Tarikh-i Firoz Shahi, of Ziaud Din Barni/Shams-i Siraj 'Afif

That's French for "the ancient system," as in the ancient system of feudal privileges and the exercise of autocratic power over the peasants. The ancien regime never goes away, like vampires and dinosaur bones they are always hidden in the earth, exercising a mysterious influence. It is not paranoia to believe that the elites scheme against the common man. Inform yourself about their schemes here.

Re: Tarikh-i Firoz Shahi, of Ziaud Din Barni/Shams-i Siraj '

Postby admin » Mon Nov 22, 2021 4:15 am

Part 2 of 2

16. Formerly the garments of great men were generally made of silk and gold brocades, beautiful but unlawful. Under Divine guidance I ordered that such garments should be worn as are approved by the Law of the Prophet, and that choice should be made of such trimmings of gold brocade, embroidery, or braiding as did not exceed four inches (asabi') in breadth. Whatever was unlawful and forbidden by, or opposed to, the Law was set aside.

Among the gifts which God bestowed upon me. His humble servant, was a desire to erect public buildings. So I built many mosques and colleges and monasteries, that the learned and the elders, the devout and the holy, might worship God in these edifices, and aid the kind builder with their prayers. The digging of canals, the planting of trees, and the endowing with lands are in accordance with the directions of the Law. The learned doctors of the Law of Islam have many troubles; of this there is no doubt. I settled allowances upon them in proportion to their necessary expenses, so that they might regularly receive the income. The details of this are fully set forth in the Wakf-nama.

The one who makes Waqf is called Wakif. Deed is Wakf-nama. According to the accepted view, Wakf is the detention of the property in the ownership of God. ... In simple words, when a person ties up his property to God and keeps the usufruct for the benefit of the public. It may be religious or charitable.

-- Meaning of Wakf in Muslim Law, by WritingLaw.com

The attribution of monuments to the patronage of Firuz Shah raises many questions. A large number of buildings have been attributed to Firuz Shah but only a few of these monuments can be identified today. Those which remain are mostly in ruinous conditions. Only one epigraph which specifically associates the foundation of a monument with Firuz Shah survives. No waqf document from the reign is known to survive although the sultan refers in an edict to a waqf-nama, a document also noted in a historical chronicle of the reign. The historian, Shams al-Din Siraj ‘Afif, describes the revitalization of endowments during his reign but records of these are not extant. In spite of the absence of this critical evidence, however, attributions to Firuz Shah have been made on the basis of references in contemporary literature and the stylistic unity of the architectural forms themselves. Many of these buildings have been neglected in modern scholarship of Tughluq architecture. The structures most frequently discussed by modern art and architectural historians are Firuz Shah’s lat pyramid, an anomalous monument in Indo-Islamic architecture, and the sultan’s tomb at Hauz Khas, referred to as a quintessentially typical sultanate tomb and most representative of Firuz Shah’s use of building materials.

-- The Architecture of Firuz Shah Tughluq, Dissertation Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Philosophy in the Graduate School of The Ohio State University, by William Jeffrey McKibben, B.A., M.A., 1988

Again, by the guidance of God, I was led to repair and rebuild the edifices and structures of former kings and ancient nobles, which had fallen into decay from lapse of time; giving the restoration of these buildings the priority over my own building works. The Masjid-i jami of old Dehli, which was built by Sultan Mu'izz-ud din Sam [Sultan Shihab ad-Din Ghori / Muhammad of Ghor], had fallen into decay from old age, and needed repair and restoration. I so repaired it that it was quite renovated.

The western wall of the tomb of Sultan Mu'izz-ud din Sam [Sultan Shihab ad-Din Ghori / Muhammad of Ghor], and the planks of the door, had become old and rotten. I restored this, and, in the place of the balcony, I furnished it with doors, arches, and ornaments of sandalwood.

The minara of Sultan Mu'izz-ud din [Sultan Shihab ad-Din Ghori / Muhammad of Ghor] had been struck by lightning. I repaired it and raised it higher than it was before.

Mu'izz ad-Din Muhammad (Persian: معز الدین محمد غوری‎), born Shihab ad-Din (1149 – March 15, 1206), also known as Muhammad of Ghor, was the Sultan of the Ghurid Empire along with his brother Ghiyath ad-Din Muhammad from 1173 to 1202 and as the sole ruler from 1202 to 1206. He is credited with laying the foundation of Muslim rule in the Indian subcontinent, which lasted for several centuries. He reigned over a territory spanning over parts of modern-day Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Northern India, Pakistan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan.

-- Muhammad of Ghor, by Wikipedia

Firuz Shah built a large jami masjid or congregational mosque (Plate I) within the kotla (citadel) in Firuzabad. Because of its prominent location in proximity to the palace, it is considered to be his imperial mosque, the one in which he fulfilled his personal religious obligations. The kotla is located a few kilometers to the north of Jahanpanah, Muhammad bin Tughluq’s foundation, along the west bank of the Jumna River (Figure 2) just to the north of Indrapat, the site of the sixteenth century Purana Qila, and south of the seventeenth century Shahjahanabad, site of the Red Fort and the Jami Masjid of present-day Delhi. Firuz Shah’s mosque is situated on the east perimeter of the kotla where it was protected by the Jumna River which flowed beside the citadel in the 14th century....

Literary references to the mosque are few. Barani, who died in 758/1357 before the celebrated occasion of the construction of the monument is, of course, silent about the lat pyramid in his Tarikh-i Firuz Shahi but he mentions the jami masjid in Firuzabad briefly, noting that during the sabbath it housed a congregation so large that no space remained in the lower or upper stories nor in the courtyard. [Barani, Ta’rikh (Bibliotheca Indica), pp. 561-562. (Tarikh-i Firoz Shahi, 1862, Asiatic Society of Bengal, in Persian) ‘Afif states that Barani’s death occurred just upon Firuz Shah’s return from the second Bengal campaign, in 758/1357. See ‘Afif, Ta’rikh (Elliot and Dowson), p. 316.]

-- The Architecture of Firuz Shah Tughluq, Dissertation Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Philosophy in the Graduate School of The Ohio State University, by William Jeffrey McKibben, B.A., M.A., 1988

On the day that Alp Khan was slain and Khizr Khan was thrown into bonds, the house of 'Alau-d din [Sultan Alau-d din Khilji] fell. A serious revolt broke out in Gujarat, and Kamalu-d din Garg, who was sent to quell it, was slain by the rebels. Other risings occurred and were spreading, and the rule of the Sultan was tottering when death seized him. Some say that the infamous Malik Naib Kafur helped his disease to a fatal termination. The reins of government fell into the hands of slaves and worthless people; no wise man remained to guide, and each one did as he listed. On the sixth Shawwal, towards
morning, the corpse of 'Alau-d din [Sultan Alau-d din Khilji, (r. 1296–1316)] was brought out of the Red Palace of Siri, and was buried in a tomb in front of the Jami' Masjid.

-- XV. Tarikh-i Firoz Shahi, of Ziaud Din Barni [Ziauddin Barani], Excerpt from The History of India As Told By Its Own Historians: The Muhammadan Period, edited from the posthumous papers of the Late Sir H.M. Elliot, K.C.B., East India Company's Bengal Civil Service, by Professor John Dowson, M.R.A.S., Staff college, Sandhurst, Vol. III, P. 93-269, 1871

The Hauz-i Shamsi, or tank of Altamsh, had been deprived of water by some graceless men, who stopped up the channels of supply. I punished these incorrigible men severely, and opened again the closed up channels.

The Hauz-i 'Alai, or tank of 'Alau-d din, had no water in it, and was filled up. People carried on cultivation in it, and had dug wells, of which they sold the water. After a generation (karn) had passed I cleaned it out, so that this great tank might again be filled from year to year.

The Madrasa (college) of Sultan Shamsu-d din Altamsh had been destroyed. I rebuilt it, and furnished it with sandal-wood doors. The columns of the tomb, which had fallen down, I restored better than they had been before. When the tomb was built its court (sahn) had not been made curved (kaj), but I now made it so. I enlarged the hewn-stone staircase of the dome, and I re-erected the fallen piers (pushti) of the four towers.

Tomb of Sultan Mu'izz-ud din [Sultan Shihab ad-Din Ghori / Muhammad of Ghor], son of Sultan Shamsu-d din, which is situated in Malikpur. This had fallen into such ruin that the sepulchres were undistinguishable. I re-erected the dome, the terrace, and the enclosure wall.

Tomb of Sultan Ruknu-d din, son of Shamsu-d din, in Malikpur.  I repaired the enclosure wall, built a new dome, and erected a monastery (khankah).

Tomb of Sultan Jalalu-d din. This I repaired, and I supplied it with new doors.

Tomb of Sultan 'Alau-d din. I repaired this, and furnished it with sandal-wood doors. I repaired the wall of the abdarkhana, and the west wall of the mosque, which is within the college, and I also made good the tesselated pavement (farsh-i ta'shib).

Tomb of Sultan Kutbu-d din and the (other) sons of Sultan 'Alau-d din, viz., Khizr Khan, Shadi Khan, Farid Khan, Sultan Shahabu-d din, Sikandar Khan, Muhammad Khan, 'Usman Khan, and his grandsons, and the sons of his grandsons. The tombs of these I repaired and renovated.

I also repaired the doors of the dome, and the lattice work of the tomb of Shaikhu-l Islam Nizamu-l hakk wau-d din, which were made of sandal-wood. I hung up the golden chandeliers, with chains of gold in the four recesses of the dome, and I built a meeting room, for before this there was none.

Tomb of Malik Taju-l Mulk Kafuri, the great wazir of Sultan 'Alau-d din. He was a most wise and intelligent minister, and acquired many countries, on which the horses of former sovereigns had never placed their hoofs, and he caused the khutba of Sultan 'Alau-d din to be repeated there. He had 52,000 horsemen. His grave had been leveled with the ground, and his tomb laid low. I caused his tomb to be entirely renewed, for he was a devoted and faithful subject.

The Daru'l aman, or House of Rest. This is the bed and resting place of great men. I had new sandal-wood doors made for it, and over the tombs of these distinguished men I had curtains and hangings suspended.

The expense of repairing and renewing these tombs and colleges was provided from their ancient endowments. In those cases where no income had been settled on these foundations in former times for (procuring) carpets, lights, and furniture for the use of travelers and pilgrims in the least of these places, I had villages assigned to them, the revenues of which would suffice for their expenditure in perpetuity.

Jahan-panah. This foundation of the late Sultan Muhammad Shah, my kind patron, by whose bounty I was reared and educated, I restored.

Sultan Muhammad bin Tughlik Shah, the heir apparent, succeeded his father, and ascended the throne at Tughlikabad in the year 725 H. (1325 A.D.)....

The dogmas of philosophers, which are productive of indifference and hardness of heart, had a powerful influence over him. But the declarations of the holy books, and the utterances, of the Prophets, which inculcate benevolence and humility, and hold out the prospect of future punishment, were not deemed worthy of attention. The punishment of Musulmans, and the execution of true believers, with him became a practice and a passion. Numbers of doctors, and elders, and saiyids, and sufis, and kalandars, and clerks, and soldiers, received punishment by his order. Not a day or week passed without the spilling of much Musulman blood, and the running of streams of gore before the entrance of his palace....

If I were to write a full account of all the affairs of his reign, and of all that passed, with his faults and shortcomings, I should fill many volumes. In this history I have recorded all the great and important matters of his reign, and the beginning and the end of every conquest; but the rise and termination of every mutiny, and of events (of minor importance), I have passed over. ***

Sultan Muhammad planned in his own breast three or four projects by which the whole of the habitable world was to be brought under the rule of his servants, but he never talked over these projects with any of his councillors and friends. Whatever he conceived he considered to be good, but in promulgating and enforcing his schemes he lost his hold upon the territories he possessed, disgusted his people, and emptied his treasury. Embarrassment followed embarrassment, and confusion became worse confounded. The ill feeling of the people gave rise to outbreaks and revolts. The rules for enforcing the royal schemes became daily more oppressive to the people. More and more the people became disaffected, more and more the mind of the king was set against them, and the numbers of those brought to punishment increased. The tribute of most of the distant countries and districts was lost, and many of the soldiers and servants were scattered and left in distant lands. Deficiencies appeared in the treasury. The mind of the Sultan lost its equilibrium. In the extreme weakness and harshness of his temper he gave himself up to severity. Gujarat and Deogir were the only (distant) possessions that remained. In the old territories, dependent on Dehli, the capital, disaffection and rebellion sprung up. By the will of fate many different projects occurred to the mind of the Sultan, which appeared to him moderate and suitable, and were enforced for several years, but the people could not endure them. These schemes effected the ruin of the Sultan's empire, and the decay of the people. Every one of them that was enforced wrought some wrong and mischief, and the minds of all men, high and low, were disgusted with their ruler. Territories and districts which had been securely settled were lost. When the Sultan found that his orders did not work so well as he desired, he became still more embittered against his people. He cut them down like weeds and punished them. So many wretches were ready to slaughter true and orthodox Musalmans as had never before been created from the days of Adam. * * * If the twenty prophets had been given into the hands of these minions, I verily believe that they would not have allowed them to live one night....

The first project which the Sultan formed, and which operated to the ruin of the country and the decay of the people, was that he thought he ought to get ten or five per cent, more tribute from the lands in the Doab. To accomplish this he invented some oppressive abwabs (cesses), and made stoppages from the land-revenues until the backs of the raiyats were broken. The cesses were collected so rigorously that the raiyats were impoverished and reduced to beggary. Those who were rich and had property became rebels; the lands were ruined, and cultivation was entirely arrested. When the raiyat in distant countries heard of the distress and ruin of the raiyats in the Doab, through fear of the same evil befalling them, they threw off their allegiance and betook themselves to the jungles. The decline of cultivation, and the distress of the raiyats in the Doab, and the failure of convoys of corn from Hindustan, produced a fatal famine in Dehli and its environs, and throughout the Doab, Grain became dear. There was a deficiency of rain, so the famine became general. It continued for some years, and thousands upon thousands of people perished of want. Communities were reduced to distress, and families were broken up. The glory of the State, and the power of the government of Sultan Muhammad, from this time withered and decayed.

The second project of Sultan Muhammad, which was ruinous to the capital of the empire, and distressing to the chief men of the country, was that of making Deogir his capital, under the title of Daulatabad. This place held a central situation: Dehli, Gujarat, Lakhnauti, Sat-ganw, Sunar-gauw, Tilang, Ma'bar, Dhur-samundar, and Kampila were about equi-distant from thence, there being but a slight difference in the distances. Without any consultation, and without carefully looking into the advantages and disadvantages on every side, he brought ruin upon Dehli, that city which, for 170 or 180 years, had grown in prosperity, and rivaled Baghdad and Cairo. The city, with its sarais and its suburbs and villages, spread over four or five kos. All was destroyed. So complete was the ruin, that not a cat or a dog was left among the buildings of the city, in its palaces or in its suburbs. Troops of the natives, with their families and dependents, wives and children, men-servants and maid-servants, were forced to remove. The people, who for many years and for generations had been natives and inhabitants of the land, were broken-hearted. Many, from the toils of the long journey, perished on the road, and those who arrived at Deogir could not endure the pain of exile. In despondency they pined to death. All around Deogir, which is an infidel land, there sprung up graveyards of Musulmans. The Sultan was bounteous in his liberality and favours to the emigrants, both on their journey and on their arrival; but they were tender, and they could not endure the exile and suffering. They laid down their heads in that heathen land, and of all the multitudes of emigrants, few only survived to return to their home. Thus this city, the envy of the cities of the inhabited world, was reduced to ruin. The Sultan brought learned men and gentlemen, tradesmen and landholders, into the city (Dehli) from certain towns in his territory, and made them reside there. But this importation of strangers did not populate the city; many of them died there, and more returned to their native homes. These changes and alterations were the cause of great injury to the country.

The third project also did great harm to the country. It increased the daring and arrogance of the disaffected in Hindustan, and augmented the pride and prosperity of all the Hindus. This was the issue of copper money. The Sultan, in his lofty ambition, had conceived it to be his work to subdue the whole habitable world and bring it under his rule. To accomplish this impossible design, an army of countless numbers was necessary, and this could not be obtained without plenty of money. The Sultan's bounty and munificence had caused a great deficiency in the treasury, so he introduced his copper money, and gave orders that it should be used in buying and selling, and should pass current, just as the gold and silver coins had passed. The promulgation of this edict turned the house of every Hindu into a mint, and the Hindus of the various provinces coined krors and lacs of copper coins. With these they paid their tribute, and with these they purchased horses, arms, and fine things of all kinds. The rais, the village headmen and landowners, grew rich and strong upon these copper coins, but the State was impoverished. No long time passed before distant countries would take the copper tanka only as copper. In those places where fear of the Sultan's edict prevailed, the gold tanka rose to be worth a hundred of (the copper) tankas. Every goldsmith struck copper coins in his workshop, and the treasury was filled with these copper coins. So low did they fall that they were not valued more than pebbles or potsherds. The old coin, from its great scarcity, rose four-fold and five-fold in value. When trade was interrupted on every side, and when the copper tankas had become more worthless than clods, and of no use, the Sultan repealed his edict, and in great wrath he proclaimed that whoever possessed copper coins should bring them to the treasury, and receive the old gold coins in exchange. Thousands of men from various quarters, who possessed thousands of these copper coins, and caring nothing for them, had flung them into corners along with their copper pots, now brought them to the treasury, and received in exchange gold tankas and silver tankas, shash-ganis and du-ganis, which they carried to their homes. So many of these copper tankas were brought to the treasury, that heaps of them rose up in Tughlikabad like mountains. Great sums went out of the treasury in exchange for the copper, and a great deficiency was caused. When the Sultan found that his project had failed, and that great loss had been entailed upon the treasury through his copper coins, he more than ever turned against his subjects.

The fourth project which diminished his treasury, and so brought distress upon the country, was his design of conquering Khurasan and 'Irak. In pursuance of this object, vast sums were lavished upon the officials and leading men of those countries. These great men came to him with insinuating proposals and deceitful representations, and as far as they knew how, or were able, they robbed the throne of its wealth. The coveted countries were not acquired, but those which he possessed were lost; and his treasure, which is the true source of political power, was expended.

The fifth project * * * was the rising of an immense army for the campaign against Khurasan. * * * In that year three hundred and seventy thousand horse were enrolled in the muster-master's office. For a whole year these were supported and paid; but as they were not employed in war and conquest and enabled to maintain themselves on plunder, when the next year came round, there was not sufficient in the treasury or in the feudal estates (ikta) to support them. The army broke up; each man took his own course and engaged in his own occupations. But lacs and krors had been expended by the treasury.

The sixth project, which inflicted a heavy loss upon the army, was the design which he formed of capturing the mountain of Kara-jal. His conception was that, as he had undertaken the conquest of Khurasan, he would (first) bring under the dominion of Islam this mountain, which lies between the territories of Hind and those of China, so that the passage for horses and soldiers and the march of the army might be rendered easy. To effect this object a large force, under distinguished amirs and generals, was sent to the mountain of Kara-jal, with orders to subdue the whole mountain. In obedience to orders, it marched into the mountains and encamped in various places, but the Hindus closed the passes and cut off its retreat. The whole force was thus destroyed at one stroke, and out of all this chosen body of men only ten horsemen returned to Delhi to spread the news of its discomfiture....

The first revolt was that of Bahram Abiya at Multan....At this time the country of the Doab was brought to ruin by the heavy taxation and the numerous cesses. The Hindus burnt their corn stacks and turned their cattle out to roam at large. Under the orders of the Sultan, the collectors and magistrates laid waste the country, and they killed some landholders and village chiefs and blinded others. Such of these unhappy inhabitants as escaped formed themselves into bands and took refuge in the jungles. So the country was ruined. The Sultan then proceeded on a hunting excursion to Baran, where, under his directions, the whole of that country was plundered and laid waste, and the heads of the Hindus were brought in and hung upon the ramparts of the fort of Baran.

About this time the rebellion of Fakhra broke out in Bengal, after the death of Bahram Khan (Governor of Sunar-ganw).... At the same period the Sultan led forth his army to ravage Hindustan. He laid the country waste from Kanauj to Dalamu, and every person that fell into his hands he slew. Many of the inhabitants fled and took refuge in the jungles, but the Sultan had the jungles surrounded, and every individual that was captured was killed.

While he was engaged in the neighbourhood of Kanauj a third revolt broke out....When the Sultan arrived at Deogir he made heavy demands upon the Musulman chiefs and collectors of the Mahratta country, and his oppressive exactions drove many persons to kill themselves....

The Sultan proceeded to Dhar
, and being still indisposed, he rested a few days, and then pursued his journey through Malwa. Famine prevailed there, the posts were all gone off the road, and distress and anarchy reigned in all the country and towns along the route. When the Sultan reached Dehli, not a thousandth part of the population remained. He found the country desolate, a deadly famine raging, and all cultivation abandoned. He employed himself some time in restoring cultivation and agriculture, but the rains fell short that year, and no success followed. At length no horses or cattle were left; grain rose to 16 or 17 jitals a sir, and the people starved. The Sultan advanced loans from the treasury to promote cultivation, but men had been brought to a state of helplessness and weakness. Want of rain prevented cultivation, and the people perished....

From thence he went to Agroha, where he rested awhile, and afterwards to Dehli, where the famine was very severe, and man was devouring man....

The Sultan again marched to Sannam and Samana, to put down the rebels, who had formed mandals (strongholds?), withheld the tribute, created disturbances, and plundered on the roads....

While this was going on a revolt broke out among the Hindus at Arangal. Kanya Naik had gathered strength in the country. Malik Makbul, the naib-wazir, fled to Dehli, and the Hindus took possession of Arangal, which was thus entirely lost.... The land of Kambala also was thus lost, and fell into the hands of the Hindus....

About this time, during the Sultan's stay at Dehli and his temporary residence at Sarg-dwari, four revolts were quickly repressed. First. That of Nizam Ma-in at Karra. *** 'Ainu-l Mulk and his brothers marched against this rebel, and having put down the revolt and made him prisoner, they flayed him and sent his skin to Dehli....Many of the fugitives, in their panic, cast themselves into the river and were drowned. The pursuers obtained great booty. Those who escaped from the river fell into the hands of the Hindus in the Mawas and lost their horses and arms....

When the Sultan returned to Dehli, it occurred to his mind that no king or prince could exercise regal power without confirmation by the Khalifa of the race of 'Abbas, and that every king who had, or should hereafter reign, without such confirmation, had been or would be overpowered....The Sultan directed that a letter acknowledging his subordination to the Khalifa should be sent by the hands of Haji Rajab Barka'i, * * * and after two years of correspondence the Haji returned from Egypt, bringing a diploma in the name of the Sultan, as deputy of the Khalifa....

The Sultan supported and patronized the Mughals. Every year at the approach of winter, the amirs of tumans (of men) and of thousands etc., etc., received krors and lacs, and robes, and horses, and pearls. During the whole period of two or three years, the Sultan was intent upon patronizing and favouring the Mughals....He applied himself excessively to the business of punishment, and this was the cause of many of the acquired territories slipping from his grasp, and of troubles and disturbances in those which remained in his power. *** The more severe the punishments that were inflicted in the city, the more disgusted were the people in the neighbourhood, insurrections spread, and the loss and injury to the State increased. Every one that was punished spoke evil of him...

The Sultan having thus appointed the base-born 'Aziz Himar to Dhar and Malwa, gave him several lacs of tankas on his departure, in order that he might proceed thither with befitting state and dignity. * * * He said to him, "Thou seest how that revolts and disturbances are breaking out on every side, and I am told that whoever creates a disturbance does so with the aid of the foreign amirs. *** Revolts are possible, because these amirs are ready to join any one for the sake of disturbance and plunder. If you find at Dhar any of these amirs, who are disaffected and ready to rebel, you must get rid of them in the best way you can." 'Aziz arrived at Dhar, and in all his native ignorance applied himself to business. The vile whoreson one day got together about eighty of the foreign amirs and chiefs of the soldiery, and, upbraiding them with having been the cause of every misfortune and disturbance, he had them all beheaded in front of the palace. * * * This slaughter of the foreign amirs of Dhar, on the mere ground of their being foreigners, caused those of Deogir, and Gujarat, and every other place to unite and to break out into insurrection. *** When the Sultan was informed of this punishment, he sent 'Aziz a robe of honour and a complimentary letter....

About the time when this horrid tragedy was perpetrated by 'Aziz Himar, the naib-wazir of Gujarat, Mukbil by name, having with him the treasure and horses which had been procured in Gujarat for the royal stables, was proceeding by way of Dihui and Baroda to the presence of the Sultan.... The amirs having acquired so many horses and so much property grew in power and importance. Stirring up the flames of insurrection, they gathered together a force and proceeded to Kanhayat (Cambay). The news of their revolt spread throughout Gujarat, and the whole country was falling into utter confusion. At the end of the month of Ramazan, 745 H. (Feb. 1345), the intelligence of this revolt and of the defeat and plunder of Mukbil was brought to the Sultan. It caused him much anxiety, and he determined to proceed to Gujarat in person to repress the revolt....

He appointed Firoz, afterwards Sultan, Malik Kabir, and Ahmad Ayyaz to be vicegerents in the capital during his absence....

Insurrection followed upon insurrection. During the four or five days of Ramazan that the Sultan halted at Sultanpur, late one evening he sent for the author of this work, Zia Barni...."You have read many histories; hast thou found that kings inflict punishments under certain circumstances?" I replied, "I have read in royal histories that a king cannot carry on his government without punishments, for if he were not an avenger God knows what evils would arise from the insurrections of the disaffected, and how many thousand crimes would be committed by his subjects. Jamshid was asked under what circumstances punishment is approved. He replied, 'under seven circumstances, and whatever goes beyond or in excess of these causes, produces disturbances, trouble, and insurrection, and inflicts injury on the country... The servants of God are disobedient to him when they are disobedient to the king, who is his vicegerent; and the State would go to ruin, if the king were to refrain from inflicting punishment in such cases of disobedience as are injurious to the realm.'" ... The Sultan replied, ''Those punishments which Jamshid prescribed were suited to the early ages of the world, but in these days many wicked and turbulent men are to be found. I visit them with chastisement upon the suspicion or presumption of their rebellious and treacherous designs, and I punish the most trifling act of contumacy with death. This I will do until I die, or until the people act honestly, and give up rebellion and contumacy. I have no such wazir as will make rules to obviate my shedding blood. I punish the people because they have all at once become my enemies and opponents. I have dispensed great wealth among them, but they have not become friendly and loyal. Their temper is well known to me, and I see that they are disaffected and inimical to me."

The Sultan marched from Sultanpur towards Gujarat, and when he arrived at Nahrwala he sent Shaikh Ma'izzu-d din, with some officials, into the city, whilst he, leaving it on the left, proceeded into the mountains of Abhu to which Dihui and Baroda were near. The Sultan then sent an officer with a force against the rebels, and these being unable to cope with the royal army, were defeated....The Sultan then proceeded from the mountains of Abhu to Broach from whence he sent Malik Makbul ...

The Sultan remained for some time at Broach, busily engaged in collecting the dues of Broach, Kanhayat (Cambay), and Gujarat, which were several years in arrear. He appointed sharp collectors, and rigorously exacted large sums. At this period his anger was still more inflamed against the people, and revenge filled his bosom. Those persons at Broach and Cambay, who had disputed with Malik Makbul, or had in any way encouraged insurrection, were seized and consigned to punishment. Many persons of all descriptions thus met their ends.

While the Sultan was at Broach he appointed Zin-banda and the middle son of Rukn Thanesari, two men who were leaders in iniquity and the most depraved men in the world, to inquire into the matters of the disaffected at Deogir. Pisar Thanesari, the vilest of men, went to Deogir; and Zin-banda, a wicked iniquitous character, who was called Majdu-l Mulk, was on the road thither. A murmuring arose among the Musulmans at Deogir that two vile odious men had been deputed to investigate the disaffection, and to bring its movers to destruction....They marched toward Broach, but at the end of the first stage the foreign amirs, who were attended by their own horsemen, considered that they had been summoned to Broach in order to be executed, and if they proceeded thither not one would return. So they consulted together and broke out into open resistance, and the two nobles who had been sent for them were killed in that first march. They then turned back with loud clamour and entered the royal palace, where they seized Maulana Nizam-ud din, the governor, and put him in confinement. The officials, who had been sent by the Sultan to Deogir, were taken and beheaded. They cut Pisar Thanesari to pieces, and brought down the treasure from (the fort of) Dharagir. Then they made Makh Afghan, brother of Malik Yak Afghan, one of the foreign amirs, their leader, and placed him on the throne. The money and treasure were distributed among the soldiers. The Mahratta country was apportioned among these foreign amirs, and several disaffected persons joined the Afghans. The foreign amirs of Dihui and Baroda left Man Deo and proceeded to Deogir, where the revolt had increased and had become established. The people of the country joined them.

The Sultan, on hearing of this revolt, made ready a large force and arrived at Deogir, where the rebels and traitors confronted him. He attacked them and defeated them. Most of the horsemen were slain in the action....The inhabitants of Deogir, Hindus and Musulmans, traders and soldiers, were plundered....

[N]ews arrived of the revolt, excited by the traitor Taghi, in Gujarat. This man was a cobbler, and had been a slave of the general, Malik Sultani. He had won over the foreign amirs of Gujarat, and had broken out into rebellion. Many of the mukaddims of Gujarat joined him.... I, Zia Barni, the author of this history, just at this time joined the Sultan, after he had made one or two marches from Ghati-sakun towards Broach. I had been sent from the capital by the present Sultan (Firoz), Malik Kabir, and Ahmad Ayyaz, with letters of congratulation on the conquest of Deogir. The Sultan received me with great favour. One day, as I was riding in his suite, the Sultan conversed with me, and the conversation turned upon rebellion. He then said, "Thou seest what troubles these traitorous foreign amirs have excited on every side. When I collect my forces and put them down in one direction, they excite disturbances in some other quarter. If I had at the first given orders for the destruction of all the foreign amirs of Deogir, Gujarat, and Broach, I should not have been so troubled by them. This rebel, Taghi, is my slave; if I had executed him or had sent him as a memorial to the King of Eden, this revolt would never have broken out." I could not help feeling a desire to tell the Sultan that the troubles and revolts which were breaking out on every side, and this general disaffection, all arose from the excessive severity of his Majesty, and that if punishments were suspended for a while, a better feeling might spring up, and mistrust be removed from the hearts of the people. But I dreaded the temper of the king, and could not say what I desired, so I said to myself, What is the good of pointing out to the Sultan the causes of the troubles and disturbances in his country, for it will have no effect upon him?...

Taghi, with his remaining horsemen, reached Nahrwala; there he collected all his family and dependents, and proceeded to Kant-barahi...

While the Sultan was engaged in settling the affairs of the country, and was about to enter Nahrwala, news came from Deogir that Hasan Kangu and other rebels, who had fled before the royal army in the day of battle, had since attacked 'Imadu-l Mulk, and had slain him and scattered his army. Kiwam-ud din and other nobles left Deogir and went towards Dhar. Hasan Kangu then proceeded to Deogir and assumed royal dignity. Those rebels who had fled before the Sultan's army to the summit of Dharagir, now came down, and a revolution was effected in Deogir. When intelligence of this reached the Sultan's ears, he was very disheartened, for he saw very well that the people were alienated. No place remained secure, all order and regularity were lost, and the throne was tottering to its fall....

The success of the rebels, and the loss of Deogir, greatly troubled the king. One day, while he was thus distressed, he sent for me, the author of this work, and, addressing me, said: "My kingdom is diseased, and no treatment cures it. The physician cures the headache, and fever follows; he strives to allay the fever, and something else supervenes. So in my kingdom disorders have broken out; if I suppress them in one place they appear in another; if I allay them in one district another becomes disturbed. What have former kings said about these disorders?" I replied,... The Sultan replied, "If I can settle the affairs of my kingdom according to my wish, I will consign my realm of Dehli to three persons, Firoz Shah, Malik Kabir, and Ahmad Ayyaz, and I will then proceed on the pilgrimage to the holy temple. At present I am angry with my subjects, and they are aggrieved with me. The people are acquainted with my feelings, and I am aware of their misery and wretchedness. No treatment that I employ is of any benefit. My remedy for rebels, insurgents, opponents, and disaffected people is the sword. I employ punishment and use the sword, so that a cure may be effected by suffering. The more the people resist, the more I inflict chastisement."...

[H]e resolved to make Taghi prisoner and deliver him up
...After the rains were over, the Sultan took Karnal, and brought all the coast into subjection.... Before the Sultan went to Kondal he received from Dehli the intelligence of the death of Malik Kabir, which deeply grieved him. Thereupon he sent Ahmad Ayyaz and Malik Makbul from the army to take charge of the affairs of the capital. He summoned Khudawand-zada, Makhdum-zada, and many elders, learned men and others, with their wives and families, to Kondal. Every one that was summoned hastened with horse and foot to join the Sultan at Kondal, so that a large force was gathered there and was formed into an army. Boats were brought from Deobalpur, Multan, Uch, and Siwistan to the river. The Sultan recovered from his disorder, and marched with his army to the Indus. He crossed that river in ease and safety with his army and elephants. He was there joined by Altun Bahadur, with four or five thousand Mughal horse, sent by the Amir of Farghan. The Sultan showed great attention to this leader and his followers, and bestowed many gifts upon them. He then advanced along the banks of the Indus towards Thatta, with an army as numerous as a swarm of ants or locusts, with the intention of humbling the Sumras and the rebel Taghi, whom they had sheltered.

As he was thus marching with his countless army, and was thirty kos from Thatta, the 'ashura or fast of the 10th of Muharram happened. He kept the fast, and when it was over he ate some fish. The fish did not agree with him, his illness returned and fever increased. He was placed in a boat and continued his journey on the second and third days, until he came to within fourteen kos of Thatta. He then rested, and his army was fully prepared, only awaiting the royal command to take Thatta, and to crush the Sumras of Thatta and the rebel Taghi in a single day, and to utterly annihilate them. But fate ruled it otherwise. During the last two or three days that he was encamped near Thatta, the Sultan's malady had grown worse, and his army was in great trouble, for they were a thousand kos distant from Dehli and their wives and children, they were near the enemy and in a wilderness and desert, so they were sorely distressed, and looking upon the Sultan's expected death as preliminary to their own, they quite despaired of returning home. On the 21st Muharram, 752 H. (1350 A.D.), Sultan Muhammad bin Tughlik departed this life on the banks of the Indus, at fourteen kos from Thatta....

1. — Accession of Firoz Shah.

* * * On the third day after the death of Mahammad Tughlik, the army marched from (its position) fourteen kos from Thatta towards Siwistan, on its return homewards. Every division of the army marched without leader, rule, or route, in the greatest disorder. No one heeded or listened to what any one said, but continued the march like careless caravans. So when they had proceeded a kos or two, the Mughals, eager for booty, assailed them in front, and the rebels of Thatta attacked them in the rear. Cries of dismay arose upon every side. The Mughals fell to plundering, and carried off women, maids, horses, camels, troopers, baggage, and whatever else had been sent on in advance. They had very nearly captured the royal harem and the treasure with the camels which carried it. The villagers (who had been pressed into the service) of the army, and expected the attack, took to flight. They pillaged various lots of baggage on the right and left of the army, and then joined the rebels of Thatta in attacking the baggage train. The people of the army, horse and foot, women and men, stood their ground; for when they marched, if any advanced in front, they were assailed by the Mughals; if they lagged behind, they were plundered by the rebels of Thatta. Those who resisted and put their trust in God reached the next stage, but those who had gone forward with the women, maids, and baggage, were cut to pieces. The army continued its march along the river without any order or regularity, and every man was in despair for his life and goods, his wife and children. Anxiety and distress would allow no one to sleep that night, and, in their dismay, men remained with their eyes fixed upon heaven. On the second day, by stratagem and foresight, they reached their halting ground, assailed, as on the first day, by the Mughals in front and the men of Thatta in the rear. They rested on the banks of the river in the greatest possible distress, and in fear for their lives and goods. The women and children had perished. Makhdum Zada 'Abbasi, the Shaikhu-s Shaiyukh of Egypt, Shaikh Nasiru-d din Mahmud Oudhi, and the chief men, assembled and went to Firoz Shah, and with one voice said, "Thou art the heir apparent and legatee of the late Sultan; he had no son, and thou art his brother's son; there is no one in the city or in the army enjoying the confidence of the people, or possessing the ability to reign. For God's sake save these wretched people, ascend the throne, and deliver us and many thousand other miserable men. Redeem the women and children of the soldiers from the hands of the Mughals, and purchase the prayers of two lacs of people." Firoz Shah made objections, which the leaders would not listen to. All ranks, young and old, Musulmans and Hindus, horse and foot, women and children, assembled, and with one acclaim declared that Firoz Shah alone was worthy of the crown. "If he does not assume it to-day and let the Mughals hear of his doing so, not one of us will escape from the hands of the Mughals and the Thatta men." So on the 24th Muharram, 752 H. (1350 A.D.), the Sultan ascended the throne.

On the day of his accession the Sultan got some horse in order and sent them out to protect the army, for whenever the Mughal horse came down they killed and wounded many, and carried off prisoners. On the same day he named some amirs to guard the rear of the army, and these attacked the men of Thatta when they fell upon the baggage. Several of the assailants were put to the sword, and they, terrified with this lesson, gave up the pursuit and returned home. On the third day he ordered certain amirs to attack the Mughals, and they accordingly made several of the Mughal commanders of thousands and of hundreds prisoners, and brought them before the Sultan. The Mughals from that very day ceased their annoyance; they moved thirty or forty kos away, and then departed for their own country.

-- XV. Tarikh-i Firoz Shahi, of Ziaud Din Barni [Ziauddin Barani], Excerpt from The History of India As Told By Its Own Historians: The Muhammadan Period, edited from the posthumous papers of the Late Sir H.M. Elliot, K.C.B., East India Company's Bengal Civil Service, by Professor John Dowson, M.R.A.S., Staff college, Sandhurst, Vol. III, P. 93-269, 1871

All the fortifications which had been built by former sovereigns at Dehli I repaired.

For the benefit of travelers and pilgrims resorting to the tombs of illustrious kings and celebrated saints, and for providing the things necessary in these holy places, I confirmed and gave effect to the grants of villages, lands, and other endowments which had been conferred upon them in olden times. In those cases where no endowment or provision had been settled, I made an endowment, so that these establishments might for ever be secure of an income, to afford comfort to travelers and wayfarers, to holy men and learned men. May they remember those (ancient benefactors) and me in their prayers.

I was enabled by God's help to build a Daru-sh shija, or Hospital, for the benefit of every one of high or low degree, who was suddenly attacked by illness and overcome by suffering. Physicians attend there to ascertain the disease, to look after the cure, to regulate the diet, and to administer medicine. The cost of the medicines and the food is defrayed from my endowments. All sick persons, residents and travelers, gentle and simple, bond and free, resort thither; their maladies are treated, and, under God's blessing, they are cured.

Under the guidance of the Almighty I arranged that the heirs of those persons who had been executed (kushta) in the reign of my late lord and patron Sultan Muhammad Shah, and those who had been deprived of a limb, nose, eye, hand, or foot, should be reconciled to the late Sultan and be appeased with gifts, so that they executed deeds declaring their satisfaction, duly attested by witnesses. These deeds were put into a chest, which was placed in the Daru-l aman at the head of the tomb of the late Sultan, in the hope that God, in his great clemency, would show mercy to my late friend and patron, and make those persons feel reconciled to him.

Another instance of Divine guidance was this. Villages, lands, and ancient patrimonies of every kind had been wrested from the hands of their owners in former reigns, and had been brought under the Exchequer. I directed that every one who had a claim to property should bring it forward in the law-court, and, upon establishing his title, the village, the land, or whatever other property it was should be restored to him. By God's grace I was impelled to this good action, and men obtained their just rights.

I encouraged my infidel subjects to embrace the religion of the prophet, and I proclaimed that every one who repeated the creed and became a Musulman should be exempt from the jizya, or poll-tax. Information of this came to the ears of the people at large, and great numbers of Hindus presented themselves, and were admitted to the honour of Islam. Thus they came forward day by day from every quarter, and, adopting the faith, were exonerated from the jizya, and were favoured with presents and honours.

Through God's mercy the lands and property of his servants have been safe and secure, protected and guarded during my reign; and I have not allowed the smallest particle of any man's property to be wrested from him. Men often spoke to me officiously, saying that such and such a merchant had made so many lacs, and that such and such a revenue collector had so many lacs. By reproofs and punishments I made these informers hold their tongues, so that the people might be safe from their malignity, and through this kindness men became my friends and supporters.

"Labour to earn for generous deeds a name,
Nor seek for riches to extend thy fame.
Better one word of praise than stores of gold,
Better one grateful prayer than wealth untold."

Under God's favour my heart was occupied with an earnest desire to succour the poor and needy (fukra wa masakin) and to comfort their hearts. Wherever I heard of a fakir or religious recluse, I went to visit him and ministered to his necessities, so that I might attain the blessing promised to those who befriend the poor.

Whenever a person had completed the natural term of life and had become full of years, after providing for his support, I advised and admonished him to direct his thoughts to making preparation for the life to come, and to repent of all things which he had done contrary to the Law and religion in his youth; to wean his affections from this world, and to fix them on the next.

I desired to act upon the sentiment of these lines—

"The practice of the great should be
To succour honest men;  
And when a good man dies, to see
His children find a friend."

When any government servant filling an important and responsible position was carried off under the decrees of God to the happy future life, I gave his place and employment to his son, so that he might occupy the same position and rank as his father and suffer no injury.

"Kings should make their role of life
To lore the great and wise;
And when death ends this mortal strife,
To dry their loved ones' eyes."

The greatest and best of honours that I obtained through God's mercy was, that by my obedience and piety, and friendliness and submission to the Khalifa, the representative of the holy Prophet, my authority was confirmed; for it is by his sanction that the power of kings is assured, and no king is secure until he has submitted himself to the khalifa, and has received a confirmation from the sacred throne. A diploma was sent to me fully confirming my authority as deputy of the khilafat, and the leader of the faithful was graciously pleased to honour me with the title of "Saiyidu-s Salatin.'' He also bestowed upon me robes, a banner, a sword, a ring, and a footprint as badges of honour and distinction.

My object in writing this book has been to express my gratitude to the All-bountiful God for the many and various blessings He has bestowed upon me. Secondly, that men who desire to be good and prosperous may read this and learn what is the proper course. There is this concise maxim, by observing which, a man may obtain God's guidance: Men will be judged according to their works, and rewarded for the good that they have done.  
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Re: Tarikh-i Firoz Shahi, of Ziaud Din Barni/Shams-i Siraj '

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Chapter 6: The Sultan of the Age, One Who is Supported by God, Firoz Shah al Sultan
Excerpt from "Tarikh-I Firoz Shahi, An English Translation" [Written by Zia ud Din Barani]
by Ishtiyaq Ahmad Zilli
© 2015 by Ishtiyaq Ahmad Zilli


Inside Cover:

Tarikh-i Firoz Shahi is the finest specimen of Indo-Persian historiography produced during the Sultanate period in India. Written by Zia ud Din Barani during the reign of Sultan Firoz Shah Tughlaq, it was completed in 1357 C.E. and was dedicated to the reigning monarch. Primarily a history of the sultans of Delhi, it begins with the reign of Sultan Ghiyas ud Din Balban and concludes in the sixth year of Firoz Shah Tughlaq's rule. It covers Balban's dynasty, the Khaljis and the Tughlaqs. Information regarding Balban's dynasty was supplied to Barani by his father, grandfather and others who held important offices in the regime. From the period of Sultan Jalal ud Din Khalji, the account is based on Barani's personal observations.

Unlike other histories of the period, Tarikh-i Firoz Shahi is not confined to an account of wars and the accession of rulers. In this regard it is a welcome departure, for it takes into account the socio-economic conditions of the time and, thereby, provides a realistic portrait of society as it existed in the period under discussion.

Ishtiyaq Ahmad Zilli retired as Professor from the Centre of Advanced Study in History, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh. He has written extensively on medieval India. His most recent work is The Mughal State and Culture 1556-1598 (Selected Letters and Documents from Munshaat-i Namakin). He is currently Director of Darul Musannefin Shibli Academy, Azamgarh, a premier research institute for oriental studies in South Asia. He also edits the oldest Urdu literary and research monthly journal Maarif.

Chapter 6: The Sultan of the Age, One Who is Supported by God, Firoz Shah al Sultan

Sadr of the sadrs of the world Saiyid Jalal ud din Garmini, Prince Firoz Barbak, Prince Mubarak Khan, Prince Zafar Khan, four of his sons were in the position of princes, Fath Khan, son of Firoz Khan, i.e. Sultan Muhammad, Malik Ibrahim Naib Barbak, brother of the Sultan, Muhammad Khan Prince, Khan-i Jahan Wazir-i Mamalik, Tatar Khan, God's mercy be on him, Malik Qutb ud din, brother of the Sultan, Malik Sharf ul Mulk, Saif ul Mulk Amir-i Shikar-i Maimana, Sher Khan Malik Mahmud Bak, Malik Itimad ul Mulk Bashir Sultani, Malik Dahlan Amir-i Shikar-i Maisara, Dawar Malik, the sister's son of Sultan Muhammad, Malik Amir Muazzam, Malik Amir Ahmad Iqbal, Malik Kamran, son of Tatar Khan, Amir Qubtagha Amir Mahan, Malik Nizam ul Mulk Naib-i Wazir-i Mamalik, Malik Muin ul Mulk Ain ud din Umar Naib-i Multan and Naib-i Ariz-i Bandagan, Amir Husain, son of Amir Ahmad Iqbal Anis-i Sultani, Malik Qabul Qur'an Khwan Amir-i Majlis, Malik Qamar Sar-i Chatrdar-i Sultan, Malik Sharg Sar-i Salahdar-i Maisara, Malik Taj Ikhtiyar Sar-i Salahdar-i Maimana, Zafar Khan Naib Wazir-i Gujarat, Malik Fakhr ud din Daulatyar Sar-i Jamadar-i Maimana, Malik Badr ud din, son of Malik Daulat Shah Akhur Bak; Malik Fakhr ud din Aramina-i fang, Malik Jalal ud din Dardahti Qir Beg, Alap Khan, son oflate Qutlugh Khan, Malik Burhan ud din Shah Khas Hajib and Muqta of Deparpur, Malik Saiyid ul Hujjab Khwaja Maruf, Malik Khalid Naib of Saiyid ul Hujjab, Saiyid Rasuldar late Saiyid Muizz ud din, Malik Izz ud din Haji Dabir, Malik Ibrahim, son of Tatar Khan who was appointed muqta of the territories of Multan, Malik Ain ul Mulk Naib of Multan, Malik Daud Dabir governor of Jalore, slaves who attained status such as Malik Shahin, Malik Qabul, Malik Turaband, etc.

In the Name of Allah Most Compassionate Most Merciful

Praise to Allah, Lord of the worlds and many benedictions upon His Prophet Muhammad and all his descendants. Thus says the well wisher of the Muslims, Zia-i Barani that on 24 Muharram in the year 752 [1350] the Sultan of the age, the chosen one by divine favour Abul Muzaffar Firoz Shah al Sultan, may Allah perpetuate his power and elevate his status, ascended the throne in the vicinity of Thatta on the bank of the river Sind by the conjunction of the rights of desert and succession while the army was returning. With his accession, the despair and bewilderment of the people and the army was replaced with peace of mind and tranquillity. The common people were relieved from the dominance of the Mughals and depredations of the thieves of Thatta and were saved from the plundering of highway robbers and resumed their return journey following the standards of the Sultan of the age and ruler of the time. I, the author of the Tarikh-i Firoz Shahi, have recorded the annals and chronicles of the accession, rule, conquests, laudable qualities and excellent kingly virtues of the Sultan of the age and time, Firoz Shah al Sultan, may Allah perpetuate his rule and authority, and all that I have witnessed in the span of six years, has been recorded in 11 sections (muqaddams). If I lived for some more years I will add 90 other sections in accordance with my observation so that in this Tarikh the exploits and achievements of the reign of Firoz Shah would be described in 101 sections. Otherwise who would ever be fortunate enough to get an opportunity such that he would record the achievements and laudable qualities of the Sultan and his many acts of charities arid good actions.

The list of eleven sections which have been written about the annals, achievements and laudable qualities of Sultan Firoz Shah till date is as follows:

First: Description of the accession of the Sultan of the age and time, Firoz Shah al Sultan.

Second: Marching of royal standards from Siwistan and its arrival at the capital of Delhi.

Third: Regarding the sublime qualities and laudable virtues of Sultan Firoz Shah.

Fourth: The description of the enormous grants and rewards bestowed during his reign.

Fifth: Describing the building activities of the August reign.

Sixth: The description of many canals which were excavated during the august reign.

Seventh: Describing the stability of regulations during the august reign of Firoz Shah.

Eighth: Describing the conquest of Lakhnauti.

Ninth: The description of the fact that twice at brief intervals, investiture and a robe of honour were received by His Majesty Sultan Firoz Shah from the Caliph.

Tenth: Excessive interest of his royal majesty in hunting.

Eleventh: Describing the fact that during the august rule of the Sultan, Mughal incursions had entirely stopped.
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Re: Tarikh-i Firoz Shahi, of Ziaud Din Barni/Shams-i Siraj '

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Accession of the king of the age and time, Firoz Shah, and deliverance of Muslims, their women and children from the wickedness of the Mughals and unsavoury elements of Thatta.

This accession was the result of a unanimous choice of those who were close to the throne, the dignitaries and eminent people of the dominions of Hind and Sind. Sultan Muhammad Tughlaq Shah, mercy of Allah on him, for many years during his reign had chosen three people from among those who were close to the throne, and had raised their status above that of other maliks, amirs, supporters and helpers and had held them in the position of heir-apparent in view of their entitlement for the kingship. He had even mentioned these three people in his petition to Amir ul Muminin, the Caliph of Egypt. He had made the three write separate petitions to the Caliph. One of them was Malik Qabul Khalifati, who died during the life of Sultan Muhammad Shah. The second was Ahmad Ayaz about whom I, the author, and others close to him have repeatedly heard the Sultan say that:

Ahmad Ayaz had become old and his age had crossed seventy years. Now he cannot walk on his feet and is unable to ride horse and because of his inability, the work of the Diwan Wizarat is not being properly taken care of. His time has now passed and he may continue to look after the affairs of state. If he retires to a corner and sits in the khanqah of Shaikh Nizam ud din and busies him in the pursuit of the next world, his respect among the people would continue to be maintained. I feel ashamed to say this to him. It would be better if he himself asks for it so that I could entrust the post of the wizarat to some one who can take proper care of it and the affairs of the Diwan do not remain unattended.

The third person who was included among the chosen people of Sultan Muhammad was the Sultan of the age, Firoz Shah al Sultan, may Allah perpetuate his kingdom and authority. He is not only an uncle's son of Sultan Muhammad [cousin] but was also his choice to succeed him. During the days when Sultan Muhammad was taken ill during the expedition and the illness became protracted, the Lord of the World (Firoz Shah) took much care of the medication of Sultan Muhammad and discharged obligations of service and affection towards his patron. Sultan Muhammad was extremely pleased with the Sultan of the age, Firoz Shah al Sultan, may Allah perpetuate his kingdom and authority, and the affection that he had for him increased a thousandfold and he nominated the lord of the world as his successor. When the end of Sultan Muhammad came, his entire imperial testament was concerned with Firoz Shah and he nominated him as his heir. The day on which Sultan Muhammad died on the bank of the river Sind, a great commotion took place in the army and it was very likely that the people and the troops would end up fighting each other. There was strong probability that the dahkars would overrun and plunder lodgings of the people and take away their maids and women. That day the army remained at the place where Sultan Muhammad had breathed his last, fearful of the Mughals who had recently arrived, the people of Thatta who were greatly emboldened due to the death of Sultan Muhammad, the dahkars of the army who were ready to plunder the horses, property, women and children and were waiting for the beginning of the trouble. In the midst of all this, the people in the camp felt lost and bewildered. In this atmosphere of terror and commotion, two-three elephants were drowned while they were being brought back from the other bank of the river. During those 2-3 days, water and bread did not reach the people due to the terror of sedition and commotion and the fear of losing the women and children to mischief makers. Seeing that Sultan Muhammad had expired and the people were in a very disorganized condition, the troops that Amir Qazghan had sent started thinking of ways to take advantage of the situation and began mutual consultations in this regard.

Now before ascending the throne, the lord of the world, in agreement with the senior nobles, gave away robes and gifts to Altun Bahadur, the amiran-i hazarah, amiran-i sadah and the horsemen who were sent by Amir Farghun for the help of Sultan Muhammad in accordance with their status and granted them permission to return. With a view to prevent any kind of chaos in the army, the Mughals were directed to leave the imperial camp before the army could begin the return march and go some distance and then hasten their return to their country as soon as possible. Consequently, the Mughals left the camp and encamped some distance away. During those days when people were seized with fear and the terror of plunder, Kargan, the son-in-law of Tarma Shirin, who for years had enjoyed the patronage of Sultan Muhammad and had been the recipient of many acts of his munificence and kindness, resorted to ungratefulness. He fled with his followers and family and joined the Mughals and created a great stir by inciting the Mughals. He told them that the imperial army had been rendered headless and helpless due to the death of the king and all of them are deeply disturbed. Moreover, since the capital city of Delhi is far away, young and old, foot soldiers and horsemen, he claimed, had lost hope. "Two days have passed and till now no one had occupied the throne that could inspire confidence among the people." He added that he knew these people very well and now he was with them.

Tomorrow the army will commence its return march and since no one had ascended the throne and taken over as king, at the time of the commencement of the march there would be no organization and every body would be going his own way. If they launch an attack at the time of the commencement of the march they could plunder the treasury and seize the women. Khudawandzada and the elder sister of Sultan Muhammad were to march with the families (harem) of maliks and they could cause harm to them.

Nauroz Kuregen, the ungrateful wretch, entered into this conspiracy with the Mughals and incited them in many ways. He told them that there were many who were extremely troubled, with their wives and children, enormous money and provisions without a king and a 1,000 karoh distance from the capital of Islam, while they were left in a desert. He said that this kind of opportunity would not come their way again. The Mughals who were camping separately were persuaded by the seditious Nauroz Kuregen and they believed what he said. All of them arrived at a unanimous decision to launch a surprise attack. On the third day of the death of Sultan Muhammad, the army began its return march from its camp situated at a distance of 14 karoh from Thatta towards Siwistan. Every group within the army began its march in a most disorganized way without any order and discipline; no one cared for the other or paid any attention to what the others said. In fact they had commenced their march towards Siwistan in the fashion of caravans, totally negligent (of their security).

Moving in this way they had hardly covered a distance of 1-2 karoh when the Mughals who were ready for plunder entered and the seditious people of Thatta pursued them from behind. There rose a great noise from every side and there was great commotion. The Mughals began looting and plundering and the women, slave girls, horses, cattle, horsemen, chattels and other commodities that were separated from the army were taken away by them. They were about to put their hands on the harem and take away the treasures along with the camels. Dhakars of the army who were waiting for a disturbance, seized the opportunity and stole some goods. The gangs of Thattan ruffians plundered the baggage and the people in the army, and the horsemen, foot soldiers, and men and women remained standing around. Thus, a great calamity overtook the army. If the people ventured to move ahead, the Mughals would attack them and if they stepped backwards the ruffians of Thatta would plunder them. As it is said, they reached the first stage reciting 'aminullah aminullah.'1 [It is most probably a corruption of Aman Allah which would refer to the safety, security and protection of God.]Those who had sent the women, slave girls and baggage ahead were totally lost. The army encamped at the bank of the river without any plan and organization. All the men despaired for their wives, children and baggage. Due to excessive fear and confusion no one could have any sleep and they spent the night in a state of great bewilderment and panic, with their eyes fixed above. On the second day the same situation confronted them; from the front the Mughals attacked them and from behind the mischief makers of Thatta harassed them. With great difficulty the people reached the second stage and put up camp on the bank of the river. As the suffering of the army had passed every limit and they were faced with great distress regarding life and property, Makhdumzada-i Abbasi, Shaikh ush Shuyukh Misri, Shaikh Nasir ud din Mahmud Awadhi, Uldma, mashaikh, maliks, amirs, notable people and chiefs of every community assembled and with general approval came to the door of the royal tent. Unanimously they submitted to Firoz Shah that he was the heir and testator of Sultan Muhammad and also the brother's son of Tughlaq Shah. Sultan Muhammad had left no son and none was left in the army or the city (Delhi) who could equal him in entitlement and ability. They requested him to come forward for the succour of the people and ascend the throne, rescue them and so many thousands of people who were rendered totally helpless from the clutches of the Mughals and thereby earn the benedictions of two lakh people.

Sultan Firoz Shah tried to excuse himself as much as he could but the grandees of Islam and the state did not accede to his excuses. All the Ulama and mashaikh, maliks and amirs, elite and commoners, troopers and bazaar people, old and young, Muslims and Hindus, horsemen and footmen, women and children, mature and immature and maids and slaves came to the unanimous decision that neither in the army nor in the capital city of Delhi was there anyone who was more worthy than Firoz Shah. If he did not ascend the throne and it did not become known to the Mughals that he had done so, they and the Thattans would not let any one escape. It was on the 24 Muharram in 752 H [1350], that with the consensus of all the people, commoners and elite, the Sultan of the age and time, Firoz Shah al Sultan, ascended the throne. On the second day the king of the world commenced the march in proper order and arrayed the army in such a way that from whatever direction the Mughal horsemen attacked the army, they were killed and taken into custody. The same day the world-protecting king posted amirs behind the army. Those amirs struck the mischief makers of Thatta who infested the army from behind and killed a number of them. Due to this success the Thattans gave up pursuit of the army.

On the third day of the accession, Sultan Firoz Shah ordered some of the amirs to launch an attack against the Mughals and they captured alive some of amiran-i hazarah and the amiran-i sadah and brought them before the throne. On the day the Mughals were beaten, they gave up resistance, put a distance of 40 karoh between and headed for their own country. The ruffians of Thatta were also defeated and they too returned. Due to the rising good fortune of Firoz Shah's kingship, the army was saved from the Mughal menace and the pursuit of the Thattans.

In this way, in the very beginning, the people were indebted to the Sultan of the age and time, Firoz Shah al Sultan, for the safety of life and property. The entire army, from the grandees and eminent people to the masses and young and old and the elite and the commoners were beholden to his kindness and favour. When the Mughals and the Thattans did not have the courage to continue their pursuit of the army and were obliged to beat retreat, the Sultan of the age and time, Firoz Shah al Sultan, reached Siwistan with forced marches. There he stayed for a few days so that the troops and the animals could rest. He showed much kindness to the people belonging to the army. He bestowed robes of honour upon maliks, amirs and grandees, ulama and mashaikh received gifts (futuhat) and the needy received charities. The troopers were recipients of favours and gifts. Under the influence of the ever-increasing fortune of Firoz Shah, the army recovered and the horses became fat after grazing the pastures of Machar, which is a well known pasture.

The Badshah-i Islam showed much magnanimity to the people of Siwistan and all their stipends (idrar), gifts (in'am), villages and land grants that had ceased to exist and were taken back into khalisa, were restored to them in accordance with the the orders and sanctions of the earlier rulers and every property that had ever belonged to the grandfathers was confirmed upon sons and grandsons. Moreover, new stipends and assignments were added to the older ones. The world-protecting king Firoz Shah paid visits to the mausoleums of the saints of Siwistan and conferred charities and alms upon the poor and needy. Those who had come from Herat, Sistan, Aden, Egypt and Qusdar and other territories to the court of the late Sultan Muhammad bin Tughlaq Shah and were awaiting a reply, the lord of the world gave them expenses in keeping with their status so that they could return to their places.
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Re: Tarikh-i Firoz Shahi, of Ziaud Din Barni/Shams-i Siraj '

Postby admin » Mon Dec 06, 2021 6:10 am


Departure of the royal standards of Firoz Shah from Siwistan and his bestowing favours upon the 'ulama and mashaikh and the poor and the needy living in the towns along the road to Delhi; receipt of the news of the rebellion of Ahmad Ayaz [Khwaja-i Jahan Ahmad Ayyaz]; the account of arrival of royal standards in the city; accession on the throne of the capital city and; providing stability and building new principles of governance

The lord of the world left Siwistan and reached Bhakkar after forced marches. He showed much kindness to the people of Bhakkar, visited the mausoleums of the saints and confirmed the old and new stipends and in'ams of the people of Bhakkar. After years the people of Bhakkar could find peace of mind and solace of heart. From Bhakkar he marched under the protection of God and reached Uchch. He granted largesses and favours upon the people of Uchch and confirmed the livelihood (nan), stipends (idrar), land grants and allowances (wazifa) that had been rescinded years ago. Their other requests were also granted. Stipends and pensions were granted on those who had none. He revived the khanqah of Shaikh Jamal ud din of Uchch that had all but been obliterated and the villages and orchards that had been incorporated into the khalisa were bestowed upon the sons of the shaikh. In this way he infused new life into the family that had almost perished. During the period in which the lord of the world came from Bhakkar to Uchch, the ulama, mashaikh, grandees, eminent people, muqaddams (also referred to as mutaqaddiman), zamindars as well as destitute people of Multan came to court and their requests were acceded to. They got a new lease of life were issued fresh farmans and returned to their hearth and home peaceful and content. While the lord of the world was on his way from Bhakkar to Uchch, news reached that Ahmad Ayaz [Khwaja-i Jahan Ahmad Ayyaz] had rebelled in Delhi. To deceive the people, he had procured a bastard six or seven-years-old and gave out that he was a son of Sultan Muhammad. He had put that lad of unknown lineage on the throne in the fashion of children's play. He subjected the citizens of the city to great pain (to secure his objective). In this way he in fact endangered his own life for the apparent benefit of a few days and also put his family to peril. The maliks, grandees, leading and eminent men were surprised at the rebellion of Ahmad Ayaz, [Khwaja-i Jahan Ahmad Ayyaz] they considered it to be very strange and expressed their disapproval. They said to each other that:

Had the sovereignty fallen into the hands of some unworthy mischief maker after the death of Sultan Muhammad even then it would not have been proper for Ahmad Ayaz [Khwaja-i Jahan Ahmad Ayyaz] due to his own circumstances to resort to rebellion and recalcitrance. Therefore how could rebellion against Sultan Firoz Shah be justified, who is the inheritor of the sovereignty and worthy of kingship, in view of the fact that he is the heir of Sultan Muhammad, the brother's son of Sultan Tughlaq Shah and the uncle's son of Sultan Muhammad Shah [cousin]. Moreover, in bravery and breaking of the ranks of the enemy he is incomparable, like Asfandyar who could lead an assault against the enemy all alone by himself and in one attack turn the world upside down. Now how could Ahmad Ayaz [Khwaja-i Jahan Ahmad Ayyaz] confront such a conqueror of the world who does not feel obliged to take the support of the army in the battle since as far as bravery and intrepidity in battle are concerned, Sultan Firoz Shah belongs to the category which both by heredity and self-acquisition in whose praise the recitation of the following verses is fully justified and it would be only statement of truth in his regard.

The rebellion and transgression of the misled and forlorn Ahmad Ayaz [Khwaja-i Jahan Ahmad Ayyaz], whose job, profession and work were mainly confined to supervise construction and realize revenue by all sorts of oppression, tyranny and bloodshed, made the chiefs and commanders of the army laugh. All the wise men of the army were unanimous in saying that either Ahmad Ayaz had gone insane or due to old age, his reasoning faculty had been affected or perhaps the curse of the oppressed was in effect, and he would soon be dying a death of disgrace. It was a settled matter during these days in the camp that when the sky-reaching chatr of Sultan Firoz would cast its shadow within a distance of 20-30 karoh of the capital and the glitter of the scimitars of the intrepid royal troops would begin to flash and Ahmad Ayaz would hear the brave soldiers of the victorious army coming with the intention of giving fight as they impatiently took out the bows from its casing creating continuous sound of twanging and they sharpen the points of the arrow on the whet stone searching for Ahmad Ayaz and his troopers as if they are lying in the plain tied like antelopes (nil-gav) and wild ass, the gall bladder of the old man would dissolve and he would be taken over by paroxysms of fever. In that condition he would either die or would put a rope round his neck and present himself before the gate of the royal palace with a shaven bare head. As far as those luckless few people are concerned who had gathered around him and boast of their bravery and gallantry and like the paintings on the wall present themselves like Rustam and Asfandyar before that old man who had bid farewell to reason and wisdom, they will take to flight and leave him helpless. It has been said that real men should be seen in the battleground while the boastings of the unmanly should be construed to be mere lies and bluster.

The prowess of men needs to be seen on the ground of battle
As far as paintings on the wall are concerned,
it makes little difference whether it is that of Rustam or Asfandyar.

It came to be known in the camp that Nayak Natho Sodhal who was appointed as hajib-i khas was making tall claims in front of Ahmad Ayaz [Khwaja-i Jahan Ahmad Ayyaz] about his prowess in the battlefield. However, the archers of the victorious army of the lord of the world considered this base Nayak lad a child and laughed at his pretensions before the Nayaks of Awadh, to be a great warrior in the tradition of Rustam and Asfandyar.

Every milk sucking child can not make to Haft Khwan2 [Seven places between Iran and Turan where Rustam and also Asfandyar met with perilous adventures.]
Nor the name of Asfandyar that your father gave to you can make you into one.

During the turmoil of Ahmad Ayaz [Khwaja-i Jahan Ahmad Ayyaz], Sultan Firoz Shah often remarked that Ahmad Ayaz is not a man of war. He said:

A man who had never ever in his life taken a bow in his hand and had never rode a rough horse, what had he to do with combat, fighting, commanding armies and leading them in to battle. I really feel ashamed of this old man. It must be the curse of some hapless oppressed person for him that had met with divine acceptance. It is because of this that he had knowingly and by choice put himself in this trouble and had recklessly plunged in this ocean of blood. He had taken up a task that is neither his job nor it had ever been the job of his forefathers. What need have I for the army for this God-forsaken person and what need is there for preparations. Well, he is not a gallant rank breaker for whom I would need to organize a fight against him. Defeating him and killing him could not be considered a serious job. When I would reach the environs of the city, he would blacken his face and would come out of some other door. I would send some of my falconers and ask them to take him out of his palanquin and bring him to me. That immature man does not feel any shame from God nor from men that in this old age he resorted to fraud and deceit in the treasure that was given to him as a trust and is now gone, by unauthorized and wasteful spending. The gravity of his misconduct increases enormously if the fact is kept in mind that the new occupant of the throne with the consensus of the people is one who was also beholden to his patron. The few ungrateful and luckless wretches who have gathered around him and who make tall claims in front of him, they in fact count for nothing and have no significance. In every contingent of ours there are 20-30 men better than them. Most probably when we reach near Sarasti and Hansi, God willing all the people will turn from him and will come to us, which by Shari'at is our due. When the people who are around him melt and he comes to know about our imminent approach, despondency will get hold of him and he will begin to tremble. Who knows whether he could be able to survive it or not? We have watched his frailty and timidity for many years and have seen how difficult he found it to come to the roof of Hazar Sutun Palace. He does not possess the strength, the heart and the gall to remain steadfast in his place after the royal armies reach there.

During the return journey the lord of the world stayed for a few days at the famed city of Depalpur and the cattle of the army which had covered a vast distance and hence were badly affected, recovered there. The king of Islam commenced his march from there towards the capital with all dignity and decorum. The lord of the world went to Ajodhan to pay his respects to the mausoleum of Shaikh Farid ud din and made arrangements for the redress of the conditions of that revered family who had fallen on hard times and whose condition had badly deteriorated. He granted robes of honour and gifts and conferred land and properties upon them. He distributed enormous charities among the inhabitants of Ajodhan and the worthy men about whom he came to know, if they had held any stipend or pension, was renewed. From the famed city of Depalpur to the city of Delhi orders were issued confirming all the new and old stipends and pensions of those living in the cities and towns lying in that direction. Cash awards were separately given to the needy people of the towns and those suffering from penury.

During the period when the royal entourage was staying at Depalpur, news was received that Ahmad Ayaz [Khwaja-i Jahan Ahmad Ayyaz]continues to stoke the fire of rebellion and he had assigned government posts to his slaves. He had taken Shaikhzada Bistami, Natho Sodhal and other luckless persons as his helpers and supporters and together they are keeping the common people in darkness. They had kept that bastard child as a plaything on the throne, and with a view to deceive the gullible, he dresses himself and stands before him in the court. He summoned the deserters and village folk from the villages and towns and gave them the name of troopers. He was ruining the treasury, and the people of the city, both commoners and elite, took money from him and made a fun of him. They awaited his death and looked forward to the arrival of the royal cavalcade of Firoz Shah. Since the annihilation of Ahmad Ayaz was near, no correct opinion ever occurred to his mind nor any one of those who were sincere to him could bring to his notice any matter which was based on rectitude and correctness during this entire period. All the inhabitants of the city, including the learned and wise, ignorant and ignoramus, commoners and elite, men and women, young and old, citizens and villagers and residents and travellers, seeing his ill managed and foolish dealings made this observation:

When time turns against the man
He does all those things none of which is of any avail to him.

On the same day in which the king of the age and time encamped with the victorious armies at Fathabad, Malik Maqbul, who is Khan-i Jahan and Wazir-i Mamalik these days, along with his sons, sons-in-law, Amir Qatbugha, Amir Mahan and a number of other amirs, cursing the son of Ayaz, escaped from that ill-starred one and joined the imperial court and were honoured with the kissing of the feet of lord of the world. Khan-i Jahan was granted an embroidered and bejewelled robe and till date since six years have passed, continues to live in utmost respect and honour. The sons and sons-in-law of Khan-i Jahan and other amirs received robes of honour. This act was construed on their faithfulness and loyalty and the entire army applauded their action.

Two or three days after the arrival of Khan-i Jahan, Malik Mahmud Bak, who holds the title of Sher Khan now, arrived with the armies of Sunam and Samana and was honoured with the kissing of the dust of the imperial court. The lord of the world, may Allah perpetuate his authority and kingdom, moved from Fathabad to Hansi. Much favour was showered on the people of Hansi and the inhabitants of towns and environs around Hansi. The king of Islam visited the mausoleums of the saints of Hansi and gave charities to the needy and indigent. On the day that the victorious imperial standards moved from Hansi towards the capital Shaikhzada Bistami, Natho Sodhal, luckless Hasan, Husam Adhang and some wretches who were among the supporters and helpers of Ahmad Ayaz [Khwaja-i Jahan Ahmad Ayyaz], came bareheaded and with swords hanging from their necks, kissed the feet during the march. Thus, the crowd around Ahmad Ayaz melted away and the worthy people joined the imperial camp. Ultimately his body began to tremble, his heart was seized with fear and his gall began to melt. Extremely frightened and fearful he came to the court with his bare shaven head and with his turban tied round his neck. Orders were issued that he should first be made to kiss the ground in the open court. When in accordance with the royal orders did so, he was asked why he committed this act since he was not made for this kind of thing and in doing so had ignored the requisites of gratefulness and betrayed his benefactors. Ahmad Ayaz replied that as long as fortune smiled upon him, all his actions were in accordance with the wishes of his benefactors. However, these days, it turned its back on him when he committed a blunder that earned a bad name for him in this world and would attract punishment and perdition in the world to come. Orders were issued from the throne to take him away and keep him at some place.

When the royal standards reached within a distance of 30 karoh from Delhi, motivated by a strong sense of loyalty for the king that had been entrenched in the hearts of the inhabitants of the city for many years, the general public including the commoners and elite from the ranks of ulama and mashaikh, Sufis, Qalandars and Haideries, traders and merchants, chiefs, sahas, sarrafs and Brahmans of the city came in multitudes to the court and were honoured with the privilege of kissing the ground and received royal favours and largesse. I, the author of the Tarikh-i Firoz Shahi, have repeatedly heard this strange story from trustworthy people. During those few months of the rebellion of Ahmad Ayaz, the citizens (of Delhi) received robes, tanka and jital from him and came out from the palace with these gifts and largesse, cursing him and from the core of their hearts wished his annihilation. They eagerly waited for the arrival of the cavalcade of Firoz Shah, and openly invoked blessings for the good fortune of the lord of the world.

Towards the end of Jumada I the royal standards arrived inside the capital and in an auspicious moment the son of the kings, Kaikhusrau of the world, Sultan of the two lands and two oceans, supported by divine help, the victorious over enemies, Solomon of the time and age, strong with the help of Merciful Abul Muzaffar Firoz Shah al Sultan, may Allah perpetuate his kingship and authority, ascended the imperial throne in the august palace. The capital city acquired grandeur and beauty with the kingship of the king of Islam, the minds of the people were set at rest and the confusion and chaos that had found way in state affairs due to the stupid actions of Ahmad Ayaz [Khwaja-i Jahan Ahmad Ayyaz], was replaced with stability and order. On the very first day of the arrival of the royal standards in the city, all the commotion subsided and the disorder and chaos ended in reconciliation. Without any hand getting stained with the blood of another and without causing ruin and destruction to any family and establishment and persecution, punishment and bloodshed that had become usual in dealing with rebellions, the affairs of state were restored to normalcy, matters of government settled down, the hearts of people were set at ease, the minds of Hindus and Muslims were at peace and the general public resumed business and other pursuits. It was about 40 years that the rule was in the family of Tughlaq Shah and it was transmitted from Tughlaq Shah to his son and then to the brother's son and the Sultan of the time and the age ascended the throne of Delhi by heredity, entitlement, consensus and nomination as the heir. He had been, during the reigns of his uncle and cousin, among the great pillars of the state. His accession was not followed by the destruction of any family, any killings, dismissals, replacements, neither internal nor external; calamity, and exile for the old supporters and helpers and all those attached with the palace. Every family and establishment remained intact except 4-5 luckless people who had played a prominent role in the rebellion of Ahmad Ayaz and then leaving that incapable and lost chap in the lurch had gone away. Yet even their sons and followers were not harmed in any way and except for Ahmad Ayaz, Natho Sodhal, Hasan and Busam Adhang and two of the slaves of Ayaz, no one perished. But even the sons, sons-in-law, families, their retinue and followers of these 5-6 persons were not harmed in any way and they continued in their old hearth and home, enjoying peace and prosperity. This kind of safety of the families and followers of the rebels that was witnessed during the reign of the lord of the world has never been seen in any age and reign.
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Re: Tarikh-i Firoz Shahi, of Ziaud Din Barni/Shams-i Siraj '

Postby admin » Mon Dec 06, 2021 6:50 am


In the description of the noble attributes and praiseworthy character of the Sultan of the age and period, Firoz Shah al Sultan, whose effects became instrumental in restoring order and ensuring reconciliation in the dominions and the territories of Hind and Sind which was badly ruined turned fresh anew, blossomed and flourished.

The author of the Tarikh-i Firoz Shahi, in accordance with the dictates of justice and to eulogize, brings to the notice of those people who have some knowledge and idea about the annals of the past rulers, that since the day when Delhi was conquered and Islam made its appearance in Hindustan, there has been no ruler after Sultan Muizz ud din Muhammad Sam, who was more mild, bashful, kind, compassionate, grateful, loyal and possessed of purer belief in Islam than the Sultan of the age and time, Firoz Shah al Sultan, who had set his feet on the throne of Delhi. This I have not written out of exaggeration and idle talk, neither have I been motivated by worldly greed but (it may be recalled) that in the introduction of the book I have enumerated truth among the basic requirements of history writing. In spite of the fact that I am not in the enjoyment of ease, prosperity, comforts and pleasures of life and in this particular regard I am a solitary exception from the overwhelming majority of the people of the dominions and I am among those about whom this verse is appropriate, rather it is appropriate about none except me: 'Birds and fishes are content in country but not me.'

It is, however, not material whether I am happy or not. I am bound to write what is true and correct and I must prove what I write with the support of evidence and proof. If some uninformed person, who has no idea about the annals of the past rulers, says out of ignorance and bias while studying that introduction that Zia-i Barani had resorted to flattery and poetry and had written with a sense of exaggeration that no king like the Sultan of the time and age Firoz Shah al Sultan has ever set his feet over the throne of Delhi and had ever been adorned with so many excellent qualities of character, that ignorant person should see the annals of the ancient rulers and past kings of Delhi. He would note that there had been an established rule and firm tradition that on the occasion of the change of rulers bloodshed occurs and families and establishments are uprooted. Until and unless the old and the ones that had struck roots are not uprooted, the fresh and newly sown plants do not strike root.

There has been a firm belief that supporters and helpers of past rulers could not be true helpers and supporters of new rulers. In case this does happen, it is considered among the rarities of the time and wonders of the age. The experienced people had witnessed it in the case of hereditary kingdoms. What to write about kingdoms that had been taken by force -- in which case none of the existing king's fathers, grandfathers and kith and kin had ever been king. Now, until and unless that person who had taken over kingship removes supporters, helpers, well wishers and those who had been sincere to past rulers are removed in whatever manner he could, he does not consider himself as the king. In addition it is also common belief that without capital punishment the terror of the ruler does not get ingrained in the minds of people and his writ does not begin to run. It is also believed that without taking resort to killings, the wicked don't desist from rebellion and mischief. It may be recalled here that after Sultan Muizz ud din Sam, when Sultan Shams ud din Altamash ascended the throne of Delhi he was not able to exercise his full authority as the ruler of Delhi until he removed Qazi Saad, Qazi Imad and Qazi Husam, who were the sister's sons of Shams ul Aimma Gardezi, a number of Ghorid amirs who were assigned 'iqtas in Hindustan by Sultan Muizz ud din; and did not overthrow Taj ud din Yeldoz, who was the adopted son of Sultan Muizz ud dfn and Sultan Nasir ud din Qubacha who was the salahdar of Sultan Muizz ud din.

It is easy to imagine how much blood would have been spilled and how many old families and establishments would have been destroyed in the task of removing and killing such great men. Similarly, after the death of Sultan Shams ud din, during the period of thirty years of his sons' reign when Turkan-i Chihalgani got ascendancy over the affairs of the state, they overthrew and uprooted many great maliks and grandees who had held high positions at the court of Sultan Shams ud din. They caused streams of blood to flow and these slaves took over the 'iqtas, horsemen and foot soldiers of these great maliks and there was much bloodshed which led to the destruction of old and established families. Sultan Balban shed so much blood even while he was still a malik. When he was a Khan he got all his fellow slaves removed by whichever means he could and destroyed their families. These facts could not have been hidden from those who have studied history. Balban's persecution is so well known. Among the punishment awarded by Sultan Balban are included killings of the rebels along with Tughril, his children, women and supporters. He got all of them killed and ordered them to be hanged on gibbets erected in two rows. This incident is very well known.

The bloodshed that took place during the reign of Muizz ud din Kaiqubad and the families and establishments that were uprooted in the process have been witnessed by the old and the aged who are still alive. Such a Muslim of pure faith that Sultan Jalal ud din was, even he could not consolidate his control over the kingship and was not able to rule until he got Sultan Muizz ud din and other great maliks and amirs killed in the very first year of his reign and ultimately destroyed Mughaltai along with his entire establishment and also massacred Sidi Maula and a number of other people, as also his dealings with the rebellion of Malik Chajju. The killings and bloodshed of the reign of Sultan Ala ud Din are beyond description. Many of those who have witnessed this bloodshed and killings are still alive. There is no doubt that during the reigns of Sultan Qutb ud din and Sultan Ghiyas ud din Tughlaq Shah there was less bloodshed, killings and uprooting of families compared to Ala ud Din's reign. As far as the reign of Sultan Muhammad bin Tughlaq Shah is concerned, the bloodshed, killings and uprooting of families that took place is beyond power of speech and writing to describe.

The purpose of the author in describing the bloodshed and killings of the rulers of the seat of the throne Delhi is to illustrate the fact that there is no king who had not resorted to violence for the love of power and in the interest of his authority and there is none whose writ had been obeyed without violence. The only exception is the Sultan of age and time Abul Muzaffar Firoz Shah al Sultan, may God perpetuate his kingdom and authority, who is the rarest of rare among the Sultans of earlier and later kings. It has been possible for him to rule and govern without shedding the blood of monotheists and killing Muslims and uprooting families and establishments. It is since six years that Sultan Firoz Shah, may his age be prolonged to a thousand years, is ruling over the throne of Delhi and reigns over the seat of authority. His writ runs over the dominions of Hind and Sind (there have been no killings during his reign) except for 5-6 persons who had led rebellion and caused upheaval in the affairs of state. Out of dire necessity they were killed in the very beginning of the reign but even in their case, their followers, dependents, sons, daughters, sons-in-law and relatives were not harmed. Besides them a few kitchen staff were also removed, who had planned a serious conspiracy and had been in the forefront of the rebellion for a few days. The total sum of the first and second groups does not add to more than 15-16 people. Besides them no one from among the many criminals had been subjected to capital punishment, no monotheist from among Muslims has ever been killed at the gates of the palace and not even a hair of the financial and political offenders had been harmed and no family uprooted. This is sign of divine favour in the case of Sultan Firoz Shah that the idea of killing a Muslim never comes to his mind and he has been divinely saved from the destruction of any one who recites the kalimah that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is His Prophet. I, Zia ud din Barani, the author of the Tarikh-i Firoz Shahi would like to put on record that since the conquest of Delhi, no Sultan like Sultan Firoz Shah except Sultan Muizz ud din Sam, had ever set foot on the throne of Delhi. God Almighty had not attached the blood of any innocent person to be his responsibility. He was never known to have perpetrated the same kind of persecution that had been witnessed in the case of other kings. This I advance as an argument about the compassion, kindness and forbearance and God-fearing nature of the Sultan and present it as proof of my submission. This is fully based on truth, exactness and accuracy.

I further say and commit to writing that whatever I have witnessed regarding his attitude towards subjects and troops, the two arms of state, and others and continue to witness in the case of Sultan Firoz had not been witnessed from the rulers of Delhi for many generations. Nobody remembers that ever the hulya (descriptive roll) which constitutes the main hurdle in the way of the supply of the troops had been remised. Now the villages which have been assigned to the soldiers in lieu of their salaries, for the purposes of muster they present their slaves, servants and relatives and take their salaries. The resultant prosperity and comfort of their living is too well known to the people. What troopers get as stipend (itlaq), no doubt they get in instalments and that too some of them get in cash while others get it in the form of draft (barat). However, they are never required to report for hunting or begar (forced labour without remuneration). Moreover, the word of recovery (istidrak) does not ever come to the lips of anyone. A number of other measures of convenience have been put in place, so much so that many receive their salaries while they remain sitting in their houses.

If in the case of the stipend holders (itlaqian), the nobles and the clerks give way to their greed and misappropriate something out of it, the troopers still get their full stipends from the royal treasury and the nobles having done it are put to account. During the entire period since the Sultan has been on the throne, the troops have never been tasked for any military expedition that is likely to be difficult and they could be exposed to risk. Similarly, they have not been sent to distant postings from where they could come home only after a year or two. This is but only a small favour and patronage of the Sultan if they appreciate it and would be grateful for it.

As far as the common men are concerned, their prosperity, well being and comfortable way of life defies description. The apparent resources, cash and goods of merchants, traders, carvanian, sahas, shroffs, usurers (murbian) and hoarders (muhtakiran) had virtually crossed the limit of lakhs and touched the extent of crores. The houses of the khuts and muqaddams are so full of horses, cattle, grains and other goods that no place is left for anything else. The subjects are no more in need of anything and everybody had acquired prosperity and affluence in accordance to his status. While I, the author of this history, was in the fort of Bhatnir, there was some rumour (of impending attack of the Mongols) during the season of winter, the people of the surrounding villages converged in the fort. Due to the dust raised by the great numbers of horses and cattle, the bright day was darkened to such an extent that men could not see men and only one out of a thousand people could enter the fort of Bhatnir along with their horses. I counted the horses of the stable of Ikhtiyar ud din Hajjam Madhu, 30 horses worth 2,000 tanka were tethered there.

As far as the bazaar people are concerned, the kind of luxury, ease of life, means to build houses and satisfaction of their desires that are available to them in this blessed reign had not been available in any age. They are masters of market commodities and could buy and sell as they like. They neither pay tax nor are forced to undergo begar and shabkari. About 200 tankas come to their houses daily and not a single piece goes out on any count of taxation. If Zia-i Barani does not record his observations regarding Sultan Firoz's kindness and patronage for the subjects in the Tarikh-i Firoz Shahi that no king had ever set his feet on the throne of Delhi since its conquest like him, it would not be against truth and reality.

Now the preference that I have accorded to Sultan Firoz, may God perpetuate his kingdom and authority, would be proved with evidence. Whatever I have witnessed for myself during the age of Sultan Firoz Shah, may he remain blessed with (long) life, power, throne and kingship, regarding imperial considerations towards khans, maliks, amirs, helpers, supporters, those who enjoy his confidence and those attached to the court, I had not been seen in any other age. The salaries of these people had been fixed at lakhs and crores and for their sons, sons-in-law and old slaves who had their established rights over them; separate stipends, rewards, villages and orchards have been assigned. As far as the khans, maliks and amirs were concerned, they were assigned stipends, gifts, towns, villages, orchards and bhattis besides (meeting their) basic needs and many other favours beyond description. The requirement of permanent presence and pain of continuous attendance was waived in the case of the grandees of the court. The entire class of great nobles of state lead a life of immense ease and luxury due to imperial favours and are in enjoyment of power, authority, ease and comfort. As a result of the great kindness and favours of the king of Islam, no one is afflicted with any kind of distress, misery and pain for any reason whatsoever.

From the date when the king of the age and time Firoz Shah al Sultan had ascended the throne, he enhanced the status of his favourites everyday and did not countenance that the helpers and supporters of state should be allowed to be humiliated and insulted in any way or dishonoured due to demand and being put to account. They are never asked to do any thing that may lead to their discomfiture. Any amount of arbitrariness that would be likely to put the functionaries under stress and cause burden for the elite and the common people is not allowed. He does not like anybody to be in distress and dejected. If Zia-i Barani had written in his Tarikh, out of his concern for truth and reality -- that since the time that I and other old men could remember, no king like the king of the age and the time Sultan Firoz Shah al Sultan had ever set his feet on the throne of Delhi who was adorned with such excellencies of character and virtues of personality -- it is in fact in complete accordance with the facts.

Now in favour of the preference that I have given to him, I would like to advance a stronger argument. Two and half qarn had passed of my age and during this (long) period of time I don't remember any event when in the Diwan-i Wizrat, the auditors, revenue officers, accountants and clerks did not subject some of the amirs and governors to humiliation and disgrace for the recovery of demand through the pain of imprisonment, chaining and punishing by pincers. In fact anybody who was put to recovery in the Diwan was condemned to a bowl of blood. Since I don't see anything like it in the auspicious reign of Sultan Firoz Shah, rather I have seen one out of a hundred or even one out of a thousand like it, therefore if I write in my history that as far as I could remember I have not seen any king like the Sultan of the age and the time Firoz Shah al Sultan, I would be only recording the truth and reality. If some fool and misinformed person attributes this fact which I have proved with so much evidence and proof to exaggeration or thinks it to be false, the fault lies with his lack of awareness and lack of intelligence.

Many of my contemporaries still remember that in earlier times, due to the prying eyes of the munhis (spies), the commonalty and elite were always in turmoil and could not sleep in peace. Only God knows how many households have been destroyed and how many people have been killed when munhis and other investigators implicated people with sins which they did not have any knowledge about and made them falsely admit to having committed under the pain of torture. Now in this auspicious reign of Sultan Firoz Shah I have neither seen any munhi nor any spy get hold of any person and under the pain of torture make him give the names of 200-300 people to the effect that they had made some statement and they wish the Sultan ill, which I and others have so often seen (in the case of earlier reigns). And therefore if I write that I have not seen anyone who could equal the Sultan of the age and the time Firoz Shah al Sultan in the matter of innate good qualities, I would have written it out of concern for the truth and would have only fulfilled the requirements of justice and equity. I, Zia-i Barani, the author of the Tarikh-i Firoz Shahi, had to face many perils after the demise of the late Sultan and mortal enemies. Powerful people who were deadly envious to me sought my blood and with their envious enmity almost drove me to madness and conveyed to the notice of the lord of the world thousands of venomous statements (attributing them to me). So much so that after the grace of Almighty Allah, had it not been for the forbearance, modesty, kindness, compassion and recognition for the loyalty and gratefulness on the part of the Sultan of the age and the time Firoz Shah al Sultan and had he not come to my rescue and allowed poisonous statements of enemies to prevail and give ear to them, I would have been consigned to sleep in the lap of mother earth. In fact, I would not have remained alive till now had the excellent qualities of the king not taken care of this hopeless and helpless destitute. I would not have been alive till today. Since my obligation to the Majesty of this king relates to my life and therefore if I don't use poetry and panegyrics in his praise, at least I should write down those of his excellent virtues and imperial characteristics which had come to my own observation in accordance with the truth and reality and in terms of discharging obligations.

The earliest record of Firuz Shah’s achievements was written by the pre-eminent historian of the age, Ziya’ al-Din Barani. Barani is known from four surviving works, Ta’rikh-i Firuz Shahi, Fatawa-yi Jahandari, Na’t-i Muhammadi, and Akhbar-i Barmakiyyan. His family was well-connected with the Delhi court since the time his father had risen to prominence under ‘Ala’ al-Din Khalji. Barani served Muhammad bin Tughluq for over seventeen years as nadim or court chronicler and continued to serve the court in that capacity under Firuz Shah. However at the beginning of Firuz Shah’s reign, Barani was implicated in a coup attempt and was banished from court. He spent his remaining years in exile seeking to be restored to the favor of the sultan. During this time he wrote the Ta'rikh-i Firuz Shahi until his death in 759/1357.

-- The Architecture of Firuz Shah Tughluq, Dissertation Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Philosophy in the Graduate School of The Ohio State University, by William Jeffrey McKibben, B.A., M.A., 1988

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Re: Tarikh-i Firoz Shahi, of Ziaud Din Barni/Shams-i Siraj '

Postby admin » Tue Dec 07, 2021 8:01 am


Description of extensive largesse, in'ams, villages and land assignments that had reverted to the khalsa and was conferred afresh during the reign of the Sultan of the age and time Firoz Shah al Sultan upon the general public of the capital and other territories of the kingdom

Many deserving people were assigned stipends, scholarships, villages and lands. The majority of the people of Delhi, both masses and elite, had observed and seen that since the accession of the Sultan of the age and time Firoz Shah, particularly during the first two to three years, not a single day passed when the officers of the Diwan-i Risalat did not bring to the notice of the king requests of saiyids, ulama, mashaikh, students, Sufis, hafizs, and men responsible for the maintenance of mosques, qalandars, haidaries, keepers of saints' tombs (astanadaran), landholders (malikian), freeholders (mafruzian), beggars, needy, those suffering from some physical defect, the helpless, old and orphans. Due to the kindness of the world-protecting king, requests of all of them were acceded to their hearts' content and this practice still continues. God be praised, who could commit to writing an assessment and estimation of the munificence and favours of Firoz Shah. The royal orders that had been issued during the last 70-100 years regarding the gifts, stipends, villages and lands to saiyids, ulama, mashaikh and other deserving people and had reverted to the khalsa, were confirmed on their sons and grandsons and fresh farmans and orders were issued from the office of the Diwan to this effect.

Those who did not have any grant but were in need of maintenance, were assigned more than what could be sufficient for their needs in the form of stipends, gifts, villages and land assignment (mafruz). Consequently, the needs of those deserving assistance from the Bait ul Mal (treasury) were fully satisfied and the needs of the people throughout the kingdom were fulfilled and their hearts were turned content and they returned praying and praising. The fellowships, stipends, pensions and gifts of the ulama, mashaikh, teachers, muftis (those qualified to issue fatwa-legal opinion), preachers (muzakkiran), students, hafizs, qaris, those who maintain mosques, keepers of the mausoleums of the saints, haideries, qalandars, needy and poor people of the capital city of Delhi went beyond thousands and reached lakhs. The old madrasas and mosques that had fallen in disuse and were lying in ruin began to bustle with a large number of teachers, preachers and students and, education and learning acquired new lustre. The teachers received villages as stipend and were well respected and greatly revered. Those who earlier held a stipend of 200-300 tankas and that too had ceased and its records were removed from the registers, their stipends were now fixed at the rate of 400-1,000 tankas. Those groups of students, who could not even get ten tankas, were assigned 100-300 tankas. The ulama and students of the city (Delhi), both young and old, became prosperous and acquired means and were relieved from the clutches of want, poverty and penury. Most of these people who did not afford even proper shoes, due to the imperial favours of Firoz Shah, wore fine clothes and rode choice horses. Most busied themselves in the teaching of religious sciences and learning the regulations of the Shari'at and prayed for the longevity of the life of the king.

Those experts of the science of the recitation of the Qur'an, hafizs, preachers, calligraphists, muqris (expert reciters of the Qur'an), muezzins (those who call for the prayer), those employed for spreading carpets (farrash) and the attendants of the tombs of the saints (mujawiran), all who were rendered without any means of livelihood, stipends and pensions and were reduced to abject poverty and had forgotten the taste good things of life -- Firoz Shah assigned them 200-1,000 tankas as stipends. They are engaged day and night in prayers for the exaltation of religion and longevity of the age of the king of the world and princes. The khanqahs situated in the city (capital) and the vicinity as well as in the towns and within a distance of four to five karoh from them and located throughout the dominions, which for many years were considered as ruined where not even a bird ever flew nor a thirsty person was likely to find a drop of water, due to the favours of Firoz Shah now abound with asitanadars, Sufis, devout, qalandars, haidaries, travellers and the needy.

Under the beneficence of the ever-increasing dominions of Sultan Firoz Shah, these khanqahs have been assigned fertile and cultivated villages and amounts ranging from 5,000-30,000 tankas have been assigned to these khanqahs for the Sufis and for the maintenance of travellers. The families of Shaikh Farid ud din, Shaikh Baha ud din, Shaikh Nizam ud din, Shaikh Rukn ud din, Shaikh Jamal ud din of Uchch and many other earlier saints have witnessed a revival due to the assignment of villages, lands and orchards. Due to the favours and largesses of Sultan Firoz Shah, numerous people are leading a life of ease and, Sufis, those engaged in the recitation of the Qur'an, travellers and stipend holders get stipends and meals without any hassle. All are busy in reciting the whole of the Qur'an for the longevity of the age of the master of the world. After performing the obligatory prayers they engage themselves in offering Fatiha and saying tasbih and tahlil.

The charities of the lord of the world reaches the old and decrepit, widows and orphans, physically challenged, the blind and incapable person, continuously without any interruption. The general public, both masses and elite, remain busy in praising and praying for the lord of the world, may God perpetuate his power and authority. No grief, harassment, distress and distraction ever come near them. The rich of the country in their riches and the poor secure from the concerns of earning livelihood lead a life of contentment and derive all sorts of pleasures from life.
The extensive charities and good deeds, stipends and gifts and the fact that all the properties, assignments and waqfs that were lost and taken over into the khalisa were reverted to the sons and grandsons of the (original) holders and the waqfs returned to the progeny of the testators (waqifan) in accordance with the conditions of the endowment and added to the past grants so many more assignments, gifts of villages and lands. In view of all this, if Zia-i Barani writes that he had not seen any other ruler like Sultan Firoz Shah al Sultan as far as taking care of the rights of Muslims and concern for the regulations of the Shari'at of the Prophet Muhammad, he would be only stating the truth and reality.
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Re: Tarikh-i Firoz Shahi, of Ziaud Din Barni/Shams-i Siraj '

Postby admin » Tue Dec 07, 2021 8:17 am


Description of the buildings of the august reign of Firoz Shah which are among the most wonderful buildings of the world and had become a means of much benefit for the people

Since Almighty God had created the auspicious person of the Sultan of the age and the time, Firoz Shah al Sultan, as a mine of charities and source of good deeds and had made him a source of benefits for the public, therefore in the very beginning of his reign such buildings were constructed which had no parallel either in the capital of Delhi nor in other countries and those who had traversed lands and seas are wonderstruck by them. One such building is the main congregational mosque (Jami' Masjid).

It was on the 24 Muharram in 752 H [1350], that with the consensus of all the people, commoners and elite, the Sultan of the age and time, Firoz Shah al Sultan, ascended the throne.

-- Chapter 6: The Sultan of the Age, One Who is Supported by God, Firoz Shah al Sultan, Excerpt from "Tarikh-I Firoz Shahi, An English Translation" [Written by Zia ud Din Barani], by Ishtiyaq Ahmad Zilli

The jami masjid is a remarkable structure not so much because of the mosque proper but because of a peculiar structure, the lat pyramid, which is located on its north side. The lat or pillar which is embedded in it is believed to have served as a minar to the mosque. Although the mosque and lat pyramid are conceived as a single mosque complex, they were built at two different times. Firuz Shah ordered the construction of the mosque early in his reign. Following his return to Delhi in 755/1354-1355 after the first campaign to Bengal, he selected the site and commenced the building of Firuzabad. The date of the jami masjid, inferred from historical references, coincides with the founding of the city. ‘Afif does not mention the construction of the mosque specifically but implies its existence when he discusses the addition of the lat pyramid fifteen years later. The mosque contains no surviving historical epigraphs. Following his return in 762/1360 from the second campaign to Bengal, Firuz Shah resumed the building of his capital but the mosque is believed to have been completed prior to this time. The building activities began once more in 769/1367 with the erection of the lat pyramid. The Sirat-i Firuz Shahi records this event to have occurred during Muharram 769/September 1367 and reports that the lat was raised to its upright position on 4 Safar 769/30 September 1367. [Sirat-i Firuz Shahi, pp. 33-42. The Sirat, pp. 35 and 41, mentions that the discovery of the lat occurred in 769/1367, after the conquest of Sind. Carr Stephen, Archaeology and Monumental Remains, p. 129 places the event in 757/1356 citing as his source J.D. Beglar, Archaeological Survey of India, Report, v. IV (1874). This date is repeated in the Archaeological Survey’s Lists of Monuments, v. 2 Delhi Zail (1919), p. 74. Sayyid Ahmad Khan assigns the event to 770/1368. Athar al-Sanadid in Journal asiatique (August-September 1860), p. 231.]

-- The Architecture of Firuz Shah Tughluq, Dissertation Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Philosophy in the Graduate School of The Ohio State University, by William Jeffrey McKibben, B.A., M.A., 1988

Ziauddin Barani (1285–1358 CE) was a Muslim political thinker of the Delhi Sultanate located in present-day Northern India during Muhammad bin Tughlaq and Firuz Shah's reign.

-- Ziauddin Barani, by Wikipedia

The arches of this mosque vie with the dome of the sky. Since this good deed, which is the greatest among good deeds, has been graced with the divine acceptance, the Sunni people at large and devout monotheists make utmost endeavour to offer their fuma prayers in this mosque so much so that on Fridays due to the great number of worshippers no room is left anywhere either inside the mosque, in the courtyard or even on the roofs. Many are obliged to perform their prayers in the adjoining streets forming lines for prayer there. This particular preference of Muslims for this mosque that despite many other mosques, they make every endeavour to perform their prayers in this mosque and take the trouble of coming over to it from various places in such large numbers that they could not be accommodated in it is in itself an important indication of the divine acceptance of this place of goodness. May Allah make this edifice of goodness and other buildings a source of blessing for the Sultan of the age and time, depending upon the divine help of All Merciful Abul Muzaffar Firoz Shah al Sultan and prove to be a means of the longevity of his life.

The second among the buildings of the lord of the world is the Madrasa-i Firoz Shahi, a wonderful building on the bank of Hauz-i Alai. The building of this madrasah has surpassed the buildings throughout the world in the loftiness of its domes, beauty of its buildings, measure of its courtyards, elegance of its sitting places, excellence of its dwelling places and the beauty of its carpets. It is such a wonderful building and amazing edifice that anyone who enters it, whether traveller or resident, would think that he had entered the paradise of Aden or that he had found his way to the highest heavens. Simply by entering it, all burden from the mind is removed and viewing the refreshing building of the Madrasa-i Firoz Shahi gladdens saddened hearts. The view of the soul-nourishing spectacle of the edifices revives sagging spirits and long entrenched grief is removed from the hearts of spectators. They become so enamoured of the buildings of the madrasa and captivated by its general ambience that they forget their own hearths and homes. Overlooking their own needs and obligations, they find themselves unable to step out of the premises of the madrasah. As far as the residents of the city are concerned, they are so enchanted with the breathtaking environment of the madrasah, that abandoning their old habitations they build houses for themselves in the vicinity of the madrasah and don't feel content and satisfied until they visit it ten or even twenty times. Due to the milieu of the madrasah, the travellers forget the purposes and prospects of the journey and take up residence there resolving to remain there for the rest of their lives. Any traveller who reaches there from any part of the world and sees its wonderful edifices and has a feel of its pleasant atmosphere, swears with the most solemn oaths and states that he had travelled through much of the world and seen so many cities but had never seen anything like this madrasah in the entire expanse of the world as far as the beauty of the buildings and the pleasantness of its atmosphere are concerned. In fact, the madrasa is among those rare and exceptional buildings which deservingly vie with the edifices of Khawarnaq, Satma and the palace of Caesar in the matter of beauty of buildings, scale of structure and exhilarating atmosphere. As the Madrasa-i Firoz Shahi constitutes a fountain of good deeds and both obligatory as also those devotions whose benefit accrues to others as well, the five obligatory prayers are performed in congregation as prescribed by the Prophetic traditions, the Sufis offer prayers of chasht, ishraq, awwabin (supererogatory devotions, which are offered at various times of day and night) and the one offered when the shadow begins to lengthen and tahajjud (prayers offered during the night). They are engaged day and night in the remembrance of God and prayers and praise for the king. Maulana Jalal ud din Rumi [30 September 1207 – 17 December 1273] who is an expert in many sciences is continuously engaged in giving lessons in the religious sciences and educates students who study the sciences of tafsir, hadith and fiqh. [???!!!]

Maulana Jalaluddin Rumi was born in 1207 C.E. ( i.e. Common Era aligned with A.D.) in Balkh. This city was then in the Persian province of “Khorasan” but is now in Afghanistan. Balkh was then a prominent city and his family had a tradition of service there in legal and religious offices. Despite this background he moved, in his youth and with his family about 1218 C.E., away from Balkh in order to avoid the warlike Mongols who were then conquering extensively under the leadership of their Khans.

The family traveled to Baghdad, to Mecca on pilgrimage, and to Damascus and eventually settled at Karaman near Konya in what is now western Turkey.

Following this move to Konya, then the capital of the western Seljuk Turks Jalaluddin's father was busy as an Islamic theologian, teacher and preacher. Jalaluddin followed in this tradition and, upon his father's demise in 1231 C.E. succeeded to his post as a prominent religious teacher.

This part of the world was then known to its inhabitants as Rum, a name derived from the Byzantine Roman Empire that had formerly held it. Jalaluddin's name in religion and literature -- Rumi -- is itself derived from Rum.

Rumi is today thought of being a Persian mystic and poet and is closely identified with Sufism and Sufi mysticism. This Sufism being a mysticism within Islam where devotees sought a mystical union with God.

-- Maulana Jalal Ud Din Rumi .... His life and Works, by Islam & Spiritualism, Accessed 12/7/21

The hafizs remain busy in completing the recitation of the entire Qu'ran every day several times over. The sound of takbir raised by the travellers reaches the skies. The muezzins call for prayer five times a day and raise their resounding voice with their prayers for the king of Islam and Muslims. Each of these classes of people get stipends, gifts, rewards and charities in cash and every day tables full of delicacies are laid before them. Therefore the devotees, students, hafizs, worshippers, those busy in the remembrance of Allah, those immersed in devotions and worships as well as the rest of the creatures of Allah have chosen the Madrasa-i Firoz Shahi and enjoy pleasures and comforts and remain engaged day and night with contented hearts in prayers for the longevity of the life of the king of Islam. Their prayers are met with acceptance in the presence of Almighty Allah. If this auspicious building and august edifice, which is a source of so much bounty and goodness for the ulama, pious, devotees and residents as well as travellers, is given precedence over the edifice of Iram that was built by Shaddad of 'Ad and from which inauspicious building neither any man or jinni could derive any benefit either due to the fact of the perfection of religion and the extreme piety and religiosity of its founder, i.e. Sultan of the age Firoz Shah al Sultan or even because of the great amount of acts of piety, devotion and good deeds which are performed there, none of the learned and wise would find any fault on the precedence of Madrasa-i Firozi over the Iram and every body would concede to this superiority from the points of view of religion, justice, wisdom and piety. Although the earlier sultans of Delhi, may God sanctify their graves, had built many edifices in the capital city and expended enormous money on their construction, now they had turned into abodes of demons and ghosts and the beauty, elegance and comfort in which this building is suffused could not be traced in any other edifice and no other building had been seen which is possessed of such beauty.

There could not be any edifice with such beauty
And if there is one it could not possess such beauty.

The third building is the structure of Balaband in the area of Siri which vies with the skies in height and in the matter of beauty of construction and purity of climate it is the envy of the buildings of the inhabited world and among the fine structures -- there is none like it. In fact a wonderful structure has come up there. It suits it fine if they call it a palace but it would be equally good in case it is turned into a khanqah. It would be still better if it is said to be a madrasa. If there is a building that could lay a claim to be equal to the Madrasa-i Firozi it is this building of the Balaband. Its very admirable climate takes a page from the climate of the Garden of Aden. From whichever angle spectators see it, it presents a spectacle of gardens of Paradise and its verdant meadows. The wonders of that structure are so varied that the pen of those who seek to describe it are unable to enumerate its merits. These days due to the attention of the king of Islam a great building had been built there and Maulana Saiyid Najm al din Samarqandi, who is one of the most excellent teachers, had been appointed as a teacher at that auspicious building and stipends and villages have been assigned to him. Further, a number of students have been given stipends there to take lessons in the religious sciences every day from this teacher.

Moreover, with the ever increasing power and authority of Firoz Shah, the fort of Firozabad had been built on the banks of the Jamuna on the best of sites. If I set to describe its soul-nourishing climate, its many excellencies and auspiciousness of the construction of the city of Firozabad, which will with the passage of time emerge as an envy of great cities, it would require a separate volume for the purpose. Another fort with the name of Fathabad had been constructed in between Hansi, Siristi and Firozabad. It is a stronger fort in the vicinity of Bhatnir. For the benefit of the people, canals have been excavated and brought from long distances, their water has been made to flow and it has been brought to the foot of these forts. With the help of this water, gardens and agriculture had been begun and deserts which were full of the thorns of acacia have now been turned into gardens and flower beds and the process is gaining ground day by day.

‘Afif ... also states that upon arrival into Delhi from Bengal, the town of Firuzabad was "not yet populous" and the kushk (palace) and fort were not yet constructed.

-- The Architecture of Firuz Shah Tughluq, Dissertation Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Philosophy in the Graduate School of The Ohio State University, by William Jeffrey McKibben, B.A., M.A., 1988

May Allah by the grace of the Qu'ranic verse: 'That which benefits the people, remains in the ground' keep and maintain the Sultan of the age and the period, Firoz Shah al Sultan, who is in fact the means of the benefit to the people on the throne of kingship for many years to come. Amin O Lord of the universe.
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Re: Tarikh-i Firoz Shahi, of Ziaud Din Barni/Shams-i Siraj '

Postby admin » Wed Dec 08, 2021 1:10 am


Description of excavating canals that is concerned with public welfare in deserts and uncultivated lands where people would die due to thirst and lack of water and birds and animals too perished due the unavailability of water

[T]he task of identifying the engineer of numerous canals and dams, or builder of the many ba’olis, which remain in northern India, is ambitious, if not impossible. Nonetheless, Firuz Shah’s reputation for undertaking such projects on a grand scale led Firishta to claim 50 dams, 30 reservoirs, 5 wells, 150 bridges and 10 public wells to his credit. In the case of waterworks, such numbers are probably not exaggerated.

-- The Architecture of Firuz Shah Tughluq, Dissertation Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Philosophy in the Graduate School of The Ohio State University, by William Jeffrey McKibben, B.A., M.A., 1988

During the auspicious reign of Firoz Shah, canals like those around the Jamuna and Ganges have been excavated from as far as 50-60 karoh (about two miles) [2 miles long] and made to flow in deserts and wastelands where there has never been any thing like a well (and these canals are so wide that) there arose a need for boats (to cross it).

Firuz Shah is credited with excavating the largest network of canals in India until the 19th century.79 [Raychaudhuri and Habib, Cambridge Economic History, p. 49.] Barani writes in the Ta’rikh-i Firuz Shahi:80 [Barani, Ta'rikh (Bibliotheca Indica), p. 567; translation given in Siddiqui, "Waterworks and Irrigation System in India during Pre-Mughal Times," Islamic Culture (Jan. 1984), p. 13.]
During the auspicious Firuz Shah’s reign, the canals, one hundred and twenty miles long, [120 miles long] were led off from the rivers, the Jamuna and the Ganges. The water flowing through them irrigated the desert and desolate tracts where no well or lake existed [before]. The depth and width [of certain canals] has made the use of boats possible, people travel in boats covering distance from one to the other place.

-- The Architecture of Firuz Shah Tughluq, Dissertation Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Philosophy in the Graduate School of The Ohio State University, by William Jeffrey McKibben, B.A., M.A., 1988

Given the width and great volume of water so brought, the people ride boats and cover distances by this means. Among the sultans of Delhi, God Almighty had vouchsafed the opportunity and ability to undertake this great good work, which is in fact the source and basis of many good things as it provides respite from thirst and lack of water as well as being a means of production of fine grains, sugar cane, gardens and rice, to the Sultan of the age, Firoz Shah al Sultan.

Under the diligent care and noble exertions of the Sultan, flowing water and long canals have appeared in the barren wastelands and burning deserts. In a land where travellers and wayfarers did not dare to set foot in, out of fear of thirst and waterlessness and always travelled with complete preparedness, limiting themselves to travelling only during the nights, in those vast and arid wastelands where there were no ponds, wells and pools and the herds of beasts and flocks of animals perished due to thirst and birds died due to want of water, now this land had been excavated for miles and water flows in it just like on the Ganga and Jamuna. Even if an army alights at the banks of one of the canals that have been dug in pursuance of the orders of the world-protecting king, Firoz Shah al Sultan, and remains put there for ages, it will not lead to any decrease in its waters.

Only God knows how many thousand villages will come up on the banks of these canals with the passage of time and through means of cultivation and sowing, how many kinds of harvests and delicacies will be grown there. Following this abundance, no doubt even prices of commodities will fall. Even today extensive cultivation is being carried out and gardens are being laid and delicacies are being reaped. From the date Hindustan was inhabited, the people of these lands, instead of keeping their animals in villages and habitations kept them moving from place to place and head to any place where they came to know about the existence of water. In this way, throughout the twelve months of the year they continued to live in tents along with their children and women folk. Now after this (development) under the auspicious dominion of Firoz Shah, the inhabitants of these lands would put up their own villages and build houses and they and their children and women would be relieved of the distress of living under the tents. Instead of moth and sesame that they cultivated and took with them to the desert, now they would cultivate with the help of the water, wheat, sugar cane and gram and bring (and store) the harvest in their houses. Due to an abundance of canals which are just like rivers, and enough water to provide for land and community, their animals would multiply. In consequence of the favours of Sultan Firoz Shah, the people of those lands would prosper. Also, because of the expansion of population it will be easier for governors and muqtas to control villages more effectively. Moreover, the realization of revenue from these lands would lead to the stability of the treasury. The people of those territories had never set eyes on sugar cane, wheat, gram, fruits and garden flowers nor had they ever heard about these. As far as sugar, wheat and gram are concerned, the merchants would bring them as part of their merchandise from Delhi and its vicinity and offered them on usual commercial prices. However, the people of these regions never bought sugar and ate wheat and gram except on occasions of feasts and festivities. Now after the digging of numerous royal canals they will cultivate sugar cane, wheat and gram and other such produce and will attain prosperity, also stocking their houses with all kinds of delicacies. When earlier sugar, wheat and gram was brought from the capital of Delhi and its environs to these regions as items of merchandise, now they will be taken from these lands to other areas. This entire region will rest satisfied and at peace in the enjoyment of many good things and will derive much felicity. The people of these regions will be engaged in the prayers for the longevity of the life of this world-protecting ruler who is the originator of this great good thing and the eulogies and praises of Sultan Firoz Shah will be prolonged until the end of time.

The eulogies and acclamations of Firoz Shah are bound to be invested with an eternal quality because in the vast deserts where nothing except thorns and thorny bushes could grow and for miles and miles nothing could be seen except wild gourd, acacia and other thorny plants, one would see now extensive cultivation and plantation of gardens, farming of rice which becomes possible due the abundance of water from canals. And now in those gardens would grow flowers such as the red rose, the hundred petal rose, the flower of the red gooseberry and sewti, etc. Moreover, there will cultivated in these gardens fruits like pomegranate, grapes, apple, melons, orange, jhaneri, fig, lemon, red gooseberry, jhawang, mango, beans and poppy besides black sugar cane and paranda. They also plant there trees of khirni, jamun, tamarind, badhal, cinth, peepal, and flowering plants. Due to the increasing felicity of the ever-increasing royal fortune of Firoz Shah in a very short time, an abundance of every kind of good thing would grow in those lands and which will be brought for sale at the capital of Delhi. The digging of canals is such a good deed that a thousand benefits accrue from it to the people at large -- which will increase with the passage of time. As time passes, more benefits will come the way of the people. Travellers who were obliged to perform their prayers in these lands with tayammum will now he able to.perform the five times prayers with bathing. Moreover those who were obliged to travel in this tract of land at night due to the very hot winds that blow here and were compelled to keep onions suspended from their necks, now can travel easy under the full blaze of day and do not keep with themselves any kind of vessel containing water.

Now both human beings and jinn pray and will continue to pray for the lord of the world for this great work of goodness. Even the wild beasts, animals and birds that have been relieved from thirst also pray and will continue to do so in their own way for the longevity of his life. This is a good deed whose effect will remain among the people for years and ages. This is definitely one of the reasons for the longevity of the life of the king of Islam. The Prophet had said that an act of continuous charity (sadqa-i jaria) that remains among the people for a long time in fact applies both in appearance as well as in meaning to the act of digging canals which continue to flow all the time. In fact, the benefits accruing from the canals of Firoz Shah are such that they could not be expressed through writing or speech. Since I, the author of the Tarikh-i Firoz Shahi, have not witnessed in my life such good deeds from any past king, the benefits of which accrue to all creatures, both men and animals, that I have witnessed from the king of the time and age, Firoz Shah al Sultan, therefore, I say that I don't remember another king who combines the good qualities and excellences in his person as having ascended the throne of Delhi. The Almighty had enabled the Sultan of the age and time, Firoz Shah al Sultan, from among all the kings of the past to do so many acts of goodness whose benefits are greater than each other and has distinguished him with much good fortune and felicity.
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Re: Tarikh-i Firoz Shahi, of Ziaud Din Barni/Shams-i Siraj '

Postby admin » Wed Dec 08, 2021 3:46 am


Description of the stability of regulations whose implementation brought state affairs and imperial interests together in a short time. The dissensions, discord and disturbance that had arisen in the body politic due to a variety of tyrannical and repressive ways were set right in the very first year, as witnessed by the overwhelming majority of masses and elite of the capital city of Delhi

Before the accession of the Sultan of the age, Sultan Firoz Shah al Sultan, to the imperial throne, the territories of Hind and Sind were shaken upside down for a variety of reasons that include famine, epidemic, rebels and insurgents, excessive punishments and hatred and resentment among the people. It had further led to complete chaos in the life of the various sections of society, including elite, masses, the intelligentsia, mystics, clerks, troopers, well known and lesser known people, gentlemen and free people as well as the plebeian, bazaar people and merchants, cultivators and workers and those without any work and every class of people that was badly affected and every community subjected to anarchy and disorder. Many people perished due to famine, others died due to epidemics, many were destroyed as a result of punishments, others abandoned their hearth and home and migrated to distant regions and opted for a life of exile and destitution. Still others left for jungles and took themselves to mountainous regions.

Sultan Sultan Firoz Shah, may his rule be prolonged for a thousand years, introduced a number of regulations and with their help within one year, i.e. in the very first year of his accession, restored such order and managed the affairs of this country that was so badly affected by anarchy and disorder that it appeared as if no famine had ever taken place here nor was it ever affected by any kind of epidemic subjected to harsh punishments and killings or any kind of disorder and chaos. Due to the great felicity and fortunes of Sultan Firoz Shah, in the vast dominions of Hind and Sind from east to west and from north to south, one could see nothing but tranquillity and peace, populated areas, cultivation gardens, vineyards, sown fields, all kinds of profits and advantages, peace, repose, total freedom from sorrow, full enjoyment of life, affluence, pleasures and splendour everywhere. In this reign people are happy and successful with their earnings and income.

The first regulation of the reign of Firoz Shah that was adopted for the betterment of the affairs of state was the renunciation of harsh punishments and killings.
In the ever increasing power of the dominions of Firoz Shah, the blood of any Muslim, monotheist, Sunni, obedient, zimmi (protected people, i.e. non-Muslims), the oppressed, helpless, religious, irreligious had not been shed in the capital in front of the doors of the royal palace.

The Hindus and idol-worshipers had agreed to pay the money for toleration (zar-i zimmiya) and had consented to the poll tax (jizya), in return for which they and their families enjoyed security. These people now erected new idol temples in the city and the environs in opposition to the Law of the Prophet which declares that such temples are not to be tolerated. Under Divine guidance I destroyed these edifices, and I killed those leaders of infidelity who seduced others into error, and the lower orders I subjected to stripes and chastisement, until this abuse was entirely abolished. The following is an instance: — In the village of Maluh there is a tank which they call kund (tank). Here they had built idol-temples, and on certain days the Hindus were accustomed to proceed thither on horseback, and wearing arms. Their women and children also went out in palankins and carts. There they assembled in thousands and performed idol worship. This abuse had been so overlooked that the bazar people took out there all sorts of provisions, and set up stalls and sold their goods. Some graceless Musulmans, thinking only of their own gratification, took part in these meetings. When intelligence of this came to my ears my religious feelings prompted me at once to put a stop to this scandal and offence to the religion of Islam. On the day of the assembling I went there in person, and I ordered that the leaders of these people and the promoters of this abomination should be put to death. I forbad the infliction of any severe punishments on the Hindus in general, but I destroyed their idol temples, and instead thereof raised mosques. I founded two flourishing towns (kasba), one called Tughlikpur, the other Salarpur. Where infidels and idolaters worshiped idols, Musulmans now, by God's mercy, perform their devotions to the true God. Praises of God and the summons to prayer are now heard there, and that place which was formerly the home of infidels has become the habitation of the faithful, who there repeat their creed and offer up their praises to God.

Information was brought to me that some Hindus had erected a new idol-temple in the village of Salihpur, and were performing worship to their idol. I sent some persons there to destroy the idol temple, and to put a stop to their pernicious incitements to error.

Some Hindus had erected a new idol-temple in the village of Kohana
, and the idolaters used to assemble there and perform their idolatrous rites. These people were seized and brought before me. I ordered that the perverse conduct of the leaders of this wickedness should be publicly proclaimed, and that they should be put to death before the gate of the palace. I also ordered that the infidel books, the idols, and the vessels used in their worship, which had been taken with them, should all be publicly burnt. The others were restrained by threats and punishments, as a warning to all men, that no zimmi could follow such wicked practices in a Musulman country.

-- XVII. Futuhat-i Firoz Shahi of Sultan Firoz Shah, Excerpt from The History of India As Told By Its Own Historians: The Muhammadan Period, edited from the posthumous papers of the Late Sir H.M. Elliot, K.C.B., East India Company's Bengal Civil Service, by Professor John Dowson, M.R.A.S., Staff college, Sandhurst, Vol. III, P. 374, 1871

The population grew. As a result, great numbers of people and their vast multitudes belonging to every section of society and every walk of life appeared in the capital city of Delhi. The territories of the dominions got populated and inhabited afresh and peace and tranquillity smiled over the people. I, Zia-i Barani, the author of the Tarikh-i Firoz Shahi, have completed 74 years of my life time, which is equal to two-and-a-half qarn, whenever I go to any mosque where Juma is offered or the congregations of Ids that I attend or any inn where I go, the multitudes of people, the prevalence of peace and tranquillity and the prosperity and affluence of the people make me wonder. Where were so many people with expertise in various fields and from where they have come? I see a large number of ulama, mashaikh, Sufis, students, astanadars, those confined in the corners of the zawias, ascetics, pious, Haidaries and Qalandars and I don't recognize any one of them; I have not seen any one of them before.

One would see many amirs, sipahsalars, notables and eminent people. Clerks who had but vanished like 'anqa (a mythical bird and hence the word is used for anything that is rare) and philosopher's stone could now be seen in plenty. Due to the exemplary dispensation of justice, bounty, extreme kindness and compassion, as well as the concern of the Sultan of the age and time, Firoz Shah al Sultan, for the welfare of the people, many skilled and experienced people gathered together and assembled in such large numbers. I have not seen anything like this in any earlier age. Moreover, I don't remember that ever there have been so many people with such prosperity, affluence, excellent things of life, peace and fearlessness. I know for certain and wise people also know that due to the proclamation of justice and equity and fame of forbearance and modesty and the reputation for kindness and compassion of Sultan Firoz Shah, many who had left now returned, those who hid themselves had come out and those who had fled had returned, those who had scattered had recollected, those who were fearful and afraid were granted quarter, the rebel and recalcitrant turned obedient. In brief, the general resentment and hatred was removed, rebellion and recalcitrance was buried under the ground, the world blossomed and smiled again and the inhabitants prospered and flourished and the affairs of the country were brought together again.

The second regulation of Sultan Firoz Shah that led to the prosperity and affluence of the people of Hind and Sind is that the kharaj and jizya were to be realized in accordance of actual produce (hukm-i hasil) and all kinds of additional demands and imaginary assessments were eliminated from among the people.

Fourth Mukaddama. — Levy of the Jizya from the Brahmans.

*** The Jizya, or poll tax, had never been levied from Brahmans; they had been held excused, in former reigns. But the Sultan convened a meeting of the learned men and elders, suggested to them that an error had been committed in holding Brahmans exempt from the tax, and that the revenue officers had been remiss in their duty. The Brahmans were the very keys of the chamber of idolatry, and the infidels were dependent on them. They ought therefore to be taxed first. The learned lawyers gave it as their opinion that the Brahmans ought to be taxed. The Brahmans of all the four cities then assembled and went to the Kushk-i Shikar, where the Sultan was engaged in building, and represented that the Brahmans had never before been called upon to pay the Jizya, and they wanted to know why they were now subjected to the indignity of having to pay it. They were determined to collect wood and to burn themselves under the walls of the palace rather than pay the tax. When these pleasant words (kalimat i pur naghmat) were reported to the Sultan, he replied that they might burn and destroy themselves at once, for they would not escape from the payment. He could not overlook the matter as former kings had done, and they must give up all hope of it. The Brahmans remained fasting for several days at the palace until they were on the point of death. They clearly perceived that the Sultan did not intend to spare them. The Hindus of the city then assembled and told the Brahmans that it was not right to kill themselves on account of the Jizya, and that they would undertake to pay it for them. In Dehli, the Jizya was of three kinds: 1st class. Forty tankas; 2nd class, Twenty tankas; 3rd class, Ten tankas. When the Brahmans found their case was hopeless, they went to the Sultan and begged him in his mercy to reduce the amount they would have to pay, and he accordingly assessed it at ten tankas and fifty jitals1 [[x]] for each individual.

-- XVI. Tarikh-i Firoz Shahi, of Shams-i Siraj 'Afif, Excerpt from The History of India As Told By Its Own Historians: The Muhammadan Period, edited from the posthumous papers of the Late Sir H.M. Elliot, K.C.B., East India Company's Bengal Civil Service, by Professor John Dowson, M.R.A.S., Staff college, Sandhurst, Vol. III, P. 269-364, 1871

The seekers of muqata'a [boycott; interference; disruption] and those who sought to make higher evaluation were not allowed to come near the 'iqtas and other regions of the dominions.

Revenue that the subjects could pay without any harshness, ill will and resentment, with contentment of heart and mind was considered adequate. With cultivators, who are in fact treasurers of the Bait ul Mal of Muslims, no kind of hardship and oppression was practiced. With the implementation of this regulation, the dominions flourished and almost every karoh farsakh (a league) of land was brought under cultivation, so much so that deserts and plains were also put under cultivation. The result was that cultivated lands were joined together with other cultivated lands and, gardens with other gardens and villages with other villages. The hatred and resentment that was entrenched in the hearts of people was uprooted in one go. Since the kharaj and jizya were fixed on the basis of actual production (hukm-i hasil), no calamity ever befell any amil, mutasarrif or karkun, rather on any muqta and wali, and no arrears ever remained to be paid in the 'iqtas and provinces. The officers were therefore never subjected to demands of the diwan-i wizarat and were not called to account. Therefore, no Muslim was subjected to imprisonment, chains, punishments and disgrace and humiliation. This phenomenon had not been witnessed in any age except during the reign of Sultan Firoz Shah.  

The third regulation of Sultan Firoz Shah through which justice and fair dealing of the Sultan disseminated throughout the royal dominions and the doors of oppression and tyranny were tightly closed, relates to the appointment of helpers, supporters, office holders of the court, governors (walian) and 'iqta holders. Those appointed to these posts were righteous, benefactors, just and equitable. The wicked, oppressors and those who have no fear of God in their hearts were not appointed to any post. Almighty Allah had adorned the Sultan of the age and time, Abul Muzaffar Firoz Shah al Sultan, with excellences of character, excessive kindness and compassion, extreme forbearance and modesty. Therefore, in accordance with the dictum, 'people follow the religion of their rulers,' all the helpers, supporters, and those who enjoy proximity to court, the governors, muqtas and chiefs and commanders of the troops reflect the same traits of character as of the king.

Due to the implementation of this rule, which is in fact the most important of them all, no wicked, depraved, perverse, tyrant, disgraceful, impious and bad tempered person could be appointed over Muslims and zimmis. The good and pious were not subjected to the oppressive rule of the wicked and bad. Due to the implementation of this regulation, the people, both elite and masses, are busy in the praise of the rule of Sultan Firoz Shah. The great majority of subjects want to throw themselves and their wives and children under the feet of the horse of the world-protecting Sultan, may his rule be perpetuated, out of sincerity and loyalty to him. If I, the author of the Tarikh-i Firoz Shahi, wish to put on record the excellent qualities of the helpers, supporters, chiefs and commanders of the army of Sultan Firoz Shah's government, I would not be able to do so as their excellent qualities are too numerous to be recorded. But there are some dignitaries, excellence of whose character must be mentioned in this book. Therefore I have adorned my book with the description of their laudable character and qualities.

Among the princes, mention must be made of the Prince of the world, the great and most respectable Shadi Khan, may his years be prolonged and his status exalted. He is adorned with a praiseworthy character and the etiquettes and qualities of a prince. The lord of the world is extremely pleased with his praiseworthy services and had assigned him the great responsibility of wakil-i dar, which is in fact the biggest responsibility associated with the court, along with a hundred thousand other favours and affections. He is so highly well bred, civil and highly respected and dignified that royal favour continues to increase with every passing moment. May the Almighty prolong the age of the great prince Shadi Khan and may he live long under the care of the Sultan. The other princes have also received titles of khan and have been assigned big 'iqtas, but they are still tender in age and are learning the Qur'an and calligraphy. Till date their establishments have not been put up separately and absolute authority (hukm-i mutlaq) has not yet been granted to them and their deputies look after their 'iqtas and troops. May our princes enjoy a happy and long life under the eyes of the king of the world and may every one of them have the distinction of ruling over a country and a region. Amin!

Since they are being educated and trained in the etiquettes of command and leadership under the supervision of the lord of the world, it is expected that they will rise to positions of leadership and command.

One (of them) conquers the world like Alexander
The other attains eternal life like Khizr.
Yet another brings Iraq and Khorasan under his subjugation
The other one finds the invincible skies at his door steps

This is particularly true about Fath Khan who is the light of the eyes of the Emperor. While he is still only six years old, he is adorned with the etiquettes of princes and qualities of leadership and dignity and is in fact a rare person among the princes. I, an old well wisher of the Emperor, am particularly an object of his special kindness. May Allah grant him long life under the eyes of the Emperor and vouchsafe to him the kingdom of a country. Amin!

As far as the brothers of the Emperor are concerned, every one of them is worthy of a thousand praises and applauses. No relationship could be esteemed to be better, nobler and higher in status than the brotherhood of the king and that too the King of Islam, as this relationship is undoubtedly the best and the highest of all relationships. However, in spite of this great honour they are adorned with excellence of character, the gift of gratefulness and a commitment to discharge their obligations and duties and faithfulness. They are in fact fountainheads of grace and a source of justice and equity and thereby they have attained a very high status.

One of the brothers of the lord of the world is Qutb ul Haq wal Din, who is not only a malik but in fact resembles a malak (angel) in his attributes. He is one of the great maliks and elders of the court and is adorned with praiseworthy qualities and attributes as well as characteristics of extreme kindness, compassion and of being God fearing. It could well be the case that even the thought of causing injury or oppression to some one had not ever crossed his mind and even an ant would not have been harmed by him in his entire life. Most of the time this most venerated and highly respected malik could be seen busy dispensing charities and alms of the King of Islam. He is dependable, both in matters of religion as well as state. He always remains engaged in providing succour to those who have no support and extending and to the helpless. He had never been seen committing anything which is prohibited by religion.

The second brother of the lord of the world is Malik al Sharq (malik of the east) Fakhr al Daulah wal Din, the helper of Islam and Muslims, the malik of angelic qualities, Malik Ibrahim, naib-i barbak, may Allah strengthen his position. The dependence of the king on him in matters of state and his kindness and favours in his regard are more manifest than the sun. Out of the great consideration in which he is held by the lord of the world, Malik Naib has been given a very important assignment. An important aspect of this assignment relates to his responsibility to bring to the notice of kings, the problems of the needy. Due to the great imperial favour in which he is held, he always brings the needs of the people to the notice of the king and takes orders from the Sultan for the redress of their problems.

He also holds the same responsibility as that of Gabriel
In the presence of the lord of the world
No one has ever seen any unlawful action
being committed by this malik of angelic attributes.

As far as those whom the lord of the world had chosen from among the group of maliks and had distinguished them with titles of Khan and assignment of chatr (umbrella) and dur bash (baton), the imperial kindness and favour in their case and their loyalty and good wishes for the king is beyond description. One of them is Ulugh Qutlugh Azam Humayun Khan-i Jahan Wazir-i Mamalik Maqbul Sultani, may God perpetuate his exaltedness. For six years, the wizarat of the dominions had been entrusted to him and complete control of the diwan-i wizarat handed over to him and he had been granted absolute authority. The favours and special treatment that the lord of the world had vouchsafed to Azam Khan-i Jahan, had not been granted by any ruler of the capital of Delhi to the wazir of his time. His closeness to the king is such that it could not be put into words. Since the attributes of gratitude and faithfulness are embodied in the person of Khan-i Jahan to perfection, he considers himself inferior to the humblest of the humble servants of the royal threshold. It is always his desire to sacrifice his entire household and establishment on one of the servants of the king. His dealings in the diwan-i wizarat are such that all the dues of Bait ul Mal should reach the treasury and the payers never feel harassed by the severity of demand.

The second person who is held in special consideration at the august court is Tatar Khan Bahadur, the slave of amir ul muminin, may his status increase.
In matters of sincerity, gratefulness and faithfulness to the king, he has surpassed all the maliks and amirs. Consequently, he has been distinguished with a very high status in the consideration of the king. In the service of the king, his status and proximity are above all other maliks. In addition to the title of Khan, which is the source of worldly dignity, he combines in his person qualities of piety, devoutness, modesty, holiness, engagement in the sciences of Hadith and fiqh (jurisprudence), prudence of opinion and grace of temperament. All this had made him a rare personality among the khans and maliks of the past and present. One person who had combined worldliness with religiosity is Tatar Khan, may God strengthen his position.

The third person among the elders, who is a recipient of a very large portion of the favours of the king, is Malik al Sadat, Sadr al Sudur-i Jahan Jalal al Haq wal Din Kirmani, may God perpetuate his glory. By lineage he is a descendant of the Prophet and the light of the eye of Murtaza (Ali). However in knowledge, he is the Ghazali of the time and Razi of the age.
Due to the extreme kindness of the king who is the protector of religion and an asylum for it, the status of the Sadral Sudur-i Jahan Jalal al Din is above any other sadr-i jahan of the past who had ever occupied the chair of the justice of the capital city of Delhi. The King of Islam, may God perpetuate his rule and kingdom, had given him absolute authority in matters relating to the Shari'at and had assigned to him the power of granting stipends and gifts to the class of ulama of the capital city of Delhi and the rest of the imperial dominions. It is entirely dependent upon the order of Dar al Qaza. Since the Sultan of the age and time, Firoz Shah al Sultan, had surpassed all the rulers of the inhabited world in the veneration of the household of the Prophet and in love for his descendants and had risen to a very high status in this regard, whether it concerns sadr-i jahan or other Saiyids who have descended from Fatima and showers upon them greatest favours and consideration. It was because of his love for the Saiyids that he granted Khudawand Khan, i.e. the late Khudawandzada Qiwam al Din Tirmizi chatr, durbash and other insignia of kingship. His nephew, Malik Saif al Mulk, who is a descendant of the Prophet, is the Amir-i Shikar of the world-protecting King. Malik al Sadat Ashrafal Mulk, who is a light of the eye of Zahra (Fatima) and the pupil and light of the eye of Asadullah (Ali) is highly venerated in the reign of the King of Islam and is honoured with the high office of Niyabat-i Wakil-i Dar. He continues to receive incessant kingly favours. Saiyid al Sadat Ala ud Din Saiyid Rasul Dad is one of those people who are close to the court and is a recipient of many kingly favours and graces. Because of the great faith of the King and the resultant favours, all the Saiyids of the capital city of Delhi and those of the imperial dominions are distinguished with awards, offices, lands and villages and are held in great respect. One could say that all the Saiyids have received a new lease of life and are busy praying for the long life of the king.

Those who have been included in the favours of Sultan Firoz Shah due to their old services and have attained the status of great maliks and have in turn acquired the status of supporters and helpers of the king and progressed to high positions, are many. All of them are adorned with admirable qualities and are possessed of justice and equity and are well known for their good works and charities. However, even in this condition of glory and success, no unworthy act and untoward behaviour has ever been seen to have been committed by them.

In this regard particular mention may be made of Malik Sharaf Imad al Mulk Bashir Sultani 'Arz-i Mamalik, may God perpetuate his authority and power. He is adorned with attributes of grandeur, prestige, compassion and kindness. Diwan-i 'Arz [the Department of Military] Mamalik, which is in fact the source of livelihood of fighters of the religion (mujahidan-i din) and the devout, is adorned and decorated with the auspicious person of this malik of approved qualities. I am a witness and others also with that for the last several years Malik al Sharq Bashir Sultan is more kind to the troopers, who are protectors of both religion and state, than their mothers and fathers. Since he is among the closest and old servants of the Sultan, are submissions he makes to him regarding the welfare of the troops are invariably accepted. It is due to the ever increasing authority of the world protecting king that after decades such an Imad ul Mulk has been appointed over the troops, who is a virtual mine of kindness and compassion.

Another close and distinguished servant of the sublime court is Malik ul Umara Malik Shikar Bak Wimlan. He is an old imperial servant and is possessed of approved qualities, gratefulness and faithfulness. It is because of these qualities that he had become very close to the royal throne and is held in special consideration. It happens quite often that he reaches out to the hapless and destitute with the charities of the king and takes the supplications and submissions of the needy to his notice. Since he is an old servant and is very close to the King and his supplications are accepted, the guilty get a reprieve through his intercession. Malik Shikar Bak Wimlan Sultani, may he attain more proximity and consideration as the days pass in the life giving estimation of the King of Islam, had rendered great assistance to me, the author of the Tarikh-i Firoz Shahi, and said such things in my favour which only some one like him could say in my favour before the throne. Malik Shikar Bak, may God strengthen him, was assigned a very large number of troops and big 'iqtas. Due to the purity of his character and excellence of valour, his troopers and the subjects of his 'iqtas lead a carefree life of peace, prosperity, affluence and contentment. They keep busy, praying for the longevity of the life and power of the king of the world.

The other noble who has been raised by the world-protecting court and who is included among the old and close servants of the king, is Malik Mustaufi Iftikhar al Mulk, Naib-i Gujarat.
For years he had served the court and is among the rare personalities of the age as far as gratefulness, faithfulness, skill, expertise, good advice and the ability not to cause harm to any one is concerned. Due to royal favour and consideration he has been appointed as the naib of Gujarat. With his great tact and efficiency, kindness and compassion, justice and equity he brought such a big country which was ravaged by so many disturbances and rebellions under control. He organized the revenue administration of this region so effectively that every year several lakhs began to reach the treasury, may Allah enhance it.

Yet another noble who had been raised and patronized by the world-protecting court, is Malik Mahmud Bak who has been honoured with the title of Sher Kahn.
He is the recipient of many royal favours and considerations. This Sher Khan is included among the old amirs and maliks. He has passed the age of 90 years and is nbw approaching the hundred. Since the time of his father, who was also included among the great amirs, the family had been known for its loyalty, faithfulness and fidelity to the throne and had never been involved in any kind of rebellion, sedition and recalcitrance. This quality is highly valued among the amirs and maliks. Their children and grandchildren have derived much benefit from their faithfulness because this quality is appreciated by kings. One is amazed to think that ever since the time when he was sipahsalar and amir, till date when he is a Malik and his age has reached in the vicinity of a hundred years, he had never participated in any kind of rebellion and sedition and had led his entire life in loyalty and fidelity.

Another amir who was patronized by the sublime court is the exalted khan, Muazzam Khan who is honoured with the deputyship (niyabat) of wizarat, which is among the most important assignments after the wizarat in the exalted Diwan, may God elevate and exalt him. Almighty God had adorned him with qualities of honesty, decency and rectitude. He has memorized the glorious Qur'an and is unparalleled in the recitation of the Holy Book. He recites the Qur'an both in prayers and outside it in a way that deeply affects listeners and tears begin to roll from their eyes. A khan, a malik of this description is indeed a rarity among khans and maliks. Besides, he does not have a parallel in matters of expertise, efficiency, courage, bravery and generosity.

Another amir whom the Emperor had patronized and vouchsafed with many favours and kindnesses and had assigned the 'iqta of Multan to, is Ain ul Mulk Mahru who is adorned with praiseworthy qualities and many attributes of proficiency, skill, efficiency and discretion. He is well versed in many scholarly sciences and stands out for excellence of character and good qualities. He could be in fact included among those who impart equilibrium to the things they touch and the people they patronize and favour. He is noble by temperament and by lineage and is included among those who have been selected and patronised by Sultan Firoz Shah and has been assigned the niyabat of the territory of Multan. The consideration in which he is held by the Sultan is beyond description.

There are two other great gentlemen whose ancestors have held the command of toman (amiran-i toman) since the days of Chengiz Khan. Their forebears have always enjoyed great respect and esteem and now they have been included among the select who are distinguished by royal favours and consideration. They spend their days and nights in service of the throne and hold positions of intimacy in the royal presence. Their proximity to the royal presence is in fact beyond description. Since they are adorned with qualities of dignity and decorum and have descended from a distinguished lineage, their position at the court continues to increase. One of these two elders is a descendant of the great men of China and Khuta, Amir Qutbugha Amir-i Mahan (the great amir). The late Sultan Muhammad bin Tughlaq Shah held him in great respect and addressed him as Amir-i Mahan. He would very often say that Amir Qutbugha is the grandson of Amir Taman who had defeated Khan-i Shaheed and there was no other nobleman like him in entire Mughalistan. He embraced Islam and by nature is very upright. He deserved to be always distinguished with a high status. Traits like betrayal and disloyalty have never been witnessed from him. His faith in Islam is very firm. He had never shed anybody's blood unjustly. It is obligatory to hold him in respect and reverence.

The other revered Malik is Amir Ahmad Iqbal who is (a descendant of the) most distinguished nobles of Chengiz Khan. By ancestry he is an amir and son of amirs. Personally he is greatly respected and revered. Besides, he is faithful, keen to discharge his obligations, a sincere servant and well wisher of the Emperor. Our king is extremely well disposed towards him and had bestowed many favours upon him. He is worthy of distinction and leadership. He continues to be honoured by our king with successive largesses and favours. His closeness to this court is beyond description.

The only purpose of my giving the account of some of the helpers and supporters of Sultan Firoz Shah is to highlight that an age in which elders, those who are close to the court and the muqtas and walis of that period possessed of good character and of approved qualities, adorned with attributes of equity, justice, religiosity, piety, kindness and compassion, and an age in which the wicked, depraved, oppressors and tyrants have no role to play in the administrative affairs of the king of the time, is such an age, the affairs of the state and matters relating to governance are bound to take a correct course. The account of such a king and his supporters and helpers becomes worthy of description in the books of history and their glories continue to last until the end of time.
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Re: Tarikh-i Firoz Shahi, of Ziaud Din Barni/Shams-i Siraj '

Postby admin » Wed Dec 08, 2021 4:56 am


Describing some conquests of the king of the age and time Firoz Shah al Sultan and the account of the march of the royal standards towards Lakhnauti, conquest of Lakhnauti and capturing the mountain-like elephants and enormous booty from those regions and subservience and submission of the ruler of that region to the royal court

In the very first year of the accession of Sultan Firoz Shah, while he was busy in matters of state and putting affairs of the inhabitants of the world to some kind of order and system with his justice and compassion, it was brought to the royal notice that Ilyas, the ruler (zabit) of Lakhnauti, who had usurped that region by force, had during this period collected a large number of payak and dhanuk of the waterlogged Bangala and out of sheer shortsightedness invaded the region of Tirhut causing much agony to both Muslims and non-Muslims (zimmis) of those territories.

Intoxicated by rebellion and lust for plunder and pillage and also having captured power through force, he had lost his senses and was busy destroying and despoiling those regions and causing much harassment to Muslims and other subjects. Due to the extreme depravity that had got hold of that most wicked person, he was devastating cities of Muslims. Since concern for religion, an honourable sense of duty towards the defence of the territories of Islam, kingly traits of vengefulness and conquest and royal qualities of the lord of the world that Firoz Shah had imbibed from the Prophet's cousin and Commander of the faithful in matters of kingship and affairs of the state, he came out of the capital city of Delhi with mighty armies and marched towards Lakhnauti and Pandawa. With forced marches he reached the region of Awadh. All the rayas, ranas and muqaddams of Hindustan who had resorted to rebellion and hid themselves for years before the accession of Sultan Firoz Shah, followed the royal standards towards Lakhnauti with their horsemen and infantry willingly and on their own accord. As a result, there was a very large number of people who assembled in the royal camp. The royal standard crossed the river Sarju with a great multitude of people for which it is difficult to form an estimate. Ilyas, the ruler of Lakhnauti, and his supporters came to know about the arrival of the royal standards in the region and consequently returned from these territories to Tirhut. In his fermented mind he was toying with the idea of giving fight to the imperial troops but now realized the gravity of the situation and opted to escape. When under divine protection, the King of Islam crossed river Sarju and the sky-reaching imperial standard cast its shadow over the regions of Kharosa and Gorakhpur and the victorious armies entered the territories of the Rayas, Ilyas, the ruler of Pandawa lost hope and speedily retired from Tirhut to Pandawa and got busy strengthening his position. When the royal standards reached Gorakhpur and Kharosa, the Rai of Gorakhpur who is a very powerful rai as also the Rai of Kharosa, who have been paying revenue to the shiq of Awadh before the general discord has set in that resulted into conflict and disturbances and now for several years had taken resort to rebellion and had withheld the revenue. When the royal standard reached there, these rais presented themselves before the imperial threshold and made enormous offerings that could not be counted and kissed the dust of the court. The Rai of Gorakhpur, besides other offerings, also presented elephants. The Sultan bestowed upon him chatr, crown, a bejewelled and goldplated gown, and good horses. Some other big muqaddams who had the status of rana were also granted robes. The Rai of Kharosa also made offerings commensurate with his chieftaincy and was granted a robe along with the muqaddams of his territory and received a robe of special favour. These rais, out of sincerity turned obedient and submissive to the sublime court. They paid to the treasury of the army many lakhs of silver tankas in the arrears of the last several years and for the future accepted a fixed amount of revenue and gave a written bond of their obligation of revenue to the Diwan. The collectors of revenue for their regions were appointed by the Sultan. These rais followed the royal army towards Lakhnauti and Pandawa with all their horsemen and foot soldiers.

The royal armies rested for few days in the territories of these rais and they exerted themselves to the best of their abilities in acts of obedience and submission. Out of regard for their obedience and submissive attitude as well as out of royal kindness and compassion, orders were issued to the victorious armies not to subject any of their villages to plunder and pillage and they were directed to be set free if any one had been taken as slave from there. When the royal standard commenced its march from the territories of those Rais towards Lakhnauti and Pandawa and Ilyas came to know about the imminent arrival of the royal troops, he abandoned the extravagant idea of giving fight and preferred to run away as soon as possible and retired to Pandawa. However, overcome by the fear of the imperial armies, he did not stay even there. There is a place near Pandawa by the name of Ekdila, which is surrounded by water on one side and forests on the other. He went to this place, fortified himself there and took all the able-bodied men along with women and children and hiding himself there, engaged in ensuring his protection. Due to the fear and terror of the King of Islam and the forays and raids of victorious armies, one would say that his soul had left his body and the bodies of his horsemen and footmen.
In fact they saw their death in the mirror of experience and spent their days in Ekdila under conditions of extreme bewilderment and panic. The royal standards reached from Gorakhpur to Jagat and from there leisurely marched to Tirhut. The rai of Tirhut and ranas and zamindars of those territories presented themselves at the court and made offerings and were awarded robes of honour. The region of Tirhut therefore turned to be obedient and submissive to the imperial authority as it ever has been and it did not receive any injury from the hands of the armies of Islam. Officers to oversee implementation of the Shari'at and other affairs were appointed by royal decree and that region was reconciled and reorganized.

From Tirhut the royal standards proceeded towards Pandawa with forced marches. Ilyas, the ruler of Lakhnauti, had earlier vacated Pandawa along with his troops and inhabitants of Pandawa and had hid himself in Ekdila. Ilyas and his counsellors concluded among themselves that the rainy season was approaching and as the entire region is extremely low lying it could get waterlogged and become a breeding ground for big gnats, so much so that the royal armies would not be able to stay there or the horses withstand them. With the monsoons set to begin soon, they felt the Sultan would be forced to return from these lands along with his armies. With this calculation Ilyas went to Ekdila along with the people and his troops and made it his safe haven. When the royal armies reached Pandawa, the lord of the world issued orders to the effect that those hapless people who had remained there should not be harmed in any way. Moreover, the gardens of Ilyas were not to be burnt and destroyed and no injury was to be caused to Pandawa. Some of the horsemen and soldiers of the infantry of the vanguard entered Pandawa but did not cause any harm to the people of Pandawa. Some of the foot soldiers, however, put to sword the rebels who were hiding in the residence of Ilyas and plundered the horses which they found there. The royal troops alighted near the bank of the river opposite Ekdila and the armies of Islam pitched their camp in the plain. Orders were issued from the court for people to construct Kankhar and make preparations to cross the river. They were asked to build ships, bridges and other means that could facilitate people to cross the water in all haste. The lord of the world observed that when the preparations for the crossing were complete, orders would be issued for people to cross it in one go and launch a ferocious attack against Ekdila and overrun the place and turn it upside down. When the people had constructed the Kankhar, preparations were set afoot for crossing the water as soon as possible and overrun Ekdila. Due to the piety of the king, it occurred to him that when the royal army would cross the river and overrun the place, that kind of general assault will lead to the massacre of a large number of people, both guilty and innocent, and due to the rebellion of Ilyas, the blood of many innocent Muslims would be shed. Muslim and Sunni women would fall into the hands of ruffians, payaks and dhanuk, polytheists and idolaters and their chastity would be violated. The lives of Alavis, learned (danishmand), Sufis, students, durweshes, recluses, strangers and travellers would be wasted and the properties of the innocent, oppressed and hapless people would be pillaged by the reckless troopers. This was especially so in a situation when the evil of the rebels and the crime of the seditious could not be dealt with effectively without a general assault as they had fortified their position with the jungles and the river. Preoccupied with such thoughts, which are the consequence of piety and right faith, he used to supplicate after every prayer with great humility and earnestness to the Almighty to inspire Ilyas to come out of Ekdila with the rebel army and confront the army of Islam. These night prayers of the King of Islam were graced with acceptance. The noise and tumult of the people gave Ilyas and those close to him an impression that the army had returned to the city. And since divine perdition had caught up with them they did not investigate the news of the return of the army. Because of the intoxicated and fermented condition of mind and conceit, Ilyas came out of Ekdila along with his elephants, cavalry and infantry and with the intention of giving fight, took up position in the plain and put the elephants in front. Due to great conceit and arrogance he stood up in front of the army of Islam commenced fighting. The king of Islam first offered two rak'ats of prayer for thanksgiving that his prayers had met with divine acceptance, because of which the wicked were separated from the innocent and the rebels did come to the plain ready to give fight. He thanked and praised Allah for this and rode with the intention of offering battle.

When the fighters and the rank breakers of the army of Islam happened to see those luckless people whose fortunes had deserted them, it was like hunters seeing the herds of deer and stags in the plain and being gladdened because they visualized them as already tied to their saddle straps. Similarly, they were also pleased and imagined these rebels to have been trampled under the hooves of their horses and reduced to smithereens. Since they were convinced that they were in the right and the rebels were in the wrong and they had transgressed the limits of propriety and equity, therefore, they were strengthened by the hope of divine help. In the meanwhile those unfortunate people advanced a distance of a few arrow shots in front of the armies of Islam. The world-conquering king issued orders to some of the troops to launch an assault upon those ill-fated ones. Surrounding them, the armies of Islam took their swords out of their sheaths and raising their voices with takbir, in their very first assault completely defeated the armies of Ilyas, the ruler of Lakhnauti, who out of sheer arrogance nursed vain ideas about his entitlement to rule, with all his helpers, supporters, cavalry and infantry and completely routed it, caused rivers of blood to flow. In the very beginning of the battle, they seized chatr, fly whisk, kettledrum, and the standard of the ruler of Lakhnauti along with 40 elephants. Ilyas, who had insolently entertained absurd ideas of sovereignty was defeated in the twinkle of an eye and fled in such a disorderly manner that he could not distinguish the bridle from the crupper and stirrup from the wing.

The warriors of the army of Islam cut and hacked the heads of the horsemen and footmen of Ilyas as ripe grain is cut by the sickle and in a very little time huge piles of the bodies of the slain came up. The awe of the warriors of Islam had rendered the rebels dumb and deaf, so much so that they lost their senses and became so confused that they were unable to find a way of escape and could not distinguish the right from the left and discern a way of retreat. They received the blows of the swords of the warriors of Islam and soldiers of the religion and surrendered their souls to the custodians of hell. The renowned payaks of Bengal, who for years had got themselves addressed as the fathers of Bengal, and posed as brave men and had taken the bira from Ilyas the sweeper to prove their bravery, in front of that mad man they exerted themselves along with the reputed Rayas of Bengal. However, on the day of encounter confronted with the vanquishers of lions, they were so overawed that they threw swords and arrows from their hands, rubbed their foreheads on the ground and were consumed by the swords of the royal army. Hardly a watch (pas) of the day had passed and the entire plain was already full of the slain and everywhere mounds and heaps appeared. The army of Islam emerged victorious and countless booty fell into their hands, while not a single hair on the head of any one of them was twisted. They returned triumphant and laden with spoils of war.

When the time of the evening prayer drew near and that kind of great victory was achieved by the grace of the Almighty and signs of victory became quite visible, the king alighted in the royal pavilion and orders were issued to the victorious troops to rest in their own camps. Those important people of the ruler of Lakhnauti who were taken as prisoners were brought before the royal pavilion with their hands tied to their necks or behind their backs along with the chatr, fly whisk, other insignia of royalty and 44 elephants, as well as horses with saddles and without saddles. The elephants were paraded before the Sultan's throne and the spectators were struck with awe at seeing such mountain-like elephants. Old elephant keepers and elephant drivers of the royal stables were unanimous in declaring that they had never seen such magnificent elephants, every one of which was a mountain of iron and had a body of brass. Such elephants have never been brought to Delhi at any time and in any age. While watching the parade of elephants in front of the throne with the amirs and maliks, the Lord of the world observed that:

These elephants were in fact the cause of the affliction of Ilyas, the ruler of Lakhnauti and nurtured kingly arrogance in his mind. This put him on the course of conflict with the armies of Delhi. Now that he has been relieved of them he would not be lured by these temptations any more. He would now approach the royal court with complete sincerity and would invariably send all kinds of offerings and gifts to Delhi. Elephants and that too mount-like elephants like these are bound to breed vain ideas in the mind, particularly if they fall in the hands of a person who is not trained to think about the consequences of matters. Great kings have observed that elephants are meant only for the imperial stables because the kingship of such kings belongs as a matter of right. But in case few elephants fall into the hands of a reckless usurper one does not know how many calamities would lay their eggs in his head and it is more likely that these few elephants would lead to his downfall and destruction and he would be no more.

After this, orders were issued to take these elephants and the horses to the royal stables and the amirs and elders of the army of the ruler of Lakhnauti who were apprehended were to be given under the care of a commander (salar). Most of the time the Lord of the world remained awake and continued to offer prayers of thanksgiving and rendered thanks to the Almighty for this divine victory. The day after this victory, the common people of the victorious army, may God help them, both elite and commoners, horsemen and footmen, Muslims and Hindus, the bazaar people and troopers formed a crowd in front of the royal tent and submitted that Ekdila should be ravaged and this place along with the supporters of Ilyas be turned upside down. However, due to extreme piety, the Lord of the world did not allow the people of the army to ravage Ekdila. He observed that the majority of those who had rebelled and were at the root of the sedition were killed in the course of the battle. Moreover, the elephants which were the cause of the rebellion and disloyalty of Ilyas have been taken over in their entirety. It was being said, 'Almighty had granted us victory and now the rainy season is at hand. Now our sole concern is that all the Muslims and those who are present in the army of Islam and are safe till now should remain safe and may reach their hearth and home safe and sound. After such victory, taking such extreme postures is not desirable.'

The crowd that had assembled in front of the royal tent were turned back. The royal army headed for the capital city of Delhi and with forced marches reached the vicinity of Tirhut and Jagat. During that time officials were appointed in those territories. A general order was issued to free all the slaves who had fallen in the hands of the army of Islam from the territories of Bengal. From there the royal standards reached the banks of Sarju and the victorious army crossed the river with ease and riding the crest of victory, reached Zafarabad. Here the governors, amirs, rayas and muqaddams of the territories of Hindustan who were requisitioned for the campaign of Lakhnauti and Pandawa, were allowed to return to their own territories. When the royal standard reached the territories of Kara and Manikpur and crossed the Ganges, the elders and eminent people of Manikpur were honoured and many of them were granted 'iqtas, positions and retinue, the requests of the Saiyids, ulama and the people of Kara and Manikpur were acceded to. The poor and the needy of those regions were given ample alms. From there the royal standard reached Kol under divine protection. The poor and the needy people of the towns received royal alms. The elders, eminent people, officials and officers began to arrive at Kol in great numbers and in groups to offer congratulations for the victory. They were received with consideration and granted robes of honour. Azam Humayun Khan-i Jahan arrived in the vicinity of Jhajjar and Chandosh to offer congratulations accompanied by maliks, amirs, officers of Diwan-i Wizarat, kotwals, shahnas of the city, sadrs and sadr-i jahan and kissed the ground in front of the royal tents. The royal standard crossed the river at the ford of Qabulpur under divine protection and security. While the royal army was camped at Qabulpur, Azam Humayun made so many precious offerings including gold, silver, horses of Arab and Tartarian extraction of wide girth and with their backs without saddles in such numbers that the plain could hardly contain them. The eyes of spectators were dazzled from the spectacle of such a great variety of offerings. On 12 Sha'ban 757 royal standards arrived in the capital city of Delhi in a most auspicious and propitious moment after having achieved a great victory.

The elephants and horses had reached the royal stables from the victory of Lakhnauti and Pandawa and the nobles, elders and those who were close to Ilyas, the ruler of Lakhnauti, who were taken into custody were paraded in thoroughfares of the capital city of Delhi and the spectators of the city, both elite and masses, troops and market people, Muslims and Hindus, men and women as well as children and aged people rejoiced over the booty of Lakhnauti.
Arches were erected in the city and [/size] offerings were made for the safe arrival of the Lord of the world with such a great victory. In every locality there were feastings, songs were sung and people danced for joy on roads and in the streets. Since the overwhelming majority of people are sincere well wishers and completely devoted to the imperial court of Firoz Shah, [size=115]they could not contain their happiness and the hearts of the Sunnis were overjoyed at the spectacle of the booty that was captured from the rebels. They prayed for the Lord of the world and praised him.

The Lord of the world, may Allah perpetuate his authority and kingdom, granted imperial favours to the citizens of the city. Orders were issued to take big bags, full of money, to the congregational mosques and big graveyards and give alms to the needy, poor, paupers, indigent and destitute of the capital city of Delhi who had remained engaged in praying for the victory of the religion protecting king. The ulama of the capital received gifts, khanqahs of the saints received futuh, and astanadars received tabarruk. The King of Islam visited the mausoleums of the saints along with the army that was blessed with divine victory and distributed alms there. The safe, victorious and triumphant arrival of the royal standards laden with booty set the hearts of the people of the capital and the imperial dominions at rest. After this victory, Ilyas, the ruler of Lakhnauti, witnessing the might of the armies of Islam turned obedient and expressed sentiments of sincerity and well wishing. He had twice sent offerings and plenty of gifts at the hands of trusted people of those lands to the court and also wrote a letter of submission.
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