting attorney general, that he is going to be replaced. >> On the-- on Sunday, the third,
1:38:42
he told me that the president had offered him the job and that he was accepting it. >> Clark tells him,
1:38:47
"Oh yeah, Trump is going to put me in." And he gives notice to his opponents.
1:38:55
That's always a huge mistake, in Washington or anywhere else. >> Well...
1:39:01
you know, on the one hand, I wasn't going to accept being fired by my subordinate. (chuckling): So, I wanted to talk to the,
1:39:07
the president directly. >> And there was another crazy White House meeting where Rosen, Donoghue,
1:39:15
meet with Clark, the president, and other presidential advisors,
1:39:21
in the Oval Office, for hours, fighting over whether Clark should be the attorney general. >> Jeff Clark was proposing
1:39:27
that... Jeff Rosen being replaced by Jeff Clark.
1:39:35
And I thought the proposal was... asinine.
1:39:51
>> And when he finished discussing what he planned on doing, I said "Good...
1:39:56
"(bleep)"-- excuse me, sorry-- "effing a-hole. "Congratulations, you just admitted your first step
1:40:02
"or act you take as attorney general "would be committing a felony and violating Rule 6(e). You're clearly the right candidate for this job."
1:40:18
>> Mr. Donoghue, did-- did you eventually tell the president that mass resignations would occur
1:40:24
if he installed Mr. Clark and what the consequences would be? >> I said, "Mr. President, within 24, 48, 72 hours,
1:40:31
"you could have hundreds and hundreds of resignations "of the leadership of your entire Justice Department "because of your actions.
1:40:37
What's that going to say about you?" >> In the end, that proves to be enough to stop Trump--
1:40:44
very reluctantly, very reluctantly-- from putting Clark in as his acting attorney general.
1:40:50
Talk about a close call. >> NARRATOR: But for the January 6th committee
1:40:56
and federal prosecutors, the pressure on the Justice Department was another part of the conspiracy.
1:41:04
>> He's trying to enlist as part of a scheme these officials of the Justice Department. Lawyers, officers of the court,
1:41:10
people who have taken an oath to uphold the rule of law, and they won't go along with it.
1:41:17
>> "The Defendant and co-conspirators "attempted to use the power and authority "of the Justice Department
1:41:23
to conduct sham election crime investigations." >> NARRATOR: As with the pressure
1:41:28
on state election officials, Trump's attorneys have argued that he was just doing his job.
1:41:34
>> "Urging his own Department of Justice "to do more to enforce the laws "that it is charged with enforcing
1:41:39
is unquestionably an official act of the president." >> NARRATOR: And the president is entitled
1:41:44
to name anyone he wants as the attorney general. >> "Deliberating about whether to replace "the acting attorney general of the United States
1:41:51
is also a core presidential function." >> Jack Smith has made that judgment
1:41:57
that that has crossed over the line into criminal conduct. But he is now going to have to prove
1:42:03
that the president went over that line, whatever that line is.

President Trump, Vice President Pence and the Jan. 6 Election Certification

1:42:12
♪ ♪ >> NARRATOR: Having called his supporters to come to Washington on January 6,
1:42:19
Trump turned his attention to a key player in his effort to stay in power: Vice President Mike Pence.
1:42:27
>> Today, we're focusing on President Trump's relentless effort to pressure Mike Pence to refuse
1:42:33
to count electoral votes on January 6. >> The pressure campaign on Vice President Pence
1:42:39
is the last gambit to keep Trump in power. I mean, basically, it's the last lever
1:42:44
that they can pull to try and steal the election. >> NARRATOR: It was based on an obscure legal theory:
1:42:50
that the vice president had the power to overturn the election results.
1:42:56
>> Greg Jacob was counsel to Vice President Pence. He conducted a thorough analysis
1:43:02
of the role of the vice president in a joint session of Congress under the Constitution.
1:43:08
I now recognize the gentleman from California, Mr. Aguilar. >> Mr. Jacob, did you go to the vice president's residences
1:43:15
on the morning of January 6? >> Yes. >> And did the vice president have a call with the president
1:43:21
that morning? >> He did. We were told that a call had come in from the president.
1:43:27
The vice president stepped out of the room to take that call, and no staff went with him.
1:43:34
>> The president had several family members with him for that call.
1:43:39
I'd like to show you what they and others told the select committee about that call, along with never-before-seen photographs
1:43:45
of the president on that call from the National Archives.
1:43:51
>> When I entered the office the second time, he was on the telephone
1:43:57
with who I later found out to be was the, the vice president. >> Could you hear the vice president or only hear the president's end?
1:44:04
>> Only hear the president's end. And at some point, it started off as a calmer tone, and then it became heated.
1:44:11
>> Donald Trump is focused on this idea that Pence wielding the gavel on January 6
1:44:17
can single-handedly overturn the election, because he was presiding over this final certification
1:44:22
of the electoral votes. >> The conversation was, was... pretty heated.
1:44:29
>> It's an extraordinary thing, a president pressuring a vice president this way, insulting him that way,
1:44:35
a person who had been nothing but loyal to him through all those, all those months and years. >> Did Ms. Trump share with you
1:44:42
any more details about what happened? >> Her dad had just had an upsetting conversation
1:44:48
with the vice president. >> It was a different tone than I'd heard him take with the vice president before.
1:44:55
>> I mean, I think she was... uncomfortable over the fact that there was obviously that type of interaction between the two of them.
1:45:02
>> The word that she relayed to you that the president called the vice president, I apologize for being impolite,
1:45:09
but do you remember what she said her father called him? >> The P word.
1:45:17
>> Trump told Pence, "You have a choice. "You can either be a patriot or you can be a pussy.
1:45:26
"Patriot means turn the election over to me.
1:45:31
Being a pussy means being afraid to use your power."
1:45:37
>> Mr. Jacob, how would you describe the demeanor of the vice president following the call with the president?
1:45:45
>> When he came back into the room, I'd say that he was steely,
1:45:50
determined, grim.
1:45:56
>> NARRATOR: In almost four years, it was the first serious break between Pence and Trump.
1:46:04
>> Donald Trump had every expectation that he would go along with him on this. Why wouldn't he?
1:46:10
He'd done everything else up until now. Pence is a vice president who has been
1:46:15
exceedingly loyal to Trump for three years, 11 months, and however many days.
1:46:21
Mike Pence never, ever, broke with the president. >> NARRATOR: Now Pence had to make a critical decision.
1:46:30
>> Pence had just a clear conflict between what Trump wanted him to do and what the Constitution and the rule of law required him to do.
1:46:37
I think he managed to navigate those conflicts in various ways over four years. Not always, in my view, in the right way. But this was such a blatant transgression.
1:46:47
>> NARRATOR: Pivotal to the plan was this man-- John Eastman. >> Here's this law professor,
1:46:54
a member of the Federalists. His role was to provide a,
1:47:01
sort of a pseudo-intellectual cover for legal arguments.
1:47:07
>> And he manufactures this theory of the vice president's power, that bas... that says that the vice president
1:47:13
of the United States is the ultimate arbiter on January 6, those were his words, "the ultimate arbiter." And Trump fully endorses Eastman's plan.
1:47:22
>> Well, John Eastman was one of my law clerks... Perhaps 20, 25 years ago.
1:47:32
I was greatly concerned that John had given the advice that he had given.
1:47:39
>> Judge J. Michael Luttig is one of the leading conservative legal thinkers in the country.
1:47:45
He's served in administrations of President Ronald Reagan and George H.W. Bush.
1:47:51
>> Judge Luttig had a kind of moral authority within the conservative community.
1:47:59
A guy himself who had been short-listed for the Supreme Court. Was on a first-name basis
1:48:05
with members of the Supreme Court. >> Judge Luttig, I had the incredible honor
1:48:10
of serving as one of your law clerks. Another person who did was John Eastman.
1:48:16
And you've written that Dr. Eastman's theory is, in your words, "Incorrect at every turn."
1:48:24
>> Mr. Eastman said to the president that there was both legal
1:48:30
as well as historical precedent for the vice president to overturn the election.
1:48:40
This is Constitutional mischief. I would have laid my body
1:48:47
across the road before I would have let the vice president
1:48:53
overturn the 2020 election. I diagrammed his, uh, his, his legal analysis,
1:49:02
from beginning to end and concluded that we was wrong at every, every turn of his analysis,
1:49:10
every turn of his thinking. >> Judge Luttig, you wrote that the efforts
1:49:17
by President Trump to overturn the 2020 election were, "the most reckless, insidious,
1:49:23
"and calamitous failures in both legal and political judgement in American history."
1:49:28
What did you mean by that? >> Exactly what I said, Congressman.
1:49:37
>> NARRATOR: White House lawyers had also warned about Eastman's theories. But Trump persisted,
1:49:44
summoning the vice president to the Oval Office. >> The Eastman plan. It was the last option
1:49:50
for Donald Trump. January 4, 2021. In the Oval Office, John Eastman, President Trump,
1:49:59
they pull Vice President Pence in. He's joined by his aides, Greg Jacob and Marc Short.
1:50:08
Trump says to Pence, in front of others, "You have to now listen to John Eastman,
1:50:14
"you have to follow the Eastman plan-- object to the certification."
1:50:19
It's a pressure campaign. Pence says to Trump, "I'm going to do what I can, Mr. President,
1:50:25
I want to help you out but I'm listening to my lawyers." He turns to Greg Jacob, his advisors, and he says,
1:50:31
"They're telling me I can't do it. I can't do it, it's not constitutional, it's not legal."
1:50:38
Trump says, "You can do it, listen to John."
1:50:44
>> Mr. Jacob, during that meeting between the president and the vice president, what theories did Dr. Eastman present regarding
1:50:51
the role of the vice president in counting the electoral votes? >> So during that meeting on the fourth
1:50:57
I think I raised the problem that Mr. Eastman's proposals
1:51:03
would violate several provisions of the Electoral Count Act. Mr. Eastman acknowledged that that was the case.
1:51:12
>> Pence turns to Trump and says, "Are you listening to this? Do you hear this?" But Trump isn't listening to that, he just,
1:51:19
he's banging away on Pence, "You are the guy who's going to keep us in power." (siren blaring)
1:51:27
>> NARRATOR: Pence stood firm. >> This is a man who has been so loyal for so long,
1:51:34
but I think, at the end of the day, Mike Pence knew that he was going to uphold the Constitution.
1:51:40
And he knew that he had no power to overturn and do the things that the president was saying.
1:51:48
>> The choice Mike Pence was facing was not really a choice. He had no choice to do anything
1:51:53
other than count the votes that took place. But at this point, Donald Trump had surrounded himself
1:52:00
with people who were feeding him more and more nonsense about how this process worked.
1:52:07
It was just another situation of the president creating his own reality, deciding things that can happen that simply can't,
1:52:14
and set Mike Pence up for the fall in a way that he had really no choice in what to do.
1:52:20
♪ ♪ >> NARRATOR: The pressure on Pence figures prominently
1:52:26
in the indictment of Trump. >> "The Defendant and co-conspirators attempted
1:52:31
to enlist the vice president to use his ceremonial role at the January 6 certification proceeding
1:52:37
to fraudulently alter the election results. >> NARRATOR: John Eastman is listed as one of
1:52:43
the unindicted co-conspirators, though he still defends the advice he gave the president.
1:52:52
>> Trump's interactions with Pence, direct and indirect, are crucial. They really go to showing that part of the way
1:52:58
he obstructed justice was trying to wrongfully pressure Pence, who had an official task not to undertake that task.
1:53:07
>> Is the fact that Donald Trump asked him to do that, is, is that criminal?
1:53:12
Again, I think you've got to be really careful there. I don't think that's something you want to make criminal,
1:53:18
you know, on its own. The mere ask to say, you know, "I want you to not certify the results."
1:53:25
It doesn't necessarily mean that it was a violation of the criminal law. It depends on context and whatever other evidence
1:53:31
the government has. >> Whether or not a particular act that the president is alleged to have engaged in
1:53:38
is in and of itself a crime isn't really going to be the question at that trial. It's going to be whether that act
1:53:44
was in furtherance of a criminal objective. All of these acts, all of the things that
1:53:50
we've been talking about, they don't have to be illegal in and of themselves. The crime is a conspiracy to defraud the United States.

Trump White House Aide Cassidy Hutchinson Testifies Before the Jan. 6 Committee

1:54:06
♪ ♪
1:54:12
>> There's a lot of anticipation for today's hearings. The committee says it will present newly obtained evidence and testimony.
1:54:17
>> NARRATOR: In the midst of the January 6th committee's hearings, a dramatic moment. >> Live testimony from a White House advisor
1:54:25
who was right there in the West Wing on January 6. >> NARRATOR: A surprise witness. >> During the Watergate hearings there was only
1:54:32
one surprise witness-- it was Alexander Butterfield, while in the January 6 hearings, the surprise witness is Cassidy Hutchinson.
1:54:39
>> NARRATOR: Cassidy Hutchinson: a 25-year-old White House staffer.
1:54:44
>> The most intimidating thing is all those cameras sitting one foot from her face taking pictures of her.
1:54:51
(camera flash pops) >> This is a young woman
1:54:57
standing in a setting that could almost feel amphitheatrical.
1:55:05
♪ ♪
1:55:10
>> I was with Cassidy on the day of her testimony. During it, I'm sitting behind her.
1:55:17
She was incredibly nervous, I think like any normal person would be to do this.
1:55:22
There was a time beforehand where she wanted to back out. Because it was really scary to go up against
1:55:30
the president of the United States, and speak the truth, is something that only a few people will know.
1:55:40
>> She was a hardcore Trump loyalist. And she's getting ready to destroy the tribe
1:55:47
that she gets her identity from. I've been there, right. I've been in that moment. It was pretty awe-inspiring to be quite honest with you.
1:55:53
>> I will now swear in our witness. >> Knowing how Trump had
1:56:00
become so intimidating a person for people who crossed him, and this one young woman, doing what so many other
1:56:08
much older, frequently male staffers wouldn't do, which is come forward
1:56:13
and testifying truthfully under oath. >> ...the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God?
1:56:18
>> (inaudible) >> Thank you, you may be seated. >> NARRATOR: Inside the White House,
1:56:24
Hutchinson had been a top aide to Trump's chief of staff, Mark Meadows,
1:56:30
and in the room during key events the committee was investigating. >> Hutchinson was a crucial witness in terms of helping to
1:56:39
shine a light on the president's state of mind because so few people were capable of doing that.
1:56:45
>> NARRATOR: Hutchinson revealed details about Trump's plans for January 6.
1:56:51
>> On January 2, four days before the attack on our Capitol, President Trump's lead lawyer, Mr. Giuliani, was meeting
1:56:58
with White House chief of staff Mark Meadows and others. Ms. Hutchinson, we understand that you
1:57:03
walked Mr. Giuliani out of the White House that night, and he talked to you about January 6.
1:57:09
What do you remember him saying? >> As Mr. Giuliani and I were walking to his vehicles that evening, he looked at me and said
1:57:17
something to the effect of, "Cass, are you excited for the sixth? It's going to be a great day."
1:57:22
I remember looking at him saying, "Rudy, could you explain what's happening on the sixth?"
1:57:28
And he had responded something to the effect of, "We're going to the Capitol. "It's going to be great.
1:57:35
"The president's going to be there. He's going to look powerful." >> She clearly had nothing to gain by doing it.
1:57:42
She was telling the truth as she saw it. This poised, composed young woman with no obvious axe to grind
1:57:49
as she's telling her story, it's the most powerful moment I think in the entire hearings.
1:57:55
>> And I found Mr. Meadows in his office, scrolling through his phone. I remember leaning against the doorway and saying,
1:58:01
"I just had an interesting conversation with Rudy, Mark. It sounds like we're going to go to the Capitol."
1:58:07
He didn't look up from his phone, and said something to the effect of, "There's a lot going on, Cass, but I don't know,
1:58:15
things might get real, real bad on January 6." >> (crowd chanting): U.S.A.!
1:58:20
U.S.A.! U.S.A.! >> Tensions are running high. 30,000 supporters of the president
1:58:26
are gathering right now. They're having what they're calling a "Stop the Steal" rally. >> NARRATOR: And on January 6,
1:58:32
Hutchinson was in the president's inner circle. >> I think the campaign is aware that January 6 would be the last stand.
1:58:40
Once that certification happens on the sixth, that it's really over. (siren blaring)
1:58:48
>> Miss Hutchinson, did you go to the rally in the presidential motorcade? >> I, I was there, yes.
1:58:55
(siren blaring) >> And were you backstage with the president and other members of his staff and family?
1:59:02
>> I was. >> NARRATOR: It was in the tent backstage that Hutchinson heard crucial evidence of what Trump knew
1:59:09
about the potential for violence that day. >> (on video): When we were in the offstage announce area tent
1:59:16
behind the stage he was very concerned about the shots--
1:59:21
meaning the photographs that we would get because the rally space wasn't full. >> The former president was unhappy with the crowd size.
1:59:29
We learned that some of the crowd size inside the barricade was due to the fact that people were unwilling to pass through the magnetometers,
1:59:38
presumably because they had, they were carrying contraband weapons. >> Several thousand members of the crowd
1:59:45
who refused to go through the mags watched from the lawn near the Washington Monument.
1:59:51
(cheers and applause) >> I overheard the president say something to the effect of
1:59:58
"You know, I don't effing care that they have weapons, "they're not here to hurt me, take the effing mags away.
2:00:06
"Let my people in, they can march to the Capitol from here. Let the people in, take the effing mags away."
2:00:14
>> There was awareness that there were weapons in that crowd, and that Trump didn't care because, as he put it,
2:00:19
"They're not here for me." Uh, which begs the question-- well, who were they here for?
2:00:24
♪ ♪ (cheers and applause)
2:00:31
>> Let's reflect on that for a moment. President Trump was aware that a number of the individuals in the crowd had weapons
2:00:38
and were wearing body armor. And here's what President Trump instructed the crowd to do.
2:00:44
>> (on video): We're going to walk down, and I'll be there with you, we're going to walk down, we're going to walk down,
2:00:51
anyone you want, but I think right here-- we're going to walk down to the Capitol.
2:00:57
(cheers and applause) >> (crowd chanting): Fight for Trump! Fight for Trump! Fight for Trump!
2:01:03
>> And we fight, we fight like hell, and if you don't fight like hell
2:01:08
you're not going to have a country anymore. (cheers and applause) >> He told them to fight over and over and over again.
2:01:15
And he told them if they don't fight, you're not going to have a country anymore. What could be more existential to his supporters than,
2:01:22
"If I don't fight here and now, America's gone"? That's what he's telling them. >> NARRATOR: And he focused the crowd
2:01:29
on his last hope for overturning the election-- Mike Pence.
2:01:34
>> And Mike Pence, I hope you're going to stand up for the good of our Constitution and for the good of our country.
2:01:41
>> He has not been able to convince Pence directly, but he's seeing the crowd for him there,
2:01:48
and he was willing to continue the pressure campaign with an army. >> And if you're not, I'm gonna be very disappointed in you,
2:01:54
I will tell you right now. >> Look at that speech at how many times he invokes the name Mike Pence.
2:02:02
Over and over and over again. He is telling that crowd
2:02:08
not once, not twice, not three times, but many times that the thing they want most,
2:02:13
which is to keep Joe Biden from becoming president, that the one person that can make it happen is Mike Pence.
2:02:20
>> Because you'll never take back our country with weakness. You have to show strength and you have to be strong.
2:02:27
>> (crowd chanting): Fight for Trump! Fight for Trump! >> It's important not just to focus on what he said,
2:02:33
but on the entire context-- the way he had been spreading the big lie,
2:02:39
that he had gathered people together, that he called the mob to Washington, D.C., for January 6, specifically for this moment.
2:02:48
This was sponsored by the president of the United States
2:02:53
who had lied to his own supporters and convinced them that something could happen on January 6
2:03:00
that would change the outcome of the election.
2:03:06
>> NARRATOR: While the special counsel did not directly charge Trump with inciting violence,
2:03:12
prosecutors have pointed to his speech repeatedly. >> "That day was the culmination
2:03:18
"of the defendant's criminal conspiracies "to overturn the legitimate results "of the presidential election,
2:03:23
"when the defendant directed a large and angry crowd "to the Capitol to obstruct the congressional certification proceeding."
2:03:32
>> The first amendment standard for incitement is extremely difficult to reach. But what the special counsel does instead
2:03:39
is wrap it into the concept of obstruction. That Trump is whipping up the crowd in order
2:03:47
to obstruct what's going on in the Senate. >> So let's walk down Pennsylvania Avenue.
2:03:54
>> That's the way you build the outrage over the speech, over the riot, into causes of action into criminal charges
2:04:02
that the special counsel knows that he can prove. >> NARRATOR: Donald Trump has insisted that his speech
2:04:10
that day was "totally appropriate" and called the crowd "peaceful people."
2:04:16
And his defenders question whether a jury should sit in judgment of a president's speech at all.
2:04:24
>> I do not find that charge to be sustainable, irrespective of whether a jury could return a verdict on it.
2:04:31
I do not find that charge to be sustainable on appeal for First Amendment reasons. I just... that's a bad idea.
2:04:36
You don't like what happened there, about what the president said, remove him from office. Okay?
2:04:43
Don't elect him president of the United States ever again. That's the solution to that one.
2:04:51
>> I do understand the argument that prosecuting a president criminally is incredibly divisive.
2:04:57
But the Constitution as it currently stands, and federal statutes as they currently stand, do not exempt the president
2:05:05
from the operation of law. If you don't believe the president should be subject to law, amend the Constitution.
2:05:11
But until it's amended, the president is a citizen, just like the rest of us.
2:05:20
♪ ♪

House Select Committee Examines What President Trump Did for 187 Minutes on Jan. 6

2:05:25
(crowd cheering) >> NARRATOR: For the January 6th committee,
2:05:32
a crucial question... >> What exactly was our commander-in-chief doing during the hours of violence?
2:05:39
Today we address precisely that issue, and I now recognize the gentlewoman from Virginia.
2:05:45
>> From the time when President Trump ended his speech, until the moment when he finally told the mob to go home,
2:05:52
a span of 187 minutes-- more than three hours-- what you will learn...
2:05:58
>> So Elaine Luria and I decided that to lead the 187-minute hearing because we were both veterans on the committee.
2:06:04
Elaine and I had taken the oath twice, as a member of Congress and as a military member.
2:06:10
And I think it was important for us to just hopefully express that outrage of how there are people
2:06:15
that are willing to die for this country, and this guy couldn't even follow through on his basic oath to defend the constitutional branch of government.
2:06:23
>> Here's what'll be clear by the end of this hearing; President Trump did not fail to act during the 187 minutes
2:06:30
between leaving the Ellipse and telling the mob to go home. He chose not to act.
2:06:37
(crowd cheering) >> NARRATOR: The 187 minutes began as Trump left the stage
2:06:42
and demanded that his motorcade drive him to the Capitol. >> The president was still adamant to go to the Capitol,
2:06:50
but his Secret Service detail was equally determined to not let him go. That led to a heated argument with the detail
2:06:58
that delayed the departure of the motorcade to the White House. >> NARRATOR: Later, Cassidy Hutchinson
2:07:04
heard reports about what happened. >> So once the president had gotten into the vehicle
2:07:10
with Bobby Engel, who was the head of Mr. Trump's security detail, he thought that they were going up to the Capitol.
2:07:17
And when Bobby had relayed to him, "We're not, "we don't have the assets to do it, it's not secure,
2:07:22
we're going back to the West Wing," the president had a very strong, a very angry response to that.
2:07:30
The president said something to the effect of, "I'm the effing president, take me up to the Capitol now."
2:07:38
To which Bobby responded, "Sir, we have to go back to the West Wing."
2:07:44
(siren blaring)
2:07:50
>> He saw this crowd and he wanted to participate in some manner,
2:07:56
whether it was leading the crowd, or being part of the crowd, or going but, certainly, there was only a level of frustration
2:08:03
when he was told that he couldn't. That he was so focused on disrupting
2:08:11
the joint session that day, he himself wanted to go.
2:08:16
(siren blaring) >> NARRATOR: When he couldn't go to the Capitol with the crowd, the president returned to the White House.
2:08:24
>> In some ways, the most telling portrayal of the president and his intent here is not what happens
2:08:31
in the lead-up to the attack on the Capitol, but what he does or doesn't do when it's taking place,
2:08:37
and in the aftermath of it. >> President Trump went to the private dining room off of the Oval Office.
2:08:43
Witnesses told us that on January 6, President Trump sat in his usual spot, at the head of the table,
2:08:50
facing a television hanging on the wall. We know from the employee that the TV was tuned
2:08:56
to Fox News all afternoon. >> This is real, it's happening on Capitol Hill,
2:09:01
we're trying to get some ground truth to exactly what's happening on the ground. To your point broadly...
2:09:07
>> He's in that little private dining room off the Oval Office, the TV is on, he's watching it take place.
2:09:12
He knows what's happening, he understands what's happening, and his instinct is to, in effect, egg them on.
2:09:19
>> At 1:49, he tweeted out a link to the recording of his Ellipse speech.
2:09:24
This was the same speech in which he knowingly sent an armed mob to the Capitol, but President Trump
2:09:30
made no comment about the lawlessness and the violence. >> They are locking down the Capitol complex,
2:09:36
no one is allowed in or out. >> The White House is just in shock,
2:09:43
many of them testified that they tried to get the president to take some sort of action to get the crowd
2:09:50
to leave the Capitol. >> NARRATOR: White House Counsel Pat Cipollone was one of Trump's advisors urging action.
2:10:21
>> These aides and lawyers rushing into this private dining room, trying to get him to do something, trying to get him to speak out,
2:10:27
trying to get him to stop the attack-- and he won't do it. >> He was enjoying this.
2:10:33
These were his people. He loved them. And they were accomplishing something that
2:10:38
he wanted to have accomplished, which was to delay and derail the certification of this election.
2:10:45
>> NARRATOR: The committee saw it as evidence of what the president had been planning all along.
2:10:51
>> It says volumes about the president's intent. It suggests that the president is reluctant to call this off,
2:10:58
that he sees his people fighting as a potentially positive thing. His own daughter is encouraging him
2:11:05
to more forcefully stop the violence.
2:11:10
And the fact that he does not, for hours, after being aware of the violence, tell people to go home, really, really powerful evidence
2:11:18
of his intent. >> Now, look at what you've got now--
2:11:23
you have protesters inside the Capitol Building. The other big question is, where is the vice president?
2:11:30
>> (on video): Hold, hold-- >> NARRATOR: The Secret Service
2:11:36
rushed Pence away from the crowd.
2:11:45
>> NARRATOR: With the Capitol overrun, the president fired off a tweet about this vice president.
2:11:51
>> (dramatized): Mike Pence didn't have the courage to do what should have been done... >> "To protect our country and our Constitution."
2:11:58
>> Is that true? I'm hearing, I'm hearing reports that Pence caved, I'm telling you, if Pence caved,
2:12:04
we're gonna drag mother (bleep) through the streets. >> As that tweet goes out at 2:24pm,
2:12:09
his supporters see it, and there is an intense surge in the rioting--
2:12:14
that tweet threw fuel on the fire. (shouting, air horn blaring)
2:12:22
>> Mike Pence has betrayed the United States of America! (crowd booing)
2:12:28
>> (crowd chanting): Hang Mike Pence! Hang Mike Pence! Hang Mike Pence! >> The mob goes down there, to the Capitol and chants,
2:12:35
"Hang Mike Pence!" And they actually build a gallows out in front of the Capitol, I mean, they meant it.
2:12:43
♪ ♪ >> I can only imagine what Mike Pence must have thought
2:12:50
when the full weight of the betrayal must have become so palpable for him.
2:12:56
When he must have thought, "It has come to this, "that the one moment as vice president
2:13:01
"where I have stood on principle, "I am being treated as the enemy. "And they've come for me.
2:13:07
And the president is attacking me." Not only is he not calling to say, "Are you okay?"
2:13:13
He's egging it on. It's, it is, it is an amazing moment.
2:13:20
(bird cawing) >> NARRATOR: At the White House, Pat Cipollone was growing concerned
2:13:26
for the vice president. >> I remember Pat saying, "Mark, we need to do something more.
2:13:32
"They're literally calling for the vice president to be effing hung." And Mark had responded something to the effect of,
2:13:40
"You heard him, Pat. "He thinks Mike deserves it, he doesn't think they're doing anything wrong."
2:13:48
>> When the crowd is chanting "Hang Mike Pence" he says, "Well, maybe our people have it right.
2:13:53
Maybe Mike deserves it." >> But there are people inside the actual... >> Donald Trump embraced the whirlwind on January 6.
2:14:01
>> And both the House and Senate... >> He, in his speech at the Ellipse, in his tweets afterwards, in his indifference
2:14:09
to the pleas of his family and advisors to do something more, to call them up, he seemed to revel in the chaos and violence
2:14:19
that he himself had unleashed. >> (crowd chanting): Hang Mike Pence! Hang Mike Pence! Hang Mike Pence!
2:14:26
>> Copy, clear. We're coming out now, all right, make the way. >> We had the footage from inside the Capitol
2:14:33
where Pence is rushed down the steps by his Secret Service detail along with his family.
2:14:38
>> Hang Mike Pence! Hang Mike Pence! >> To his credit, he did not take the Secret Service advice
2:14:45
and leave the Capitol. He stayed, he provided direction
2:14:52
to what was going on. He offered the stability at the moment
2:14:58
that the president refused to do. >> NARRATOR: Finally,
2:15:03
police began to regain control of the Capitol. >> The Capitol grounds have been secure,
2:15:08
police had to use tear gas. >> Troops are deployed around the Capitol perimeter to prevent any more violence of what we saw this afternoon.
2:15:17
>> Good, Chase? >> Yeah. >> When you're ready, sir. >> President Trump finally gave in,
2:15:25
and went out to the Rose Garden at 4:03. >> You tell me when.
2:15:31
>> When you're ready, sir. >> For 187 minutes, he was sitting there
2:15:37
watching the news wondering if his people would win. Until he saw that law enforcement had turned the tide,
2:15:45
and only when law enforcement turned the tide did he then begrudgingly try to cover his backside
2:15:51
and look like he was against the violence in the first place. >> Who's, who's behind me? >> He's gone, he's gone around, we're all clear now.
2:16:01
>> I know your pain, I know your hurt, we had a election... Let me say...
2:16:10
I know your pain, I know your hurt. We had an election that was stolen from us,
2:16:17
it was a landslide election, and everyone knows it. Especially the other side.
2:16:23
But you have to go home now, we have to have peace. We to have order.
2:16:28
>> When he ultimately issues this video, this isn't a guy who was apologetic for any of this, this isn't somebody who says,
2:16:33
"Oops, this is, this has gone awry, this has gone too far." Quite the opposite. >> So go home, we love you, you're very special,
2:16:42
I know how you feel. But go home, and go home in peace.
2:16:48
>> "We love you, you are special." These are people that have assaulted
2:16:53
the U.S. Capitol Building, have attacked Capitol police officers, are trying to stop the proceedings of Congress.
2:17:01
And Trump does tell them to go home, but then immediately adds, "We love you, you are special."
2:17:08
♪ ♪ (bird caws, sirens wailing)
2:17:13
>> NARRATOR: Special Counsel Jack Smith has cited those 187 minutes in his conspiracy case against Trump.
2:17:20
>> "The defendant's knowing and corrupt intent "is clear from his actions, and purposeful inaction,
2:17:26
during the attack on the Capitol." >> The prosecutor is going to show that as,
2:17:32
he got the result he hoped for-- a big scene, a riot. And then, of course, he wasn't going to do anything
2:17:39
to stop the riot because he had use to make of it. And that use was to use the people's fear to try to get them
2:17:45
to do what he wanted. ♪ ♪

Former President Donald Trump’s Looming Trial

2:18:06
♪ ♪
2:18:13
>> NARRATOR: After more than a year, the January 6th select committee issued criminal referrals against Donald Trump.
2:18:20
>> For the first time in American history, Congress has referred a former president
2:18:26
to the Department of Justice for possible criminal prosecution. >> NARRATOR: Jack Smith's indictment followed.
2:18:33
>> A first in U.S. history, a former president criminally charged with what... >> Special Counsel Jack Smith
2:18:38
called the January 6th attack on the Capitol "an attack that was fueled by lies."
2:18:44
>> NARRATOR: The criminal indictment contained it all:
2:18:49
the false claims of fraud, the demands on Rusty Bowers,
2:18:56
the phone call to Secretary Raffensperger, the conspiracy theories about Shaye Moss and Ruby Freeman,
2:19:06
the pressure on the Department of Justice, pushing Vice President Pence to overturn the election,
2:19:16
and the president's actions on January 6.
2:19:22
But a criminal trial will be very different from the committee's hearings.
2:19:27
>> A committee hearing is not a federal court trial. There's barely any rules,
2:19:33
other than what the committee says there are. The rules of evidence don't apply.
2:19:39
And they will very much apply in federal court. There are numerous privileges and other barriers
2:19:45
to getting in evidence that don't apply. So you can't look at the testimony in front of
2:19:51
the January 6th committee and assume that the same testimony can come in at trial.
2:20:00
The prosecutor has to figure out, "Okay, what parts of that can I get in, will the judge let me do?"
2:20:07
>> (chuckling): There's so not a script for this. It's hard to imagine how it's going to play out.
2:20:14
Donald Trump is going to be the defendant and the candidate all wrapped into one.
2:20:21
It's, it's just unprecedented. >> The State Supreme Court has ruled to remove Donald Trump
2:20:27
from the state's 2024 ballot. >> Trump's attorneys say that he is immune from prosecution
2:20:32
because he was president of the United States. >> There is a real possibility the trial will be delayed,. The question is, how long?
2:20:39
>> Trump's best strategy right now is delay. >> Donald Trump is trying to do everything possible
2:20:44
to delay this trial until after the election. >> Because he's a very unusual defendant
2:20:50
in terms of his potential power. If he wins the election, he can just order the D.O.J.
2:20:56
to drop the case entirely. So he has an enormous personal incentive to win the presidency
2:21:03
just to get himself out of legal jeopardy. >> Donald Trump I think understands that his best chance
2:21:09
to avoid conviction and stay out of jail is to return to the White House. >> NARRATOR: Trump's defense is aimed not just at the courts,
2:21:18
but also the voters. >> About six in ten Republican voters believe that the 2020 election was stolen.
2:21:24
>> Republican voters don't believe January 6 was that big of a deal.
2:21:30
>> NARRATOR: Now a looming prosecution, a presidential election, democracy on trial.
2:21:38
>> The 2024 election is one where American democracy very much is on the table.
2:21:43
>> From the rule of law to American democracy itself, too much is at stake.
2:21:48
♪ ♪

Credits

2:22:18
Media Access Group at WGBH access.wgbh.org
2:22:26
>> For more on this and other "FRONTLINE" programs, visit our website at pbs.org/frontline.
2:22:32
♪ ♪
2:22:42
♪ ♪
2:22:48
FRONTLINE's "Democracy on Trial" is available on Amazon Prime Video.
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Re: Trump lashes out at Gov. Doug Ducey following certificat

Postby admin » Tue Feb 06, 2024 4:02 am

Part 1 of 2

Donald Trump's Empire Pushed to the Brinks
by Biography
Jan 21, 2024 #Biography

When Donald Trump sets out to become the world's most famous developer, it pushes his family business and personal relationships to the brink.



Transcript

0:00
- In the 1950s, the Trumps are one of the wealthiest families in America. [camera shutters clicking]
0:05
- He felt constricted by his father's world of the outer boroughs. - I worked in Brooklyn for my father.
0:12
I did very well. But I always wanted to be in Manhattan. - The 1973 lawsuit alleges
0:17
rampant discrimination on the part of the Trump Organization. [camera shutters clicking] - Roy Cohn assures Donald that
0:23
they can do into this and wi; they don't. They lose; they have to settle with the federal government. - Donald Trump, through a complicated series
0:31
of absolute moxie maneuvers, managed to get a huge tax break.
0:38
- People ask me, how is that you got 40 years of tax abatement? And I'd always say, because I didn't ask for 50.
0:44
- Donald Trump is the consummate constant negotiator. - My father, Fred Trump. - Right.
0:50
- Fred Trump was amazed that his little boy had graduated to a premiere address in Manhattan.
0:57
- He was not yet 40 years old, and he was a force to be reckoned with.
1:03
♪ ♪ [traffic honking]
1:12
- No.
1:21
- In many ways, Donald Trump does see life in Darwinian terms.
1:26
It's survival of the fittest. The world is made of winners and losers.
1:31
The winners achieve at a very high level, and everyone else is a loser.
1:37
- You were saying about this lounge act? - Oh. - Oh, yeah...
1:59
♪ ♪
2:05
- Hm. ♪ ♪
2:18
- Hm.
2:49
- The world really was made up of winners and losers, and there was really nothing in between.
2:54
Losers deserve no respect. [rousing western music]
3:00
♪ ♪
3:29
[suspenseful string music] ♪ ♪
3:35
- The great American dream has always been to become a millionaire.
3:42
♪ ♪ For the people who have nothing, do you think that's a reality today?
3:50
Excuse me-- I can hear all of you over there and I can't concentrate, so could all of you please disappear?
3:56
Thank you. You're 34 years old.
4:03
Where did you get the incentive? - So-- - I mean, 34. It's so young, Donald. - Well, I don't look at, really, in my case,
4:10
necessarily incentive. I enjoy what I'm doing. I really enjoy what I'm doing. I look at it as being somewhat creative.
4:16
And I find this business to be show business, frankly. You know, in terms of what we've done, I'd like to make it a little bit showbizy.
4:21
'Cause I don't like show business that much. I do like the real estate business. But I like the concept of show business
4:26
as it relates--as it relates to the real estate business. - Trump's skill from the very beginning
4:32
it's building "Trump," the brand, building Trump, the man, as the centerpiece, as the character that people in America
4:39
will aspire to be like. They're driven by the name. [soft dramatic music]
4:46
[machinery whirring] ♪ ♪
4:52
- When Donald built Trump Tower, it was a monumental accomplishment,
4:59
because nothing had really been done like this before. ♪ ♪ - Since its opening in February,
5:05
it's become a major landmark. - It was a tourist attraction. There's no other residential building
5:12
that people walked down 5th Avenue to walk into. And they want to see it.
5:18
They want to know what it's like. They want to touch it and feel it. - He realized his name is his power.
5:27
This is his brand. He put it on there bigger and better than anybody did.
5:34
Trump, Trump, Trump, Trump, Trump. And guess what? People walked away and said,
5:39
"That's Donald Trump's!" - Donald Trump is a major dealmaker, a swashbuckler.
5:46
He takes chances that would make a less daring man shudde, and he has made his money mainly from Manhattan real estate.
5:52
- From the very beginning, Donald had a natural understanding of how to build his brand.
5:58
♪ ♪ - He realized what Americans really loved was celebrity.
6:08
If you were a celebrity, everything was possible. - And that's what you want-- Chanel. - He watched commercials where you have
6:15
ballplayers and everyone else endorsing products. - Beauty Mist pantyhose can make any legs look like a million dollars.
6:22
- People buy them 'cause they're associated with glamour. And he decided if it can sell popular drink,
6:29
it could sell his real estate. - From America's favorite coffee maker. - So he wanted to become a celebrity as a developer.
6:35
- He knew that he wanted to be famous and fabulous and terrific, and he was gonna do whatever it took to get there.
6:41
Who do you turn to? Everyone knows the most famous legal eagle, my pal and yours, Roy Cohn.
6:47
- Good evening, Nikki. How are you? - Roy was a tough guy, and usually a trendsetter, and really
6:54
had his finger on the pulse of what was going on. - He's a familiar figure in the best restaurants and tailors and barbershops.
7:01
The rich and the powerful and famous seek him out. - Trump saw a powerful lawyer
7:09
who could open Manhattan to him, who could open his magic Rolodex
7:15
and introduce him to everyone-- all of that people that young Donald Trump coming in from Queens wanted to meet.
7:22
- What motivates Roy Cohn? - Uh, I would say power motivates me. Having power motivates me,
7:28
because by having power I am able to do things. [jazzy music]
7:33
- His parties were the weirdest kind of panoply of people. The wealth, the power that was concentrated
7:39
in his living room... Andy Warhol was in the corner, and Norman Mailer would strut in.
7:45
Barbara Walters would stop in. Mike Wallace came to a couple parties. And then Donald Trump shows up.
7:51
♪ ♪ - When young Donald Trump would come into the room, the energy around Roy would change.
7:58
He would say, "Donald is here. Donald is here," almost as if there was some sort of, uh, attraction.

8:05
[upbeat music] - Once in a while he'll escort a model, but New York's matchmakers have given up on him.
8:12
He's just not the marrying kind. - Roy was a of time when,
8:17
in a certain part of New York, it was okay to be gay so long as you weren't "out there" gay.
8:23
He was embarrassed about being gay, and he needed that secret held from the public.
8:29
It would have ruined his macho image. - Trump was keenly aware that, uh, Cohn was gay.
8:34
Uh, and to Trump, that was totally fine. He never made any problem of that,
8:39
because he valued Cohn for his connections. - This is a picture that hangs in my office
8:47
directly alongside one of the President and Mrs. Reagan, two of my favorite people.
8:52
And the picture is of Donald and me, in which he says, "Roy is my greatest friend."
8:59
He always has time for little things, for friends. He--he never forgets to make a phone call.
9:05
If he says he'll do something, you know it's done. - Roy would fight for me to the death.
9:11
For me. - Right. - Not everybody. - But not for everybody. - Yeah. He was very loyal, amazing.
9:16
He would kill for a person that he really likes.
- Ostensibly, Roy was just Trump's lawyer.
9:23
But he was so much more. He was a fixer. He was a connector. He was a maker. He was a mentor. He believed in Trump.
9:29
And Trump knew that Roy could be a father figure, a teacher.
9:35
He was the one who introduced Trump to Manhattan. - Fasten your jet-set seat belts!
9:40
It's "The Nikki Haskell Show" direct from New York. Next stop for me:
9:45
the world-famous Studio 54. [upbeat disco music] It was the hottest club in town,
9:51
'cause you couldn't get in. There were thousands of people all the way around the block.
9:57
- One of the bouncers, maître d's would walk down the line, and he would actually select people
10:02
that were able to come in, you know? He would look at you and say, "You can come. You can't," so on and so forth. - Roy was able to get Donald Trump
10:09
a pass so he didn't wait on line. He got right into Studio 54. Trump, who was chasing models at the time,
10:16
took great pleasure that Roy Cohn helped do that for him.
10:21
- Trump would go about getting himself noticed by the photographers and the TV cameras with whatever celebrity was there,
10:29
whether it was Madonna or one of the new models. - Oh, there was women everywhere there.
10:34
I mean, there was rooms in there-- there was one section where you'd go in an have sex in there, if you want. Now, I never did that to be honest with you.
10:40
But it was-- it was a crazy place. ♪ ♪ - Donald believed that every woman loved him
10:48
and that women were drawn to him.
10:53
- You were such a straight arrow. - Well, I wasn't straight in the sense that, uh,
10:59
you know, I would be wild in other ways. But I was never a drinker...
11:05
- Like what? - I was never-- - What did you ever do that was wild? - Well, I loved women.
11:11
[jazzy upbeat music] - Donald Trump was never a man who was dying to settle down.
11:16
He was a playboy about town. - I think that Trump always felt that being surrounded by beautiful women
11:23
was part of the aura he needed to develop. He felt that a, uh, surround sound of blondes,
11:30
"tens," as he would call them, was essential for his look. [pensive music]
11:43
- Mm. - When I interviewed Ivana,
11:49
she told me about the chance encounter that was going to change her life.
12:00
- [chuckles]
12:11
- He very ostentatiously volunteered to make sure they were seated
12:17
if they let him join them.
12:25
- [chuckles]
12:45
- Huh.
12:55
- [chuckles]
13:08
- He starts pursuing her on the phone, sending her notes, flowers, letters, and lots and lots of clippings about himself
13:16
and his nascent business career. She's fairly impressed by this guy.
13:21
[tender music] Ivana's a child in communist Czechoslovakia.
13:28
She was relatively deprived. But her father sent her to
13:33
a skiing camp when she was 14 in Italy. And that's what originally introduced her to
13:41
the luxuries of the west. Beautiful jewelry and clothing,
13:46
perfumes, and luxury cars. And that became a touchstone, I think, for her life
13:53
that has never changed. ♪ ♪ - When he asked her to marry him,
14:01
she said yes. - Donald really wanted to marry Ivana. Ivana had other choices,
14:07
and she chose Donald. The wedding was lovely.
14:13
Ivana was a beautiful bride, very simple. - Very soon after Donald and Ivana are married,
14:21
the children arrive. - First one was a boy, which was fantastic. The pressure was off.
14:27
The second one was a girl, which is just adorable. And the third one was a boy again,
14:33
so my job is done. I said, "That's it. Shop is closed."
14:39
[indistinct chatter] - Go ahead. Go ahead. - Ooh. - Hello. Hello. [indistinct chatter]
14:58
- Donald and Ivana were the golden couple. And they were very much a part of what was going on.
15:05
[upbeat jazzy music] - They were on the scene. They were at every ball at The Met
15:11
or opening of the opera. [indistinct talking] [camera shutters clicking]
15:16
You would actually see the two of them in these kind of places which were the essential Park Avenue "I've arrived" kind of evening out.
15:25
- Both Donald and Ivana were wedded by this mutual ambition to become even wealthier than
15:31
they already were and to become part of the celebrity circuit in Manhattan. - She was a reflection on him.
15:37
I mean, she was so beautiful. She really, really was beautiful. He liked hearing that.
15:42
[applause] - My wife and helper and, uh, a lady of very good taste. So, I, um, I'm very happy-- [crowd chuckles]
15:48
I'm very happy to have Ivana. [crowd aww's] She keeps--she keeps me toned down a little bit. - I think Donald,
15:54
to the extent that he can love anyone, loves Ivana-- he certainly appeared to. He respected her tremendously.
16:00
[somber piano music] He gave her a position of some power,
16:06
because he thought that she could handle it and he thought she was very smart. - In many ways, Ivana was
16:12
a better businessperson than Donald, because she knew the numbers. [camera shutters clicking]
16:17
- Ivana was a very important-- more important than people realize-- a figure in Trump's rise.

16:26
[soft suspenseful music] - Donald Trump, back in the day,
16:31
was a flirt, he was fun, he was like almost all the developers in New York City.
16:37
They put up glass and mirrors and they are glass and mirrors. - He was just part of the bloodstream
16:43
of New York society, New York business, New York tabloids.
16:48
You just knew him. - Boy, there's a lot of coverage tonight.
16:54
- I first encountered Donald Trump in a very typical New York way. It was my first job for "New York Newsday"
17:01
and I had written a column on Donald Trump. And I said he looked like he'd had a couple of extra sandwiches.
17:07
[laughs] He got so mad that he had a-- a mutual friend introduce us to prove that he wasn't fat.
17:14
[laughs] I really was always very, very fond of him, as a New York character.
17:21
- He works the tabloids from the start, cultivates the gossip columnists, makes himself useful to the reporters,
17:28
to tell them to cover events that he would be appearing at. - You'd read about him on the front page
17:33
of the "New York Post" and the "New York Daily News" sometimes the business section of "The New York Times."
17:39
He was a big deal. - He was generating and grooming this image of himself
17:44
as a successful millionaire.
- You are seen at all the right parties.
17:50
You are on the covers of all the magazines. Do you cultivate a high profile? - No, I don't.
17:55
For some reason, I mean, people call and they want to do something. If "Newsweek" calls and they say, "Donald, we want to do a cover story,"
18:02
I guess you sort of have to go along with it. And that happened. And other things happened. And it's just something that happens, Jane.
18:07
I can't really tell you why. Maybe you can tell me. - You are Mr. Make-It-Happen. - Well, it does happen. - You make things happen in your life.
18:12
- Well, that's good. It's what I want to do. ♪ ♪ - He would call you up and plant stories.
18:19
- I'll tell you what, Bernie, come in and see me. Let's you and I talk, and then we'll see. We'll go from that stage. Does that sound all right?
18:25
- We knew he was lying and calling everybody with the same story to see who'd bite.
18:30
But once you got a real relationship with him, he was very honorable about only calling you
18:36
[laughs] with his fake stories. - The press actually loved1him,
18:41
because what you discover with press: they love access, right? I mean, it's a hard thing
18:46
to write columns every day. And the people that you, in the end, love and give the most attention to if you're a gossip columnist
18:53
are the ones who give you the most access and will let you in.
- A little wave at the press
18:59
as you, uh, sail off into the sunset? - You're gonna like this one, I think. - And they repay you with coverage.
19:07
- Did you get enough shots today, fellas? - He became a media star. - Looking this way, please? Thank you.
19:13
♪ ♪ - I think media and Donald Trump were a perfect marriage.
19:18
Together, we created a baby, and the baby was Donald Trump the character.
19:23
- We created a monster here. - And he couldn't have done it on his own and we couldn't have created that persona without him.
19:31
[soft dramatic music] - The tabloids provided an element of glamour to him.
19:38
♪ ♪ It all added, in his mind, up to the--the Trump brand.
19:46
- The press has really come because of the kind of projects that I'm building. If I do Trump Tower in New York, people love it,
19:52
and the press loves it, and people like reading about it. - And, of course, the challenge to anyone
19:57
who's as ambitious as Donald Trump is is keeping it going.
20:02
He has to look for more ways to define himself as a winner and a success.
20:09
- Our first guest tonight on "Live at Five" is a familiar face, he needs no introduction. Billionaire real estate tycoon Donald Trump.
20:15
He has now written a book. The name of the book is "The Art of the Deal," which you, uh, wrote with Tony Schwartz.
20:21
- When he told me he was doing a book, I said, "Well, what's the book?" And he said, "Well, it's my autobiography."
20:27
And I said, "If I were you, I'd-- I'd write a book called 'The Art of the Deal.'" His instant response was,
20:33
"Yeah, I like that. Do you want to write it?" - I don't run my business that way. - Yeah. - See, the one problem I have
20:38
with this--off the record-- - Minutes into the very first interview, he literally jumped out of his chair and said,
20:44
"I'm just sick of this." - Okay, do you have enough now? - It was clear that Trump was incredibly impatient
20:50
and had a very short attention span. What dawned on me was that there was another way to do the book.
20:57
♪ ♪ He lived on the phone. I was writing about deals,
21:03
and deals were what he focused on most of the time over the phone. - Yes, uh, Mr. Riordan, please.
21:09
Donald Trump. - If he wasn't making a deal, he was talking to somebody in the media.
21:15
- Right, I know, and-- and I have it very much in mind. When you want to get together? - So I started coming in like a job.
21:21
I'd come in at 9:00 in the morning and I'd stay till 5:00. And I just listened.
21:26
- What do you think it's worth? Unless you have an agreement, you don't even have to go public on the [bleep] thing. Push him hard on that, Lou.
21:32
Is that a low price? Let's get the [bleep] thing-- let's get it done, okay? You take care. So long.
21:39
- Because he didn't provide many details, I started going out and interviewing the people he was talking to.
21:44
Then I ran into a problem, which was if I asked them about what happened in these deals,
21:50
it was not what Trump told me had happened in these deals. It was quite different. - It frankly happens to be good for them.
21:56
- It never reflected on him in quite the winning way his description of
22:01
his role in the deal reflected on him. It was during that period that I came up with the phrae
22:08
"truthful hyperbole." It means essentially that what you're saying is false. But the whole persona
22:16
that I was working to create for Trump, to make him more winning that he actually was,
22:22
was to pass that kind of thing off in a breezy, lighthearted way.
22:27
[upbeat music] And it set him up to be a national celebrity.
22:34
- "Trump: The Art of the Deal." [applause] You're a star, Mr. Trump, and you're a businessman.
22:41
- I'm telling you that the turning point in Donald's life was when he wrote "The Art of the Deal." Then everything fell into place.
22:48
♪ ♪ - This was the calling card that would get him attention
22:54
on national television. - If I can help people to make deals, that's great. But if I can help people not to
22:59
make deals that shouldn't be doing it... - Mm-hmm. - Maybe that's just as good. Every time I come onto your show, I sell a lot of books, so I don't--
23:05
- We're making you famous. - You're making me famous? - No, I-- - It would actually put him in the hands of millions of readers
23:11
who absorbed this message of success and doing what it takes to win
23:17
at all costs. - You think he's a good businessman? - Mm-hmm. [cheers and applause]
23:27
- Here Donald has all these successful projects going. He's the toast of the town.
23:33
But he had his eyes set on another level of acceptance. ♪ ♪
23:39
- My name's Jonathan Greenberg. I was tapped to start the Forbes 400,
23:44
which is a list of the richest Americans. [soft dramatic music]
23:51
The first year of the Forbes 400, we listed Donald Trump as, like, 350th on the list,
23:57
only for $100 million. He wanted to be at the very top of the list.
24:02
And it literally hurt him that there were people who were worth more money
24:07
on the list and that everyone was gonna know it. ♪ ♪
24:12
I'm there at my desk. And the--the, uh, receptionist at "Forbes" called me. "Jonathan, Roy Cohn on the phone."
24:20
He said, "I understand you're doing this list "of, uh, rich people. "And Donny's asked me to give you a call
24:26
'cause it seems like you don't have the right information."
24:33
- Mm-hmm.
24:53
- And so in the second year of the Forbes 400, I upped his net worth to $200 million.
24:59
♪ ♪ And then in May of 1984, I was doing the Forbes 400 once again.
25:07
I received a call from John Barron, the vice president of finance for the Trump Organization.
25:24
- Mm-hmm.
25:37
- Many years later, I had 60 boxes of folders and tapes that I had shipped back
25:42
from New York to California when I moved. And I start looking through it, and I see the tape.
25:49
And it's like, "John Barron, VP of finance." I never even remembered that I interviewed John Barro.
25:56
And I said, "I've gotta listen to this tape."
26:15
- I realized that I had been conned. John Barron was Donald Trump, and I never knew it.
26:21
What really shocked me was how calculated and deliberate the deception was.
26:27
There's so much exaggeration that you don't know which are the lies and which are true.

26:32
And, in fact, what's interesting about his acting as John Barron "off the record,"
26:37
he feels that he could speak candidly about he really feels about his father. ♪ ♪
27:33
♪ ♪ - It's hard to know what the real building blocks of that craving for attention,
27:40
that craving for respect, where that comes from. We know that his father was extremely tough on him.
27:45
He said to Donald over and over, "You need to go out there and succeed "like no one else has before.
27:51
You can't just be a regular guy." And so he was tremendously driven by his father.
27:57
- I think that just the right amount of insecurity can make a drive that can take you all the way through life.
28:03
And in the case of Trump, I think it was a huge driving force to him, made him want to be bigger, brasher, richer.
28:10
More press, more bylines, more beautiful wives. It always was about more.
28:17
- What I found out was that in 1982, Donald Trump's real net worth was well under the $100 million that I thought he was worth.
28:25
♪ ♪ - Donald Trump knew you could lie and bluster and bluff
28:31
and mow over people, and it would all get you what you wanted. And Trump learned that from Roy.
28:39
- Donald Trump convinced me that he owned of his father's real estate in Queens.
28:53
- Not only did he not own over 90% of his father's real estate in Queens,
28:59
but he'd used the Forbes 400 to inflate net worth to the banks.
29:06
- Why didn't "Forbes," a preeminent business publication discover this? Well, you're dealing with private organizations.
29:13
So he can make claims that he owns this and he owns that, and it's very hard to verify.
29:20
So for many years, they had to go with whatever Donald told them. - Anybody inside a bank
29:27
that sees who's in the top Forbes 400 would want to try to associate the bank with people on that list,
29:33
because they would be deemed to be the most marketable and the most credit worthy. - Without getting on the Forbes 400,
29:39
Donald Trump would not have been able to borrow that money that he borrowed to build his business empire.
29:46
♪ ♪ That was the beginning of his brand.

29:51
♪ ♪ - Trump, at this point, is embarking on a massive spending spree that he can't really finance
29:59
with money from his own wallet. He is being financed by banks. And the banks are giving him loans
30:04
almost in a willing suspension of disbelief. - In 1985, he bought Mar-a-Lago,
30:10
a 118-room mansion in Palm Beach. - He bought the venerable Eastern Shuttle.
30:15
Of course, he named it "Trump." The price? $365 million cash.
30:21
- Wonder what he's gonna buy next, I don't know. - The most publicity he has ever gotten, however..
30:26
- [screams] - All right! - Was from his sudden decisin to buy a football team.
30:33
- Every time you turned around, he bought something else that was icon of stupendous wealth.
30:40
What he was really doing was building this Trump brand into something that could roll its way over anything.
30:49
- Anything else you want to buy, as you look out there? Any good properties that we can see? - I'd really like to buy everything
30:55
if that were possible. - [laughs] I'll bet you would. ♪ ♪
31:03
[air horns blaring] [stirring music] ♪ ♪
31:09
- Thank you very much. - I was assigned to handle
31:14
New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut for the Reagan campaign of 1980.
31:22
- We'll restore hope and we'll welcome them into a great national crusade to make America great again.
31:28
[cheers and applause] - Roger Stone, he was part of a group with Lee Atwater and Paul Manafort.
31:35
♪ ♪ They were young. They were aggressive. They were ambitious.
31:41
They were very tough, and they didn't shy away from politics as a blood sport.
31:47
It was war, and they were determined to win it. - I was invited to a dinner party.
31:53
And Roy, he was at the party. And I introduced myself, and
31:58
I made my pitch for Reagan and why I thought he could win. Roy looked out the window for a little bit.
32:04
He returned to me, he said, "What you need is Donald Trump." ♪ ♪
32:11
- Roy had a way of spotting political talent. Roy looked at Trump and saw something,
32:19
someone who could arise in American politics. [pensive music]
32:25
- Where do you see his future? - If ever there were a man in America who thought big, it's Donald.
32:32
I think New York is just a small part. I think he looks at the whole United States.
32:37
And I think that cities and peoples who have read about him in national magazines and all of that
32:44
are someday-- not too far distant future-- are gonna find him right at their doorstep. [rousing music]
32:51
- Welcome to "The Eleventh Hour." You've taken a posture as more than just a developer,
32:56
more than just a guy making money. - I've been watching this country systematically being ripped off by Japan and West Germany and so many others.
33:03
They're laughing at us. They think we are the biggest fools, the dumbest people in the world.
33:09
[brooding music] - By the late 1980s, it's impossible to separate
33:14
Trump's political ambition from his personal ambition. They really are one in the same.
33:21
- Well, I'm a proud American. I mean, I have a great feeling for this country, Larry. I love this country. I think it's a great country.
33:27
- Donald Trump is a political figure as advertising man. - That's why the country's losing
33:33
billions and hundreds of billions of dollars today, because of a mistake in the tax law. - He is a great sloganeer.
33:39
- We have countries out there that are our so-called allies. And I use the word "so-called" because they're a disaster for this country.
33:45
- He is great at presenting a small sound bite that is going to provoke emotion.
33:52
- We're gonna have a war through weakness, because this country is acting so weak toward Iran, it's pathetic.
33:57
- Before 1988, I first suggested to Donald Trump, "Why don't you make a major speech
34:03
and see what the coverage is like?" Well, he liked that idea.
34:08
I arranged for him to speak in Portsmouth, New Hampshire. - Trump had attracted over 900 people,
34:14
more than three times the audience that turned out for Senator Robert Dole. - It's the first time I saw
34:20
the phenomenon of Donald Trump within the context of a political milieu.
34:26
He has charisma. He has a certain command presence. And it's not just that he's tall and broad-shouldered
34:34
and handsome, but there's a self-confidence about him that is very attractive.
34:40
It was electric. He was on fire. People wanted to know,
34:46
"Does this mean you're running for president?" [crowd cheering] - Live from the Louisiana Superdome,
34:52
"The Republicans in New Orleans." - The Republican convention in 1988
34:58
was held in New Orleans. It was only at the very last minute
35:03
that Donald said, "You know, I think I'll go to the convention." - Thanks, Ken One foreign policy... I was a floor reporter for NBC.
35:10
And one of the things, as a floor reported, you do is that you just circle the floor, looking to see who's there.
35:17
And I'm walking around, and suddenly I see Donald Trump. Well, lord knows, he's interesting.
35:24
You have flirted with the idea of politics. Now you're here at your first national convention. Does that get you interested in possibly making the plunge?
35:32
- Now you have to tell me something. Who told you I flirted? - Well-- - I didn't know that I flirted. - Well-- And what surprises me
35:37
is how little things have changed. His immediate instinct is to joust with you,
35:43
to push back, to question your assumptions. But you have said that if you ran for president, you'd win.
35:50
- I think I'd have a very good chance. I mean, I like to win. When I do something, I like to win. I like to--I like do well,
35:55
and I think I'd probably would have a pretty good chance. - And that's part of the fascination of Donald Trump.
36:00
For more than a quarter of a century, he's been one of the greatest shows on Earth.
36:06
You don't know what's he's gonna do next, or you don't know what's gonna happen to him next, and you can't stop watching.
36:14
♪ ♪ - Roy called me. He said, "They want to do another interview of me at '60 Minutes.'"
36:19
I said, "Don't do it, Roy. "You're making a big mistake. Nothing good's happening for you now."
36:25
Everyone was going after him. There's nothing good happening. - Controversy has surrounded this man.
36:32
Today at 58 he's still the combative lawyer fighting two of the greatest battles of his life.
36:39
- I saw him at a couple events, and he just looked sickly, he looked thin. - [coughs]
36:44
- And the rumor was that he has AIDS. - Were those reports true? - No. Categorically, no, I do not.
36:51
- Do you have AIDS? - No. No. That's easy to answer.
36:57
all: ♪ Happy birthday to you ♪ - You have to make a very special wish. [applause]
37:05
- I went to his birthday party in 1986. - People came to pay their respects.
37:11
Norman Mailer, Helen Gurley Brown, Lee Iacocca. Also present, Cohn's constant companion
37:18
Peter Fraser. - And Trump walked in. Trump toasted him.
37:23
Everybody said how wonderful Roy was. Roy made this whole thing about, you know, we'll see you next year.
37:29
We're gonna have more to celebrate next year. There was a sense that there was not gonna be a next year.
37:35
[dramatic music] - When Roy was sick, that's when they went after him.
37:41
They don't go after him when he was healthy. It just shows you how vicious the world is.
37:46
- Your license to practice law, there's been an effort made to take it away from you, uh, on the grounds that you committed fraud.
37:53
- The establishment bar hates my guts, because I'm unconventional, I'm an iconoclast.
38:00
I call things the way I see them. The charges are total, flat nonsense.
38:06
- Did you see him when he was really sick? - I never really did. And he didn't want people to see him.
38:12
Uh, I never really saw him when he was sick. [somber music]
38:19
- During that time, when Cohn was nearing his death, Trump pulled away completely,
38:25
cut off connections, didn't talk to him, didn't visit with him. - Roy Cohn was too ill to deliver for him.
38:32
And he's-- Donald's a transactional guy. - There's a long pattern in Donald Trump's life
38:39
of essentially washing people who are not successful
38:44
out of his life. What Trump will often do is say, "Well, I never really knew that person."
38:49
♪ ♪ - What did you see in Roy that his critics didn't see? - Well, Roy was one of my lawyers.
38:56
He wasn't my law-- he was one of my lawyers. ♪ ♪
39:02
- What have these last few months been like for you? - I think the most unusual experience that a human being can endure, Mike,
39:08
it's been a living death. I lived my funeral. I saw who was at my funeral, who wasn't at my funeral.
39:14
- Roy Cohn, uh, died feeling very bitter towards Donald Trump.
39:20
♪ ♪ - Trump did show up to the funeral. But he stood in the back, never took a seat,
39:28
never said anything, and then left early. - You feel like that Roy-- - Well, it's-- - You stuck by Roy Cohn-- - I do...
39:34
- And that's--you showed your stripes by doing that. - Well, I don't think I showed my stripes. I think--you see, I'm so loyal to people.
39:40
And maybe I'm loyal to a fault. But I'm so loyal to people that when somebody's slightly disloyal to me, I look upon it
39:45
as a great act of horror. ♪ ♪ - After Roy died,
39:50
the IRS seized almost any-- everything he had.
But the one thing that his companion Peter Fraser gt
39:56
was a box that Trump had given Roy toward the end as a gift for all his years of service.
40:03
And it was a pair of diamond-studded cuff links. And Peter went to get these cuff links appraise.
40:09
And the appraiser said, "These are total fakes. They're worth nothing." So that was Donald Trump's parting gift to Roy.
40:17
Nothing. ♪ ♪

40:25
[stirring music] - It's almost hard to imagine someone being as voracious as Donald Trump was
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in the 1980s. He went from a success at the Grand Hyatt,
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an even bigger success with Trump Tower, writing a book, "The Art of the Deal"...
40:46
- Good luck, everybody! [indistinct chatter] - And after all that, he was going to embark on his riskiest gamble yet.
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Re: Trump lashes out at Gov. Doug Ducey following certificat

Postby admin » Tue Feb 06, 2024 4:03 am

[youtube][/youtube]Part 2 of 2

40:52
[fireworks popping] [tape rewinds] [pleasant music] - Not so many years ago,
40:58
this eastern seashore city with its spectacular skyline was an obscure little fishing village.
41:05
Today, Atlantic City stands preeminent among the great resorts of the world. - In the early days, Atlantic City
41:11
was the queen of resorts. My parents used to take me there for the whole summer.
41:18
During the day, people would go to the beach. And at night, people would dress in jackets and tiesPart
41:24
and they'd sit on their rolling chairs, and it was a wonderful kind of display.
41:31
[somber music] But things started to really go downhill in the '70s.
41:38
- People weren't coming there. There was a lot of dilapidated housing. It just didn't have the allure that it had
41:45
in previous decades. There was a lot of debate in New Jersey about
41:50
what are we gonna do? It Atlantic City gonna fall into the sea? And they ultimately came up with an idea
41:57
of legalizing gambling. [upbeat music] - This casino is now open.
42:03
- What was once a quiet seaside resort isn't that way anymore. - Atlantic City has turned from a dying town
42:10
into a lively gambling mecca. - Atlantic City's gambling casinos are raking in the money at a near record clip.
42:16
- Various casino companies and developers started putting up casinos along the boardwalk.
42:22
- I'm ready to lose it in two minutes. I always lose, but I love it. - I said, "Donald, all your interests and connections
42:29
"and money are in New York. Why are you going to Atlantic City?" And he gave me the exact same answer
42:34
that Willie Sutton, the great bank robber, answered when they asked him why did he rob banks. And he said, "That's where the money is."
42:43
- Good morning, ladies and gentlemen. I'd like to welcome you to Atlantic City. - The New Jersey voters have approved
42:49
legalized gambling for Atlantic City. Very few people doubt that open gambling will bring a lot of money to Atlantic City.
42:56
The real question is, who will get most of it? - In the 1980s, in Atlantic City,
43:01
Trump in quick succession opens two casinos there: Trump Plaza and Trump Castle.
43:09
- Okay, now is the time, folks! Go ahead. - Yay! - Yeah! - Beautiful. [applause] - Since he's never run a casino
43:16
and didn't know anything about running a casino, he needed an operator. - Can you give us your full name and your title again?
43:22
- Stephen Hyde-- Stephen Frank Hyde, if you want the full name-- Stephen Hyde, President, Trump Plaza.
43:27
- Donald hired Steve Hyde to come in and be his guy at the Trump Plaza. And Donald's wife, Ivana, was running the Castle.
43:36
- She helicopters down to Atlantic City four days a week from New York to oversee Trump Castle.
43:42
Recently, Ivana Trump has been coming in neck-and-neck and ahead of the competition.
43:47
- It was very clear back then that there was an unbelievable level of trust
43:53
that he had in Ivana. She was a meticulous operator.
43:58
- You just don't want to be there and do the job; you want to be the best at it. - She kept the facility beautiful
44:04
in the style that Donald wanted. Donald was not involved in the day-to-day operation.

44:12
He would make his weekly trips, and he would bounce from Steve's office to my office.
44:18
The biggest challenge was managing his personality and his mood swings. You could get him for 5 to 10 minutes of his attention
44:28
and then that was it. But he did have a flamboyance that I thought was very well-suited
44:34
to the gambling industry. - A fight of this magnitude could only be brought together by
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guys like Donald Trump, who has the daring, the flair, the look, and the cash to make it happen.
44:46
[scattered laughter] - Thank you, Mr. Trump. - Yeah. Thank you, Mr. Trump. [dramatic music]
44:52
- Tyson versus Spinks. Once and for all. - We were competing for the first time with Las Vegas.
44:59
They dominated boxing. They got all the publicity for boxing.
45:04
That's the kind of attention and the glamour that Donald Trump wanted. - Here we are! Trump.
45:10
- Well, the atmosphere the night of the big fight was electric, because now the celebrities
45:16
are coming in. - I'm a very big fight fan, especially if they're not hitting me. - Every news station from all over the country's there.
45:24
Donald Trump's reputation and his reach, so to speak, went up dramatically as a result of the fights,
45:31
because that would have never come to Atlantic City came to Atlantic City for these events.
45:37
- Looks like an exciting evening. - Oh, it--it is going to be a biggie. [crowd cheering]
45:42
[dramatic music] - And we're just about ready to go. The opening bell... ♪ ♪
45:48
Tyson attacks immediately. - At the moment this fight happens in the late 1980s, you are probably at peak Trump.
45:56
His dream of Hollywood-style celebrity's been fulfilled. - The right hand lands on the head of Mike Spinks.
46:02
- He's being celebrated on magazine covers as the new wunderkind of
46:08
American business and American real estate... - Vicious shots to the body. - A deal maker...
46:14
- He leads with the right hand. Down he goes! I don't think he'll get up from this. ♪ ♪
46:20
- Donald Trump in the late 1980s was it. - It's seven and eight. It's all over!
46:26
- He believed that he was infallible. - A dramatic first-round knockout! - He believed that he could do magic with money.
46:33
And he believed that nothing could get in his way. - Unbelievable fight! - But there's always this
46:38
missing piece of gratification with him. And I think it's because he needs the next fix.
46:46
[waves crashing] [crowd applauding] - Bye-bye! - Good luck. - Oh, thank you.
46:53
- Ivana, how do you feel? - I feel--I feel great. - Ivana is regarded as a very successful hotelier in Atlantic City.
47:01
The Trump Castle becomes one of the best hotels down there. - How do you feel about all these people here to say goodbye to you?
47:07
- I think it's fantastic. I think it's a great honor to me and to whole Trump Organization.
47:12
- The greatest toy that I could give Ivana would be to put her at the Plaza Hotel.
47:18
- Donald moved Ivana from this job that she was doing very well at the Trump Castle,
47:25
and put her in charge of the Plaza Hotel, which would base her in New York.
47:30
♪ ♪ He needed the coast to be clear. ♪ ♪
47:38
- You know, I had been told that Donald was cheating on Ivana. And never even entered my mind
47:44
that that could possibly be true. And she was so trusting of Donald
47:49
and so into the fact that they were working together that I don't think it ever crossed her mind.
47:56
- No matter what you get, there's never enough. And I think that that is the epitome of Donald,
48:02
that he can never be satisfied.
♪ ♪ - Oh, there's no question that it was a secret,
48:08
but it was not a very well-kept secret in Atlantic City. I mean, let's face it, when the room service guy
48:14
goes up to deliver dinner for two, [laughs] you know-- Donald Trump is one of the people,
48:19
you know, the secret doesn't last long. [chuckles] No guy likes talking about affairs, by the way.
48:26
- [laughs] - I just want to tell you. ♪ ♪ - I really liked Marla.
48:31
She was absolutely charming. Very low-key, sweet, little Georgia girl. I found her delightful.
48:37
- And she also was very, very beautiful, and she was a lot younger than Ivana. - She was engaging, and she smiled.
48:44
It was very rare to see a smile from Ivana. Ivana's a tough woman. And there was nothing tough about Marla Maples.
48:51
- Trump was strictly business. The only time we had any personal stuff was when he was, uh, going out with Marla Maples
48:58
and slipping around-- he was still married to Ivana. And I was, as they say, the beard. ♪ ♪
49:03
- We called it "the beard" so that it would look like this individual was with Marla, and not Donald.
49:09
Donald used a lot of us that way. We wound up comping all of her services
49:14
and stays and food, whatever it might be. - He asked me if I would mind taking out Marla Maples,
49:21
and so he sent a limo. I picked her up and we went to dinner.
49:26
I loved the fact that when we went into the restaurant, all the women looked at her like they would want her chopped up into little pieces and all the pieces burned.
49:32
And we had a great dinner. We went out to the limo, drove a couple of blocks. Another limo pulled up and she got out,
49:38
and there was Donald in the other car. I went home to my wife.
49:43
- I did one of the first interviews with Marla. She said, "The thing is,
49:48
"you can't help who you fall in love with, and I really fell in love with this man." She was a very, very honest, lovely woman
49:57
who didn't realize what she was getting into. [music broods]

50:03
[pensive music] - Donald Trump believed that if he had three casinos in Atlantic City,
50:11
he would be able to drive some of these other casinos out of business and dominate the city.
50:18
- So he gets his hands on a third casino hotel.
50:23
- The Taj Mahal was a half-finished casino in Atlantic City,
50:28
with three acres of gaming space-- basically the equivalent of two other casinos in town combined.
50:34
- Halfway through constructin they ran out of financing, and the property went dormant.
50:40
- It was not only the biggest but the most expensive casino in the world.
50:45
- There was an extraordinary amount of work that needed to be done. So it wasn't a $100 million fix.
50:52
This was gonna be a billion-dollar project for Donald Trump. - In November 1988, Donald Trump
50:59
purchased the Taj Mahal project. And here we are today, requesting that this commission issue a casino license and operations certificate
51:07
to Donald J. Trump's Taj Mahal. - When Donald bought the Taj Mahal, the Casino Control Commission was really interested
51:15
in where the money was coming from and whether he had the money to really make this a viable operation.
51:22
- And so Donald said, the bankers were waiting in line to write him a check.
51:29
He actually believed that. - All those in favor? Motion carries unanimously.
51:35
- The investigators had a lot of concerns. But they did approve it.
51:40
- Trump was a major employer in New Jersey. So the Casino Control Commission
51:46
have a powerful incentive not to create problems for a major local employer,
51:51
no matter what damage might be caused by their financial practices. - It's gonna be tremendously successful.
51:56
It's gonna be great for Atlantic City. It's gonna be great for everybody. Good luck, everybody. Thank you for being here. [indistinct talking]
52:03
- By the end of the '80s, we're starting into a recession. - For the third straight day,
52:08
a selling avalanche hit Wall Street. - The Dow Jones index had gone down by over 100 points.
52:13
- The banks weren't waiting in line to lend him the money. He had to go out
52:20
and use junk bond financing to do the deal. The difference between the junk bond financing
52:27
and a conventional loan is really the cost of borrowing the money.
52:33
He had to go out and borrow $675 million at an interest rate of 14%,
52:41
which was just unheard of. - So from the very first moment that you open,
52:48
to make ends meet for this casino, he had to reap $1.3 million a day--
52:56
a day! - This was something no other casino in Atlantic City or Las Vegas had ever done.
53:02
♪ ♪ - Once the Taj Mahal became Donald Trump's property,
53:09
Steve Hyde was now in charge of all three properties. And I became the president at Trump Plaza.
53:16
Donald had a great deal of respect for Steve's knowledg.
53:21
And I think Donald also realized that Steve wasn't gonna be competition for headlines.
53:27
He was kind of shy. So it was a very good fit. And it appeared that
53:34
Donald actually listened to Steve Hyde. [rotors whirring]
53:40
- 10-foot high letters are put in place 42 stories above what will be
53:45
the world's largest casino. The $1 billion Taj Mahal is expected to open next spring.
53:52
- The Taj was a massive project, and Trump needed to get it open as quickly as possible, because the longer it took hm to develop the Taj,
53:59
the less able he was to pay down the debt he incurred to build it in the first place. ♪ ♪
54:06
[suspenseful music] - Well, on October 10th, 1989
54:11
we had a press conference scheduled in New York City for Vinny Pazienza, Héctor "Macho" Camacho boxing match.
54:18
It was scheduled on a date that I was on vacation. Steve and Mark were still gonna go up.
54:25
I had asked Jon Benanav to go up in my place. - When you work for Trump,
54:31
you know you're working for the best. 'Cause I think it's human nature, when people say, "Where do you work?"
54:36
when you're working for the number-one place, there's a lot of pride behind that. ♪ ♪
54:43
[music broods] [sirens wailing] [helicopter rotors whirring]
54:50
- I woke up that morning. My wife came in. There was a look on her face that I'd never seen
54:56
and she said, "It's Steve, Mark, and Jon, the helicopter they were on."
55:02
She told me that it had crashed, and that they had died. [inhales shakily]
55:08
[tender music] [sighs] [indistinct talking]
55:14
The day those three guys died was the toughest day of my life. I had never felt a greater sense of loss.
55:23
♪ ♪ Uh. You know, I guess they call it "survivor's guilt."
55:29
I particularly felt it with Jon, 'cause I had asked him to go.
55:35
Shortly after that, I got a phone call from Donal. We had this disbelief conversation.
55:43
Can't believe this happened. ♪ ♪ It was shock.
55:49
At Steve Hyde's funeral, he paused an extensive amount of time
55:56
looking at Steve's picture, and I do think he cried. This impacted him.
56:03
He was deeply hurt for the friendship, but he was also deeply concerned about the business.
56:11
♪ ♪ - The question now is what will their shocking deaths mean
56:16
to the big Taj project? ♪ ♪
56:23
- The three Trump executives who died were the pinnacle of the casino industry, and their loss is being felt in Atlantic City.
56:29
- The void was clear at the top of the organization. And how we filled that void
56:35
was he brought his brother Robert. He was going to shepherd the Taj Mahal through its opening.
56:41
♪ ♪ - At one point I asked Robert why it took him so long to join.
56:47
He was in his 40s. And he said, "Alan, if you had a brother like Donald Trump, would you be so anxious to work with him?"
56:52
♪ ♪ - Donald Trump was facing a very perilous moment. He wasn't experienced in running casinos.
56:59
And at the time he was having an affair with Marla Maples. [ambient music] - There was a fear from a business standpoint
57:06
that if and when this affair was gonna blow u, where would it blow?
57:12
I certainly didn't want it to blow up at a press conference or any kind of public thing that we were doing.
57:18
And quite frankly, I said, thank God for Aspen. ♪ ♪
57:23
- It was the winter of 1989, and the family went down to Aspen as normal,
57:29
except he had arranged for Marla to fly down for the same exact week that he would be there
57:35
with his children and wife and in-laws. - Splitting his time between the two of them somehow, but they're both in the same small community.
57:42
♪ ♪ - There was one place where everyone stopped for lunch called Bonnie's.
57:47
- Marla, Ivana, and the children are there. - I was talking to this girlfriend of mine
57:54
who was in Aspen. She goes, "Oh, my God, you're not gonna believe what's happening."
57:59
This woman has confronted Ivana and pushed her and said, "I want your husband."
58:04
And the two of them are having a fight and Ivana's crying. - Ivana wanted to go back to New York right away.
58:10
She didn't want to be there. She didn't want to be there with Marla. She was embarrassed. - Ivana was totally devoted to their marriage,
58:18
to their business, and to their life together. So she was devastated.
58:23
- I was in the Plaza Hotel at the time, and I went to see Ivana. And I didn't even get out my sentence,
58:30
when she's-- she burst into tears. I just--I was taken aback. I--I felt terrible for her.

58:36
[traffic honks] - They didn't separate initially. They still went about business as usual.
58:45
- Trump had bigger things to worry about. The biggest casino he was ever going to oversee
58:50
was about to open in Atlantic City. And it was so larded with debt that it was uncertain whether or not
58:56
that could be a success. - In 1990, as the date is coming, "The Wall Street Journal" wrote a report.
59:03
"What About the Taj Mahal?" And in it, they quoted a very well-known and respected casino analyst
59:11
by the name of Marvin Roffman. - My job was to go out
59:16
and evaluate situations to see if they're good investments
59:22
or risky investments. I was quoted in the article as saying that
59:28
the Taj would open to record-breaking business but when the cold came, it wouldn't make it.
59:35
Donald Trump sent a fax to the CEO of our company.
59:40
He wanted a public apology or an immediate dismissal,
59:46
or he would institute a major lawsuit against the firm. My boss came to me and said,
59:52
"We're going to call Donald Trump on the telephone." ♪ ♪ And Trump said, "Marvin,
59:58
the first thing you're gonna do is "call 'The Wall Street Journal.' "And you're going to tell them that
1:00:05
"that son-of-a-biscuit reporter misquoted you.
1:00:11
"And then you're going to write me a paper "stating that the Taj Mahal is
1:00:16
gonna be the greatest success ever." I told my boss that I can't write a paper like this.
1:00:22
There's no way in the world that they're going to be able to make their interest payment. So I went back to my office.
1:00:30
And shortly thereafter, my boss brings the letter. And he said, "Can you live with this?"
1:00:37
It said, "Dear Mr. Trump, I apologize "for my comments, and when this property opens,
1:00:43
I'm sure it's gonna be a big success" and all this stuff. I was under incredible stress,
1:00:50
because I really liked my job. And I had been there 17 years. So I signed the letter.
1:00:57
I didn't sleep that night. The very next morning, I came into the office
1:01:04
and I wrote a letter and I said, "Dear Donald, the letter that was sent to yu
1:01:09
"was never written by me. "And I would direct that you not use this letter
1:01:15
for any purpose whatsoever." I sent the letter out, and they immediately fired me.

1:01:25
[Strauss' "Also Sprach Zarathustra"] - One step beyond your wildest imagination.
1:01:31
A billion-dollar dream come true. Donald J. Trump's Taj Mahal,
1:01:37
the eighth wonder of the world. [camera shutters clicking]
1:01:43
[upbeat music] - Here's America's foremost entrepreneur,
1:01:48
Mr. Donald Trump! [cheers and applause] ♪ ♪
1:01:54
[electrical crackling noise] ♪ ♪
1:01:59
- Master. I am here at your service. This was an opportunity you had long awaited.
1:02:07
[electrical cracking noises] Open Sesame!
1:02:13
[fireworks popping] ♪ ♪
1:02:21
- There was a huge crowd for the opening. [camera shutters clicking] People wanted to see what this was like.
1:02:27
It had gotten a lot of attention in the press. - It was opening day in Atlantic City... - Donald Trump's billion-dollar Taj Mahal casino
1:02:35
opens its door. - Good luck, everybody. Hope you're beating me. Good luck.
1:02:40
♪ ♪ - On the outside, it all looked great. There really was an enormous turnout for this opening.
1:02:47
- Good luck. - But behind the scenes, things were not going well. [uneasy music]
1:02:54
- At one point, I was in the back area, and there was a--a door on the other side of a hallwa.
1:03:01
I said, "I'm curious what's in there." And I got blank stares, and nobody knew.
1:03:06
And we opened up the steel doors. And it was full of coin they didn't even know that was in there.
1:03:12
$2 million that nobody knew even existed. [laughs] It was that bad.
1:03:20
- July was a poor month in Atlantic City overall, despite the opening of the lavish Taj Mahal in the spring.
1:03:27
- We're now fully into a recession. People thought that desperate people
1:03:33
will still go gambling, but, in fact, revenues were down at all the casinos.
1:03:40
It turned out that Marvin was absolutely on the mark with everything that he said.
1:03:46
- I thought it was an easy call. How all these people got enticed into this,
1:03:53
this is something I cannot understand. - Donald's debts are piling up.
1:03:59
He was having trouble paying all of his bills. - Of course, Donald, you know, he had to blame somebody.
1:04:06
He wasn't gonna step up and say, "Oh, I borrowed money at 14%." - Nine months later,
1:04:13
in an interview in "The New York Times," Trump attacked the three dead men, blaming many of his financial problems in Atlantic City
1:04:19
on their mismanagement. - I said, "Donald, you can't do this. "First off, it's not true.
1:04:26
"But second, you're blaming people who died. Quite frankly, they died working for you."
1:04:32
♪ ♪ And ultimately this is what caused the breakup
1:04:37
between myself and Donald Trump.
♪ ♪ - By 1990, Donald is in trouble on every front.
1:04:46
- And it was this moment in his personal life where everything falls apart.
1:04:51
♪ ♪
1:04:56
- When Donald and Ivana returned from Aspen to New York, there was a period of a month and a half or so,
1:05:02
where Ivana was just in shock. Her whole world had just exploded.
1:05:07
And finally, she filed for divorce. - Here comes the war of the Trumps.
1:05:13
Ivana and the Donald are calling it quits. - This was the tabloid sex scandal
1:05:21
of the 1990s. - It was on the front page of the papers for 28 days.
1:05:26
Trump, Trump, Trump, Trump. I never saw anything like it in my life. - Ivana was leaking to the "New York Daily News,"
1:05:34
and Trump was leaking to the "New York Post." It was a divorce in the tabloids.
1:05:40
"Over Her Dead Body." "Gimme the Plaza!"
1:05:45
"Best Sex I've Ever Had." This is the best one: "Ivana Better Deal."
1:05:50
- It had sex. It had beauty. It had bazillions of bucks. And it had a disgruntled ex-wife.
1:05:56
And it had an innocent new girlfriend. It had everything you would-- sex, love, and rock 'n' roll.
1:06:02
Well, no rock 'n' roll, but-- [laughs] - The guy who penned "The Art of the Deal" has been less than artful with this personal deal.
1:06:10
His first concern has been telling the world that the wife he put in charge of the Plaza was in charge in name only.
1:06:17
- He began to denigrate Ivana and her performance,
1:06:22
saying that she wasn't doing a good job, that he was gonna get rid of her. - I felt terrible for her.
1:06:29
I mean, I knew he was giving her a hard time because I saw it. So I could imagine what it must have been like at home
1:06:35
if I saw what he was like on the job. She was wearing out. She was not looking good.
1:06:40
And it was--it was very tough, very tough on her. - He would make the most extraordinarily
1:06:45
horrible comments about the mother of his children. Barbara Walters took him to task on the air about it.
1:06:53
- The author Marie Brenner quotes you as saying to her, "When a man leaves a woman, "especially when it was perceived that
1:06:59
"he has left for a piece of ass, a good one, "there are 50% of the population who will love the woman who was left."
1:07:06
- I do remember saying that. I don't remember having used those words, it's possible. But I believe that if a man leaves a woman
1:07:14
for almost any reason, that that particular person, the man, is going to be at a major disadvantage
1:07:21
in terms of the public eye. There's no question about it. - I felt so sorry for Ivana. And don't forget, the kids were young,
1:07:28
but they weren't that young, so they knew what was going on. Donnie Jr. was so upset
1:07:34
he didn't speak to him for two years. - It's hard to make the case that Donald was right
1:07:39
in this situation. [crowd clamoring] - Is it true about... - Do you wish we'd all go away?
1:07:45
- Absolutely. ♪ ♪ - Ivana was quite a popular figure around town.
1:07:50
She was a mother. And she was kind of-- clearly been shamed by another woman.
1:07:56
- And because of her integrity, the way she handled Donald, the way that she handled the children,
1:08:01
she became so well-respected. - Fred and his wife were very saddened and disturbed
1:08:09
about the dissolution of Trump's marriage. - He really liked Ivana,
1:08:14
and he loved his grandchildren. - A new kind of aura developed around Trump,
1:08:19
of being a very disreputable guy, really, a short of a shabby guy who cheated on his wife
1:08:25
and who had incurred a lot of debt. - For Donald Trump, there's nothing worse
1:08:30
than being a laughingstock. It's something that has always brought out the most aggressive aspects of his personality.
1:08:37
♪ ♪ Every morning, he was given a folder full of the clippings from the newspapers
1:08:44
about him, any mention of him. And he raged at any negative coverage, or any criticism that he got.
1:08:51
- He became very, very aggressive towards journalists he felt had not given him the right coverage.
1:08:57
♪ ♪ Then gradually, things got out of control. [upbeat music]


Image
WA-A-A-A-H! Little Donald – Unhappy at Last
Trump’s Final Dayus
By SPY Magazine
August, 1990


1:09:03
- One day, the executive producer came to me and said, "We've got an interview with Donald Trump." You became very public
1:09:09
very clearly by your own design. - I don't know if it was by my own design. - You mean the publicity? - I do developments,
1:09:15
which get a lot of publicity. I mean, if Trump-- - Oh, come on. - I mean this. - Uh-huh? - There's no reason to expose yourself to millions of people.
1:09:22
There's no-- - But you know why you do it? - Why? Tell me. - You love the publicity. - Oh, I hate the publicity. - Oh, come on!
1:09:27
Get out of here. - No, I'm telling you. I hate the publicity. - Oh, please! - I hate it. - Gradually, he began to lose control
1:09:32
of his own narrative, which made him very, very angry. - He was so thin-skinned
1:09:38
that he couldn't take it. - I don't think it was fun for him anymore. And I think it drove him very dark.
1:09:44
♪ ♪ - In 1991, I decided that it was time to kind of do the very reported piece
1:09:50
on--on what was really going on in the Trump empire. We assigned Marie Brenner to it.
1:09:56
It was very explosive, because not only did she talk about his business reverses in a very candid way, but she also described
1:10:04
the whole kind of fakery of the Trump world. ♪ ♪ We had his brother Robert quoted saying,
1:10:10
"Donald was the kid at the birthday party who threw cake." He always wanted the attention. He didn't care how he got it.
1:10:16
He was the one trashing everybody else if he didn't get what he wanted. Trump was very angry
1:10:21
and felt that he'd been sort of betrayed. So about five or six months later,
1:10:27
Marie Brenner was attending a benefit. - I think it was a black-tie dinner. She sitting there with the strapless--
1:10:34
backless--you know, her back. - She suddenly felt something sort of down her back, something sort of cold and wet.
1:10:40
- And she turns, and she sees Donald Trump walking away with an empty glass in his hand.
1:10:46
He had poured wine down her back as a way of getting even for the piece she wrote about him.
1:10:53
[laughs] And it was just unbelievable. - Normally when a reporter writes a story,
1:10:58
if the source or the subject disagrees with it, there is a civil discourse.
1:11:05
In my case, a glass of wine was poured down my back. ♪ ♪
1:11:11

- Seems just yesterday the big news magazines were running cover stories about his astonishing financial success.
1:11:17
The headlines are screaming, "Death of a Legend" and calling him "the has-been of high finance"

Image
The Art of the Boast


1:11:23
See, Donald is short of cash. - By 1990, Trump's entire empire
1:11:30
was, quote, "in severe financial distress." - Donald's financial troubles
1:11:35
became so massive, ultimately that Fred had to help bail him out. Nobody ever bailed out Fred Trump
1:11:43
in the way that he bailed out his own son. - Even Donald's father has helped out. A $3 million purchase of chips
1:11:49
in one of his son's casinos went toward paying interest to bondholders. - His father sent a lawyer
1:11:56
down to Atlantic City to buy a couple million dollars worth of chips to give him some cash in order to meet his obligations.
1:12:04
♪ ♪ - Trump is going down to the wire with empire in danger of toppling.
1:12:11
He has to come up with millions of dollars by tomorrow, or an uncontrollable chain of events
1:12:17
could be set in motion. [somber music] - He was facing a midnight deadline to make payments.
1:12:25
The midnight deadline came and went. ♪ ♪ And all of the lawyers
1:12:30
representing the companies and banks, they were all gathered at the bankruptcy lawyers' office
1:12:35
in Manhattan. ♪ ♪ Trump is at home in Trump Tower,
1:12:40
and he gets a call summoning him at the meeting in the middle of the night. And he gets in the limo and rushes over.
1:12:49
And this is it. I mean, this is potentially the end of the Trump empire.
1:12:54
♪ ♪ - If he failed, he would be given over to the bank, including properties that Fred had developed.
1:13:02
So Trump was staring at destroying not only his own legacy
1:13:07
but his father's legacy as well.
1:13:13
[brooding music] - In what could be his final roll of the dice, the Donald met late into the night with creditors
1:13:19
who want to shut down his Taj Mahal casino and get their money back. - He was frightened.
1:13:26
He was terrified of losing everything he had acquired. ♪ ♪
1:13:35
A signal moment was when a bank told him that unless he made good on the payments on his yacht,
1:13:41
they were going to take the yacht away from him. Trump decided, "Okay. Let's just tell them they can have the yacht."
1:13:47
And the bank came back to them and said, "Well, wait a minute. We don't want to own a yacht. We really don't want to deal with this."
1:13:54
And that's when a light went off in Trump's head. He realized that he was too big to fail. ♪ ♪
1:13:59
- Trump's biggest creditors have come up with a temporary agreement. - He's been put on a personal allowance.
1:14:06
He'll have to scrape by on $450,000 a month. ♪ ♪
1:14:12
- He's put on an allowance. And most of his biggest toys are taken away from him:
1:14:17
the airline, the Plaza Hotel, all except Mar-a-Lago and his triplex in Trump Tower.
1:14:25
- As for today's events, Donald Trump says he made a great deal, a fantastic deal,
1:14:30
that his empire is intact and he's running it. ♪ ♪ - During the course of that summer,
1:14:36
it was Trump's 44th birthday. He announced a big bash for himself
1:14:41
in Atlantic City. - How's the morale these days with all the news about the financial problems?
1:14:46
- It's what the newspapers are doing to us. And we've got to turn that around. You know, who doesn't bounce a check?
1:14:52
You know, everyone has a little financials problems every now and then. [cheers and applause]
1:14:57
- Happy birthday, Donald. - At the time of his birthday party, he must know he has no hope of making a success.
1:15:05
He's telling the public there's no doubt it will be successful. ♪ ♪ - The Taj Mahal
1:15:10
set a record, an all-time record. Nobody wants to write about it. They want to write the negatives, not the positives.
1:15:18
And that's okay. Over the years, I've surprised a lot of people. The biggest surprise is yet to come.
1:15:24
Thank you very much. Thank you. - The restructuring of Donald Trump's debts
1:15:32
only delayed the inevitable. - In 1991,
1:15:37
within less than a year, the Taj would go bankrupt. The Castle and the Plaza both also go into bankruptcy protection.
1:15:44
There's an operating bankruptcy that Trump took advantage of, which allowed him to keep the doors of the casinos open
1:15:52
while he worked out the debt. ♪ ♪ [soft dramatic music]
1:15:58
- At last, they are Mr. and Mrs. Trump, who came down the long staircase of the Plaza Hotel this evening
1:16:03
after tying the knot in front of about 1,000 guests. ♪ ♪ - Donald's marriage to Marla
1:16:09
took place at the Plaza Hotel, which he owned at the time. [laughs] I guess he got a good deal on the catering.
1:16:15
I don't know. ♪ ♪ It was an over-the-top extravaganza.
1:16:21
- I think it's an exciting event. I am, uh, certainly never near anything that reeks of society.
1:16:27
- It's kind of a royal wedding in New York, isn't it? - It was lovely. She looked beautiful.
1:16:32
It was just a big, giant party. ♪ ♪ - He's now on his second marriage.
1:16:38
But he's still got financial problems. - There were certainly plenty of developers at that time
1:16:44
who basically went into bankruptcy and were left with nothing. Trump was very close to joining that club
1:16:50
of great wealthy people who had lost everything. ♪ ♪ - What he and his bankers come up with
1:16:57
is the idea of creating a public company.
1:17:02
[traffic honking] [distant crowd applauding]
1:17:07
- Donald Trump is gambling investors want to bet on him again. - We're really happy. This is a very exciting day.
1:17:15
- When a company becomes public, you're offering investors a stake in your company in return for their cash.
1:17:21
- For those interested in following the stock, Trump made it characteristically easy. It trades under the symbol of DJT: Donald J. Trump.
1:17:29
- The shares opened at $14 a share. It grows to $32 a share.
1:17:35
People believed in Donald. That had confidence that Donald could be
1:17:40
the catalyst for success. - Going public can be like hitting the jackpot.
1:17:46
The drawer of the cash register opens, and suddenly there's a lot more cash you can grab and put to uses.
1:17:53
- He created a public company to buy the junk assets, in other words, to buy the Trump casinos.
1:18:00
- This allowed Trump to get out from beneath the weight of a lot of debt that
1:18:06
he otherwise would have had to repay himself personally. - Trump's not left holding the bag because he's already sold this public company
1:18:14
his overleveraged junky assets for more than it's worth, cashed out of some stock.
1:18:20
So when the stock goes down and goes bust, individual investors who bought stock
1:18:25
in his public company in Atlantic City just completely lost their shirt.
1:18:31
- Things went so poorly that the share price went from about $35 to 17¢.
1:18:36
This is an extraordinary failure. ♪ ♪ - How do you feel as a bond owner?
1:18:42
- Uh, pretty bad. I--pretty bad about it. It's un--it's unbelievable. With his name and everything,
1:18:47
I thought I had a good investment. ♪ ♪ - That was, in effect,
1:18:53
the most profitable idea Trump ever had, because he put himself into deals
1:18:59
in which he could not really lose money. He could only make money. - To have one business failure after another
1:19:07
and still walk away with millions, uh, it's extraordinarily rare.

1:19:14
- The upside will take care of itself. It's the downside you have to take care of.
1:19:21
Ben Hogan, uh, the golfer, he said, "It's not about who hits the most good shots. It's about who hits the best bad shots."
1:19:29
Meaning, it's the guy who hits the bad shots that work that win.

1:19:38
[soft dramatic music] - The winner in Donald Trump's Atlantic City empire was Donald Trump.
1:19:44
The stockholders were losers, and also the vendors that were unpaid for the work that they did.
1:19:52
- It is a private meeting to find out how we're going to collect our money. - How much money is to be collected?
1:19:58
- For us, $1.2 million. - And for all the contractors? - I don't know that figure.
1:20:04
It's in excess of $60 million. I don't know the exact figure. By contract, it was for
1:20:10
glass and glazing, storefronts, mirrors...
1:20:16
- What they were looking for was a grand piano with a computer built in
1:20:21
that would play by itself. I talked to my lawyer and I said, "You know, "we have about $100,000 involved in this.
1:20:27
Do I need to put a lean on the property?" He laughed at me and he said, "You're doing business with Donald Trump.
1:20:33
He has lots of money." The 90 days came and I still hadn't been paid. So I gave them a call. "Oh, we--we'll take care of it.
1:20:41
"We got a few other bills to take care of. And, you know, don't worry about it." - We had to lay off a substantial amount of men.
1:20:47
We wound up using our credit lines to pay our suppliers.
1:20:53
- Finally got a letter from the Taj Mahal. So he said, you can accept 70% on the dollar,
1:20:59
or you can wait till the casino makes enough money on its own to pay it in full,
1:21:05
or you can put us into bankruptcy and get maybe 10¢ on the dollar. - A lot of the small contractors went under.
1:21:17
[uneasy music] - From Trump's viewpoint, it was all about his survival.
1:21:23
If that meant that certain people were shortchanged, that was okay with Trump, because he won.

1:21:28
- I was in a room with a group of people. And a friend was saying-- and they were talking about me--
1:21:34
"Well, Trump didn't do so well in Atlantic City." And the other guy said, Trump made a [bleep] fortune there-- are you cra--
1:21:40
Pulled the money out, he brought property all over the [bleep] world. And you're saying he didn't make money? Then he bankrupted it three times,
1:21:46
and every time he bankrupt-- in fact, people are amazed because we bankrupted, it came back more, more, more, 'cause I know how to use the system.
1:21:53
♪ ♪ [pensive music]
1:21:59
♪ ♪ - Marla was someone who didn't fit in Donald's world.
1:22:06
As a result, she was almost an in-between figure in his life, and they were not married for very long.
1:22:15
When they divorced, she too was the victim of a prenuptial agreement
1:22:20
that made life a little hardr than it should have been for the divorced wife of
1:22:25
a man who claimed to be a billionaire. - He's always gonna be fine, he's just got a way. [both laugh]
1:22:32
- His marriage to Marla Maples was ending. He had gone through bankruptcies.
1:22:37
His father, Fred Trump, had been sick for many years. It was one of the lowest moments of his life.
1:22:46
[somber piano music] ♪ ♪
1:22:55
- Donald and his father had a tough relationship through the years. Fred Trump was often dismissive of Donald's ventures,
1:23:03
especially early on. He thought that he was taking on way more than he could chew. He was very critical of Donad for going into debt,
1:23:11
didn't like the whole idea of building an empire based on debt. And yet in later years,
1:23:16
Fred Trump showed considerable pride in what his son had achieved. - You can't overestimate the impact that
1:23:24
Fred Trump has had on the life and imagination of his son Donald. Donald grew up intimidated by his father,
1:23:32
enamored of his father, deeply respectful of his father. ♪ ♪
1:23:37
One of the only photographs that travels with Trump from New York to Washington
1:23:43
is a black-and-white photo of Fred Trump. ♪ ♪ Fred Trump looms very, very large
1:23:50
in Donald Trump's history. [dramatic music]
1:23:56
- At the time that his father died, Donald was no longer able to borrow money from banks
1:24:03
to put up a project. ♪ ♪ - His divorce from Marla, his failures in other businesses,
1:24:09
he was not the fair-haired by that he had been when he was building Trump Tower.
1:24:15
He was in a steady decline, maybe $4 or $5 billion of corporate debt. The myth was broken.
1:24:22
Newspapers were now going after him, instead of just doing press releases on him. Oh, it was very bad. ♪ ♪
1:24:29
- His casinos had failed. He'd gone into bankruptcy. At that point, he was fading into
1:24:35
just another New York developer that nobody cared about. ♪ ♪
1:24:44
- Who will be "The Apprentice"? - It was the American dream on TV.
1:24:51
- You're fired. You're fired. You're fired. - He's now gonna try to trade on a new version of his character,
1:24:58
which is that he's a survivor. - I think you'll like it. - Before you knew it, it was Trump soap, and it was Trump this and it was Trump that.
1:25:03
Live like Trump, be like Trump, make a comeback like Trump. [crowd exclaims] - WrestleMania was a crucial stepping stone
1:25:11
on Donald Trump's path to the Oval Office. - Donald Trump's gone through five bankruptcies.
1:25:16
- He's certainly persona non grata in New York and the United States, so where does he go?
1:25:25
- Donald Trump wasn't gonna do nuance. - Our current president came out of nowhere.
1:25:31
- No one is prouder to put this birth certificate matter to rest than the Donald. [laughter]
1:25:37
♪ ♪ - Donald Trump wants to win at everything he does. - Politics will never be the same.
1:25:44
- There has been nothing like this before. ♪ ♪
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Re: Trump lashes out at Gov. Doug Ducey following certificat

Postby admin » Tue Feb 06, 2024 6:08 am

Part 1 of 2

Unfit (2020)
Donald Trump Documentary
Premiered Aug 26, 2023 #trump #donaldtrump #documentary

Is Donald Trump fit to hold the office of President of the United States? An eye-opening analysis of Trump by leading US mental health professionals and Republican strategists, on the record for the record. Science. Truth. Duty to Warn.

Cast: Malcolm Nance, George Conway, Anthony Scaramucci, John Gartner, Lance Dodes, Justin Frank, Ruth Ben-Ghiat and Ramani Durvasula

Director: Dan Partland



Transcript

0:01
(eerie music) (gentle piano music)
0:11
- In the armed forces, there's a nuclear weapons program called the Personnel Reliability Program.
0:17
Do you have personal defects? Do you have financial problems which could compromise you?
0:22
Do you have a problem with infidelity? This is the program where they screen you
0:29
to see if you can be trusted to hold an M16 to guard the truck
0:35
that might carry a nuclear weapon. Not that it will, that it might.
0:40
That also is the program where they determine whether you're an Air Force missile flight officer, whether you can go down into a bunker
0:47
and be responsible to turn the keys on a Minuteman-III missile.
- [Announcer] The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
0:53
- That is an entire scaled evaluation program that shows your personal reliability
1:01
to carry out your orders and to do the highest risk things
1:06
like fly a B-52 bomber or B-2 bomber and drop a nuclear weapon.
1:12
The President of the United States doesn't have to meet any of these parameters,
1:18
none of them whatsoever, because the electorate choosing you
1:24
clears you into all of these programs.
1:29
(crowd cheering) We have a president of the United States who was duly elected, he was put into office,
1:36
given the great faith of the people who voted him in.
- I Donald John Trump do solemnly swear.
1:43
- I Donald John Trump do solemnly swear.
- And if we look at the great presidents
1:49
of the United States, there's one unifying thing: they maintained
e continuity
1:56
in how the Constitution was upheld and defended.
- [John] So help me God.
2:01
- So help me God.
- Congratulations, Mr. President. (crowd cheering)
2:07
(upbeat music)
- At first, it was just political name calling
2:14
and insults suggesting Donald Trump was a lunatic.
- This man is a pathological liar.
2:20
- Guarantee I have a vocabulary better than all of 'em, I know I have an IQ better than all of them.
2:27
I'm very highly educated. I know words. I have the best words but there's no better word than stupid.
2:34
Oh, I don't know what I said. I don't remember. I could stand in the middle of Fifth Avenue
2:39
and shoot somebody and I wouldn't lose any voters, okay?
- [Man] But more recently, the conversation about the president's mental state
2:45
has taken a more serious tone.
- I can't explain this crazy behavior,
2:50
but I can call it crazy.
- [Donald] We've taken this big, beautiful ship and it's being turned around very quickly.
2:57
- [Man] I'm not a psychologist or a psychiatrist but the guy needs therapy.
- USA!
3:03
USA! I am the chosen one.
- [Man] Almost everyone seems to have an opinion.
3:11
Could Donald Trump be unfit for office?
3:24
(chattering)
3:30
- Good evening. Thank you guys for coming. I know our first official press briefing is gonna to be on Monday
3:35
but I wanted to give you a few updates on the President's activities. But before I get to the news of the day,
3:41
I think I'd like to discuss a little bit of the coverage in the past 24 hours. Yesterday, at a time when our nation and the world
3:47
was watching the peaceful transition of power, some members of the media were engaged in deliberately false reporting.
3:54
Photographs of the inaugural proceedings were intentionally framed in a way, in one particular tweet,
3:59
to minimize the enormous support that had gathered on the National Mall. No one had numbers.
4:05
This was the largest audience to ever witness an inauguration, period, both in person and around the globe.
4:12
Even the New York Times printed a photograph.
- Why put him out there for the very first time
4:18
and utter a falsehood? Why did he do that? It undermines the credibility of the entire White House press office on day one.
4:25
- No it doesn't. Don't be so overly dramatic about it, Chuck. You're saying it's a falsehood
4:31
and they're giving Sean Spicer, our Press Secretary, gave alternative facts to that
4:36
but the point remains that there is...
- Wait a minute, alternative facts? Look, alternative facts are not facts, they're falsehoods.
4:43
(whimsical music)
- My name's George Conway. I'm a lawyer, I'm a litigator.
4:50
I principally practice securities litigation. I've argued appeals
4:56
including a big case in the Supreme Court. My wife was Donald Trump's Campaign Manager
5:04
and now is Counselor to the President.
- And he said a lot about these instances.
- I was a Republican since probably about 1980
5:12
when Ronald Reagan was elected president. I voted for Donald Trump in 2016
5:18
and I almost took a job in the Justice Department myself to run the Civil Division of the Department of Justice.
5:25
Donald Trump wasn't my first choice among the Republican nominees
5:31
but I was hopeful that he would calm down
5:39
and get better as time went on. He started to show a little more discipline.
5:44
He would only go off the rails every third day instead of every day,
5:50
but the problem was once he got into the supreme position of power,
5:55
he lost some of his incentive to be disciplined and I'm thinking at this point in time,
6:01
"What is wrong with him?" Donald Trump is like a practical joke that got out of hand.
6:09
I mean, that's the problem. I mean, I didn't go into the administration for a lot of reasons
6:15
but the fundamental reason was it was a mess.
6:21
I guess I must've been googling Trump and mental health because I clearly thought
6:28
there's something seriously wrong with him and I came across an article in Rolling Stone magazine,
6:36
Is Trump a Malignant Narcissist? And a number of people like Dr. Gartner were interviewed
6:43
and as soon as I read that I realized that's it.
6:50
You cannot understand his presidency without knowing this.
6:59
- My name is John Gartner. I'm a psychologist. I taught in the Department of Psychiatry at Johns Hopkins University for 28 years.
7:06
I've written some books and I'm the founder of Duty to Warn, an organization of mental health professionals
7:11
that believe that Donald Trump should be removed because he's psychologically unfit. My name is Lance Dodes.
7:18
I'm a psychiatrist and a psychoanalyst. I've spent most of my research career looking at compulsive and addictive behavior
7:25
and I've become interested in the importance of psychology in politics in recent years because of the threat to our country.
7:31
- My name is Justin Frank, a psychoanalyst and a psychiatrist. I've been in practice in DC for about 40 years.
7:41
Is Donald Trump fit to serve as the President and Commander in Chief? I can answer that with one word, no.
7:47
Trump is a sociopath, a sadist, a con artist, a racist, a misogynist, a sexist in general,
7:55
and I think it is a problem.
- How dare liberals, people on the left,
8:02
try to undo democracy by accusing a president
8:08
of being mentally ill without any basis? Look, these psychiatrists now who are trying to diagnose
8:14
without ever having met the man.
- This is not the first time the left has gone at Republicans. They did the same thing to Barry Goldwater,
8:20
they did the same thing to Ronald Reagan.
- Over 1,000 psychiatrists diagnosed Barry Goldwater and said he was mentally ill,
8:27
they were then rebuked by the American Psychiatric Association and said, "Do not make diagnosis without seeing the patient."
8:34
And they continue to do it today. (giddy music)
8:44
- [Narrator] The election campaign's in full swing in New Hampshire, bellwether state of the nation. It goes to the polls on March 10th
8:52
and growing support for Goldwater.
- So, the Goldwater rule has an interesting history. In 1964, Barry Goldwater ran for president
8:59
and a now defunct magazine, Fact Magazine, did a survey of psychiatrists and published an article saying psychiatrists think that Goldwater is unfit.
9:07
Goldwater sued them and he won and as it turns out, actually, he deserved to win.
9:12
It was libelous. He was not unstable. And the psychiatrists
9:17
who wrote those statements about Goldwater, it's important for people to understand the history of our field, this was in the '60s when Freudian psychiatry
9:25
really ruled the roost.
9:31
- This is what I've discovered. We are constantly bedeviled by powerful, unconscious forces in our beings.
9:39
- [John] And so their explanations were things like he's a latent homosexual, he's been scarred by his potty-training,
9:46
he has an unresolved Oedipus complex.
- [Narrator] Based on unconscious hate
9:52
caused by childhood jealousy. (upbeat music)
10:04
- Freudian psychiatry, though it has many important and positive aspects and helped move the profession forward,
10:10
it's not been used well in terms of its analyzing public figures. I actually interviewed the last living member
10:17
of the ethics committee that formed the Goldwater rule and he said these were obviously wild speculations,
10:23
they weren't founded in fact, and so they embarrassed the profession because they were really idle speculations
10:29
and so that's why they passed that rule. He said to me, "We never intended it to be a gag order,"
10:34
meaning that psychiatrists could never speak up about public figures, "We just didn't want them making unfounded statements."
10:41
- The Goldwater rule today has been incorrectly extended
10:46
and the incorrect part about it is that it now is being used to suppress speech
10:52
about things that are knowable. It's as nonsensical as saying an orthopedic surgeon
10:58
shouldn't be able to watch somebody in a football injury and say that person probably has an ACL tear,
11:05
he can say it because he's an expert in the field. Something happened, he observed it.
- And what people need to understand
11:10
is that actually the psychiatric interview is the least reliable method of making a diagnosis
11:16
because our current diagnostic system, the DSM, is based on observable, behavioral criteria.
11:23
Well, when you meet with someone they can lie to you. So, they can say, "Oh, I never did that," or, "I don't do that." But if you can actually observe their behavior,
11:30
if you can follow them around, if you can watch them on TV, if you can read their social media, if you could talk to all their significant others,
11:36
you'd probably get a much more reliable indicator of how they behave.
- I'm not concerned about anything
11:41
with the Russian investigation because it's a hoax. That's enough. Put down the mic.
- Mr. President.
11:46
- I am more confident in my diagnosis of Donald Trump than any diagnosis I've ever made before
11:51
because I have more information.
- By outward appearance,
11:58
you're 10 years older than you were a year ago.
12:04
- Some weariness has bit at my bones.
12:10
- It's not true that having any kind of mental health disorder would make someone a bad president.
12:16
One of my favorite books is a book called "Lincoln's Melancholy", about how Lincoln's being a depressive personality
12:22
is part of what allowed him to win the Civil War. He had a capacity to endure mental suffering
12:29
that was baked into who he was and so the enormous burden of the Civil War
12:35
was something he was actually able to endure.
- I have seen what's happened in this last four years when in my state, when people lose their jobs
12:43
there's a good chance I'll know them by their names.
- Bill Clinton, I wrote a biography of Bill Clinton, about how his hypomania was part of what energized him
12:51
in terms of his charisma and his creativity, it also had to do with his impulse control problems
12:56
and his hypersexuality, so it was a double-edged sword but it doesn't disqualify someone from being president
13:02
if they have a psychological disorder, but Donald Trump shows clear signs
13:10
of the most severe personality disorder, it's called malignant narcissism and was first introduced by Erich Fromm
13:17
who escaped the Nazis and spent a lot of his life trying to understand the psychology of evil.
13:23
And he formulated this diagnosis of malignant narcissism which has four components: narcissism, paranoia,
13:31
anti-social personality disorder and sadism. I think everybody knows Donald Trump's a narcissist by now.
13:37
- I will be the greatest jobs producer that God ever created.
13:43
I know more about ISIS than the generals do, believe me.
- Who are you consulting with consistently
13:50
so that you're ready on day one?
- [Donald] I'm speaking with myself, number one, because I have a very good brain.
13:57
- But it's the other three components that make him truly dangerous, because many politicians are narcissistic
14:03
but he's also paranoid. So all of his crazy conspiracy theories.
- The state of Hawaii released
14:10
my official long-form birth certificate.
- [Moderator] The birth certificate
14:17
You continued to tell the story and question the president's legitimacy in 2012, '13, '14, '15.
14:23
- Yeah.
- How about this one about Ted Cruz's father?
- [Donald] His father was with Lee Harvey Oswald
14:29
prior to Oswald's being shot and nobody even brings it up.
- And his sense of being a victim.
14:35
- [Reporter] Mr. Trump turned his sights on Google tweeting, "They have it rigged for me and others
14:41
"so that almost all stories and news is bad."
- And his demonization of anyone who disagrees with him.
14:49
- Nasty guy. Now I know why he doesn't have one endorsement from any of his colleagues.
- All right, John, I get to respond.
14:54
- [Moderator] Senator has picked from the buffet there.
- He's a nasty guy.
- These are all signs of a paranoid process,
15:01
anti-social personality disorder, or what used to be called psychopathy or sociopathy. It's constant lying, well, he's the most documented liar
15:09
in human history, I think, at this point. It's violating the rights of other people
15:15
and exploiting other people. So, sexual assault would be violating the rights of other people, not paying your bills,
15:20
or defrauding people through Trump University would be an example of exploiting other people and it's breaking laws and breaking norms.
15:28
Well, he's broken every norm of the presidency, that's one of the reasons he's so out of control. There's certain norms we thought no one would ever break
15:35
but it's part of his personality disorder to break norms and to break laws and it's a lack of remorse.
15:42
He has no guilt or anxiety about the destructive things that he does.
15:47
- Impeachment for that? It was beautiful. It was just a perfect conversation.
15:53
- And the fourth component that Erich Fromm identified is sadism, truly taking pleasure in harming, humiliating,
16:00
and degrading other human beings. If you read his tweets, I wrote an introduction to a book about his tweets,
16:06
I had to read to read thousands of his tweets and they literally made me ill because it was just one vicious attack
16:12
and humiliating insult after another after another. I was like how can someone even come up with thousands of vicious things
16:18
to say about so many people? But he enjoys degrading and humiliating and insulting other people.
16:24
- I do think that we have enough evidence that most psychiatrists would feel like it's important
16:30
to warn about Trump. We have a duty to warn.
- Psychologists, and really all mental health professionals,
16:38
have the duty to protect society if there's a risk to society.
16:47

(eerie music)
- So the Tarasoff case was in the 1970s.
16:55
A patient said to a psychologist, "I'm gonna go home and murder my girlfriend." The psychologist didn't warn the potential victim
17:02
and the patient went home and killed the girlfriend and it's now the law in all 50 states that if you are aware that a patient
17:09
might be a danger to someone, confidentiality goes out the window, and confidentiality is one of our core values
17:15
but it's more important to warn someone who could be harmed than it is to maintain even our core value
17:22
of confidentiality. Trump is not my patient, he's not saying I'm gonna go kill my girlfriend
17:27
but the number of people who are at risk, the number of people who could be harmed isn't one person,
17:32
it's hundreds of millions of people. So if we didn't speak up, that would be the morality.
17:39
What annoys me about the Goldwater rule the way it's being interpreted now, is it's being interpreted as if we are being unethical
17:46
by speaking out and warning the public when in fact I asked this question
17:53
to whom will history be kinder? Those who spoke up during the age when Trump rose,
18:00
or those who were silent?
- I want the cleanest water on Earth.
18:07
I want the cleanest air on Earth, and that's what we're doing and I'm an environmentalist as you,
18:14
a lot of people don't understand that. I have done more environmental impact statements probably than anybody that's I guess I can say definitely
18:21
because I've done many, many, many of them more than anybody that's ever been president,
18:26
or vice president, or anything even close to president, and I think I know more about the environment
18:33
than most people. (upbeat music)
18:38
- Gaslighting is a crucial tool of abusive personalities.
18:43
It is lying to someone in a way that makes them doubt their own perception of reality.
18:52
- I'm Dr. Ramani Durvasula. I'm a professor of psychology.
19:00
It's an interesting place where the origin of this term gaslight came from, it came from what was a play in the '30s
19:06
and then became a film called "Gaslight", and it was about a man who was slowly trying to drive his wife mad.
19:16
- A moment ago, the gas dimmed as it does when someone turns on another light in the house. Did you turn on another light, Elizabeth?
19:22
- No, ma'am, there's no one in the house but us.
- [Ramani] The gaslights kept getting turned up and down and he was denying having done it.
19:30
- You're going to see a doctor, Madam.
- No.
- [Husband] More than one doctor tomorrow morning.
19:36
- Very common sorts of gaslighting statements are things like, it never happened that way,
19:41
you must be losing your mind. They'll literally say things happened that didn't happen,
19:47
I didn't do that, I didn't say that. Many people call gaslighting a form of emotional abuse
19:53
because what you're really doing is setting out to confuse another person. When you confuse someone like that,
19:58
you really do almost render them more vulnerable to you and actually easier to coerce because now they don't really know which way is up.
20:05
It's as though you've turned gravity off and turned them upside down.
- I don't know if you remember the point where Trump said, "Listen, don't pay attention to what you're seeing,
20:12
"don't pay attention to what you're hearing."
- What you're seeing and what you're reading is not what's happening.
20:19
- And it's interesting because as human beings we're actually vulnerable to this. There's a famous experience in social psychology called the Asch Experiment.
20:26
The Asch Experiment is they show lines on a screen, one is clearly longer than the other and they ask them which line is longer
20:33
and they get it correct 100% of the time.
- That's two.
- Then you bring in four confederates
20:39
who work for the experimenter but you pretend they're also in the study as subjects and they all say that the shorter line is longer.
20:47
- [Man] Three.
- [Three] Three.
- Three.
20:57
- Three?
- 50% of the time the person will reverse themselves and say, "You're right, the shorter line is the longer one."
21:04
We're very subject to the influence, our reality testing is very subject to the influence
21:10
of social pressures. So when he does these things that are blatantly destructive and disordered
21:16
and yet people act as if they're normal and they poo-poo these observations, eventually we begin to quest ourselves and think,
21:24
"Oh, maybe I'm wrong. "Maybe it actually is normal."
- What has been so disturbing
21:30
is that we've discovered, at least some of us, that it's much quicker to demolish a building than to build one
21:37
and Trump understands that and I think he can demolish a lot of our faith as a nation
21:43
in our institutions, he can demolish the effectiveness of institutions, he can certainly psychologically confuse and gaslight people
21:55
like nobody's business. (cameras clicking)
- Thank you.
22:01
Thank you very much. I said during the transition, I'll say it up here, I think there's been, at times,
22:07
a disconnect between the way we see the president and how much we love the president and the way some of you perhaps see the president.
22:14
I certainly see the American probably see the president the way I do, but we wanna get that message out there
22:20
and to use a Wall Street expression, there might be an arbitrage spread between how well we are doing
22:26
and how well some of you guys think we're doing and we're gonna work hard to close that spread. My name's Anthony Scaramucci.
22:32
I spent 11 days in the White House as the president's Communications Director. Trump is wickedly smart.
22:39
The guy made it to the American presidency, he's not stupid. You can hate Trump 'cause he says assholeish things, okay?
22:46
And he's an obnoxious guy at times, but what you're missing is that he's now a reflection
22:53
of the cultural zeitgeist, he's an avatar of that anger. So when he's lighting people up on Twitter,
23:00
there's a very large group of people in the United States that are actually giggling and they enjoy it.
23:06
- [Interviewer] What are you earliest memories of Donald Trump?
- My earliest memories of Donald Trump are actually 1983,
23:13
during the Christmas season I visited the Trump Tower.
- [Narrator] The Trump Tower when it's completed,
23:19
will be $400 million worth of high-priced apartments, commercial space and boutiques.
23:24
- What's happened is phenomenal. I've never seen anything to the extent that I have in New York. It now, from a real estate standpoint,
23:30
has probably become the hottest city in the world.
- That building was a brand new building
23:37
in the center of New York and it was a lot of publicity and fanfare. It's got brass and a ton of pink marble
23:45
and it's a modern structure, and he did a great job marketing it. He sold out the condominiums
23:51
and he built for himself a triplex which literally looks like Louis XIV smoked crystal meth
23:57
and then decorated it for him. I mean, it's ridiculous. Walk into his office, he had a ton of pictures of himself on the wall,
24:04
ton of magazine covers and all that sort of stuff. I read "The Art of the Deal" when I was in law school
24:11
when it first came out, and I said, "Okay, this guy's got it goin' on."
24:17
- Ladies and gentlemen, please welcome the author of this book right here, "Trump: The Art of the Deal", Donald J. Trump.
24:23
(audience applauding) At the beginning of the show, I said you either love him or you hate him.
24:28
Now, do you find that that's true or does everybody love you or does everybody hate you?
- No, most people love me
24:33
and a few really have great distaste for me, David.
- And why is it that those people, that few,
24:39
would not care for you? Because you're so successful?
- I can't imagine. No, no, I don't think so. It's just I sort of speak my mind a little bit,
24:45
a little bit like you in that respect.
- Yeah.
- A little bit like you.
- A little bit like me.
- Not too much, hopefully.
- What were you like as a kid?
24:51
- Very normal in a lot of respects, but a very solid child.
- [John] He grew up in Queens.
24:56
His father was making good money as he was being raised. He built a lot of lower middle-income housing
25:04
on the border of Brooklyn and Queens.
- Fred Trump was a successful businessman,
25:10
he made a lot of money and he was smart at what he did. However, Fred Trump was a dishonest, crooked guy,
25:19
who stole from the federal government, who wouldn't allow black people to move into his apartments.
25:26
His father said, "You've got to be a killer. "You've gotta be king, you've gotta be tough,"
25:32
and he took that in.
- Is what you do something you've always wanted to do? I know you're father was and still is
25:39
a real estate developer.
- My father was in real estate business and I've been in that and other businesses
25:44
and different things. I like what I'm doing. I just enjoy what I'm doing. I love the real estate business.
25:50
I learned a lot from my father, more than anything else, I learned a lot.
25:56
- He wanted to make a name for himself and he believed early on his career that having a lot of publicity
26:02
and a lot of profile was gonna be good for the sales and marketing of his apartment buildings
26:07
and condominiums and things that he was doing, but he also wanted to have a unique celebrity persona
26:13
and so Howard Stern represented that for him. (funky music)
26:20
- You once said that the best way to treat a woman is to treat her like doody.
- No, I never said that
- You never did?
- But it was attributed to me.
26:26
- So you never did say that?
- No, I never said that but it was attributed to me.
- [Howard] I see, so, you treat women with respect?
26:32
- I can't say that either.
- All right, good, all right. Somewhere in between.
- [Donald] I do. I treat women with great respect.
26:37
- Treat women somewhere in between respect and doo-doo.
- My initial impressions of Donald Trump,
26:44
like everybody else, I was starstruck. Back then, speaking about women that way
26:51
it was more the norm.
- Where's Marla go?
- I think we have to put Marla right up here.
- Come on, let's do that.
26:57
Let's take down Frederique.
- I went to a fundraiser right after Ivana and Donald divorced,
27:06
so I was excited that he was there.
27:11
I went up to him and I said, "Hello, I'm a huge Howard Stern fan,
27:18
and I wanted to introduce myself." And he said, "Why would I speak to you
27:26
when there's so many beautiful women here? I wouldn't even let you suck my dick."
27:32
(gaping music) - One of the problems here is that Donald Trump doesn't have empathy.
27:38
And that's not a modest statement. He literally has no empathy. He does not feel emotions like care and...
27:47
- [News Anchor] He's a sociopath?
- Well, as I've said since 2016 in The New Yorker when he started to run for president,
27:54
yes, he is a sociopath. There is no question. He's a sociopath meaning he neither has a conscience,
28:00
nor does he have a heart.
- You make it sound like "Blade Runner" when the replicant knows you've found him out
28:06
and he doesn't feel anything anyway. ,
28:11
- Empathy is a normal human trait, it's actually normal in all mammals.
28:17
It starts in childhood with a parent and a child and it continues throughout society,
28:23
it's what glues people together instead of just fighting against each other. Almost everybody has empathy, but not everybody.
28:32
People who don't have empathy are the people that we call sociopaths or psychopaths.

28:38
- That sounds like a very destructive business philosophy.
- They often were treated cruelly.
28:44
They were treated without empathy themselves.
- You talk in your book about getting even,
28:49
the importance of getting even. Is revenge sweet?
- I believe strongly in getting even.
28:55
If somebody has hurt you, if somebody has gone out of their way to hurt you, I think that if you have the opportunity you should certainly go out of your way
29:01
to do a number on them and I've had more criticism about that one statement in my book than any other statement,
29:08
the clergy has called, the ministers, the priests, the rabbis, they've all said, "What a terrible thing to say,
29:14
"that's against our teachings." I just believe it, I believe in an eye for an eye.

- If you don't have normal empathy,
29:20
you're going to mistreat people because they don't matter, there's an abscense of loyalty.
29:26
The absence of loyalty is a sign of anti-social personality disorder.
29:32
Loyalty at its best means I care about this person, I value this person, so I will stick by this person.
29:38
If you have a person without empathy, what you find is that loyalty disappears as soon as the other person crosses them.
29:46
As soon as somebody says, "I'm not with you anymore," or, "I disagree," it flips from you are the greatest person
29:54
to you are a horrible person, you are a worthless person, and I will attack you, I will destroy you.
30:01
- Some of the people that were most loyal to me are people that I didn't think would be, some of the people that were least loyal to me
30:06
are people that are...
- You gotta.
- I think I would've treated 'em differently, I think I would've treated different groups differently, I would've wiped the floor with the guys weren't loyal,
30:14
which I will now do which is great. You know I love getting even with people but,
- You're gonna get even with some people
30:19
because they...
- Yeah, if given the opportunity, I will get even with some people that were disloyal to me.
30:24

- Here comes one of the things they say about you is that there ticks within you a vindictiveness.
30:31
- The people who climb to the top by squashing other people, those are what we call a successful sociopath.
30:37
Sociopaths can be successful because they are conmen. If you're a conman,
30:42
you're convincing them that you are much better, greater, more caring, more honest than you are.
30:50
- My name's Rick Reilly, I'm a golf writer, and I've known Trump for 35 years maybe.
30:56
(upbeat music)
31:01
Trump is among our best golfing presidents.
- [Crowd Member] Oh, nice.
- For a 72-year-old guy, Trump is a good golfer.
31:08
He's got a really good, powerful move through the ball and he hits it a long way and his putting is good,
31:15
he's a very wristy sort of old-school putter. Cheating in golf at all is completely wrong
31:22
because it's the easiest sport to cheat at. There's no refs, there's no umps. You could cheat every shot if you wanted
31:28
but it reveals your character that you don't, or it reveals your character that you do
31:33
and he cheats all the time.

- I actually played golf with him with Anthony Anderson one day.
31:39
- [Seth] Gotcha.
- And we were all playing together and we clearly saw him hit a ball, hook a ball, into a lake at Trump National in Jersey
31:46
and his caddy told him he found it. (Seth laughs)
31:52
- People don't know this but he jerry rigs his golf carts to go really fast. He has somebody do that.
31:58
Only one golf cart at every course he owns goes about 30 miles an hour and that's his, it's number one,
32:04
everyone else goes about 15 to 18 miles per hour.
So he can hit the ball, zip he's out,
32:09
and you're still, "Hey, where's Trump?" You hit, you hit. By then he can kick the ball, move the ball, take it out of lakes, whatever.
32:16
There's your ball. Usually, you would put a mark down and pick up the ball. What he does, he secretly puts the marker
32:23
on the end of the putter and then he looks like he's marking it but really now the mark is three feet closer,
32:29
that's a way easier putt. He tried to cheat Tiger Woods in a round of golf once, Tiger freaking Woods.
32:36
He's off to the right. He's playing against Tiger Woods. They each have a partner.
32:41
He chokes one flat into the water, splash. He says to his partner,
32:46
"Throw me another one, they didn't see." I'm like, "That's Tiger Woods."

- Tiger, we are inspired
32:52
by everything you have become and attained. The job you've done is incredible.
32:57
- He's telling people he's won club championships that he didn't even play in. He won a club championship
33:03
that's being played in Bedminster, New Jersey, when he was playing in Philadelphia
33:09
and he called in and said, "Hey, what won the club championship today?" And the guy goes, "Ah, 75, Joe Shmoe won it."
33:18
"Oh, I shot 73 today, make me the champion." And the pro's like, "Ha, what?"
33:23
"Yeah, make me the champion. "I played better here today." So, Joe Shmoe's name comes off the wall,
33:30
maybe one of the great moments of his life and Trump's name goes up and this has happened over and over again.
33:36
And then he won at least six or seven times tournaments where he was the only guy
33:42
playing in the tournament. He'll buy a new golf course, play the first round by himself and Melania,
33:47
and unless Melania gets hot, he's gonna be the winner and so if you go to any of his courses his first few years it's just him
33:55
because no one else played. As a writer, I love Donald Trump.
34:01
I loved him 'cause he would say anything. He was like, "Yeah, I banged Marilyn Monroe "and I punched out Sinatra."
34:07
And we're like, "Yeah, what else you got?" Because he'd say anything. But as an American, I don't like him at all.
34:14
He terrifies me.
If he's gonna cheat at golf, you don't think he's gonna cheat on his taxes? You don't think he's gonna cheat on his wives?
34:20
You don't think he's gonna cheat to win an election? You don't think he's gonna cheat to stop an investigation? You don't think he's gonna cheat to break rules,
34:26
to get information from foreign countries? My God, he just admitted he does it.

34:35
- I'm Bill Kristol. I came to Washington over 30 years ago to work in the Reagan Administration. I was Chief of Staff to the Vice President
34:41
in the George H.W. Bush White House so I worked in government, worked in some Republican politics,
34:46
edited The Weekly Standard for a little over two decades.
- I'm Richard Painter. I'm a law professor at the University of Minnesota.
34:53
I was the Chief White House Ethics Lawyer for President George W. Bush. Most of my life I was in the Republican party.
35:03
- I'm Malcom Nance, a former U.S. Intelligence officer. Started out actually in cryptology
35:09
and sort of an expert in all things related to foreign intelligence operations, counterterrorism, and now Russian intelligence activities
35:17
in the United States.
- What a great looking group. We're taking some pictures?
35:25
- We can just move right along.
- The traits that are important in a leader vary
35:31
but there are some absolute constants and the way to look at them is the titles
35:37
and the core values that we see for each armed service, honor, courage, commitment, country, duty,
35:46
service above self, excellence in all that we do, always faithful, always prepared.
35:52
These are some of the core values that we entrust in our national military leaders
35:58
and those should be the same core values that we should have in our political leaders.
- To be a good leader,
36:04
a person has to first of all recognize that other people have rights and individualities
36:10
that you need to take into account. You appreciate who they are and what's important to them.
36:16
The problem arises in leadership when you have a person who does not appreciate that others are there as independent folks
36:24
but who are there to serve you.
- We expect leaders to bring people together,
36:29
to try to unify the country as best they can. The number of attacks that this president
36:35
is making on Twitter are astronomical, and then the attacks on the media on top of that.
36:42
- I've never really liked the Trump is an idiot, Trump is a buffoon aspect of the anti-Trump rhetoric.
36:49
I think it does diminish more than it should some of the real dangers he poses.

36:56
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