A New System/Analysis of Ancient Mythology, by Jacob Bryant

That's French for "the ancient system," as in the ancient system of feudal privileges and the exercise of autocratic power over the peasants. The ancien regime never goes away, like vampires and dinosaur bones they are always hidden in the earth, exercising a mysterious influence. It is not paranoia to believe that the elites scheme against the common man. Inform yourself about their schemes here.

Re: A New System/Analysis of Ancient Mythology, by Jacob Bry

Postby admin » Mon Mar 07, 2022 2:59 am

Part 3 of 3

The city of Babel, where was the scene of those great occurrences which we have been mentioning, was begun by Nimrod and enlarged by his posterity. It seems to have been a great seminary of idolatry; and the tower, a stupendous building, was erected in honour of the sun, and named the Tower of Bel. Upon the confusion of speech, both the city and tower were called Babel; the original appellation not being obliterated but contained in the latter. And as the city was devoted to the worship of the sun, it was also called the city of Bel-On, five civitas Dei Solis, which was afterwards changed to Babylon. From these terms, I think, we may learn the nature of the judgment inflicted at the time of the dispersion. It did not consist in an utter change of language but, as I have said before, it was a labial failure; an alteration in the mode of speech. It may be called the prevarication of the lip, which had lost all precision, and perverted every sound that was to be expressed. Instead of Bel it pronounced Babel; instead of Bel-on, Babylon; hence Babel, amongst other nations, was used as a term to signify a faulty pronunciation [x]. The Hebrews, says4 [Ant. L. i. c. 4.] Josephus, by the word Babel denote confusion of speech. These terms seem ever afterwards to have been retained, even by the natives, in confirmation of this extraordinary history; and the city, as long as it existed, was called Babylon, or the City of Confusion.

The tower of Babel was probably a rude mound of earth raised to a vast height, and cased with bricks which were formed from the soil of the country, and cemented with asphaltus or bitumen. There are several edifices of this sort still to be seen in the region of Babylonia. They are very like the brick pyramids in Egypt, and between every ninth or tenth row of plinths they have a layer of straw, and sometimes the smaller branches of palm. Travellers have had the curiosity to put in their hands and to extract some of the leaves and straws, which appear wonderfully fresh and perfect, though they have lain there for so many ages. Many have been led to think that one or other of these buildings was the original tower of Babel. But ancient writers are unanimous that it was overthrown, and that Nimrod perished in it. This was the opinion of Syncellus.5 [P. 42.] [x]

But Nimrod would still obstinately stay and reside upon the spot; nor could he by any means be withdrawn from the tower, still having the command over no contemptible body of men. Upon this, we are informed, that the tower being beat upon by violent winds gave way, and by the just judgment of God crushed him to pieces.


Cedrenus also mentions it as a current notion that Nimrod perished in the6 [[x] Cedrenus. p. 11. See Joseph. Ant. L. i. c. 4.] tower. But this, I think, could not be true; for the term of Nimrod's life, extend it to the utmost of Patriarchic age after the flood, could not have sufficed for this. And though writers do assert that the tower was overthrown, and the principal person buried in its ruins -- and it must be confessed that ancient mythology has continual allusions to some such event -- yet I should imagine that this related to the overthrow of the deity there worshiped, and to the extirpation of his rites and religion rather than to any real person. The fable of Vulcan who was thrown down from heaven and cast into the sea is founded upon this story. He was supposed to have been the son of Juno, and detested by his mother, who threw him down with her own hands.

7 [Homer. Hymn to Apollo, v. 317. It related probably to the abolition of fireworship at the destruction of Babel.] [x]

My crippled offspring Vulcan I produced:
But soon I seiz'd the miscreant in my hands,
And hurled him headlong downward to the sea.


Many writers speak of him as being thrown off from the battlements of a high tower by Jupiter; and there is a passage to this purpose in Homer which has embarrassed commentators, though I do not think it very obscure if we consider the history to which it relates.

8 [Iliad. L. A. v. 591.] [x]


The poet, who was a zealous copier of ancient mythology, mentions that Vulcan was cast down by Jupiter from an eminence. He says that he was thrown [x], which must certainly signify [x], or [x], for the sentence is manifestly elliptical.

He seiz'd him by the foot, and headlong threw
From the high tower of Belus.


This is the purport of the passage; and it is consonant to all history.

The Giants, whom Abydenus makes the builders of Babel, are by other writers represented as the Titans. They are said to have received their name from their mother Titaea9 [Diod. Sicul. L. 3. p. 190. [x]. Orphic. Frag. p. 375.] [x] by which we are to understand that they were all denominated from their religion and place of worship. I have taken notice of some of the ancient altars which consisted of a conical hill of earth, styled oftentimes from its figure [x], a mound, or hill, in the shape of a woman's breast. Titaea ([x]) was one of these. It is a term compounded of10 [Tit is analogous to [x], Tid, of the Chaldeans. So Titurus was from Tit-Ur, [x]. The priests so famous for their music were from hence styled Tituri. It was sometimes expressed Tith-Or; hence the summit of Parnassus had the name of Tithorea, being sacred to Orus, the Apollo of Greece. Pausan. L. 10. p. 878. There were places named Titaresus from Tit-Ares, the same as Tit-Orus. [x]. Hesych.] Titaea; and signifies literally a breast of earth, analogous to [x] of the Greeks. These altars were also called Tit-an, and Tit-anis, from the great fountain of light styled An, and Anis. Hence many places were called Titanis and11 [At Sicyon was a place called Titana. Steph. Byzant. also a temple. Pausan. L. 2. p. 138. Euboea called Titanis. Hesych.] Titana, where the worship of the Sun prevailed, for Anes, and Hanes, signified the fountain of light or fire. Titana was sometimes expressed Tithana, by the Ionians rendered Tithena; and as Titaea was supposed to have been the mother of the Titans, so Tithena was said to be their12 [[x]. Hesych. So Tith-On was like Tith-Or, [x]: whence was formed a personage, named Tithonus, beloved by Aurora.] nurse. But they were all uniformly of the same nature, altars raised of soil. That Tith-ana, the supposed nurse, was a sacred mound of earth, is plain from Nonnus, who mentions an altar of this sort in the vicinity of Tyre, and says that it was erected by those earth-born people, the Giants.

13 [Nonni Dionys. L. 40. p. 1048.] [x] 14 [Bel, and Belus, was a title bestowed upon many persons. It was particularly given to Nimrod who built the city Babel, or Babylon. Hence Dorotheus Sidonius, an ancient poet, calls that city the work of Tyrian Belus. [x] This term [x] has been applied to the city Tyre. But [x] here is from [x] Turris, and Belus [x] signifies Belus of Babel, who erected the famous tower. This leads me to suspect that in these verses of Nonnus there is a mistake, and that this Tithena, which the Giants built, was not in the vicinity of the city Tyre, but it was an high altar [x] near the tower of Babel which was erected by the Titanians. Nonnus, imagining that by Tur was meant Tyre, has made the Tithena to be situated [x], by the sea, from which, I believe, it was far removed.] [x]

Upon the coast of Tyre, amid the rocks,
The Giants rais'd an ample mound of earth,
Yclep'd Tithena.


Tuph also in the ancient language was an hill, and Typhoeus is a masculine compound from Tuph-aia, and signifies a mound of earth. Typhon [x] was in like manner a compound of Tuph-On, and was a mount or altar of the same construction and sacred to the sun. I make no doubt but both Typhon and Typhoeus were names by which the tower of Belus was of old denoted. But out of these the mythologies have formed personages, and they represent them as gigantic monsters whom the earth produced in defiance of heaven. Hence Typhon is by Antoninus Liberalis described as,15 [Typhon, Terrae filius. Hyginus. Fab. 152.] [x], the offspring of the earth, a baleful Damon. The tower of Babel was undoubtedly a Tuphon, or altar of the sun, though generally represented as a temple. For in those early times we do not read of any sacred edifices which can be properly called temples, but only of altars, groves, and high places. Hesiod certainly alludes to some ancient history concerning the demolition of Babel when he describes Typhon, or Typhoeus, as overthrown by Jove. He represents him as the youngest son of the Earth.

16 [Theogon. v. 821.] [x]17 [Typhoeus was properly [x], a Pelorian mound of earth, being, as I said above, a masculine from Tuphoea, which is a compound of Tuph-aia, a mound of earth.]

Th' enormous Earth,
Produc'd Typhoeus last of all her brood.


The poet speaks of him as a deity of great strength and immense stature, and says that from his shoulders arose an hundred serpent heads, and that from his eyes there issued a continual blazing fire. And he adds, what is very remarkable, that had it not been for the interposition of the chief God, this Daemon would have obtained an universal empire.

18 [Hesiod. supra. v. 836.] [x]

That day was teeming with a dire event;
And o'er the world Typhoeus now had reign'd
With universal sway: but from on high
Jove view'd his purpose, and opposed his power.
For with a strong and desperate aim he hurl'd
His dread artillery. Then the realms above,
And earth with all its regions; then the sea,
And the Tartarian caverns, dark and drear,
Resounded with his thunder. Heaven was moved,
And the ground trembled underneath his feet,
As the God march'd in terrible array.
Still with fresh vigour Jove renew' d the fight;
And clad in all his bright terrific arms,
With lightnings keen, and smouldering thunderbolts,
Press'd on him fore; till by repeated wounds
The tow'ring monster sunk to endless night.


Typhon was the same personage as Typhoeus; and Antoninus20 [[x]. Fab. 28.] Liberalis describes him as a Giant who was thunderstruck by Jupiter. But he fled to the sea, into which he plunged, and his deadly wounds were healed. The like has been said of Bacchus, that upon his flight he betook himself to the sea. And when Vulcan is cast down from the tower, he is supposed to fall into the same element. Juno is accordingly made to say,

[x]

I seiz'd him in my arms,
And hurl'd him headlong downward to the sea.


Hesiod gives an account of the dispersion of the Titans and of the feuds which preceded, and he says that the Deity at last interposed and put the Titans to flight, and condemned them to reside in Tartarus at the extremities of the earth. The description is very fine, but he has confounded the history by supposing the Giants and Titans to have been different persons. He accordingly makes them oppose one another in battle; and even Cottus, Iapetus, Gyas, whom all writers mention as Titans, are by him introduced in opposition and described as of another family. He sends them indeed to Tartarus, but supposes them to be there placed as a guard over the Titans. His description, however, is much to the purpose, and the first contest and dispersion is plainly alluded to. I shall therefore lay some part of it before the reader.

21 [Theogon. v. 676.] [x]


Firm to their cause the Titans wide display'd
A well-embodied phalanx: and each side
Gave proofs of noble prowess, and great strength,
Worthy of Gods. The tumult reach'd to heaven,
And high Olympus trembled as they strove.
Sea too was mov'd; and Earth astonish'd heard
The noise and shouts of deities engag'd,
High vaunts, loud outcries, and the din of war.
Now Jove no longer could withhold his ire;
But rose with tenfold vengeance: down he hurl'd
His lightning, dreadful implement of wrath,
Which flash'd incessant: and before him mov'd
His awful thunder, with tremendous peal
Appalling, and astounding, as it roll'd.
For from a mighty hand it shap'd its course,
Loud echoing through the vaulted realms of day.
Meantime storms rag'd; and dusky whirlwinds rose.
Still blaz'd the lightning with continual glare,
Till nature languish'd; and th' expanded deep,
And every stream, that lav'd the glowing earth,
Boil'd with redounding heat. A ruddy flame
Shot upwards to the fiery cope of heav'n,
Shedding a baleful influence: and the gleam
Smote dreadful on the Titan bands, whose eyes
Were blasted, as they gaz'd; nor could they stand
The fervour, but exhausted sunk to ground.
The Gods, victorious, seiz'd the rebel crew,
And sent them, bound in adamantine chains,
To earth's deep caverns, and the shades of night.
Here dwell th' apostate brotherhood, consign'd
To everlasting durance: here they sit
Age after age in melancholy state,
Still pining in eternal gloom, and lost
To every comfort. Round them wide extend
The dreary bounds of earth, and sea, and air,
Of heaven above, and Tartarus below.


Such was the first great commotion among men. It was described by the poets as the war of the Giants, who raised mountains upon mountains in order that they might scale heaven. The sons of Chus were the aggressors in these acts of rebellion. They have been represented under the character both of Giants and Titanians: and are said to have been dissipated into different parts of the world.

[T]he astral prototypes of the lower beings of the animal kingdom of the Fourth Round, which preceded (the chhayas of) Men, were the consolidated, though still very ethereal sheaths of the still more ethereal forms or models produced at the close of the Third Round on Globe D. [215] “Produced from the residue of the substance matter; from dead bodies of men and (other extinct) animals of the wheel before,” or the previous Third Round — as Stanza 24 tells us. Hence, while the nondescript “animals” that preceded the astral man at the beginning of this life-cycle on our Earth were still, so to speak, the progeny of the man of the Third Round, the mammalians of this Round owe their existence, in a great measure, to man again. Moreover, the “ancestor” of the present anthropoid animal, the ape, is the direct production of the yet mindless Man, who desecrated his human dignity by putting himself physically on the level of an animal….

Ay, but that “primeval man” was man only in external form. He was mindless and soulless at the time he begot, with a female animal monster, the forefather of a series of apes….

Perchance in these specimens, Haeckelians might recognize, not the Homo primigenius, but some of the lower tribes, such as some tribes of the Australian savages. Nevertheless, even these are not descended from the anthropoid apes, but from human fathers and semi-human mothers, or, to speak more correctly, from human monsters — those “failures” mentioned in the first Commentary. The real anthropoids, Haeckel’s Catarrhini and Platyrrhini, came far later, in the closing times of Atlantis. The orang-outang, the gorilla, the chimpanzee and cynocephalus are the latest and purely physical evolutions from lower anthropoid mammalians. They have a spark of the purely human essence in them; man on the other hand, has not one drop of pithecoid blood in his veins.….

These “Men” of the Third Race — the ancestors of the Atlanteans — were just such ape-like, intellectually senseless giants as were those beings, who, during the Third Round, represented Humanity. Morally irresponsible, it was these third Race “men” who, through promiscuous connection with animal species lower than themselves, created that missing link which became ages later (in the tertiary period only) the remote ancestor of the real ape as we find it now in the pithecoid family. [150]...

A naturalist suggests another difficulty. The human is the only species which, however unequal in its races, can breed together. “There is no question of selection between human races,” say the anti-Darwinists, and no evolutionist can deny the argument — one which very triumphantly proves specific unity. How then can Occultism insist that a portion of the Fourth Race humanity begot young ones from females of another, only semi-human, if not quite an animal, race, the hybrids resulting from which union not only bred freely but produced the ancestors of the modern anthropoid apes? Esoteric science replies to this that it was in the very beginnings of physical man. Since then, Nature has changed her ways, and sterility is the only result of the crime of man’s bestiality….

But this was when Africa had already been raised as a continent. We have meanwhile to follow, as closely as limited space will permit, the gradual evolution of the now truly human species. It is in the suddenly arrested evolution of certain sub-races, and their forced and violent diversion into the purely animal line by artificial cross-breeding, truly analogous to the hybridization, which we have now learned to utilize in the vegetable and animal kingdoms, that we have to look for the origin of the anthropoids. In these red-haired and hair-covered monsters, the fruit of the unnatural connection between men and animals, the “Lords of Wisdom” did not incarnate, as we see. Thus by a long series of transformations due to unnatural cross-breeding (unnatural “sexual selection”), originated in due course of time the lowest specimens of humanity; while further bestiality and the fruit of their first animal efforts of reproduction begat a species which developed into mammalian apes ages later....

For surely, it was not in or through the wickedness of the “mighty men” . . . . men of renown, among whom is placed Nimrod the “mighty hunter before the Lord,” that “god saw that the wickedness of man was great,” nor in the builders of Babel, for this was after the Deluge; but in the progeny of the giants who produced monstra quaedam de genere giganteo, monsters from whence sprang the lower races of men, now represented on earth by a few miserable dying-out tribes and the huge anthropoid apes….

The monsters bred in sin and shame by the Atlantean giants, “blurred copies” of their bestial sires, and hence of modern man (Huxley), now mislead and overwhelm with error the speculative Anthropologist of European Science…

[T]he bestiality of the primeval mindless races resulted in the production of huge man-like monsters — the offspring of human and animal parents. As time rolled on, and the still semi-astral forms consolidated into the physical, the descendants of these creatures were modified by external conditions, until the breed, dwindling in size, culminated in the lower apes of the Miocene period. With these the later Atlanteans renewed the sin of the “Mindless” — this time with full responsibility. The resultants of their crime were the species of apes now known as Anthropoid

On the data furnished by modern science, physiology, and natural selection, and without resorting to any miraculous creation, two negro human specimens of the lowest intelligence — say idiots born dumb — might by breeding produce a dumb Pastrana species, which would start a new modified race, and thus produce in the course of geological time the regular anthropoid ape….

-- The Secret Doctrine: The Synthesis of Science, Religion, and Philosophy, by Helena P. Blavatsky

One place of their retreat is mentioned to have been in that part of Scythia which bordered upon the Palus Maeotis.

Image
River Don in Voronezh Oblast, Russia

The Maeotian Swamp or Maeotian Marshes was a name applied in antiquity variously to the swamps at the mouth of the Tanais River in Scythia (the modern Don in southern Russia) and to the entire Sea of Azov which it forms there. The sea was also known as the Maeotian Lake among other names. The people who lived around the sea were known as the Maeotians, although it remains unclear which was named for which.

The Ixomates were a tribe of the Maeotes. To the south of the Maeotes, east of the Crimea were the Sindes, their lands known as Scythia Sindica.

The marshes served to check the westward migration of nomad peoples from the steppe of Central Asia. The Iazyges, a Sarmatian tribe, were first heard of on the Maeotis, where they were among the allies of Mithridates II of Parthia. The untrustworthy 4th-century Historia Augusta claims the Roman emperor Marcus Claudius Tacitus secured a victory over the Alans near the marshes during his brief reign in 275 and 276.

-- Maeotian Swamp, by Wikipedia

It was called22 [[x]. Dion. Cassius. L. 51. p. 313.] Keira, and described as a vast cavern which they fortified. The Romans under Crassus are said to have viewed it. But Keir, and Keirah, signified of old a city or fortress; and it was the appellative name of the place to which this people retired. They were to be found in various parts as I shall shew; but the most prevailing notion about the Titanians was that after their war against heaven they were banished to Tartarus at the extremities of the earth. The ancient Grecians knew very little of the western parts of the world. They therefore represent the Titans as in a state of darkness, and Tartarus as an infernal region.

23 [Hesiod. Theog. v. 717.] [x]
They plac'd the rebels, fast in fetters bound,
Deep in a gloomy gulf; as far remov'd
From earth's fair regions, as the earth from heaven.


They are the words of Hesiod, who says that an anvil of iron being dropped down would but just reach the abyss in ten days. Here the Titans were doomed to reside.

24 [Ibid. v. 729.] [x].

There the Titanian Gods by Jove's high will
In mansions dark and dreary lie concealed,
Beyond the verge of nature. Cottus here,
And Gyges dwell, and Briareus the bold.


These were part of the Titanian brood, though the author seems not to allow it. This will appear from some of the Orphic fragments, where we have the names of the Titans and a similar account of their being condemned to darkness.

25 [Orphic. Frag. p. 374.] [x].


The poet here specifies seven in number: Coeus, Crius, Phorcys, Cronus, Oceanus, Hyperion, and Iapetus, and he adds,

[x]

Soon as high Jove their cruel purpose saw,
And lawless disposition--
He sent them down to Tartarus consign'd.


If we look into the grounds of these fictions, we shall find that they took their rise from this true history. A large body of Titanians, after the dispersion, settled in Mauritania, which is the region styled Tartarus.

In Greek mythology, Atlas is a Titan condemned to hold up the heavens or sky for eternity after the Titanomachy. Atlas also plays a role in the myths of two of the greatest Greek heroes: Heracles (Hercules in Roman mythology) and Perseus. According to the ancient Greek poet Hesiod, Atlas stood at the ends of the earth in extreme west. Later, he became commonly identified with the Atlas Mountains in northwest Africa and was said to be the first King of Mauretania.
Mauretania is the Latin name for a region in the ancient Maghreb. It stretched from central present-day Algeria westwards to the Atlantic, covering northern Morocco, and southward to the Atlas Mountains. Its native inhabitants, seminomadic pastoralists of Berber ancestry, were known to the Romans as the Mauri and the Masaesyli.

In 25 BC, the kings of Mauretania became Roman vassals until about 44 AD, when the area was annexed to Rome and divided into two provinces: Mauretania Tingitana and Mauretania Caesariensis. Christianity spread there from the 3rd century onwards. After the Muslim Arabs subdued the region in the 7th century, Islam became the dominant religion.

-- Mauretania, by Wikipedia

Atlas was said to have been skilled in philosophy, mathematics, and astronomy. In antiquity, he was credited with inventing the first celestial sphere. In some texts, he is even credited with the invention of astronomy itself.

Atlas was the son of the Titan Iapetus and the Oceanid Asia or Clymene. He was a brother of Epimetheus and Prometheus. He had many children, mostly daughters, the Hesperides, the Hyades, the Pleiades, and the nymph Calypso who lived on the island Ogygia....

The "Atlantic Ocean" is derived from "Sea of Atlas". The name of Atlantis mentioned in Plato's Timaeus' dialogue derives from "Atlantis nesos", literally meaning "Atlas's Island."...

Atlas and his brother Menoetius sided with the Titans in their war against the Olympians, the Titanomachy. When the Titans were defeated, many of them (including Menoetius) were confined to Tartarus, but Zeus condemned Atlas to stand at the western edge of the earth and hold up the sky on his shoulders. Thus, he was Atlas Telamon, "enduring Atlas," and became a doublet of Coeus, the embodiment of the celestial axis around which the heavens revolve.


A common misconception today is that Atlas was forced to hold the Earth on his shoulders, but Classical art shows Atlas holding the celestial spheres, not the terrestrial globe.

-- Atlas (mythology), by Wikipedia

Diodorus Siculus mentions the coming of Cronus into these parts, and gives us the names of the brotherhood, those sons of Titaea, who came with them. The principal of these, exclusive of Cronus, were26 [Diodor. Sic. L. 5. p. 934. According to Apollodorus their names were Ouranus, Coeus, Hyperion, Crius, Iapetus, and the youngest of all Cronus. L. i. p. 2.] Oceanus, Coeus, Iapetus, Crius, and Hyperion; who were supposed first to have settled in Crete. Atlas was another of them from whom they had the name of27 [Diodor. L. 3. p. 189.] Atlantians; and they were looked upon as the offspring of heaven. The above historian describes the country which they possessed as lying upon the great ocean; and however it may be represented by the poets, he speaks of it as a happy28 [[x]. Ibid.] region. The mythologists adjudged the Titans to the realms of night, and consequently to a most uncomfortable climate, merely from not attending to the purport of the term [x].

[x]


It is to be observed that this word had two significations. First it denoted the west, or place of the setting sun. Hence Ulysses, being in a state of uncertainty, says29 [Odyss. K. v. 190.] [x]. We cannot determine, which is the west, or which is the east. It signified also darkness, and from this secondary acceptation the Titans of the west were consigned to the realms of night, being situated in respect to Greece towards the regions of the setting sun. The vast unfathomable abyss, spoken of by the poets, is the great Atlantic Ocean, upon the borders of which Homer places the gloomy mansions where the Titans resided. The ancients had a notion that the earth was a widely-extended plain, which terminated abruptly in a vast cliff of immeasurable descent. At the bottom was a chaotic pool, or ocean, which was so far sunk beneath the confines of the world that to express the depth and distance, they imagined an anvil of iron tossed from the top would not reach it under ten days. But this mighty pool was the ocean abovementioned; and these extreme parts of the earth were Mauritania and Iberia, for in each of these countries the Titans resided. Hence, Callimachus, speaking of the latter country, describes the natives under the title of 30 [[x]. Heysch. [x]. Ibid. [x]. Hymn, in Delon. v. 174.] [x], by which is meant the offspring of the ancient Titans. They were people of the Cuthite race, who also took up their habitation in Mauritania, and were represented as the children of Atlas.

The Samaritans are members of an ethnoreligious group originating from the Israelites. They are native to the Levant and adhere to Samaritanism, an Abrahamic, monotheistic and ethnic religion in the Holy Land.

In its narrowest sense, which is in use today in archaeology and other cultural contexts, it is equivalent to a stretch of land bordering the Mediterranean in southwestern Asia, i.e. the historical region of Syria ("greater Syria"), which includes present-day Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Israel, Palestine and most of Turkey southwest of the middle Euphrates. Its overwhelming characteristic is that it represents the land bridge between Africa and Eurasia. In its widest historical sense, the Levant included all of the Eastern Mediterranean with its islands; that is, it included all of the countries along the Eastern Mediterranean shores, extending from Greece to Cyrenaica in eastern Libya.

The term entered English in the late 15th century from French. It derives from the Italian Levante, meaning "rising", implying the rising of the Sun in the east, and is broadly equivalent to the term al-Mashriq meaning "the eastern place, where the Sun rises".


-- Levant, by Wikipedia

Samaritans believe that their religion is based exclusively on the five books of Moses given to the Israelites on Mount Sinai. The Samaritan Torah contains some differences from the Jewish Torah or Masoretic Text; according to Samaritan tradition, key parts of the Jewish text were fabricated by Ezra. The Samaritan version of the book of Joshua differs from the version in Jewish Scripture which focuses on Shiloh. According to Samaritan tradition, Joshua built a temple (al-haikal) and placed therein a tabernacle (al-maškan) in the second year of the Israelites' entry into the land of Canaan. Samaritans believe that Samaritanism is the true religion of the ancient Israelites, preserved by those who remained in the Land of Israel during the Babylonian captivity; this belief is held in opposition to Judaism, the ethnic religion of the Jewish people, which Samaritans see as a closely-related but altered and amended religion brought back by those returning from captivity in Babylon under the Neo-Babylonian Empire.

The Samaritan people believe that Mount Gerizim, located near the city of Nablus in the vicinity of the Biblical Shechem in the modern-day West Bank, is the original holiest place for the Israelites since the time of Creation, the Patriarchs, the Mosaic Covenant and Joshua's conquest, before the establishment of Jerusalem's Temple under the Davidic and Solomonic rule, and it is commonly taught in Samaritan tradition that there are 13 references to Mount Gerizim in the Torah (Pentateuch) to prove their claim, in contrast to Judaism which relies solely on the later Jewish prophets and writings to back their claims of the holiness of Jerusalem. Consequently, their views differ from Jewish belief regarding the holiest site on Earth to worship God, designated by Judaism to be the Temple Mount in Jerusalem, but by Samaritanism to be Mount Gerizim near Nablus....

Presently, the total population of the Samaritans stands at less than 1,000 people, divided into two communities: one in Nablus in the Samaritan village of Kiryat Luza on the ridge of Mount Gerizim, and one in Holon in the Samaritan quarter of 15a Ben Amram Street. The Samaritans residing in Kiryat Luza hold both Israeli citizenship and Palestinian citizenship. Samaritans in Holon primarily speak Israeli Hebrew, while those in Kiryat Luza speak Levantine Arabic; for liturgical purposes, Samaritan Hebrew and Samaritan Aramaic are used, written in the Samaritan script.

Samaritans have a standalone religious status in Israel, and there are occasional conversions from Judaism to Samaritanism and vice-versa, largely due to interfaith marriages. While Israel's rabbinic authorities consider Samaritanism to be a sect of Judaism, the Chief Rabbinate of Israel requires Samaritans to undergo a formal conversion to Judaism in order to be officially recognized as Halakhic Jews. Rabbinic literature rejected Samaritans unless they renounced Mt Gerizim. Samaritans possessing only Israeli citizenship are drafted into the Israel Defense Forces, while those holding dual Israeli and Palestinian citizenship in Kiryat Luza are exempted from mandatory military service....

In the Talmud, a central post-exilic religious text of Rabbinic Judaism, the Samaritans are called Cuthites or Cutheans, referring to the ancient city of Kutha, geographically located in what is today Iraq. Josephus's Wars of the Jews also refers to the Samaritans as the Cuthites. In the biblical account, however, Kuthah was one of several cities from which people were brought to Samaria, and they worshiped Nergal.
Samaria is the ancient, historic, biblical name used for the central region of the Land of Israel, bordered by Judea to the south and Galilee to the north. The first-century historian Josephus set the Mediterranean Sea as its limit to the west, and the Jordan River as its limit to the east. Its territory largely corresponds to the biblical allotments of the tribe of Ephraim and the western half of Manasseh; after the death of Solomon and the splitting-up of his empire into the southern Kingdom of Judah and the northern Kingdom of Israel, this territory constituted the southern part of the Kingdom of Israel. The border between Samaria and Judea is set at the latitude of Ramallah.

The name "Samaria" is derived from the ancient city of Samaria, capital of the northern Kingdom of Israel. The name Samaria likely began being used for the entire kingdom not long after the town of Samaria had become Israel's capital, but it is first documented after its conquest by Sargon II [722–705 BC] of Assyria, who turned the kingdom into the province of Samerina.

-- Samaria, by Wikipedia

Modern genetics partially support both the claims of the Samaritans and the account in the Hebrew Bible (and Talmud), suggesting that the genealogy of the Samaritans lies in some combination of these two accounts. This suggests that the Samaritans remained a genetically isolated population.

-- Samaritans, by Wikipedia

He was described as the son of Iapetus the Titan, and of so vast a stature as to be able to support the heavens.

31 [Hesiod. Theog. v. 746. [x]. Ibid. V. 517.] [x].

There Atlas, son of great Iapetus,
With head inclin'd, and ever-during arms,
Sustains the spacious heavens.


To this Atlantic region the Titans were banished, and supposed to live in a state of darkness beyond the limits of the known world.

32 [Ibid. v. 813.] [x].

Farthest remov'd
Of all their kindred Gods the Titans dwell,
Beyond the realms of chaos dark.


By [x] we must certainly understand the western ocean, upon the borders of which, and not beyond it, these Titanians dwelt. By the Nubian Geographer the Atlantic is uniformly called according to the present version Mare Tenebrarum.33 [Geog. Nubiensis. p. 4. p. 6. and p. 156.] Aggressi sunt mare tenebrarum, quid in eo esset, exploraturi. They ventured into the sea of darkness, in order to explore what it might contain. Another name for Tartarus, to which the poets condemned the Titans and Giants, was Erebus. This, like [x], was a term of twofold meaning. For Ereb [x] signified both the west and also darkness, and this served to confirm the notion that the Titans were consigned to the regions of night. But gloomy as the country is described, and horrid, we may be assured from the authorities of34 [[x]. L. 3. p. 189.] Diodorus and Pliny, that it was quite the reverse; and we have reason to think that it was much resorted to; and that the natives for a long time kept up a correspondence with other branches of their family. Homer affords some authority for this opinion in a passage where he represents Jupiter as accosting Juno, who is greatly displeased.  

In "A Descent Into the Malestrom," before the old mariner's confrontation with the whirlpool, the uninitiated narrator remarks on the prospect: "I looked dizzily, and beheld a wide expanse of ocean, whose waters were so inky a hue as to bring to mind the Nubian geographer's account of the Mare Tenebrarum."1 [The Complete Works of Edgar Allan Poe, ed. James A. Harrison (New York, 1902/1965), II, 226-227. All other references to this edition will be noted in the text by volume and page number.] In Burton Pollin's Dictionary of Names and Titles in Poe's Collected Works, the identity of this geographical authority is left open to question. Hanna, Claudius Ptolemy, and Idrisi have been mentioned as possibilities.2 [Pollin mentions Idrisi and Claudius Ptolemy in Dictionary (New York, 1968), p. 68. Admitting uncertainty, T.O. Mabbott mentions Hanno and Idresi in Selected Poetry and Prose of Edgar Allan Poe (New York, 1951), p. 421.] The allusion is of more than trifling importance, since Poe recast it in "Eleonora," the preface to "Mellonta Tauta," and Eureka. These four references indicate a singular fascination with the geographer and his descriptive account. In each case, Poe's source was Jacob Bryant's A New System; or, An Analysis of Ancient Mythology (1807).3 [London, 1807.] The treatment of the Nubian geographer in Bryant's work clarifies a significant allusion, invites a re-evaluation of the sources of "A Descent into the Maelstrom," and adds to an understanding of the image patterns in the tale.

While the sources of "A Descent into the Maelstrom" have received fairly rigorous attention4 [See Adolph B. Benson, "Scandinavian References in the Works of Edgar Allan Poe," Journal of English and Germanic Philology, XL (Jan., 1941), 73-90; Arlin Turner, "Sources of Poe's 'A Descent into the Maelstrom,'" Journal of English and Germanic Philology, XLVI (July, 1947), 298-301; William T. Bandy, "New Light on a Source of Poe's 'A Descent into the Maelstrom,'" American Literature, XXIV (Jan, 1953), 534-537; Margaret J. Yonce, "The Spiritual Descent into the Maelstrom: A Debt to "The Rime of the Ancient Mariner,'" Poe Newsletter, II (April, 1969), 26-29; and Carroll D. Laverty, "Science and Pseudo-Science in the Writings of Edgar Allan Poe" (Unpublished dissertation, Duke University, 1951), pp. 178-179.] allowance must be made for Bryant's in-

-- Notes: Poe's Nubian Geographer, by Kent Ljungquist, Bluefield College, American Literature, Vol. 48, No. 1 (Mar., 1976), pp. 73-75 (3 pages), Published By: Duke University Press

35 [Iliad. O. v. 477.] [x].
 

I shall not, says Jupiter, regard your resentment; not though you should desert me, and betake yourself to the extremities of the earth, to the boundaries of sea and land [x]; to the lower limits, where Iapetus and Cronus reside, who never enjoy the light of the sun, nor are refreshed with cooling breezes, but are seated in the depths of Tartarus. In the Ion of Euripides, Creusa, being in great distress, wishes that she could fly away to the people of the western world, which she alludes to as a place of security.

36 [Euripid. Ion. v. 796.] [x].

O! that I could be wafted through the yielding air,
Far, very far, from Hellas,
To the inhabitants of the Hesperian region:
So great is my load of grief.


From the words of Jupiter above, who tells Juno that she may retire to the regions in the west; and from these of Creusa, who longs to betake herself to the same parts; we may infer that in the first ages it was not uncommon for people in distress to retire to these settlements. Probably famine, sickness, and oppression, as well as the inroads of a powerful enemy, might oblige the Ionim to migrate. And however the Atlantic Titanians may have been like the Cimmerians, described as a people devoted to darkness, yet we find them otherwise represented by Creusa, who styles them [x], the stars of the western world. They were so denominated from being the offspring of the original Ionim, or Peleiadae, of Babylonia, in memory of whom there was a constellation formed in the heavens. These Peleiadas are generally supposed to have been the daughters of Atlas, and by their names the stars in this constellation are distinguished. Diodorus Siculus has given us a list of them, and adds that from them the most celebrated37 [Diodor. Sic. L. 3. p. 194.] heroes were descended. The Helladians were particularly of this family; and their religion and Gods were of Titanian38 [[x]. Scholia in Pind. Nem. Od. 6. v. i. [x]. Orphic. Hymn. 36. Pindar says that the Titans were at last freed from their bondage. [x]. Pyth. Od. 4. v. 518.] original.[!!!]
Helladian, Adjective, rare: Of or relating to Greece, especially ancient Greece; Hellenic.

Origin: Late 18th century; earliest use found in Jacob Bryant (bap. 1717, d. 1804), antiquary and classical scholar.
From ancient Greek Ἑλλαδ-, Ἑλλάς Greece (goes to classical Latin Hellad-, Hellas; in form a feminine adjective (short for Ἑλλάς γῆ the Helladic land) from the base of Ἕλλην + -άς) + -ian.

-- Helladian, by Oxford Lexico

Image
EAST TO WEST MEANS PAST TO FUTURE
1976 1859 1529 1A.D. 4200 B.C.
THE GENETIC RUNWAY

Once past the Obstetrical Arrival gate, Feel Free to Use (or abuse) your Head To Create the Realities you are equipped to choose.

But ...

Please don't Clutter Up

THE GENETIC RUNWAY

-- The Intelligence Agents, by Timothy Leary, Ph.D., © 1979 by Timothy Leary, Ph.D.
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Re: A New System/Analysis of Ancient Mythology, by Jacob Bry

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Part 1 of 2

Volume III, Page 95-126

Of the Original Chaldaic History, as Transmitted by Abydenus, Apollodorus, and Alexander Polyhistor, From Berosus of Babylonia.

I cannot proceed without taking notice of some extracts of Babylonish history, which time has happily spared us. From what has been already said, it is evident, that the history of nations must commence from the aera of Babylon: as here the first kingdom was founded; and here was the great scene of action among the firstborn of the sons of men. The history therefore of the Babylonians and Chaldeans should be the first in order to be considered. Not that I purpose to engage in a full account of this people; but intend only to consider those extracts, of which I have made mention above. The memorials are very curious; but have been greatly mistaken, and misapplied. The person, to whom we are beholden for them, was Berosus, a priest of Belus. He was a native of Babylonia; and lived in the time of Alexander, the son of Philip. The Grecians held him in great esteem: and he is particularly quoted by the oriental fathers, as well as by Josephus of Judea.

Berossus' work was not popular during the Hellenistic period. The usual account of Mesopotamian history was Ctesias of Cnidus's Persica, while most of the value of Berossus was considered to be his astrological writings. Most pagan writers probably never read the History directly, and seem to have been dependent on Posidonius of Apamea (135–50 BC), who cited Berossos in his works....

-- Berossus, by Wikipedia


He treated, it seems, of the origin of things, and of the formation of the earth out of chaos. He afterwards speaks of the flood; and of all mankind being destroyed, except one family, which was providentially preserved. By these was the world renewed. There is a large extract from this author, taken from the Greek of Alexander Polyhistor, and transmitted to us by Eusebius; which contains an account of these first occurrences in the world. But it seems to be taken by a person, who was not well acquainted with the language, in which it is supposed to be written; and has made an irregular and partial extract, rather than a genuine translation. And as Berosus lived at a time, when Babylon had been repeatedly conquered; and the inhabitants had received a mixture of many different nations: there is reason to think, that the original records, of whatever nature they may have been, were much impaired; and that the natives in the time of Berosus did not perfectly understand them. I will soon present the reader with a transcript from Polyhistor of this valuable fragment; in which he will perceive many curious traces of original truth; but at the same time will find it mixed with fable, and obscured with allegory. It has likewise suffered greatly by interpreters: and there are some mistakes in the disposition of the transcript; of which I shall hereafter take notice; and which could not be in the original.

Other authors, as well as Alexander Polyhistor, have copied from Berosus: among these is Abydenus. I will therefore begin with his account; as it is placed first in Eusebius: the tenor of it is in this manner.

1 [Eusebii Chronicon. p. 5.] So much concerning the wisdom of the Chaldeans. It is said, that the first king of this country was Alorus; who gave out a report, that he was appointed by God to be the shepherd of his people. He reigned ten fari [36,000 years]. Now a farus is esteemed to be three thousand six hundred years. A nereus is reckoned six hundred: and a sosus sixty. After him Alaparus reigned three fari: to him succeeded Amillarus from the city of 2 [Sometimes Pantibiblus, at other times Pantibiblon occurs for the name of the place. See Syncellus. p. 38.] Pantibiblus, who reigned thirteen fari. In his time a semidaemon called Annedotus, in appearance very like to Oannes, shewed himself a second time from the sea. After him Amenon reigned twelve fari; who was of the city Pantibiblon. Then Megalanus of the same 3 [It is in the original Pansibiblon: but the true name was Pantibiblon; as may be seen by comparing this account with that of Apollodorus, which succeeds; and with the same in Syncellus.] place, eighteen fari. Then Daus the shepherd governed for the space of ten fari: he was of Pantibiblon. In his time four double-shaped personages came out of the sea to land; whose names were Euedocus, Eneugamus, Enaboulus, and Anementus. After Daus succeeded Anodaphus, the son of Aedoreschus. There were afterwards other kings; and last of all Sisuthrus: so that, in the whole, the number of kings amounted to ten; and the term of their reigns to an hundred and twenty fari [432,000 years]."


As the works of Taautus and Sanchoniathon were corrupted by the fables of authors that wrote after them, so probably the Chaldaean records suffered alterations from the fancies of those who in after-ages copied them, and from hence the reigns [ir kuves] of Berosus's antediluvian kings [or rather men] came to be extended to so incredible a length. The lives of men in these times were extraordinary, as Moses has represented them; but the profane historians, fond of the marvellous, have far exceeded the truth in their relations. Berosus computes their lives by a term of years called farus; each farus, he says, is 603 years, and he imagines some of them to have lived ten, twelve, thirteen, and eighteen fari, i.e. 6030, 7236, 7839, and 10854 years; but mistakes of this sort have happened in writers of a much later date. Diodorus, and other writers, represent the armies of Semiramis, and her buildings at Babylon, more numerous and magnificent than can be conceived by any one that considers the infant state kingdoms were in when she reigned. Abraham, with a family of between three and four hundred persons, made the figure of a mighty prince in these early times, for the earth was not full of people: and if we come down to the times of the Trojan war, we do not find reason to imagine, that the countries which the heathen writers treated of were more potent or populous than their contemporaries, of whom we have accounts in the sacred pages; but the heathen historians, hearing that Semiramis, or other ancient princes, did what were wonders in their age, took care to tell them in a way and manner that should make them wonders in their own. In a word, Moses is the only writer whose accounts are liable to no exception. We must make allowances in many particulars to all others, and very great ones in the point before us, to reconcile them to either truth or probability; and I think I have met with a saying of an heathen writer, which seems to intimate it; for he uses words something to this purpose: Datus haec venia antiquitati, ut miscendo sicta veris primordia sua augustiora faciat. [Google translate: This pardon was given to antiquity, so that by mixing dry springs, he would make his beginnings more majestic.]

In my history of the Assyrian empire after the flood, I have followed that account which the ancient writers are supposed to have taken from Ctesias. Herodotus differs much from it; he imagines the Assyrian empire to have begun but 520 years before the Medes broke off their subjection to it, and thinks Semiramis to have been but five generations older than Nitocris, the mother of Labynetus, called in Scripture Belshazzar, in whose reign Cyrus took Babylon. Five generations, says Sir John Marsham, could not make up 200 years. Herodotus has been thought to be mistaken in this point by all antiquity. Herennius observes, that Babylon was built by Belus, and makes it older than Semiramis by 2000 years, imagining perhaps Semiramis to be as late as Herodotus has placed her, or taking Atossa, the daughter of Cyrus, to be Semiramis, as Photius suggests Conon to have done. Herennius was indeed much mistaken in the antiquity of Babylon; but whoever considers his opinion will find no reason to quote him, as Sir John Marsham does, in favour of Herodotus. Porphyry is said to place Semiramis about the time of the Trojan war; but as he acknowledges in the same place that she might be older, his opinion is no confirmation of Herodotus's account. From Moses's Nimrod to Nabonassar appears evidently from Scripture to be about 1,500 years, for so many years there are between the time that Nimrod began to be a mighty one, and the reign of Ahaz king of Judah, who was contemporary with Nabonassar; and therefore Herodotus, in imagining the first Assyrian kings to be but 520 years before Deioces of Media, falls short of the truth above 900 years. But there ought to be no great stress laid upon Herodotus's account in this matter; he seems to own himself to have taken up his opinion from report only, and not to have examined any records to assure him of the truth of it.

Ctesias [Ktesias], who was physician to Artaxerxes Mnemon, and lived in his court and near his person about seventeen years, wrote his history about an hundred years after Herodotus. He was every way well qualified to correct the mistakes which Herodotus had made in his history of the Assyrian and Persian affairs; for he did not write, as Herodotus did, from hearsay and report, but he searched the royal records of Persia, in which all transactions and affairs of the government were faithfully registered. That there were such records was a thing well known; and the books of Ezra and Esther give us a testimony of them. Ctesias's account falls very well within the compass of time which the Hebrew Scriptures allow for such a series of kings as he has given us: and we have not only the Hebrew Scriptures to assure us, that from Nimrod to Nabonassar were as many years as he computes, but it appears from what Callisthenes the philosopher, who accompanied Alexander the Great, observed of the astronomy of the Babylonians, that they had been a people eminent for learning for as long a time backward as Ctesias supposes; they had astronomical observations for 1903 years backward, when Alexander took Babylon; and Alexander's taking Babylon happening about 420 years after Nabonassar, it is evident they must have been settled near 1,500 years before his reign; and thus Ctesias's account is, as to the substance of it, confirmed by very good authorities. The Scriptures shew us that there was such an interval between the first Assyrian king and Nabonassar as he imagines. The observations of Callisthenes prove that the Assyrians were promoters of learning during that whole interval, and Ctesias's account only supplies us with the number and names of the kings, whose reigns, according to the royal records of Persia, filled up such an interval. Ctesias's accounts and Callisthenes's observations were not framed with a design to be suited exactly to one another, or to the Scripture, and therefore their agreeing so well together is a good confirmation of the truth of each of them.

-- The Sacred and Profane History of the World, Connected From the Creation of the World to the Dissolution of the Assyrian Empire at the Death of Sardanapalus, and to the Declension of the Kingdom of Judah and Israel Under the Reigns of Ahaz and Pekah, with the Treatise on The Creation and Fall of Man, by Samuel Shuckford, M.A., Rector of Shelton in the County of Norfolk, 1810


-- The Sacred and Profane History of the World, Connected From the Creation of the World to the Dissolution of the Assyrian Empire at the Death of Sardanapalus, and to the Declension of the Kingdom of Judah and Israel Under the Reigns of Ahaz and Pekah, with the Treatise on The Creation and Fall of Man, by Samuel Shuckford, M.A., Rector of Shelton in the County of Norfolk, 1731, volume I

-- The Sacred and Profane History of the World, Connected From the Creation of the World to the Dissolution of the Assyrian Empire at the Death of Sardanapalus, and to the Declension of the Kingdom of Judah and Israel Under the Reigns of Ahaz and Pekah, with the Treatise on The Creation and Fall of Man, by Samuel Shuckford, M.A., Rector of Shelton in the County of Norfolk, 1731, volume II

-- The Sacred and Profane History of the World, Connected From the Creation of the World to the Dissolution of the Assyrian Empire at the Death of Sardanapalus, and to the Declension of the Kingdom of Judah and Israel Under the Reigns of Ahaz and Pekah, with the Treatise on The Creation and Fall of Man, by Samuel Shuckford, M.A., Rector of Shelton in the County of Norfolk, 1737, volume III

-- The Sacred and Profane History of the World, Connected From the Creation of the World to the Dissolution of the Assyrian Empire at the Death of Sardanapalus, and to the Declension of the Kingdom of Judah and Israel Under the Reigns of Ahaz and Pekah, with the Treatise on The Creation and Fall of Man, by Samuel Shuckford, M.A., Rector of Shelton in the County of Norfolk, 1810, volume I

-- The Sacred and Profane History of the World, Connected From the Creation of the World to the Dissolution of the Assyrian Empire at the Death of Sardanapalus, and to the Declension of the Kingdom of Judah and Israel Under the Reigns of Ahaz and Pekah, with the Treatise on The Creation and Fall of Man, by Samuel Shuckford, M.A., Rector of Shelton in the County of Norfolk, 1810, volume II

-- The Sacred and Profane History of the World, Connected From the Creation of the World to the Dissolution of the Assyrian Empire at the Death of Sardanapalus, and to the Declension of the Kingdom of Judah and Israel Under the Reigns of Ahaz and Pekah, with the Treatise on The Creation and Fall of Man, by Samuel Shuckford, M.A., Rector of Shelton in the County of Norfolk, 1848, volume I

-- The Sacred and Profane History of the World, Connected From the Creation of the World to the Dissolution of the Assyrian Empire at the Death of Sardanapalus, and to the Declension of the Kingdom of Judah and Israel Under the Reigns of Ahaz and Pekah, with the Treatise on The Creation and Fall of Man, by Samuel Shuckford, M.A., Rector of Shelton in the County of Norfolk, 1848, volume II


This last [Sisuthrus] was the person who was warned to provide against the deluge. He accordingly built a vessel, by which means he was preserved. The history of this great event, together with the account of birds sent out by Sisouthros, in order to know, if the waters were quite abated; and of their returning with their feet soiled with mud; and of the ark's finally resting in Armenia, is circumstantially related by 4 [Syncellus. p. 38. He styles him Abydenus: but by Eusebius the name is expressed Abidenus.] Abydenus, but borrowed from Berosus.

A similar account of the first kings of Babylonia is given by Apollodorus; and is taken from the same author
, who begins thus.

"This is the history, which Berosus has transmitted to us. He tells us, that Alorus of Babylon was the first king, that reigned; who was by nation a Chaldean. He reigned ten fari [36,000 years]: and after him Alaparus, and then Amelon, who came from Pantibiblon. To him succeeded Amenon of Chaldea: in whose time they say, that the Musarus Oannes, the Annedotus, made his appearance from the Eruthrean sea."


5 [Eusebii Chronicon. p. 5.] So we are told by Alexander (Polyhistor), who first took this history in hand; and mentions, that this personage shewed himself in the first year: but Apollodorus says, that it was after forty fari [144,000 years]. 6 [From what fixed term do they reckon? to what year do they refer? and whose are these reflexions?] Abydenus, differing from both, makes the second Annedotus appear after twenty-six fari [93,600 years].

"After this last king, Megalarus succeeded, of the city Pantibiblon; and reigned eighteen fari [64,800 years]. Then Daon the shepherd, of the same city, ten fari [36,000 years]. In his time it is said, that Annedotus appeared again from the Eruthrean sea, in the same form, as those, who had shewed themselves before: having the shape of a fish, blended with that of a man. Then reigned Aedorachus of Pantibiblon, for the term of eighteen fari [64,800 years]. In his days there appeared another personage from the sea Eruthra, like those above; having the same complicated form between a fish and a man: his name was Odacon."


All these personages, according to Apollodorus, related very particularly and circumstantially, whatever Oannes had informed them. Concerning these Abydenus has made no mention.

"After the kings above, succeeded Amempsinus, a Chaldean, from the city Larach, and reigned eighteen fari [64,800 years]. In his time was the great deluge."


According to the sum of years above, the total of all the reigns was an hundred and twenty fari [432,000 years].

There seems to be some omission in the transcript given by Eusebius from Apollodorus, which is supplied by Syncellus.
He mentions

"Amempsinus as eighth king in order, who reigned ten fari [36,000 years]. After him comes Otiartes of 7 [Laracha, the Larachon of Eusebius.] Laranchae in Chaldea, to whom he allows eight fari [28,800 years]. His son was 8 [The name is expresed Xisuthrus, Sisusthrus, and Sithithrus.] Xisuthros, who reigned eighteen fari [64,800 years]; and in whose time was the well-known deluge. So that the sum of all the kings is ten; and of the term, which they collectively reigned, an hundred and twenty fari [432,000 years]."


Both these writers are supposed to copy from Berosus: yet there appears a manifest difference between them: and this not in respect to numbers only, which are easily corrupted; but in regard to events, and disposition of circumstances. Of this strange variation in two short fragments, I shall hereafter take further notice.

I come now to the chief extract from Berosus; as it has been transmitted to us by 9 [Eusebii Chronicon. p. 5.] Eusebius, who copied it from Alexander Polyhistor. It is likewise to be found in 10 [Syncelli Chronograph, p. 28.] Syncellus. It begins in this wise.

"Berosus, in his first book concerning the history of Babylonia, informs us, that he lived in the time of Alexander the son of Philip. And he mentions, that there were written accounts preserved at Babylon with the greatest care; comprehending a term of sixteen myriads of years. These writings contained a history of the heavens, and the sea; of the birth of mankind; also of those, who had sovereign rule; and of the actions achieved by them. And in the first place he describes Babylonia as a 11 [It is necessary to observe the arrangement of this history of Berosus; as much depends upon the disposition of these articles.] country, which lay between the Tigris and Euphrates. He mentions, that it abounded with 12 [[x], wild wheat.] wheat, barley, ocrus, sesamum: and in the lakes were found the roots called gongae, which were good to be eaten, and were in respect to nutriment like barley. There were also palm trees, and apples, and most kind of fruits: fish too, and birds; both those, which are merely of flight; and those, which take to the element of water. The part of Babylonia, which bordered upon Arabia, was barren, and without water: but that, which lay on the other side, had hills, and was 13 [Euseb. [x]: Syncell. [x]] fruitful. At Babylon there was 14 [I add, in these times: for he means the first ages.] in these times a great resort of people of various nations; who inhabited Chaldea; and lived without rule and order, like the beasts of the field. 15 [In the first year from what determined time? No data are here given: yet the meaning will, I believe, be easily arrived at.] In the first year there made its appearance from a part of the Eruthrean sea, which bordered upon Babylonia, an animal 16 [Eusebius, or rather Alexander Polyhistor, mentions in the sequel his great knowledge and sagacity. In like manner he is styled [x] by Apollodorus; though represented in the original as a Being of great justice and truth, and an universal benefactor.] endowed with reason, who was called Oannes. According to the accounts of 17 [It appears from hence, that this is no regular translation from Berosus; the Grecian copier putting in observations of his own, and borrowing from others: though, to say the truth, they seem to be the words of Eusebius.] Apollodorus, the whole body of the animal was like that of a fish; and had under a fish's head another head, and also feet below, similar to those of a man, subjoined to the fish's tail. His voice too, and language was articulate, and human: and there was a representation of him to be seen in the time of Berosus. This Being in the day-time used to converse with men: but took no food at that season: and he gave them an insight into letters, and science, and every kind of art. He taught them to construct houses, to found temples, to compile laws; and explained to them the principles of geometrical knowledge. He made them distinguish the seeds of the earth; and shewed them how to collect fruits: in short, he instructed them in every thing, which could tend to soften manners, and humanize mankind. From that time, so universal were his instructions, nothing has been added material by way of improvement. When the sun sat, it was the custom of this Being to plunge again into the sea, and abide all the night in the deep."


After this there appeared other animals like Oannes; of which Berosus promises to give an 18 [These again are the words of the transcriber.] account, when he comes to the history of the 19 [The history of the kings of Babylon was to come afterwards; which is of consequence to be observed.] kings.

Moreover Oannes wrote concerning the generation of mankind: of their different ways of life, and of civil polity: and the following is the purport of what he said:

"There was nothing but darkness, and an abyss of water, wherein resided most hideous beings, which were produced of a twofold principle. Men appeared with two wings; some with four: and with two faces. They had one body, but two heads; the one of a man, the other of a woman. They were likewise in their several organs both male and female. Other human figures were to be seen with the legs, and horns of goats. Some had horses' feet: others had the limbs of a horse behind; but before were fashioned like men, resembling hippocentaurs. Bulls likewise bred there with the heads of men; and dogs with fourfold bodies, and the tails of fishes. Also horses with the heads of dogs: men too, and other animals with the heads and bodies of horses, and the tails of fishes. In short, there were creatures with the limbs of every species of animals. Add to these, fishes, reptiles, serpents, with other wonderful animals; which assumed each other's shape, and countenance. Of all these were preserved delineations in the temple of Belus at Babylon. The person, who was supposed to have presided over them, had the name of Omorca. This in the Chaldaic language is Thalath; which the Greeks express [x], the sea: but according to the most true computation, it is equivalent to ([x]) the moon. All things being in this situation, Belus came, and cut the woman asunder: and out of one half of her he formed the earth, and of the other half the heavens; and at the same time destroyed the animals in the abyss. All this, Berosus said, was an allegorical description of nature. For the whole universe consisting of moisture, and animals being continually generated therein; 20 [Eusebius expresses it, [x]; Syncellus,[x], the God above-mentioned. This may be proved to be the true reading, from what comes after: for the fact is repeated; and his head cut off again.] the Deity (Belus) abovementioned cut off 21 [[x], according to some. Others have [x], which is the true reading.] his own head: upon which the other Gods mixed the 22 [[x], Syncell.] blood, as it gushed out, with the earth; and from thence men were formed. On this account it is, that they are rational, and partake of divine knowledge. This Belus, whom men call Dis, divided the darkness, and separated the heavens from the earth; and reduced the universe to order. But the animals so lately created, not being able to bear the prevalence of light, died. Belus upon this, seeing a vast space quite uninhabited, though by nature very fruitful, ordered one of the Gods to take off his head; and when it was taken off, they were to mix the blood with the soil of the earth; and from thence to form other men and animals, which should be capable of bearing the 23 [[x], Eusebius; [x], Syncellus; which is the true reading. The original word was [x], Aur, light; which Aur they have changed to [x]: but the context shews that it was not the air, which they were formed to be proof against, but [x], light. This is a common mistake among the Latins, as among the Greeks. The Orientals worshipped Aur, [x], the sun: this is by Julius Firmicus and many other writers rendered Aer.] light. Belus also formed the stars, and the sun, and moon, together with the five planets."


We have after this the following intelligence concerning the history above; that what was there quoted, belonged to the first book of Berosus, according to the author's own distribution of facts: that in the second book was the history of the Chaldean monarchs, and the times of each reign; which consisted collectively of one hundred and twenty fari, or four hundred thirty-two thousand years [432,000 years]; reaching to the time of the deluge. This latter attestation of the reigns of the kings, reaching in a line of descent to the deluge, was never taken from 24 [It is accordingly omitted by Syncellus, as foreign to the true history.] Berosus: they are the words of the copier; and contrary to the evidence of the true history, as shall be plainly shewn hereafter.

After this comes a detached, but most curious extract from the same author: wherein he gives an account of the deluge, and of the principal circumstances, with which that great event was attended, conformably to the history of Moses: and he mentions the person, who was chiefly interested in the affair, by the name of Sisuthrus.

" 25 [Euseb. Chron. p. 8. Syncellus. p. 30.] After the death of Ardates, his son (Sisuthrus) succeeded, and reigned eighteen fari [64,800 years]. In his time happened the great deluge; the history of which is given in this manner. The Deity, Cronus, appeared to him in a vision; and gave him notice, that upon the sixteenth day of the month Daesius there would be a flood, by which mankind would be destroyed. He therefore injoined him to commit to writing a history of the 26 [[x].] beginning, procedure, and final conclusion of all things, down to the present term; and to bury these accounts securely in the City of the Sun at 27 [[x]. Syncellus.] Sippara. He then ordered Sisuthrus to build a vessel; and to take with him into it his friends, and relations; and trust himself to the deep. The latter implicitly obeyed: and having conveyed on board every thing necessary to sustain life, he took in also all species of animals, that either fly, or rove upon the surface of the earth. Having asked the Deity, whither he was to go, he was answered, To the Gods: upon which he offered up a prayer for the good of mankind. Thus he obeyed the divine admonition: and the vessel, which he built, was five stadia in length, and in breadth two. Into this he put every thing which he had got ready; and last of all conveyed into it his wife, children, and friends. After the flood had been upon the earth, and was in time abated, Sisuthrus sent out some birds from the vessel; which not finding any food, nor any place to rest their feet, returned to him again. After an interval of some days, he sent forth a second time: and they now returned with their feet tinged with mud. He made tryal a third time with these birds: but they returned to him no more: from whence he formed a judgment, that the surface of the earth was now above the waters. Having therefore made an opening in the vessel, and finding upon 28 [This is wonderfully consonant to the Mosaic account; which represents Noah and his family as quite shut up, without any opening, during the time of the deluge.] looking out, that the vessel was driven to the side of a mountain; he immediately quitted it, being attended with his wife, children, and 29 [This is scarcely the true account. Berosus would hardly suppose a pilot ([x]), where a vessel was totally shut up, and confessedly driven at the will of the winds and waves. I can easily imagine, that a Grecian interpreter would run into the mistake, when he was adapting the history to his own taste.] the pilot. Sisuthrus immediately paid his adoration to the earth: and having constructed an altar, offered sacrifices to the Gods. These things being duly performed, both Sisuthrus, and those, who came out of the vessel with him, disappeared. They, who remained in the vessel, finding that the others did not return, came out with many lamentations, and called continually on the name of Sisuthrus. Him they saw no more: but they could distinguish his voice in the air: and could hear him admonish them to pay due regard to the Gods; and likewise inform them, that it was upon account of his piety, that he was translated to live with the Gods: that his wife, and children, with the pilot, had obtained the same honour. To this he added, that he would have them make the best of their way to Babylonia, and search for the writings at Sippara, which were to be made known to all mankind. The place, where these things happened was in Armenia. The remainder, having heard these words, offered sacrifices to the Gods; and 30 [[x], Eusebius. This confirms what I supposed about the rout of the Cuthites, as mentioned Genesis. c. 11. v. 2.] taking a circuit, journeyed towards Babylonia. Berosus adds, that the remains of the vessel were to be seen in his time, upon one of the Corcyrean mountains in Armenia: and that people used to scrape off the bitumen, with which it had been outwardly coated; and made use of it by way of an alexipharmic and amulet. In this manner they returned to Babylon: and having found the writings at Sippara, they set about building cities, erecting temples; and 31 [If Babylon survived, one would imagine, that other cities would have been in like manner preserved: and that the temples, if any had been in the world before, would have remained, as well as that at Sippara. Whence it would naturally appear unnecessary for these few people to have been in such a hurry to build. In short, they are not the genuine words of Berosus: for he knew too much not to be apprised that Babylon was not an antediluvian city.] Babylon was thus inhabited again." 32 [An epitome of the foregoing history is to be found in an extract from Abydenus. Abydenus. [x]. Eusebii Chron, p. 8.


In this history, however here and there embellished with extraneous matter, are contained wonderful traces of the truth: and we have in it recorded some of the principal, and most interesting circumstances of that great event, when mankind perished by the deluge. The purpose of the author was to give an account of Babylonia; with which the history of the world in its early state was connected. If we consider the three writers, to whom we are indebted for these fragments; we may perceive that none of them were translators, or regularly copied any part of the original: but were satisfied with making extracts, which they accommodated to their own taste and fancy; and arranged, as seemed best to their judgment. And in respect to what is more fully transmitted to us by Alexander Polyhistor from Berosus; we may upon a close inspection perceive, that the original history was of a twofold nature; and obtained by different means from two separate quarters. The latter part is plain, and obvious: and was undoubtedly taken from the archives of the Chaldeans. The former is allegorical and obscure; and was copied from hieroglyphical representations, which could not be precisely deciphered. Berosus mentions expressly, that the representations of the characters, which he describes in his chaotic history, were in his time extant in Babylonia. In consequence of his borrowing from records so very different, we find him, without his being apprized of it, giving two histories of the same person. Under the character of the man of the sea, whose name was Oannes, we have an allegorical representation of the great patriarch; whom in his other history he calls Sisuthrus. 33 [Euseb. Chron. p. 6.] His whole body, it seems, was like that of a fish: and he had under the head of a fish another head) &c. and a delineation of him was to be seen at Babylon. He infused into mankind a knowledge of right and wrong: instructed them in every science: directed, them to found temples; and to pay regard to the Gods. He taught them also to distinguish the different sorts of seeds; and to collect the fruits of the earth: and to provide against futurity. In short, he instructed mankind so fully, that nothing afterward could be added thereto. This is the character given afterwards to 34 [Ibid. p. 8.] Sisuthros, only differently exhibited. He was a man of the sea, and bequeathed to mankind all kind of instruction; accounts of every thing, that had passed in the world; which were supposed to have been buried in Sippara. They were to be universally known; and consequently abounded with every thing, that could be beneficial. But there was no occasion for this care, and information, if such a person as Oannes had gone before: for, according to Berosus, he had been so diffuse in his instructions, and comprehended so compleatly every useful art, that nothing afterwards was ever added. So that Oannes is certainly the emblematical character of Sisuthrus, the great instructor and benefactor. Oannes is the same in purport as the Grecian [x], Oinas; and as the Ionas of the Babylonians and Chaldeans. He was represented under different symbols, and had various titles; by which means his character has been multiplied: and he has, by the Grecian writers, who treat of him above, been introduced several times. In one of his introductions they call him Odacon; which is certainly a corruption for [x], or [x], the God Dagon. He was represented variously in different places; but consisted always of a human personage, in some degree blended with a 35 [The Indian representation of Ixora, and Vish-Nou.] fish. He sometimes appears alone: sometimes with three other personages similar to himself; to whom he gave instructions, which they imparted to the rest of the world. He is said to have shewn himself [x], in the first year: which is an imperfect, yet intelligible piece of history. The first year, mentioned in this manner absolute, must signify the first year in time; the year of the renewal of the world. He appeared twice, and discoursed much with mankind; but would not eat with them. This, I imagine, was in his antediluvian state; when there is reason to think, that men in general fed upon raw flesh; nay, eat it crude, while the life was in it. This we may infer from that positive injunction, given by the Deity to Noah, after the deluge. 36 [Genesis. c. 9. v. 3. 4.] Every moving thing, that liveth shall be meat for you — — but flesh with the life thereof, which is the blood thereof, shall you not eat. Such a custom had certainly prevailed: and a commemoration of it was kept up among the Gentiles, in all the rites and mysteries of Dionusus and 37 [Hence Bacchus was called [x]. Vivum laniant dentibus taurum. Jul. Firmicus of the rites of Crete. [x]. Clemens Alexandr. Cohort, p. 11.] Bacchus.  
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Re: A New System/Analysis of Ancient Mythology, by Jacob Bry

Postby admin » Wed Mar 09, 2022 8:50 am

Part 2 of 2

From what has been said, I flatter myself, it will appear, that Berosus borrowed his history from two different sources; and in consequence of it has introduced the same person under two different characters.

Definition of flatter oneself: to believe something about oneself that makes one feel pleased or proud (1) Don't flatter yourself—you don't sing any better than we do. (2) I flatter myself that I'm a good dancer.

-- flatter oneself, by Merriam Webster Dictionary


With this clue, his history will appear more intelligible: and a further insight may be gained into the purport of it, by considering it in this light. We may be able to detect, and confute the absurdity of Abydenus and Apollodorus; who pretend upon the authority of this writer to produce ten antediluvian [before the flood] kings, of whom no mention was made by him: for what are taken by those writers for antediluvians, are expressly referred by him to another aera. Yet have these writers been followed in their notions by Eusebius, and some other of the ancients; and by almost every modern who has written upon the subject. Their own words, or at least the words, which they quote from Berosus, are of themselves sufficient to confute the notion. For they speak of the first king, who reigned, to have been a Chaldean, and of Babylon; and to have been called Alorus. Now it is certain, that Nimrod built Babel, which is Babylon, after the flood. He was a Chaldean, and the first king upon earth: and he was called by many nations 38 [The Persians called Nimrod, Orion: and Orion in Sicily, and other places was named Alorus. See this volume, p. 17. 38.] Orion, and Alorus. Yet by these writers Alorus is made an antediluvian prince; and being raised ten generations above Sisuthrus or Noah, he stands in the same degree of rank as the Protoplast: and many in consequence of it have supposed him to be Adam.
A protoplast, from ancient Greek πρωτόπλαστος (prōtóplastos, "first-formed"), in a religious context initially referred to the first human or, more generally, to the first organized body of progenitors of mankind (as in Manu and Shatrupa or Adam and Eve), or of surviving humanity after a cataclysm (as in Deucalion or Noah).

-- Protoplast (religion), by Wikipedia

[Euseb. Chron. p. 8. Syncellus. p. 30.] After the death of Ardates, his son (Sisuthrus) succeeded, and reigned eighteen fari [64,800 years]. In his time happened the great deluge; the history of which is given in this manner. The Deity, Cronus, appeared to him [Sisuthrus] in a vision; and gave him notice, that upon the sixteenth day of the month Daesius there would be a flood, by which mankind would be destroyed. He therefore injoined him to commit to writing a history of the beginning, procedure, and final conclusion of all things, down to the present term; and to bury these accounts securely in the City of the Sun at Sippara....

[From what fixed term do they reckon? to what year do they refer? and whose are these reflexions?]


This person [Oannes] is represented as a preacher of justice; and a general instructor and benefactor, who had appeared in two different states. He [Oannes] informed mankind of what had happened in preceding times: and went higher, even to the chaotic state of things, before the aera of creation. He said, that there was originally one vast abyss, which was inveloped in universal darkness. This abyss was inhabited by myriads of hideous miscreated beings, horrid to imagination....

It is highly probable, as Oannes stood foremost in the allegorical history of the Chaldeans, that Sisuthrus held the same place in the real history of that country; for they were both the same person...

-- Of the Original Chaldaic History, as Transmitted by Abydenus, Apollodorus, and Alexander Polyhistor, From Berosus of Babylonia, by Jacob Bryant

We are much indebted to Alexander Polyhistor for giving us, not only a more copious, but a more genuine extract from Berosus, than has been transmitted by the other two writers. We know from him, that there were of that author 39 [There were in all three.] two books; of the first of which he has transmitted to us a curious epitome.
Using ancient Babylonian records and texts that are now lost, Berossus published the Babyloniaca (hereafter, History of Babylonia) in three books some time around 290–278 BC, by the patronage of the Macedonian/Seleucid king Antiochus I Soter (during the third year of his reign, according to Diodorus Siculus [Failed verification]).

-- Berossus, by Wikipedia

In this book, after having given an account of the country, and its produce, he proceeds to the history of the people: and the very first occurrence is the appearance of Oannes, ([x]) the man of the sea. He is introduced, [x], in the first year of the history, which is no other than the first year of the world after the flood; when there was a renewal of time, and the earth was in its second infancy.[???] At this period is Oannes introduced. But the other two writers, contrary to the tenor of the original history, make him subsequent in time. This embarrasses the account very much: for, as he is placed the very first in the prior treatise of Berosus: it is hard to conceive how any of these ten kings could have been before him[???]: especially as the author had expressly said, [x]. In the second book I shall give an account of the ten kings of Babylon. It is manifest from hence, that they were posterior [after in time] to Oannes, and to all the circumstances of the first book. The Grecians, not knowing, or not attending to the eastern mode of writing, have introduced these ten kings in the first book, which 40 [Abydenus begins the history of the ten kings with these words; [x]: So much concerning the wisdom of the Chaldeans. Is it not plain, that this could not be the beginning of the first book? and may we not be assured from the account given by Alexander Polyhistor, that this was the introduction to the second treatise, in which Berosus had promised to give a history of the Chaldean kings?] Berosus expressly refers to the second. They often inverted the names of persons, as well as of places: and have ruined whole dynasties through ignorance of arrangement. What the Orientals wrote from right to left, they were apt to confound by a wrong disposition, and to describe in an inverted series. Hence these supposed kings, who, according to Berosus, were subsequent to the deluge, and to the Patriarch, are made prior to both: and he, who stood first, is made later by ten generations, through a reversion of the true order. Those, who have entertained the notion that these kings were antediluvian, have been plunged into insuperable difficulties; and deservedly. For how could they be so weak, as to imagine, that there was a city Babylon, and a country named from it, ten generations before the flood; also a province styled Chaldea? These names were circumstantial; and imposed in aftertimes for particular reasons, which could not before have subsisted. Babylon was the Babel of the Scriptures; so named from the confusion of tongues.
Wag the dog is, in politics, the act of creating a diversion from a damaging issue. It stems from the generic use of the term to mean a small and seemingly unimportant entity (the tail) [the Bible] controls a bigger, more important one (the dog) [Human history]. The phrase originates in the saying "a dog is smarter than its tail, but if the tail were smarter, then it would wag the dog."

-- Wag the dog, by Wikipedia

In this manner they returned to Babylon: and having found the writings at Sippara, they set about building cities, erecting temples; and Babylon was thus inhabited again.

-- Of the Original Chaldaic History, as Transmitted by Abydenus, Apollodorus, and Alexander Polyhistor, From Berosus of Babylonia, by Jacob Bryant


Babylon was the capital city of the ancient Babylonian Empire, which itself is a term referring to either of two separate empires in the Mesopotamian area in antiquity. These two empires achieved regional dominance between the 19th and 15th centuries BC, and again between the 7th and 6th centuries BC. The city, built along both banks of the Euphrates river, had steep embankments to contain the river's seasonal floods. The earliest known mention of Babylon as a small town appears on a clay tablet from the reign of Sargon of Akkad (2334–2279 BC) of the Akkadian Empire. The site of the ancient city lies just south of present-day Baghdad.
Sargon of Akkad, also known as Sargon the Great, was the first ruler of the Akkadian Empire, known for his conquests of the Sumerian city-states in the 24th to 23rd centuries BC. He is sometimes identified as the first person in recorded history to rule over an empire.

He was the founder of the "Sargonic" or "Old Akkadian" dynasty, which ruled for about a century after his death until the Gutian conquest of Sumer. The Sumerian king list makes him the cup-bearer to king Ur-Zababa of Kish.

His empire is thought to have included most of Mesopotamia, parts of the Levant, besides incursions into Hurrite and Elamite territory, ruling from his (archaeologically as yet unidentified) capital, Akkad (also Agade).

Sargon appears as a legendary figure in Neo-Assyrian literature of the 8th to 7th centuries BC. Tablets with fragments of a Sargon Birth Legend were found in the Library of Ashurbanipal.

-- Sargon of Akkad, by Wikipedia

The last known record of habitation of the town dates from the 10th century AD, when it was referred to as the small village of Babel.

The town became part of a small independent city-state with the rise of the First Babylonian dynasty in the 19th century BC. The Amorite king Hammurabi founded the short-lived Old Babylonian Empire in the 18th century BC. He built Babylon into a major city and declared himself its king. Southern Mesopotamia became known as Babylonia, and Babylon eclipsed Nippur as the region's holy city. The empire waned under Hammurabi's son Samsu-iluna, and Babylon spent long periods under Assyrian, Kassite and Elamite domination. After the Assyrians had destroyed and then rebuilt it, Babylon became the capital of the short-lived Neo-Babylonian Empire, a neo-Assyrian successor state, from 609 to 539 BC. The Hanging Gardens of Babylon ranked as one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. After the fall of the Neo-Babylonian Empire, the city came under the rule of the Achaemenid, Seleucid, Parthian, Roman, and Sassanid empires.

It has been estimated that Babylon was the largest city in the world c. 1770 – c. 1670 BC, and again c. 612 – c. 320 BC. It was perhaps the first city to reach a population above 200,000. Estimates for the maximum extent of its area range from 890 to 900 hectares (2,200 acres).

The remains of the city are in present-day Hillah, Babil Governorate, Iraq, about 85 kilometres (53 mi) south of Baghdad, and its boundaries have been based on the perimeter of the ancient outer city walls, an area of about 1,054.3 hectares (2,605 acres). They comprise a large tell of broken mud-brick buildings and debris. The main sources of information about Babylon—excavation of the site itself—references in cuneiform texts found elsewhere in Mesopotamia, references in the Bible, descriptions in other classical writing (especially by Herodotus), and second-hand descriptions (citing the work of Ctesias and Berossus)—present an incomplete and sometimes contradictory picture of the ancient city, even at its peak in the sixth century BC....

The spelling Babylon is the Latin representation of Greek Babylṓn (Βαβυλών), derived from the native (Babylonian) Bābilim, meaning "gate of the god(s)". The cuneiform spelling was [x].[failed verification] This would correspond to the Sumerian phrase kan dig̃irak. The sign [x](KA₂) is the logogram for "gate", [x] (DIG̃IR) means "god", and [x] (RA) is a sign which phonetic value is used to represent the coda of the word dig̃ir (-r) followed by the genitive suffix -ak. The final [x] (KI) is a determinative and it indicates that the previous signs are to be understood as a place name.

Archibald Sayce, writing in the 1870s, postulated that the Semitic name was a loan-translation of the original Sumerian name. However, the "gate of god" interpretation is increasingly viewed as a Semitic folk etymology to explain an unknown original non-Semitic placename. I. J. Gelb in 1955 argued that the original n or Babilla, of unknown meaning and origin, as there were other similarly named places in Sumer, and there are no other examples of Sumerian place-names being replaced with Akkadian translations. He deduced that it later transformed into Akkadian Bāb-ili(m), and that the Sumerian name Kan-dig̃irak was a loan translation of the Semitic folk etymology, and not the original name. The re-translation of the Semitic name into Sumerian would have taken place at the time of the "Neo-Sumerian" Third Dynasty of Ur. (Bab-Il).

In the Hebrew Bible, the name appears as Babel (Hebrew: בָּבֶל Bavel, Tib. בָּבֶל Bāḇel; Classical Syriac: ܒܒܠ Bāwēl, Aramaic: בבל Bāḇel; in Arabic: بَابِل Bābil), interpreted in the Book of Genesis to mean "confusion", from the verb bilbél (בלבל, "to confuse"). The modern English verb, to babble ("to speak foolish, excited, or confusing talk"), is popularly thought to derive from this name but there is no direct connection.

Ancient records in some situations use "Babylon" as a name for other cities, including cities like Borsippa within Babylon's sphere of influence, and Nineveh for a short period after the Assyrian sack of Babylon.

-- Babylon, by Wikipedia

What is extraordinary, Abydenus mentions this fact; and says that 41 [[x]. Eusebii Chronic, p. 13. from Abydenus.] Babylon was so called from confusion; because the language of men was there confounded. In like manner, Chaldea was denominated from people styled 42 [The true name of the country, called by the Greeks and Romans Chaldea, was Chasdia and Chusdia; named so from the inhabitants, styled Chusdim, or the children of Chus. This is the general name which uniformly occurs in Scripture.] Chasdim and Chusdim, who were the posterity of Chus. But if the name were of an etymology ever so different; yet to suppose a people of this name before the flood, also a city and province of Babylon, would be an unwarrantable 43 [Syncellus says, that before the flood, [x]. Again; [x]. Ibid. p. 37.] presumption. It would be repugnant to the history of Moses, and to every good history upon the subject.

At the close of the first book, it is said by Eusebius, that Berosus had promised in the second to give an account of the ten kings, who reached in a series to the deluge. I wish that Eusebius, instead of telling us himself the author's intention, had given us his words. The passage is very suspicious; and seems not to have existed even in the Greek translation: as it is totally omitted by Syncellus. Berosus might, at the conclusion of his first treatise, say, that he would now proceed to the history of the ten kings: but that they were to reach down to the deluge, I believe was never intimated: nor does there seem in the nature of things any reason for him to have mentioned such a circumstance. It is highly probable, as Oannes stood foremost in the allegorical history of the Chaldeans, that Sisuthrus held the same place in the real history of that country; for they were both the same person: and whatever series there might be of persons recorded, they were in descent from him. But the Greeks, not attending to the mode of writing in the original, have ruined the whole disposition, and made these persons precede. And here is a question to be asked of these historians, as well as of Eusebius in particular, allowing these kings to be antediluvian; What is become of those, who succeeded afterwards? Were there no postdiluvian kings of Babylon? Did nobody reign after the flood? If there did, what is become of this dynasty? Where is it to be found? The history of Babylon, and of its princes, taken from the later aera, would be of vast consequence: it is of so early a date, as to be almost coeval with the annals of the new world; and must be looked upon as the basis of historical knowledge. The supposed antediluvian accounts are trifling in comparison of the latter: the former world is far separated from us. It is like a vast peninsula joined to the continent by a slip of land, which hardly admits of any communication. But a detail of these after kings would be of consequence in chronology; and would prove the foundation for all subsequent history. Where then are these kings? In what quarter do they lurk? They are nowhere to be found. And the reason is this: their dynasty has been inverted. Hence they have been misplaced through anticipation; and adjudged to a prior aera. On this account the later dynasty is not given to us, though so necessary to be made known: and much I fear that we are deprived of the second book of Polyhistor from Berosus; because this dynasty of kings was to be found there, probably differently exhibited; and under a contrary arrangement: which would have spoiled the system espoused. For, that the original has been misconstrued, and misquoted, is apparent from the want of uniformity in those, who have copied Berosus, or any ways taken from him. In short, the tenor of this history, even as we have it in Alexander Polyhistor, is very plain; and the scheme of it easy to be traced. The purpose of Berosus was to write an account of his own country: and he accordingly begins with the natural history; wherein he describes the situation of the region, the nature of the soil, and the various products, with which it abounded. All this is said of Babylonia, not of any antediluvian country. He must have been wise indeed, after an interval of so many thousand years, to have known that it originally bore sesamum and dates. He is speaking of Babylon, the place of his nativity, and the country denominated from it; of which when he has given a just description, he proceeds to relate the principal occurrences of former ages. And the first great event in the history of time is the appearance of 44 [Hlladius speaks of this person, and calls him [x], which the Dorians would express [x]. I have sometimes thought that this term was Noe, and Noa, reversed and confounded. This author supposes, that Oan is the same as [x]; and that the person was born of the mundane egg. [x]. Helladius apud Phot. Hist. cclxxix. p. 1594.  
 
The world egg, cosmic egg or mundane egg is a mythological motif found in the cosmogonies of many cultures that is present in Proto-Indo-European culture and other cultures and civilizations. Typically, the world egg is a beginning of some sort, and the universe or some primordial being comes into existence by "hatching" from the egg, sometimes lain on the primordial waters of the Earth. Eggs symbolize the unification of two complementary principles (represented by the egg white and the yolk) from which life or existence, in its most fundamental philosophical sense, emerges.

Image
-- Jacob Bryant's Orphic Egg (1774)

The earliest idea of the "cosmic egg" comes from some of the Sanskrit scriptures. The Sanskrit term for it is Brahmanda, which is derived from two words – 'Brahma', the 'creator god' in Hinduism and 'anda', meaning 'egg'. Certain Puranas such as the Brahmanda Purana speak of this in detail.

The Rig Veda (RV 10.121) uses a similar name for the source of the universe: Hiranyagarbha, which literally means "golden fetus" or "golden womb" and is associated with the universal source Brahman where the whole of all existence is believed to be supported. The Upanishads elaborate that the Hiranyagarbha floated around in emptiness for a while, and then broke into two halves which formed Dyaus (the Heavens) and Prithvi (Earth). The Rig Veda has a similar coded description of the division of the universe in its early stages....

The Orphic Egg in the ancient Greek Orphic tradition is the cosmic egg from which hatched the primordial hermaphroditic deity Phanes/Protogonus (variously equated also with Zeus, Pan, Metis, Eros, Erikepaios and Bromius) who in turn created the other gods. The egg is often depicted with a serpent wound around it.

Many threads of earlier myths are apparent in the new tradition. Phanes was believed to have been hatched from the World egg of Chronos (Time) and Ananke (Necessity) or Nyx (Night). His older wife Nyx called him Protogenus. As she created nighttime, he created daytime. He also created the method of creation by mingling. He was made the ruler of the deities and passed the sceptre to Nyx. This new Orphic tradition states that Nyx later gave the sceptre to her son Uranos before it passed to Cronus and then to Zeus, who retained it.

-- World egg [Cosmic egg] [Mundane egg], by Wikipedia


I have before shewn, that by [x] was signified the ark.] Oannes, the man of the sea, who shewed himself to mankind in the very first year: 45 [It is said that there were three persons like him, who made their appearance from the sea in the same manner. Their history is postponed by Berosus to his second book. They were certainly the three sons of Noah, who had, like their father, been witnesses to the antediluvian world: but as the greater part of their life was after the flood, their history is by this writer deferred till he comes to treat of the kings of Babylon: which was in his latter book.] so that Berosus makes his annals commence from him. This person is represented as a preacher of justice; and a general instructor and benefactor, who had appeared in two different states. He informed mankind of what had happened in preceding times: and went higher, even to the chaotic state of things, before the aera of creation. He said, that there was originally one vast abyss, which was inveloped in universal darkness. This abyss was inhabited by myriads of hideous miscreated beings, horrid to imagination. The poet Milton seems to allude to this description of Berosus, when he speaks of

The secrets of the hoary deep, a dark.
Illimitable ocean, without bound,
Without dimension, where length, breadth, and height,
And time, and place were lost: where nature bred
Perverse all monstrous, all prodigious things,
Abominable, unutterable, and worse
Than fables yet have feign'd, or fear conceiv'd,
Gorgons, and Harpies, and Chimeras dire.


After having given an account of chaos, Berosus tells us, that a delineation of this history, and all these monstrous forms were to be seen in Babylonia: and from this undoubtedly he borrowed this motley representation. The whole is certainly taken from ancient hieroglyphics. Oannes now proceeds to the works of the creation, and the formation of the heavens: at which time all the animals of the deep were annihilated. A set of rational beings succeeded, who partook of divine knowledge: but not being able to bear the brightness of new-created light, they perished. Upon this, another set of rational beings were formed, who were able to bear the light. The Deity also formed the stars, together with the sun, and moon, and five planets. He then gave an account of the wickedness of men, and the ruin of all mankind by a deluge, except Sisuthrus. These are the contents of the first book of Berosus. In the second he promises to write of the kings, who reigned in Babylonia: which history, if we may believe Abydenus and Apollodorus, contained an antediluvian account of the world. In this notion they are followed by that very learned father, Eusebius. At this rate; Berosus expended his labour upon times the most uncertain, and the least interesting; and of his real ancestors, the genuine Babylonians and Chusdim, said not a word. For had it appeared to Eusebius, that there was any further account given of the kings of Babylon, and their achievements; he could not but have mentioned it; as it was of such consequence to him as a chronologer, and so connected with the purport of his writings. But, if we may judge from his silence, there was no such account: and the reason, as I before said, is plain. For whatever kings may have reigned at Babylon, or in Chaldea, they have had their series reversed; and by a groundless anticipation have been referred to another period. But if we turn the tables, and reduce the series to its original order; we shall find Sisuthrus, the Patriarch, stand first: and whoever they may be, who are brought between him and Alorus, they will come after. For Alorus will be found to be no other than 46 [[x]. Chron. Paschale. p. 23.] Nimrod, the son of Chus. He is by Berosus truly styled [x], one of the Chusdim, or Chaldeans; and represented as the first king of Babylon. He was indeed the first, who reigned upon earth. And we need no other proof, that this is the truth, than the words of these very writers, Abydenus and Apollodorus. 47 [The Chaldeans were famed for their knowledge in astronomy and other sciences: and according to Abydenus, the previous account given by Berosus was concerning the wisdom of this people. He then concludes; [x]: So much for the wisdom of the Chaldeans: we come now to their kings. The first of these was Alorus, a Chaldean by birth, &c. Who can suppose that this relates to an antediluvian aera? And Eusebius puts the matter out of all doubt: [x]. Eusebii Chron. p. 14.] [x]. To the same purpose Apollodorus. [x]. What the Greeks and Romans rendered Chaldaeus, whom we in our scripture version idly follow, is in the original Chasdim or Chusdim, one of the sons of Chus: and the purport of this extract from Berosus is very explicit and particular: that the first of all kings, that is, the first person who reigned in the world, was a man styled Alorus; who was of Babylon, and one of the Chusdim or Cuthites. How is it possible to imagine, that this description refers to an antediluvian? We may therefore close the account with that curious passage from Eupolemus, which was preserved by the same Alexander Polyhistor, to whom we are indebted for the fragment from Berosus. He tells us, that Babylon was the first built city in the world; founded by some of those persons, who had escaped the deluge; who were of the Giant race. They likewise erected the celebrated tower. But when that was thrown down by the hand of God, the Giants were scattered over the face of the earth. 48 [Eusebii Praep. Evang. L. 9. c. 17. p. 418.] [x].

Who the personages may be, who intervene between Sisuthrus and Alorus, that is, between Noah and Nimrod, is hard to determine. Thus much we know, that the Patriarch never assumed royalty: so that there could be no connexion between them as monarchs in succession. The series exhibited in the history must have been by family descent; in which Nimrod stood only fourth: so that all the personages but two, of those, who had been introduced in the interval, are probably kings of other places in Chaldea; or priests, who had a kind of sovereign rule, and have been wrongly inserted. Sisuthrus is past controversy Noah. 49 [[x]. Cedrenus. p. 11.]. Amelon is composed of the titles of Ham, consisting of Am El On; all relating to the Sun or Orus; under which character this person was in after times worshiped. Daus Pastor is by Apollodorus expressed Daonus, from 50 [It is a title given to Orion, who was the same as Nimrod. Chron. Pasch. 36. He is styled Chan-Daon, the Lord Daon, by Lycophron: who mentions [x]. v. 328. scilicet [x]. Schol. ibid. So Megalorus of Abydenus is Mag-Alorus; in other words, Magus Alorus, Nebrodes, Orion, the chief of the Magi.] Da On, the Sun, a title assumed by Ham and his sons. Amenon, like Amelon, is made up of terms, which are all titles of the same person; each of them well known in Egypt. Alaparus seems to be the same as Al-Porus, the God of fire. Amillarus is a compound of Ham-El-Arez, all names of Ham, and the sun. Some of the persons are said to be of Laracha, which Syncellus expresses wrongly Larancha. Laracha is for Al-Aracha, the Aracca of Ptolemy, one of the cities built by Nimrod. 51 [He built Babel, and ERECH, and Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar. Gen. C. 10. V. 10.] Others are said to be of Pantibibla or Pantibiblon, whom I take to have been Ponti-Babilon, or priests of Babel or Babylon. Panti, Ponti, and Phonti in the Amonian language signified a priest. 52 [Hence [x], a sacred priest, or priest of Orus; [x], Hermophontes; Ceresphontes; [x] from [x], Sol. See Jablonsky Prolegom. p. 90. Phantasia of Memphis was properly Phant-Asis, a priestess of Asis or Isis. Amillarus, Megalorus, Adorescus, Alaparus, Daon the Shepherd, are all said to have been of Pantibiblon. This was not a place, but an office: and it signified that they were priests of Babel.] Argeiphontes in Greece was an Arkite priest, or minister of Argus: but the Grecians supposed that Phontes denoted slaughter, from a word in their own language; and in consequence of it bestowed the name on Hermes, whom they made the murderer of Argus. Pontifex and Pontifices among the Romans were titles of the priests of fire. I imagine that the original list, which has been supposed to have been a dynasty of antediluvian kings, was the genealogy of Nimrod, the first king of the country; in which were contained four persons; Sisuthrus, or the Patriarch: next, under the character of 52 [Amenon may be Menon ill expressed, the same as Men or Menes. This was one of the most ancient of the sacred titles. Anticlides in AEgypto invenisse quendam nomine Menona tradit, quindecim annos ante Phoroneum antiquissimum Graeciae regem: idque monumentis adprobare conatur. Plinii Nat. Hist. L. 7. c. 56. [Google translate: found in Egypt he records a certain man by the name of Menona, fifteen years before Phoroneus, the most ancient king of Greece.]] Amenon, Amelon, Amilarus, is Ham: Eudoreschus (Euc-Ad-Arez-Chus) is his son Chus: and lastly Alorus, and Daonus the Shepherd was Nimrod: for it is expressly said of him, that he took the title of Shepherd. 53 [Abydenus above quoted.] The rest are foreign to the catalogue; and through ignorance have been inserted.

It is said, that both Oannes and Sisuthrus instructed men in the knowledge of letters, and committed many things to writing. And it is the opinion of many learned men, that letters were not unknown to the people of the antediluvian world. Pliny says, Literas semper arbitror Assyrias suisse [Google translate: I think that the letters of the Assyrians have always been derived.]. But this was only matter of opinion: and, as he, a professed geographer, makes no distinction between the Assyrians and Babylonians, who were two very different people; but introduces the former by mistake for the latter; we cannot pay much regard to his notions in chronology. If the people of the first ages had been possessed of so valuable a secret, as that of writing; they would never have afterwards descended to means less perfect for the explanation of their ideas. And it is to be observed, that the invention of hieroglyphics was certainly a discovery of the Chaldeans; and made use of in the first ages by the Egyptians; the very nations, who are supposed to have been possessed of the superior and more perfect art. They might retain the former, when they became possessed of the latter; because their ancient records were entrusted to hieroglyphics: but, had they been possessed of letters originally, they would never have deviated into the use of symbols; at least, for things, which were to be published to the world, and which were to be commemorated for ages. Of their hieroglyphics we have samples without end in Egypt; both on obelisks, and in their syringes; as also upon their portals, and other buildings. Every mummy almost abounds with them. How comes it, if they had writing so early, that scarcely one specimen is come down to us; but that every example should be in the least perfect character? For my part, I believe that there was no writing antecedent to the law at Mount Sina. Here the divine art was promulgated; of which other nations partook: the Tyrians and Sidonians first, as they were the nearest to the fountain-head. And when this discovery became more known; even then I imagine, that its progress was very slow: that in many countries, whither it was carried, it was but partially received, and made use of to no purpose of consequence. The Romans carried their pretensions to letters pretty high; and the Helladian Greeks still higher; yet the former marked their years by a nail driven into a post: and the utmost effort of Grecian literature for some ages was simply to write down the names of the Olympic victors from Coraebus; and to register the priestesses of Argos. Why letters, when introduced, were so partially received, and employed to so little purpose, a twofold reason may be given. First, the want of antecedent writings, to encourage people to proceed in the same track. Where science is introduced together with letters; the latter are more generally received, and more abundantly used. For the practice of writing, or, in other words, composing, depends upon previous reading, and example. But the Cadmians, who brought letters to Greece, brought those elements only; and those much later, I believe, than is generally imagined. Nor had the Helladians any tendency to learning, till they were awakened by the Asiatic Greeks, and the islanders, who had been sooner initiated in science. They had made a great progress; while their brethren in the west were involved in darkness. And this early knowledge was not owing to any superiority of parts; but to their acquaintance with the people of the east, and with the writings of those countries; by which they were benefited greatly. Composition depends upon science: it was introduced in Hellas together with philosophy. Anaxagoras of Clazoinenae brought the learning of the Ionic school to Athens: he was succeeded by Archelaus, of whom Socrates was a follower. Writing, I am sensible, was antecedent: but at this time it became general. About this period, Theognis, AEsychylus, and Pindar shone forth in poetry; and the ancient comedy was first exhibited. After which, wonderful specimens of genius were in every kind displayed.

Another reason for this deficiency seems to have been the want of such materials as are necessary for expeditious and free writing. The rind and leaves of trees, and shells from the sea, can lend but small assistance towards literature: and stones and slabs are not calculated to promote it much further. Yet these seem to have been the best means, they could in early times procure, to mark down their thoughts, or commemorate an event. The Chaldaeans and Babylonians are greatly celebrated for their wisdom and learning: and they were undoubtedly a most wonderful people; and had certainly all the learning, that could arise from hieroglyphical representations. They had, I make no doubt, the knowledge of lines, by which geometrical problems must be illustrated: and they had the use of figures for numeration: but I imagine, that they were without letters for ages. Epigenes said that the Babylonians, who were great observers of the heavens, had accounts of those observations for seven hundred and twenty years, written upon plinths baked in the sun. 54 [Plinii Hist. Nat. L. 7. p. 413. Some prefix M. or Mille to the other numbers, and make the sums 1720 and 1490.] Epigenes apud Babylonios 720 annorum observationes siderum coctilibus laterculis inscriptas docet gravis auctor in primis. Qui minimum, Berosus et Critodemus, 490 annorum. Ex quo apparet aeternus literarum usus. [Google translate: Epigenes among Babylonians 720 years old observation of the stars Inscribed on bricks, the author teaches that the grave is in the first place. The youngest, Berosus and Critodemus, 490 years old. Ex which appears to be the eternal use of letters.] I can see no proof from hence of the eternity of letters, for which Pliny contends: nor, indeed, do I believe, that letters existed among them at the time, of which he speaks. For if they had been so fortunate as to have had for so long a time these elements, they were too ingenious a people not to have used them to better purpose. The Babylonians had writing among them sooner than most nations of the earth: but the years taken notice of by Epigenes were antecedent to their having this knowledge: at which time they were ingenious, and wise above the rest of the sons of men; but had no pretensions to literature properly so called. For, as I have before mentioned, I cannot help forming a judgment of the learning of a people from the materials, with which it is expedited, and carried on. And I should think that literature must have been very scanty, or none at all, where the means abovementioned were applied to. For it is impossible for people to receive any great benefit from letters, where they are obliged to go to a shard or an 55 [Ostracismus, Petalismus, Liber, Folium, Tabella, Latercula. From writing upon leaves and shells, came the terms Petalismus and Ostracismus among the Greeks: from the bark of trees came Libri of the Latins.] oyster-shell, for information; and where knowledge is consigned to a pantile. As to the high antiquity assigned to letters by Pliny; it is impossible to give any credence to that author, who from 720 years infers eternity, and speaks of those terms as synonimous.
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Re: A New System/Analysis of Ancient Mythology, by Jacob Bry

Postby admin » Sat Mar 12, 2022 7:30 am

Volume III, P. 127-144

Pezron

I took notice, when I was treating of the first apostasy, and rebellion upon earth, that it was a remarkable aera, when 1 [P. 16. 23. of this volume.] Scythismus was said to have commenced. This was attended with Hellenismus [Hellenism]; which by some is brought after; but seems to have prevailed about the same time. What the purport is of these terms has never been satisfactorily explained. In respect to Scythismus, we may be thus far assured, that it is a term which relates to a people styled Scythae; and they were the same, from whom the region called Scythia had its name. There were several countries of this denomination: but what relation could the people have with Babylonia? and how can we imagine, that their history could precede the aera of dispersion?

As I am therefore about to treat of these nations, it will be proper to say something of the learned Monsieur Pezron, whose notions upon this head are remarkable. He seems to have been the founder of a new system; in which he has had many followers: and all that science, which I suppose to have been derived to the western world from Babylonia, and Egypt, they bring from the Sacae, and Scythians of the north: making it take its rise beyond Media and Mount Imaus, in the upper regions of Asia. We are particularly informed by Pezron, that there was a people in these parts, who in the first ages spread themselves over Bactria, and Margiana; and proceeding by Armenia and Cappadocia, at last passed over into Europe. The whole of this continent they conquered, and held, under the names of Gomarians, Cimmerians, Celts, and Scythae. From hence he takes upon him to shew, that the Gaulish and Celtic nations were from the upper regions of Asia; and particularly from those countries, which lay beyond the Bactrians and Medes. He takes notice, that there was in these parts a city named Comara, mentioned by Ptolemy, and others; and from the similitude, which subsists between Comarians and Gomarians, the learned writer is induced to bring the sons of Gomer, by whom Europe is supposed in part to have been peopled, from the regions about Thebet and Tartary. As he proceeds methodically in the history of this people, I will lay before the reader an epitome of what he advances; and this in as precise, and fair a manner, as I am able.

2 [See Chap. 3. 4. 5. 6. of Monsieur Pezron's work, entitled, The Antiquities of Nations; more particularly of the Celts and Gauls: by Monsieur Pezron, Doctor in Divinity, and Abbe of La Charmoye. Englished by Mr. Jones, 1706.] The Comarians, (says Pezron), are by Ptolemy placed in Bactriana, near the sources of the Iaxartes, towards the most eastern boundaries of 3 [C. 3. p. 18.] Sogdiana: and they are represented as a powerful and warlike people. They passed the mountains of Margiana, and made an irruption into that country. It was then in the possession of the Medes called Arii: but they were afterwards styled Parthians; a name imposed by the conquerors. By this is meant persons PARTED, or SEPARATED; from the Celtic word to PART: because they were expelled, and severed from their country. These separatists in return, finding that they could not retaliate, but by abusive language, called the others by way of ridicule SCACAE, or SACAE, meaning by it Noxii, Latrones, SACKERS; PEOPLE, WHO SACK AND SLAY. These Sacae seized upon Bactriana, and made themselves masters of the most eligible part of Armenia, which they called Sacasene, after the name, which had been given to themselves. They afterwards passed into 4 [Josephus and Syncellus make the Gomerians the first inhabitants of Cappadocia. [x]. Syncell. p. 49. They were the people attacked by the Sacae, who seized upon the best of the country.] Cappadocia; and took possession of all that part, which lay upon the Euxine Sea. The person, who conducted them in these enterprises was one Acmon. This name occurs in Stephanus, who mentions, that a city in Phrygia was built by 5 [Of Acmon I have before spoken in my second volume. Acmon was a title of the Deity. [x], Heysch.] Acmon; and styles him [x], Acmon, the son of Man, or Maneus. It is likely that Acmon, or Ach-Man, as perhaps the word was pronounced by the Sacae, signified properly the son of man, or of the race of man.

In the mean time the Cimmerians, who were of the same family, went by the north; and having made various incursions, at last settled above the Euxine Sea, near the Palus Maeotis.
If any should be dissident about what is here advanced, let him consult Plutarch, Posidonius, Diodorus, and Strabo.

Thus, (says Pezron), have I conducted the Sacae from their original place of residence to Armenia and Cappadocia: but as if this 6 [C. 8. P. 45.] famous nation were of a sudden lost, we hear no more of them. Their name seems to be quite extinct; and the people annihilated. And here a discovery is to be made of matters, which have lain concealed from all ancient historians. I [Pezron] am now to bring to light many great and important truths, which they could never arrive at. After the Sacae had entered Upper Phrygia; as if they had gone into another world, they quitted their ancient name, which they probably detested, and were now called Titans. I never could comprehend, why they took the name; whether it was through some mystery, or a mere caprice, that they affected it; or to make themselves 7 [C. 8. p. 46.] formidable. These events were long before the war of Troy. The conquests of Acmon were prior to the birth of Abraham, and the foundation of the 8 [C. 8. p. 48. Even Uranus is by this writer supposed to have been before Abraham. C. 12. p. 83.] Assyrian monarchy. This prince was succeeded in his kingdom by Uranus, who conquered Thrace, Greece, and the island Crete; and afterwards fell violently upon the other provinces of Europe; and carried all before him to the uttermost boundaries of Spain. He also subdued Mauritania. Uranus was succeeded by Saturn; and Saturn by Jupiter, who was three hundred years before Moses. This last entrusted one part of his vast empire to his brother Pluto, and another to his cousin-german Atlas, who was styled Telamon. He was a person of high feature: and Telamon in the language of Jupiter signified a 9 [C. 12. p. 84.] TALL MAN; TELL being TALL, and MON signifying MAN.


In this detail there are many exceptionable positions; which are too palpable to need any discussion. I shall therefore take notice only of some of the principal facts, upon which his system is founded. He tells us, that while the Sacae were proceeding by the south, the Cimmerians, who likewise came from Bactriana, are supposed to take their rout by the north of Asia: and they are represented as making their way by force of arms, till they settled upon the 10 [Herodotus makes mention of the march of the Cimmerians: and proves it to have been in a quite contrary direction, from the Palus Maeotis towards Caucasus, and the east. L. 4. c. 12.] Palus Maeotis. And it is requested by Pezron, if any should doubt the truth of what he advances, that they would apply to the best Grecian historians. But these writers have not a syllable to the purpose. That there were such a people as the Cimmerians upon the Maeotis is as certain, as that there were Phrygians in Troas, and Spartans at Lacedaemon. But that they came from Bactria, and fought their way through different countries; that they were the brethren of the 11 [Strabo says, the Cimmerians were driven out of their country by the Scythians. [x]. L. 1. p. 756.] Scythians styled Sacae, and took the upper rout, when the others were making their inroad below; are circumstances, which have not the least shadow of evidence. They are not mentioned by the authors, to whom he appeals: nor by any writers whatever. The conquests of Uranus, and the empire given to Jupiter, are incredible. It would be idle to trouble ourselves about a circumstance, which does not merit a serious confutation. The conquests of Osiris, and Sesostris, have as good title to be believed. To these we might add the exploits of the great prince Abcamaz, who ruled over the whole earth. His rib was shewn to the 12 [Benjamin Tudelensis. p. 56.] Jew of Tudela at Damascus: and by the most exact measurement it was nine spans long, and two in breadth; so that his stature was in proportion to his dominions. But setting aside these fabulous histories, which confute themselves, let us examine one circumstance in the account of the learned Pezron, upon which his whole system depends. He tells us, that after the Sacae had entered Cappadocia, they seemed in a manner extinct: but they appeared again under the name of Titans; and carried on their conquest under the same hero Acmon. This, he says, is a discovery of the greatest importance, which was unknown to every ancient historian, and had lain dormant for ages. And for the history of the Sacae he appeals to Strabo; and particularly concerning their inroad into Cappadocia, from whence they are supposed to have proceeded to the conquest of all Europe. But in the execution of this grand and pleasing scheme, he is guilty of an oversight, which ruins the whole of his operations. Carried on by a warm imagination, he has been erecting a baseless fabric, which cannot subsist for a moment. The passage in Strabo, upon which he founds his notions, makes intirely against him. This writer speaks thus of the Sacae. 13 [L. 11. p. 779.] [x]. The excursions of the Sacae were like those of the Cimmerians. In this description the author refers to a prior circumstance. Now the excursions of the Cimmerians were in the reign of 14 [Herodotus. L. 1. c. 6. 15. 16.] Ardys, the son of Gyges, king of Lydia, long after the Trojan war, and still farther removed from Abraham, and the supposed foundation of the Assyrian empire. And in proof of this being the author's meaning we find him afterwards more explicitly shewing, that these excursions of the Sacae were as late as the empire of the Persians. The account is so particular, and precise, that I will lay it at large before the reader.

15 [L. 11. p. 779. [x]. Ibid.] The inroads of the Sacae were very like those of the Cimmerians, and Treres; some of them being made to a great distance, and others nearer home. For they not only got possession of Media; but also seized upon the most eligible part of Armenia, which they called Sacasene after their own name. They advanced as far as Cappadocia; especially towards that part of it, which borders upon the Euxine sea, and is called the region of Pontus.


Thus far all is right: but observe the sequel.

Here, as they were giving themselves up to feasting and jollity from the plunder, which they had taken, they were set upon in the night by some of the Persian Satrapae, and all cut off.


Pezron therefore might well say, that the Sacae in the midst of their exploits seem at once to have been annihilated, and their name extinct. Strabo tells us, that they were totally ruined: [x]: the Persians cut them all off to a man. Hence we may see of what great oversights this learned man was guilty in the prosecution of his scheme. First, in supposing these Sacae to have been of as great antiquity as the Patriarchs [Narrowly, Abraham, his son Isaac, and Isaac's son Jacob, also named Israel; widely, the twenty male ancestor-figures between Adam and Abraham. The first ten are the antediluvian patriarchs,], and antecedent [before] to the foundation of Assyria, who were manifestly as late as the reign of 16 [Strabo says, that according to some historians, it was Cyrus, who cut them off. L. 11. p. 780. But it was probably an age later, when the Persian empire was more established. See the passage: [x]. See also Diodorus Sic. L. 2. p. 119.] Cyrus [Cyrus the Great 600-530 BC]. Secondly, in giving the character of universal conquerors to a set of banditti, who in one attack were extirpated. Lastly, in attributing the most material circumstances in the ancient history of Europe to a people, who were never there. Thus is this fairy vision brought to an end. The history of the Titans, the achievements of Acmon, the empire of Jupiter, the part delegated to Tal-man, are quite effaced: and much labour and ingenuity has been expended to little purpose. In short, the whole Celtic system is ruined: for the Sacae, upon whom it depended, are stopped in their career, and no more heard of: and all this is manifest from the authorities, to which Pezron appeals. Such too frequently are the quotations made use of by people of an eager disposition; which, as they are introduced, answer but in part; when examined, are totally repugnant. His reasoning throughout is carried on by a chain, of which not one link is fairly connected.
In the eighth century BC, Scythian warriors pursuing the Cimmerians rode south out of the steppes into the Near East in the area of northern Iran. They defeated the Cimmerians in the 630s and in the process conquered the powerful nation of the Medes, their Iranic ethnolinguistic relatives…. When they were defeated by the Medes in about 585 BC, they withdrew to the north and established themselves in the North Caucasus Steppe and the Pontic Steppe north of the Black Sea. They and their relatives built a huge empire stretching across Central Eurasia as far as China, including most of urbanized Central Asia, and grew fabulously rich on trade.

The Scythians and other North Iranic speakers thus dominated Central Eurasia at the same time that their southern relatives, the Medes and Persians, formed a vast empire based in the area of what is now western Iran and Iraq… they and other North Iranic-speaking relatives -- including their eastern branch, the Sakas -- continued to rule much of Central Eurasia for many centuries…


-- Greek Buddha: Pyrrho's Encounter With Early Buddhism in Central Asia, by Christopher I. Beckwith

The Scythians, also known as Scyths, Saka, Sakae, Iskuzai, or Askuzai, were an ancient nomadic people of Eurasia, inhabiting the region Scythia. Classical Scythians dominated the Pontic steppe from approximately the 7th century BC until the 3rd century BC. They can also be referred to as Pontic Scythians, European Scythians or Western Scythians. They were part of the wider Scythian cultures, stretching across the Eurasian Steppe. In a broader sense, Scythians has also been used to designate all early Eurasian nomads, although the validity of such terminology is controversial. According to Di Cosmo, other terms such as "Early nomadic" would be preferable. Eastern members of the Scythian cultures are often specifically designated as Sakas.

The Scythians are generally believed to have been of Iranian (or Iranic; an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group) origin; they spoke a language of the Scythian branch of the Iranian languages, and practiced a variant of ancient Iranian religion. Among the earliest peoples to master mounted warfare, the Scythians replaced the Cimmerians as the dominant power on the Pontic steppe in the 8th century BC. During this time they and related peoples came to dominate the entire Eurasian Steppe from the Carpathian Mountains in the west to Ordos Plateau in the east, creating what has been called the first Central Asian nomadic empire. Based in what is modern-day Ukraine and southern Russia, they called themselves Scoloti and were led by a nomadic warrior aristocracy known as the Royal Scythians.

In the 7th century BC, the Scythians crossed the Caucasus and frequently raided the Middle East along with the Cimmerians, playing an important role in the political developments of the region. Around 650–630 BC, Scythians briefly dominated the Medes of the western Iranian Plateau, stretching their power to the borders of Egypt. After losing control over Media, they continued intervening in Middle Eastern affairs, playing a leading role in the destruction of the Assyrian Empire in the Sack of Nineveh in 612 BC. The Scythians subsequently engaged in frequent conflicts with the Achaemenid Empire, and suffered a major defeat against Macedonia in the 4th century BC and were subsequently gradually conquered by the Sarmatians, a related Iranian people living to their east. In the late 2nd century BC, their capital at Scythian Neapolis in the Crimea was captured by Mithridates VI and their territories incorporated into the Bosporan Kingdom. By this time they had been largely Hellenized. By the 3rd century AD, the Sarmatians and last remnants of the Scythians were dominated by the Alans, and were being overwhelmed by the Goths. By the early Middle Ages, the Scythians and the Sarmatians had been largely assimilated and absorbed by early Slavs. The Scythians were instrumental in the ethnogenesis of the Ossetians, who are believed to be descended from the Alans.

The Scythians played an important part in the Silk Road, a vast trade network connecting Greece, Persia, India and China, perhaps contributing to the prosperity of those civilisations. Settled metalworkers made portable decorative objects for the Scythians, forming a history of Scythian metalworking. These objects survive mainly in metal, forming a distinctive Scythian art....

In the aftermath of conflict between Macedon and the Scythians, the Celts seem to have displaced the Scythians from the Balkans; while in south Russia, a kindred tribe, the Sarmatians, gradually overwhelmed them. In 310–309 BC, as noted by Diodorus Siculus, the Scythians, in alliance with the Bosporan Kingdom, defeated the Siraces in a great battle at the river Thatis.

By the early 3rd century BC, the Scythian culture of the Pontic steppe suddenly disappears. The reasons for this are controversial, but the expansion of the Sarmatians certainly played a role. The Scythians in turn shifted their focus towards the Greek cities of the Crimea.


-- Scythians, by Wikipedia

An ingenious writer, and antiquary of our own nation has followed the steps of Pezron, and added to his system largely. He supposes, that all science centered of old in Bactria, called 17 [See the History and Chronology of the Fabulous Ages, by Wise. p. 119. and note (1) in another treatise, he says: Pezron proves, that Uranus, Caelus, Saturn, and Jupiter, were no imaginary beings; but the true names of Celtic emperors, who were more generally known by the name of Titans. Wise. Dissertation on the Language, Learning, &c. of Europe. It appears, that Uranus, Saturn, and Jupiter, were powerful princes; sovereigns over a vast empire, comprehending all Europe, and a great part of Asia. Ibid. p. 55. These writers were too modest in limiting Jupiter's empire, which they might as well have extended over all the earth; especially as they might have quoted authority for it. [x]. Diodorus. L. 3. p. 194.] Bochary, or the Land of Books; [in Bactria], which Pezron had supposed to have been the principal place of residence of his Sacae. He accordingly tells us, that in these parts we must look for the origin of the Titans, Celts, and Scythae. We are likewise informed by another writer, that near Cashemise and Thebet they speak good 18 [See Parsons, in his treatise styled Japhet.] Irish at this day. The learned Salmasius also deduces every thing from Scythia.19 [De Hellenestica. p. 366.] Nulla fere Europae gens nec Asiae, quin a septentrione promanaverit, &c. Scythia igitur, quae ad septentrionem, omnes fere gentes evomuit. [Google translate: There is almost no European or Asian nation without the north he has flowed, &c. Scythia, then, to the north it spewed out almost all nations.]
3. The Oriental System

Boosted by seventeenth-century Jesuits like Rodrigues, Kircher, and Charles Le Gobien, the notion of a pan-Asian "oriental system" or doctrina orientalis with possible Mesopotamian or Egyptian roots became a major factor in eighteenth-century views of Asian religions. Facets of this complex of ideas include theories of an Egyptian origin of Buddhism (Kircher, Mathurin Veyssiere de La Croze, Engelbert Kaempfer, Johann Jacob Brucker, Diderot), the view that Brahmanism is a form of exoteric Buddhism (Diderot, Herder, etc.), the notion that some Buddhist texts of China are translations from the Veda (Joseph de Guignes), and the suspicion that Greek philosophy and particularly Plato were inspired by oriental ideas (A. M. Ramsay) or even by Buddhism (la Crequiniere). The "inner" teachings of this doctrina orientalis were first modeled on the purported monism, emanatism, and "quietism" of Japanese Zen Buddhism and later also of Vedanta and Sufism. In 1688 Francois Bernier linked such oriental quietism to the teachings of Miguel de Molinos, Francois Fenelon, and Madame Guyon as well as the philosophy of Spinoza.

The "Spinoza" article in Bayle's dictionary of 1702 -- one of the most famous and controversial articles in one of the most noted works of eighteenth- century Europe -- is a good example for both the broad use of missionary and secular sources about Asia and the deep influence of the linkage between features of Asian religions and raging theologico-philosophical controversies of Christian Europe. Bayle's influence is palpable not only in Brucker's influential histories of philosophy of the 1730s and 1740s and in Diderot's articles for the Encyclopedie of the 1750s, but also in Johann Lorenz Mosheim's Ecclesiastical History of 1755, Francois Pluquet's Examen du fatalisme of 1757, and many later European works including Herder's philosophy of history (1784-91) and Friedrich Schlegel's pioneering work on the language and wisdom of the Indians (1808). Schlegel, with Volney one of continental Europe's first students of Sanskrit, saw this doctrina orientalis as the ultimate source not only of Oriental philosophy and religion but also of their ancient Greek counterparts (Schlegel 1808:114-23).

At the beginning of the nineteenth century, India had thus for some become not only the cradle of human civilization, as Voltaire had so insistently argued, but of all ancient religion and philosophy -- a notion that inspired Europe's romantic indomania. The birth of modern Orientalism is intimately linked to this idea of Indian origins as an alternative to the biblical narrative. It is not by chance that one of the most ardent propagators after Voltaire of Indian origins was Louis Langles, director of Bible-independent Orientalism's first institution on European soil, the Ecole Speciale des Langues Orientales Vivantes, founded in 1795.

4. Emanation and Transmigration

Bayle (1702), Brucker (1744), Pluquet (1757), F. Schlegel (1808), and many others identified two of the core features of the "oriental doctrine" as emanation and metempsychosis or transmigration of souls. Both were linked to Platonism, pantheism, and Spinozism; thus, they aroused much discussion when all these came under increasing attack. Bayle's 1702 article on Spinoza explicitly established this link in combining information about Greek philosophers and Christian heretics with extensive data from the Orient (Francois Bernier, Philippe Couplet, Simon de La Loubere, Louis Daniel Le Comte, Le Gobien, Antonio Possevino, Guy Tachard) and became a central source not only for Brucker's and Mosheim's discussion of "oriental doctrine" but also for Diderot's article on "philosophie asiatique" (1751) that is discussed in Chapter 3.

In the course of the eighteenth century, the old idea that emanation and transmigration had been brought by Pythagoras via Egypt to India got reversed, and India became the ultimate point of origin. Emanation and the thought of a first principle adopting myriad forms had long been linked to the teaching of Buddha, as was the doctrine of transmigration. The idea of the Egyptian origin of such teachings (and by consequence also of Buddhism) -- which had prominent supporters like Kircher (1667), La Croze (1724), Kaempfer (1729), and Brucker (1744) -- lingered on, but in the second half of the eighteenth century, the notion of an Indian cradle carried the day.

Regardless of such controversies about origins, it can be said that, from the sixteenth to the nineteenth centuries, the doctrines of emanation and transmigration constituted a crucial link between East and West extending from Japan in the Far East (where these two ideas had since the sixteenth century been associated by missionaries with the esoteric and exoteric teachings of Xaca or Buddha) via China, Vietnam, Siam, India, and Persia to Egypt and Greece. In the thought of Ramsay (Chapter 5) and Holwell (Chapter 6), this link took on a particularly poignant form since these authors identified transmigration as a most ancient and universal pre-Mosaic teaching concerning the fall of angels before the creation of the earth -- a teaching that in their view forms the initial part of the biblical creation story that Moses omitted.They regarded human souls as the souls of fallen angels imprisoned in human bodies who have to migrate from one body to the next until they achieve redemption and can return to their heavenly home.

-- The Birth of Orientalism, by Urs App

GAUTAMA BUDDHA, THE SCYTHIAN SAGE

The dates of Gautama Buddha are not recorded in any reliable historical source, and the traditional dates are calculated on unbelievable lineages including round numbers such as one hundred, so they are not reliable either, as noted already by Fleet, Hultzsch, and many others. His personal name, Gautama, is evidently earliest recorded in the Chuangtzu, a Chinese work from the late fourth to third centuries BC. His epithet Sakamuni (later Sanskritized as Sakyamuni), 'Sage of the Scythians ("Sakas")', is unattested in the genuine Mauryan inscriptions or the Pali Canon. It is earliest attested, as Sakamuni, in the Gandhari Prakrit texts, which date to the first centuries AD (or possibly even the late first century BC). It is thus arguable that the epithet could have been applied to the Buddha during the Saka (Saka or "Indo-Scythian") Dynasty -- which dominated northwestern India on and off from approximately the first century BC, continuing into the early centuries AD as satraps or "vassals" under the Kushans -- and that the reason for it was strong support for Buddhism by the Sakas, Indo-Parthians, and Kushans.

However, it must be noted that the Buddha is the only Indian holy man before early modern times who bears an epithet explicitly identifying him as a non-Indian, a foreigner. It would have been unthinkably odd for an Indian saint to be given a foreign epithet if he was not actually a foreigner. Moreover, the Scythians-Sakas are well attested in Greek and Persian historical sources before even the traditional "high" date of the Buddha, so the epithet should presumably have been applied to him already in Central Asia proper or its eastern extension into India-eastern Gandhara. There are also very strong arguments -- including basic "doctrinal" ones -- indicating that Buddhism had fundamental foreign connections from the very beginning, as shown below. It is at any rate certain that Buddha has been identified as Sakamuni ~ Sakyamuni "Sage of the Scythians" in all varieties of Buddhism from the beginning of the recorded Buddhist tradition to the present, and that much of what is thought to be known about him can be identified specifically with things Scythian. [The tradition by which Buddha was from a local Nepalese Sakya "clan" in the area of Lumbini is full of chronological and other insuperable problems, as shown by Bareau (1987); it is a very late development.]

Moreover, it must not be overlooked that we have no concrete datable evidence that any other wandering ascetics preceded the Buddha. The Scythians were nomads who lived in the wilderness, and it is thus quite likely that Gautama himself introduced wandering asceticism to India, just as the Scythians had earlier invented mounted steppe nomadism. One way or the other, it would seem that the Buddha's teachings were unprecedented mainly because they opposed new foreign ideas -- the Early Zoroastrian ideas of good and bad karma, rebirth in Heaven (for those who were good), absolute Truth versus the Lie, and so on -- which were previously unknown in "India proper". He did this because he himself was foreign, and people actually understood and accepted that by calling him Sakamuni.

-- Gautama Buddha, The Scythian Sage, Excerpt from Greek Buddha: Pyrrho's Encounter With Early Buddhism in Central Asia, by Christopher I. Beckwith

But what are we to understand by Scythia? It is an unlimited, undefined term, under which Grecian ignorance sheltered itself. Whatever was unknown northward was called Scythian. It is certain, that vast bodies of men have at times come from the north: though Salmasius carries his notions to a degree of extravagance. But giving his opinion a full scope, What has this to do with the language and learning of Europe; which by many are so uniformly deduced from the same quarter? It is notorious, that this vast track of country called ignorantly Scythia, was possessed by people essentially differing from one another. Timonax, a writer of great antiquity, took notice of fifty nations of 20 [[x]. Scholia in Apollon. L. 4. v. 320.] Scythians. Mithridates had twenty-two 21 [Mithridates duarum et viginti gentium Rex, totidem linguis jura dixit [Google translate: Mithridates, king of twenty-two nations, spoke the same rights in as many languages.]. Plin. L. 7. c. 24. p. 387. See Aulus Gellius. L. 17. c. 17. There were twenty-six languages among the Albani. Strabo. L. 11. p. 768. See also Socratis Hist. Eccles. L. 1. c. 19. p. 49. [x].] languages spoken within his territories, most of which were esteemed Scythic. The people of Colchis at one time carried on a great trade; and variety of inland nations came down to their marts. According to Timosthenes, they were not less than three hundred, which had each their particular 22 [Plin. 1. 5. c. 5. p. 305. Many of these were probably only dialects. Yet there must have been in some instances a real difference of language; and consequently a distinction of people.] language. And even afterwards, in the times of the Romans, it is said, that they were obliged to keep up an hundred and thirty interpreters to carry on traffic. Yet we are apt to speak of the Scythians collectively  as of one family, and of one language, and this the Titanian or Celtic.

23 [P. 56.] The Titan language, (says Wise), was universal in Europe: the Titan language, the vehicle of all the knowledge, which dawned in Europe. — The Titans, masters of all the knowledge derived from the sons of Noah.


And who these Titans were, he repeatedly shews, by saying,

that they were the first civilizers of mankind, and Scythians.


The true Scuthai, or Scythians, were undoubtedly a very learned and intelligent people: but their origin is not to be looked for in the north of Asia, and the desarts of Tartary. Their history was from another quarter, as I purpose to shew. How can we suppose one uniform language to have been propagated from a part of the world, where there was such variety? And how could this language be so widely extended, as to reach from Bactria to Thrace, and from thence to the extremities of Europe? What adds to the difficulty is, that all this was effected, if we may believe our author, six hundred years before Moses. Then it was, that Jupiter subdued all Europe from Thracia to Gades. As to the learning supposed to be derived from these Scythians, it is certainly a groundless surmise. The greater part of these nations commonly styled Scythic, were barbarous to the last degree. There are no monuments, nor writings, remaining, nor any upon record, which can afford us the least idea of their being liberal, or learned.
We know of not one but two great Scythian philosophers…

Anacharsis was the brother of Caduida, king of the Scythians. He spoke Greek because his mother was a Greek.

In about the forty-seventh Olympiad (592-589 BC), the age of Solon, he travelled to Greece and became well known for his astute, pithy remarks and wise sayings…. For example, "He said he wondered why among the Greeks the experts contend, but the non-experts decide."

The Greeks regularly quoted this and other pithy sayings of Anacharsis, which taken together are unlike those of any other known figure, Greek or foreign, in ancient Greek literature. Though he was considered to be a Scythian, the Greeks liked him, and he was counted as one of the Seven Sages of Antiquity in Greek philosophy. His own literary works are lost, but his fame was such that other writers used him as a stock character in their own compositions.

Sextus Empiricus, in his Against the Logicians, quotes an otherwise unknown work attributed to Anacharsis, on the Problem of the Criterion:

Who judges something skillfully? Is it the ordinary person or the skilled person?...

The argument is also strikingly close to the second part of the argument about the Problem of the Criterion in the Chuangtzu. Exactly as in the genuine saying of Anacharsis and in the argument attributed to him by Sextus Empiricus, the Chinese argument specifically concerns the ability to decide which of two contending individuals is right:

If you defeat me, I do not defeat you, are you then right, and I am not? If I defeat you, you do not defeat me, am I then right, you are not?...

The explanation for the similarity of these two passages could well be that the author of the "Anacharsis" quotation given by Sextus Empiricus had heard just such an argument, directly or indirectly, from a Scythian. This would have been a simple matter during the Classical Age because many Scythians then lived in Athens, where a number of them even served as the city's police force. If it was a stock Scythian story, an eastern Scythian -- a Saka -- could have transmitted a version of it to the Chinese, so that it ended up in the Chuangtzu, which is full of stories and arguments of a similar character.

Whatever the explanation, the explicit Greek connection of this story with a Scythian philosopher known for pithy sayings having a clever argument structure clearly indicates that it is the kind of thing Scythians were expected to say. In view of the Chinese testimony, it seems likely that it was something that some Scythians actually did say.

GAUTAMA BUDDHA, THE SCYTHIAN SAGE...


-- Greek Buddha: Pyrrho's Encounter With Early Buddhism in Central Asia, by Christopher I. Beckwith

The Huns and Avares were of these parts; who overran the empire in the fourth century: but their character had nothing in it favourable. They were so rude in feature and figure, and such barbarians that they were not thought human.24 [Jornandes de Rebus Geticis. p. 104.] It was a common notion, that they were begotten by devils upon the bodies of some savage hags, who were found wild in the woods. Procopius says, that they neither had letters, nor would hear of them: so that their children had no instruction. He calls them 25 [Procopius. Bell. Goth. L. 4. c. 3. L. 4. c. 19.]; quite deaf, and averse to all science. In short, all the Tartarian nations of old 26 [I say of old: for there have in later times been some instances to the contrary.] seem to have been remarkably rude. But it may be said, that the people spoken of by Pezron and Wise were of Bactria and Margiana. They may place them as they please: still they are no other than the Sacae Nomades; a Tartarian clan, who from Strabo appear to have been in a continual roving state, till they were cut off. But after all, who in their senses would think of looking for the Titans among the Tartars, or deduce all science from the wilds of Margiana? But if these countries had all the learning, that ever Egypt or Greece boasted, how was it transmitted to Europe? How could it be derived to us, when so many, and such mighty, nations intervened? We have seen the plan adopted by Pezron; which was found defective from the very authorities, to which he appealed: and Wise proceeds upon the same system. These were both in their time respectable persons on account of their learning: but they have certainly lowered themselves by giving into these idle reveries. What can be more fallacious than the notion adopted by 27 [Religion and Learning of Europe, p. 9.] Wise, of the antiquity of the Scythians from the height of their ground?

Which height, (he says), the Scythians urged in their dispute with the Egyptians, as a chief argument of the antiquity of their nation: and the Egyptians, at least other good judges, acquiesced in the proof.


The notion was, according to Justin, from whom it is borrowed, that, as the earth was once overflowed, the higher grounds emerged first, and consequently were first inhabited. And that Scythia was the higher ground, they proved from this; because all the rivers of Scythia descended from the north to the south, and ran towards Egypt. 28 [Justin. L. 2. c. 1.] Porro Scythiam adeo editiorem omnibus terris esse, ut cuncta slumina ibi nata in Maeotim, tum deinde in Ponticum, et AEgyptium mare decurrant [Google translate: Further to Scythia it is so much higher than all the earth that all the rivers are there she was born in the Azov Sea, then into the Black Sea and the Egyptians the sea flowing through.]. What a strange proof is this? and what an argument to be laid before the Egyptians? They lived upon the Nile; and from the same principles might draw a different conclusion. As their river ran in a contrary direction, from south to north, they had the same reason to 29 [The Egyptians did insist upon it. See Diodorus. L. 1. p. 10.] insist, that Upper Egypt, and Ethiopia were the higher grounds, and the more ancient countries. And they would be so far in the right, as the earth is certainly higher, as we advance towards the equator, than it is towards the poles.
The highest point on the equator is at the elevation of 4,690 metres (15,387 ft), at 0°0′0″N 77°59′31″W, found on the southern slopes of Volcán Cayambe [summit 5,790 metres (18,996 ft)] in Ecuador. This is slightly above the snow line and is the only place on the equator where snow lies on the ground.

-- Equator, by Wikipedia

[Mount Everest] is Earth's highest mountain above sea level, located in the Mahalangur Himal sub-range of the Himalayas. The China–Nepal border runs across its summit point. Its elevation (snow height) of 8,848.86 m (29,031.7 ft) was most recently established in 2020 by the Chinese and Nepali authorities.

-- Mount Everest, by Wikipedia

As to the Tanais running from north to south, and so entering the Palus Maeotis, and Pontus Euxinus; it is well known, that there are many rivers upon the coast of the Black Sea, which run in various and contrary directions: consequently different countries must be equally supereminent, and have the same title to be the most ancient; which is absurd and a contradiction.

The whole of Armenia appears to have been fruitful; and we have the attestation of Strabo that it produced the olive. It seems, for the most part, to have been of a very high situation. One province was styled, on this account, Armenia Alta. It bordered upon Araratia westward; and the account given of it by Moses Chorenensis is remarkable.
Armenia Alta is one of the highest regions in the world; for it sends out rivers in contrary directions towards the four cardinal points in the heavens. It has three mountains, and abounds with wild animals, and species of fowl for food, also with hot baths, and mines of salt, and with other things of utility; and the chief city is called Carina.

The region styled Araratia was also very high, though it had fine plains and valleys between the mountains. A country of this nature and situation must, after the flood, have been soonest dried, and consequently the soonest habitable. And it seems also, in an eminent degree, to have contained every requisite for habitation. The mountain still has the name of Ararat, which it has retained through all ages; and the province beneath is at this day peculiarly styled Ar-Meni. This name seems by the natives to have been originally limited to the region of the ark; but writers in after times have spoken of it with a greater latitude, and extended it to a large country. It was of great repute, and its chief city very ample, before it was ruined by the Tartars.

-- Of the Migration and Dispersion of Nations, from A New System, Or, An Analysis of Ancient Mythology: Wherein an Attempt is Made to Divest Tradition of Fable; and to Reduce the Truth to its Original Purity, by Jacob Bryant

The learned Pezron argues no better, when he tries to shew the similitude, which subsisted between the Sacae, and the ancient Gauls. He takes notice from Herodotus, that the Amyrgian Sacae wore breeches like the Gauls: and having observed, that they were an enterprising people, and given an account of their dress, and arms; he concludes by saying,

We may upon the whole find in these Gomarians of Margiana the language, arms, habit, with the restless and warlike spirit of our ancient Celtae. Will any body take upon him to deny, that they came originally from this Asiatic nation?


Yet after all, I cannot assent; for I do not see the resemblance: and the authority upon which I proceed, is that of Herodotus, to whom he sends me. This author takes notice both of the Bactrians, and the Sacae. He says, that the Bactrians were archers, and used bows made of their country reed, or cane; and had short darts. In other respects, they were accoutered like the Medes, who wore tiaras, tunics, and breeches, with a dagger at their girdle. The Sacae, or Amyrgians, had caps upon their heads, which terminated above in a point: they had also breeches. Their chief arms were bows and arrows with a dagger; also battle-axes, and sagars. Let us now turn, and view the habiliments of the Celtae; and see if any resemblance subsisted. Their chief weapons, according to Polybius, Livy, and Caesar, were a long dart, or sramea; and a long cutting sword, but pointless: and they used an immense shield, which covered the whole body. They had helmets upon their heads, which were ornamented with the wings of a bird for a crest; or else with the horns of some wild animal. To bows and arrows they were strangers, or did but seldom use them. From hence we may see, that they were in nothing similar, but breeches and bravery: and of the former they were diverted, when they fought; for they went into battle naked.

La Tène metalwork in bronze, iron and gold, developing technologically out of the Hallstatt culture, is stylistically characterized by "classical vegetable and foliage motifs such as leafy palmette forms, vines, tendrils and lotus flowers together with spirals, S-scrolls, lyre and trumpet shapes". Such decoration may be found on fine bronze vessels, helmets and shields, horse trappings, and elite jewelry, especially torcs and fibulae. Early on, La Tène style adapted ornamental motifs from foreign cultures into something distinctly new; the complicated brew of influences include Scythian art as well as that of the Greeks and Etruscans, among others.

-- Gauls, by Wikipedia

Great respect is certainly due to men of learning; and a proper regard should be paid to their memory. But they forfeit much of this esteem, when they misapply their talents;  and put themselves to these shifts to support an hypothesis. They may smile at their reveries, and plume themselves upon their ingenuity in finding out such expedients: but no good can possibly arise from it; for the whole is a fallacy, and imposition. And a person who gets out of his depth, and tries to save himself by such feeble supports, is like an idiot drowning, without knowing his danger: who laughs, and plunges, and catches at every straw. What I have said in respect to these two learned men, will, I hope, be an argument to all those, who follow their system.  
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Re: A New System/Analysis of Ancient Mythology, by Jacob Bry

Postby admin » Wed Mar 16, 2022 4:40 am

Volume 3, Page 143-162

Of The Scythae, Scythia, Scythismus, and Hellenismus; Also of the Iones and Hellenes of Babylonia; And of the Hellenes of Egypt.

As we have been for so many ages amused with accounts of Scythia; and several learned moderns, taking advantage of that obscurity, in which its history is involved, have spoken of it in a most unwarrantable manner, and extended it to an unlimited degree: it may not be unsatisfactory to inquire, what the country originally was; and from whence it received its name. It is necessary first of all to take notice, that there were many regions, in different parts of the world so called. There was a province in 1 [Ptolem. Geog. L. 4. c. 5. p. 121.] Egypt, and another in Syria, stiled Scythia. There was also a Scythia in Asia Minor, upon the Thermodon 2 [[x]. Diod. Sic. L. 5. p. 302.] above Galatia, where the Amazons were supposed to have resided. The country about Colchis, and Iberia; also a great part of Thrace, and Media; and all the Tauric Chersonesus, were styled Scythic.
In Greco-Roman geography, Colchis (Ancient Greek: Κολχίς) was an exonym for the Georgian polity of Egrisi located on the coast of the Black Sea, centered in present-day western Georgia...

Colchis is known in Greek mythology as the destination of the Argonauts, as well as the home to Medea and the Golden Fleece. It was also described as a land rich with gold, iron, timber and honey that would export its resources mostly to ancient Hellenic city-states....

Colchis likely had a diverse population. According to Greek and Roman sources, between 70 and 300 languages were spoken in Dioscourias (modern Sukhumi) alone.

Abkhaz, Scythian, Anatolian, and Greek names have all been identified in Colchis. Any of these groups could have constituted the ruling class.


Its geography is mostly assigned to what is now the western part of Georgia and encompasses the present-day Georgian provinces of Samegrelo, Imereti, Guria, Adjara, Abkhazia, Svaneti, Racha; modern Russia's Sochi and Tuapse districts; and present-day Turkey’s Artvin, Rize, and Trabzon provinces.

-- Colchis, by Wikipedia

Lastly, there was a country of this name far in the east, of which little notice has been hitherto taken. It was situated upon the great Indic Ocean; and consisted of a widely-extended region, called 3 [Arriani Periplus Maris Erythraei.] Scythia Limyrica. But the Scythia spoken of by the ancient Greeks, and after them taken notice of by the Romans, consisted of those countries, which lay upon the coast of the Euxine; and especially of those upon the north, and north-eastern parts of that sea. In short, it was the region of Colchis, and all that country at the foot of Mount Caucasus, as well as that upon the Palus Maeotis, and the Borysthenes, which was of old esteemed 4 [The people were of Cuthite original; a part of that body which came from Egypt. [x]. Schol. in Pindar. Pyth. Od. 4. v. 376.] Scythia. As the Greeks were ignorant of the part of the world, which lay beyond; or had a very imperfect knowledge of it; they often comprehended this too under the same denomination. Many however did not extend their ideas so far: but looked upon the coast above-specified to have been the boundary northward of the habitable world. 5 [[x]. Apollon. Rhod. L. 2. v. 419. Extremum Tanaim si biberis, Lyce. Horat. L. 3. Od. 10. [x]. Prometh. v. i. Plato speaks of earth being extended from Gades to the river Pharis. Phaedon. p. 109. Herodotus was uncertain, where Europe terminated. L. 4. c. 45. Colchidem Graeci, non Homericis solum temporibus, sed pluribus etiam seculis post, orbis nostri ad orientem terminum esse credebant. Vossius de Idolatria. L. 1. c. 24. p. 177.] Hence we read of extremum Tanain, ultimam Scythiam [Google translate: the last Tanain, the last Scythia.], and [x]; Caucasus the boundary of the world. And although, upon the return of the Greeks, who had followed the fortunes of Cyrus the younger, some insight might be supposed to have been gained into those parts; yet it amounted to little in the end: as no correspondence was kept up; and the navigation of the Bosporus was seldom attempted. Hence it happened, that, till the conquests of Lucullus and Pompeius Magnus, these countries were to the north-east the limits of geographical knowledge: and even of these parts the accounts were very obscure and imperfect. Yet, however unknown they had lain for ages, there was a time, when the natives rendered themselves very respectable. For they carried on an extensive commerce; and were superior in science to all the nations in their neighbourhood. But this was long before the dawning of learning in Greece: even before the constitution of many principalities, into which the Hellenic state was divided. They went under the name of Colchians, Iberians, Cimmerians, Hyperboreans, Alani. They got footing in Paphlagonia upon the Thermodon; where they were called Amazonians, and Alazonians: also in Pieria, and Sithonia, near Mount Haemus in Thrace. These were properly Scythic nations: but the ancients, as I have before mentioned, often included under this name all that lay beyond them; whatever was unknown, even from the Cronian and Atlantic seas one way, to Mount Tabis and the Corean sea the other. 6 [Strabo. L. 11. p. 774.] [x].

The ancient writers of Greece used to include all the northern nations in general under the name of Scythians and Celto-Scythians.


In this they went too far: yet the Scythic nations were widely extended, and to be met with on very different parts of the globe. As they are represented of the highest antiquity, and of great power; and as they are said to have subdued mighty kingdoms; and to have claimed precedency even of the Egyptians: it will be worth our while to enquire into the history of this wonderful people; and to sift out the truth, if possibly it may be attained. Let us then try to investigate the origin of the people denominated Scythians, and explain the purport of their name. The solution of this intricate problem will prove of the highest importance; as we shall thereby be able to clear up many dark circumstances in antiquity: and it will serve for the basis of the system, upon which I proceed. To me then it appears very manifest, that what was termed by the Greeks [x], [x], [x], was originally Cutha, Cuthia, Cuthica; and related to the family of Chus. He was called by the Babylonians and Chaldeans Cuth; and his posterity Cuthites and Cutheans. The countries where they at times 7 [Cusistan in Persis was called Cutha, or the land of Cuth. See Joseph. Antiq. L. 9. c. 14. p. 507.] settled, were uniformly denominated from them. But what was properly styled Cutha, the Greeks expressed with a 8 [So [x] was by the Latines rendered Sylva; [x], septem; [x], serpo; and from [x], [x] of Greece was formed sal, and salum. The river Indus was often called Sindus. Indus ab incolis Sindus appellatur [Google translate: Indus by the inhabitants is called Sindus.]. Plin. N. H. L. 6. p. 319. Ur of Chaldea was styled Sur,[x]: and it is so rendered by Syncellus. [x]. p. 95. The Elli, those priests of the sun at Dodona, were called Selli. The Alpes Cottiar are by Procopius styled [x]. De Bello Goth. L. 2. p. 457. And Lycophron, speaking of the Alps in general, instead of [x], calls them [x], Salpia. [x]. V. 1361. This letter is used by the Welsh as an aspirate: and has undoubtedly been introduced by many nations for the same purpose.] sigma prefixed: which, however trifling it may appear, has been attended with fatal consequences. Whence this mode of expression arose is uncertain: it has universally obtained: and has very much confounded the history of ancient times, and of this people in particular. In short, the mistake reaches in its consequences much farther than we may at first apprehend: and being once detected, will be the means of explaining many difficulties, which cannot otherwise be solved: and a wonderful light will be thrown on the remoter parts of history.

As the Scythic colonies were widely dispersed, I will take them in their turns, and shew that they were all of them Cuthic: that the people upon the Indus were of the same origin as those upon the Phasis...
Image

The Rioni (Phᾶsis) is the main river of western Georgia. It originates in the Caucasus Mountains, in the region of Racha and flows west to the Black Sea, entering it north of the city of Poti (near ancient Phasis). The city of Kutaisi, once the ancient city of Colchis, lies on its banks. It drains the western Transcaucasus into the Black Sea while its sister, the Kura, drains the eastern Transcaucasus into the Caspian Sea.

-- Rioni [Phasis], by Wikipedia

and Thermodon:
Image

The Terme River (Turkish: Terme Çayı; Latin: Thermeh; Greek: Θερμώδων, rendered Thermodon) is a short river in Samsun Province, Turkey draining into the Black Sea. Its sources are in the Pontic Mountains. It runs through the fertile Çarşamba plain to Salıpazarı, where it splits into three tributaries. The city of Terme is on the river, about 5 km from its mouth.

The ancient name of the river is the Thermodon, and the surrounding region was the Pontus.
Pontus or Pontos is a region on the southern coast of the Black Sea, located in modern-day eastern Black Sea Region of Turkey. The name was applied to the coastal region and its mountainous hinterland (rising to the Pontic Alps in the east) by the Greeks who colonized the area in the Archaic period and derived from the Greek name of the Black Sea: Εύξεινος Πόντος (Eúxinos Póntos), "Hospitable Sea", or simply Pontos (ὁ Πόντος) as early as the Aeschylean Persians (472 BC) and Herodotus' Histories (circa 440 BC).

Having originally no specific name, the region east of the river Halys was spoken of as the country Ἐν Πόντῳ (En Póntō), lit. "on the [Euxinos] Pontos", and hence it acquired the name of Pontus, which is first found in Xenophon's Anabasis (c. 370 BC). The extent of the region varied through the ages but generally extended from the borders of Colchis (modern western Georgia) until well into Paphlagonia in the west, with varying amounts of hinterland. Several states and provinces bearing the name of Pontus or variants thereof were established in the region in the Hellenistic, Roman and Byzantine periods, culminating in the late Byzantine Empire of Trebizond. Pontus is sometimes considered as the original home of the Amazons, in ancient Greek mythology and historiography (e. g. by Herodotus and Strabo).

-- Pontus (region), by Wikipedia

In antiquity, its mouth was about "three plethra" wide (ca. 300 feet), and it was navigable. The river, said by Strabo to have "its many sources near Phanaroea... [in] many streams" (which is not true; perhaps he was thinking of the Iris), was "very often noticed by ancient writers", and its mouth was near the town of Themiscyra. Starting with Dionysius Periegetes, in his Periegesis of the World, the Thermodon is often confused with the Iris River (modern Yeşilırmak), which is much larger, flows through Phanaroea, and carries much more sediment.

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Iris River in Amasya

In Greek mythology, the Thermodon was the location of the plain and capital, Themiscyra, where the Amazons dwelt.

-- Terme River [Thermodon], by Wikipedia

and that the natives of Baetica in Iberia were related to both.
Hispania Baetica, often abbreviated Baetica, was one of three Roman provinces in Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula). Baetica was bordered to the west by Lusitania, and to the northeast by Hispania Tarraconensis. Baetica remained one of the basic divisions of Hispania under the Visigoths down to 711. Baetica was part of Al-Andalus under the Moors in the 8th century and approximately corresponds to modern Andalusia.

-- Hispania Baetica, by Wikipedia

That the Boeotians and Athenians were in great measure Cuthian, I have endeavoured already to prove: and what I term Cuthian, was by them undoubtedly styled Scythian.
Boeotia, sometimes Latinized as Boiotia or Beotia (Greek: Βοιωτία; modern: Viotia; ancient: Boiotia), formerly known as Cadmeis, is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the region of Central Greece. Its capital is Livadeia, and its largest city is Thebes.

Boeotia was also a region of ancient Greece, from before the 6th century BC.

-- Boeotia, by Wikipedia

Hence Anacharsis the Hyperborean plainly maintained that the Athenians were apparently Scythic: which national characteristic he must have observed in their language and manners. 9 [Clem. Alexandr. Strom. L. i. p. 364.] [x]. In all other countries, where this people settled, a like similitude will be found in their rites and customs: and a great correspondence in their original history: and all this attended with a manifest analogy in the names of persons and places; and in the language of each nation, as far as we can arrive.

It may be said, if by [x] Scythia, we are to understand Cuthia, and by [x], Cuthai or Cutheans, the same should obtain in all histories of this people: for the like mistake would be observable in the accounts transmitted in the accounts of Chaldea, and Babylonia, whence this people first came; as well as in those of Egypt, where they for a long time resided. And, upon enquiry, we shall find this to have been the case. Chus was by the Babylonians styled Cuth; and the country of his posterity Cutha. His sons were the first rebels upon record. The building of the Tower called Babel is supposed to have been effected under their direction: for Babel was the place of habitation, where their imperious prince Nimrod, who was called Alorus and Orion, resided. 10 [Genes. c. 10. v. 10.] "The beginning of his kingdom," we are told by Moses, "was Babel." In consequence of this it may be urged, that "if the Cutheans of Colchis or Greece are styled [x], the same name should be sometimes found attributed to those of Babylonia and Chaldea. It is no more than we ought to expect: and we shall find that the natives of these countries are expressly so called. Epiphanius, who has transmitted to us a most curious epitome of the whole Scythic history, gives them this very appellation. 11 [Epiphanius adversus Haeres. L. i. p. 6.] [x]

Those nations, which reach southward from that part of the world, where the two great continents of Europe and Asia incline to each other, and are connected, were universally styled 12 [The author supposes, that all mankind were occupied in the building of the tower; and hence seems to think, that all families were Scythic. But this is a great mistake. The Cuthites were the people principally engaged in that work; and they are the family, who are alluded to under the name of [x]. It was a particular and national appellation; and could not be appropriated to all mankind.] Scythae, according to an appellation of longstanding. These were of that family, who of old erected the great tower (called Babel), and who built the city Babylon.


This is the plain purport of the history: from whence we learn expressly, that the Scythians were the Cuthians, and came from Babylonia. The works, in which they were engaged; and the person, from whom they were denominated; in short, the whole of their history past all controversy prove it. They were the same as the Chaldaic Ionim under a different name. 13 [Chron. Paschale. p. 49. Eusebii Chron. p. 7.] [x].  

Chaldea was a small country that existed between the late 10th or early 9th and mid-6th centuries BC, after which the country and its people were absorbed and assimilated into the indigenous population Babylonia. Semitic-speaking, it was located in the marshy land of the far southeastern corner of Mesopotamia and briefly came to rule Babylon. The Hebrew Bible uses the term כשדים (Kaśdim) and this is translated as Chaldaeans in the Greek Old Testament, although there is some dispute as to whether Kasdim in fact means Chaldean or refers to the south Mesopotamian Kaldu.

During a period of weakness in the East Semitic-speaking kingdom of Babylonia, new tribes of West Semitic-speaking migrants arrived in the region from the Levant between the 11th and 9th centuries BCE. The earliest waves consisted of Suteans and Arameans, followed a century or so later by the Kaldu, a group who became known later as the Chaldeans or the Chaldees. These migrations did not affect the powerful kingdom and empire of Assyria in northern Mesopotamia, which repelled these incursions.

These nomadic Chaldeans settled in the far southeastern portion of Babylonia, chiefly on the left bank of the Euphrates. Though for a short time the name commonly referred to the whole of southern Mesopotamia in Hebraic literature, this was a geographical and historical misnomer as Chaldea proper was in fact only the plain in the far southeast formed by the deposits of the Euphrates and the Tigris, extending about 640 kilometres (400 mi) along the course of these rivers and averaging about 160 km (100 mi) in width. There were several kings of Chaldean origins who ruled Babylonia. From 626 BC to 539 BC, a ruling family referred to as the Chaldean dynasty, named after their possible Chaldean origin, ruled the kingdom at its height under the Neo-Babylonian Empire, although the final ruler of this empire, Nabonidus (556-539 BC) (and his son and regent Belshazzar) was a usurper of Assyrian ancestry.

-- Chaldea, by Wikipedia

Ionia was the name collectively given to a set of Greek cities of the coast of Asia Minor and nearby islands that were settled initially by Ionians. These cities spread over the provinces of Caria and Lydia and included, from south to north, the Carian cities of Miletus (the leading city of Ionia), Myous and Priene, the Lydian cities of Ephesus, Colophon, Lebedus, Teos, Clazomenae and Phocaea, plus Samos and Chios on the islands of the same names, and Erythraeus on the mainland facing Chios. Together they formed a confederacy called the Paniones (etymologically, “all the Ionians pan Iones”), and had erected on cape Mycale, a promontory between Miletus and Ephesus, a sanctuary to Poseidon called the Panionion where they celebrated a yearly festival called Panionia. But originally, Ionians lived in mainland Greece, especially in Attica where many of them were still living in historical times. Indeed, both Herodotus and Thucydides viewed the history of Greece in their time as dominated by the relationship between Ionians led by Athens and Dorians led by Sparta.

The Ionians owed their name to the mythological hero Ion, of the race of Deucalion who became king of Athens after Erechtheus. Ion and his brother Achaeus were the sons of Xouthus. Ion's mother was Creousa, a daughter of Erechtheus. Various traditions about Ion have come down to us, attempting to explain in different ways the history of the Ionian people. One of them, reported by Pausanias, shows Xouthus ousted from Thessalia by his brothers Dorus and Aeolus and seeking refuge in Attica where he married Creousa, the daughter of the king of the place. But when his father-in-law Erechtheus died, he was expelled from Athens and moved to the northern coast of Peloponnese, in an area then called Aegialis. After Xouthus' death, his two sons, Ion and Achaeus, parted. Achaeus returned to Thessalia while Ion remained in Aegialis, married the daughter of the local king Selinus and succeeded him, founding there a city named after his wife, Helice. Later, he was asked by the Athenians to lead them in a war against the people of Eleusis, so he moved to Attica, where he died. But his offspring remained in Aegialis until they were ousted by the offspring of Achaeus, back from Thessalia, who gave their name to the region, hereafter called Achaia.

Strabo has a somewhat different version: in it, Xouthus, after marrying Erechtheus' daughter Creousa, founded in Attica a tetrapolis (group of four cities) including the villages of Oenoe, Marathon, Probalinthus and Tricorynthus. One of his sons, Achaeus, after having committed a murder, had to flee to Lacedaemon and gave the people there the name Achaeans. His other son, Ion, fought the Thracians of Eumolpus and, in so doing, earned such a repute that the Athenians made him their king. Ion organized Attica in four tribes named after his four sons and gave the country his name. Later, the Athenians sent settlers in Aegialis and gave that region too the name Ionia, before they were ousted, in the time of the Heraclidae, by Achaeans who, in turn, gave the area their name.

Still another version of Ion's story is provided by Euripides in his drama Ion. In it, Ion has become the son of Apollo and Creousa, born before she married Xouthus, exposed soon after his birth and raised by the priestess of Apollo in Delphi, and adopted later by Xouthus, when it turned out he couldn't get children of his own. In all these stories, Ionians are found in Attica and on the northern coast of Peloponnese, and are ousted from this later area by Achaeans, which agrees with what Herodotus tells us at us of the origin of the Ionians who settled the coast of Asia Minor in the area that was called in his time Ionia.

From a historical standpoint, Ionians may have been the first Indo-European Greek-speaking tribe to move into Greece toward the beginning of the second millennium B.C., followed by Achaeans and Aeolians, and eventually, toward 1300 B.C., by Dorians. Ionian settlements on the coast of Asia Minor took place toward the XIth and Xth centuries B.C. and Thucydides attributes them to the need for more land to feed the population. Ionia was the birthplace of philosophy, giving the world many of the most famous so-called Presocratic philosophers: Thales, Anaximander and Anaximenes, collectively called the Milesians (Miletus); Heraclitus (Ephesus); Pythagoras (Samos); Xenophanes (Colophon); Anaxagoras (Clazomenae).

Indeed, Presocratic philosophy is usually presented as opposing the so-called Ionian philosopher on the one hand, more concerned with physics and natural sciences, and the Italic schools on the other hand, dominated by Parmenides and the Eleans, followed by the first Sicilian masters of rhetoric (Tisias of Syracuses, Gorgias of Leontini), more concerned with logic, language and the art of speech.


-- by Bernard Suzanne (page last updated 1998), ed., Greek Travel Pages

The Iones were the leaders of this people according to the best information. They were descendants of one Ion or Ionah, who was concerned in the building of the tower, when the language of mankind was confounded.


Thus we may observe what light the histories of different nations, if duly compared, reflect upon each other. Like evidence may be obtained from other parts of Epiphanius: where it is manifest that the term Scuthic is a misnomer for Cuthic. In describing the first ages of the world, he tells us, that, to the time of Serug, the seventh from Noah, there continued a Scythian succession; and that the Scythian name was prevalent. 14 [Epiphanius adv. Haeres. L. i. p. 8. also L. i. p. 9. See also his Respons. ad Achaium et Paulum. p. 8. 9.] [x]: meaning, that this period was esteemed the Scythian age. The same piece of history is to be found in Eusebius, and other writers; some of whom were prior to 15 [Eusebii Chronicon. p. 13.] Epiphanius. Now I think it cannot be doubted, but that in the original history, whence this was taken, it was "[x] a Cuthic succession; [x], and it was the Cuthic name, by which that period was marked. [x]" says this author in another place, "[x]: from the deluge to the erecting of the tower Scuthism prevailed." This notation is perhaps carried too far back: but the meaning is plain; and what he alludes to, is certainly Cuthismus [x]. The purport of the passage teaches, that from [the time of the deluge to the construction of the tower was esteemed the Cuthic age. It was for the most part a period of usurpation and tyranny under the sons of Chus, which was in a great degree put a stop to at the dispersion: at least the intention of keeping mankind together, and constituting one great empire was prevented: for this seems to have been the design of the Cuthians and their leader.

Some of the ancient fathers, from terms ill understood, divided the first ages into three or more epochas; and have distinguished them by as many characteristics: 16 [[x]. Chron. Paschale. p. 23. This author makes Barbarismus precede the deluge:

Borrowed from Ancient Greek βαρβᾰρισμός (barbarismós), equivalent to barbarus +‎ -ismus, originally referring to a feature of non-native, 'barbarian' speech. First attested in the Rhetorica ad Herennium [The Rhetorica ad Herennium (Rhetoric for Herennius), formerly attributed to Cicero or Cornificius, but in fact of unknown authorship, sometimes ascribed to an unnamed doctor, is the oldest surviving Latin book on rhetoric, dating from the late 80s BC, and is still used today as a textbook on the structure and uses of rhetoric and persuasion].

-- Barbarismus, by Wiktionary


Scythismus comes after. [x]. Chron. Pasch. p. 49.]

nonnullis vocatur foedus error eorum, qui taciti cum insipiente dicunt, Non est Deus: et quidem ille putatur iuxta Epiphanium, ante diluvium, hic postea obtinuisse, usque ad Setungum, cuius tempore coeperit Hellenismus. Sed nec Epiphanius dicit, Barbaros illos vel Scythas, nullum agnovisse Numen: nec satis convenienter Scythae memorantur ante Serugum, cum citra dubium Babylonicâ turrilonge sint posteriores. praeterea et Βαρβαρισμοῦ et Σκυςισμοῦ nomina, parum huic rei idonea sunt, nee aliunde hausta, quam ex male intellecto Apostoli loco, ad Coloss. c. 3. v. 11. Ubi non est Graecus et Iudaeus, Barbarus et Scythes. Neque enim ibi Apostolus variam de Deo sententiam signat: sed solum ait, in renovatione Christiana, non meliorem aut deteriorem esse conditionem Iudaei, quam Graeci; nec Graeci, quam Barbari, nec vulgaris Barbari, quam Scythae, etsi hic coeteros superare barbarie existimetur, vide Gerh. Ioh. Voss. de Orig. et progr. Idololatriae l. 1. c. 3. Sed et Barbarismus, nomen Libri, in Charta Reg. Cardin. titul. S. Stephani, in Monte Caelio, A. C. 1215. pro Reform. Universitatis Paris. Non leg ant in festivis diebus, nisi Philosophos, et Rhetoricos et Quadrivialia et Barbarismum et Ethicam, si placet, et quartum Rheroricorum, apud Car. du Fresne Glossar. qui etiam libri Donati, de Barbarismo, et octo partibus orationis meminit.

[Google translate: To some it is called a covenant, an error of those who silently and foolishly say, There is no God; But neither does Epiphanius say that those barbarians, or Scythians, knew no divinity; Moreover, the names αρβαρισμοῦ and Σκυςισμοῦ are little suited to this thing, nor were they drawn from any other source, than from the poorly-understood passage of the Apostle (Col. c. v. Where there is no Greek and Jew, barbarian and Scythes. For the Apostle does not here make a difference of opinion concerning God; but only says, in Christian renewal, that the condition of the Jews was not better or worse than that of the Greeks; nor the Greeks, nor the barbarians, nor the common barbarians, nor the Scythians, though here it is thought to surpass the others in barbarism, see Gerh. Joh. Voss. of Orig. and progr. Idolatry l. 1. c. 3. But also Barbarism, the name of the book, in the charter of Reg. Cardin. title. St. Stephen, in Monte Caelio, A. C. 1215 of the University of Paris. You will not read on feast days except the Philosophers, and the Rhetoric, and Quadrivialia, and Barbarism and Ethics, if it pleases you, and the fourth of the Rhetoric, in Car. du Fresne Glossar. who also mentions the book of Donatus, concerning Barbarism, and eight parts of his speech.

-- BARBARISMUS et Scythismus, by Academic Dictionaries and Encyclopedias


[x], Barbarismus, which is supposed to have preceded the flood: [x], Scuthismus, of which I have been speaking: and 17 [[x]. Epiphan. L. 1. p. 9.[x]. Euseb. Chron. p. 13. In like manner, a fourth heresy is supposed to have arisen, styled Judaismus, before the time of either Jews or Israelites.] [x], Hellenismus, or the Grecian period. This last must appear as extraordinary as any. For how was it possible for an Hellenic aera to have existed before the name of Hellas was known, or the nation in being? This arose, like the preceding, from a mistake in terms, the word being warped from its original purport and direction. The Cuseans or Cuthites were the first apostates from the truth: of which defection I have before taken notice. They introduced the worship of the sun, that great fountain of light; and paid the like reverence to the stars, and all the host of heaven. They looked upon them as fountains, from whence were derived to men the most salutary 18 [Concerning fountain worship, or derivative virtues, see Psellus and Jamblichus; and Stanley upon the Chaldaic Religion. El-ain, Solis sons; the fountain of the sun.] emanations. This worship was styled the fountain worship. The Grecians, just as they styled the Bay of Fountains on the Red Sea Elanites from El Ain, might have called this characteristic of the times [x], Elanismus. But such a change would not satisfy them. They made some farther alteration; and rendered it according to the Ionic dialect: [x], Hellenismus with an aspirate; and made it by these means relate to their own country. One of the titles of the Cusean shepherds, who came into Egypt, was taken from this worship, and derived from El Ain, the fountain of light, which they worshiped. But the Greeks expressed this after the same manner as the above: whence they are by many writers styled 19 [[x]. Syncellus. p. 61.] [x], Hellenic or Grecian shepherds. They were truly El-Anes, and by race Cuthites. Many of them settled in Armenia, and at Colchis, and also upon the Palus Maeotis. They are taken notice of under this name by 20 [In Rusin. L. i. v. 312.] Claudian:

--- patriamque bibens Maeotida Alanus [Google translate: homeland drinking Alain.].


Procopius mentions, that all the nations about Caucasus, which we know to have been Cuthites, as far as the Portae Caucaseae, were comprehended under the name of 21 [[x]. Procop. Goth. Hist. L. 4. c. 3. p. 570. This comprehends all the country of Iberia, Colchis and Circassia.] Alani.

Some have thought, that this distinction of times, taken notice of by the ecclesiastical writers, was owing to some expressions of St. Paul in his Epistle to the Colossians.
22 [Coloss. c. 3. v. 11.] [x]

Where there is neither Greek nor Jew, circumcision nor uncircumcision; Barbarian, Scythian; bond nor free; but Christ is all and in all.


The Apostle plainly alludes to those invidious distinctions, which subsisted among men; but what the fathers mention, concerns the division of times, and the characters, by which different epochas were distinguished. Some writers however have gone farther, and from the words of St. Paul have added Judaismus; introducing it in the first ages, to which it could not possibly belong. For how could Judaism subsist, before there was either Jew or Israelite? In short, they have brought in succession, and at different aeras, what the Apostle speaks of as subsisting together at the same time; even in the age wherein he lived.

Hellenismus however,
which led the way to these distinctions, was of ancient date. The first innovation in religion was called by this name: which had no relation to Greece; being far prior to Hellas, and to the people denominated from it. Though it began among the Cuthites in Chaldea; yet it is thought to have arisen from some of the family of Shem, who resided among that people. Epiphanius accordingly tells us, that "Ragem, or Ragau, had for his son Seruch, when idolatry and Hellenismus first began among men. 23 [Haeres. L. i. C. 6. p. 7.] [x]." By this we are only informed, that idolatry and Hellenismus began in the days of Seruch: but Eusebius and other writers mention, that he was the author of this apostasy. 24 [Eusebii Chron. p. 13. See Chron. Paschale, and Syncellus. p. 94. 95. Some suppose this innovation to have been introduced about the death of Peleg. [x]. Cedrenus. p. 15.] [x]. "Seruch was the first, who introduced the false worship, called Hellenismus." Some attribute also to him the introduction of 25 [[x]. Constant. Manasses. p. 21.] images: but most give this innovation to his grandson Terah. 26 [Epiphanius. L. i. p. 7.] [x]. "Nachor begat Tharah: and in his time were introduced images for worship, which were first framed by his art."

It is observable, that Johannes Antiochenus styles the people of Midian Hellenes:

Midian is a geographical place mentioned in the Hebrew Bible and Quran. William G. Dever states that biblical Midian was in the "northwest Arabian Peninsula, on the east shore of the Gulf of Aqaba on the Red Sea", an area which he notes was "never extensively settled until the 8th–7th century B.C."

According to the Book of Genesis, the Midianites were the descendants of Midian, who was a son of Abraham and his wife Keturah:
"Abraham took a wife, and her name was Keturah. And she bare him Zimran, and Jokshan, and Medan, and Midian, and Ishbak, and Shuah" (Genesis 25:1–2, King James Version).

Some scholars have suggested that the name "Midian" does not refer to geographic places or to a specific tribe, but to a confederation or "league" of tribes brought together as a collective for worship purposes. Paul Haupt first made this suggestion in 1909, describing Midian as a "cultic collective" (German: Bund) of different tribes in the vicinity of a sanctuary". Elath, on the northern tip of the Gulf of Aqaba was suggested as the location of the first shrine, with a second sanctuary located at Kadesh....

It is uncertain which deities the Midianites worshipped. Through their apparent religio-political connection with the Moabites [Moab is the name of an ancient Levantine kingdom whose territory is today located in the modern state of Jordan.] they are thought to have worshipped a multitude, including Baal-peor and the Queen of Heaven, Ashteroth. According to Karel van der Toorn, "By the 14th century BC, before the cult of Yahweh had reached Israel, groups of Edomites and Midianites worshipped Yahweh as their god;" this conclusion is based on identification between Midianites and the Shasu.

An Egyptian temple of Hathor at Timna continued to be used during the Midianite occupation of the site (terminal Late Bronze Age / Early Iron Age); the Midianites transformed the Hathor mining temple into a desert tent-shrine. In addition to the discovery of post-holes, large quantities of red and yellow decayed cloth with beads woven into it, along with numerous copper rings/wire used to suspend the curtains, were found all along two walls of the shrine. Beno Rothenberg, the excavator of the site, suggested that the Midianites were making offerings to Hathor, especially since a large number of Midianite votive vessels (25%) were discovered in the shrine.

Image
Midianite pottery found at Timna

However, whether Hathor or some other deity was the object of devotion during this period is difficult to ascertain. A small bronze snake with gilded head was also discovered in the naos of the Timna mining shrine,...

Image
Copper snake found in Naos/Holist Place of Midianite Shrine at Timna, the head gilded with gold.

along with a hoard of metal objects that included a small bronze figurine of a bearded male god, which according to Rothenberg was Midianite in origin. Michael Homan observes that the Midianite tent-shrine at Timna is one of the closest parallels to the biblical Tabernacle.

-- Midian, by Wikipedia


and speaking of Moses, who married the daughter of Jethro, the Cuthite, the chief priest of 27 [ Exodus, c. 2. v. 16.] Midian, he represents the woman, 28 [P. 76. 77.] [x], "as the daughter of Jother, the high-priest of the Hellenes." This is not so culpable as I have sometimes thought it. It is to be observed, that the people of Midian lived upon the upper and eastern recess of the Red Sea; where was a city called El Ain, the Elana of 29 [[x]. Ptolem. L. 5. c. 17. p. 162. [x]. Joseph. Ant. L. 8. c. 2. p. 437. [x]. Procop. Persica. L. i. c. 19.] Ptolemy, and Ailane of Josephus. It happens, that there are in the opposite recess fountains, which retain the name of El Ain at this day: and they are likewise called by the Arabs Ain Mosh, or the fountains of Moses. Hence each bay has been at times called Sinus Elanites; which has caused some confusion in the accounts given of these parts. The nether recess had certainly its name from the celebrated fountains of Moses, which ran into it: but the bay on the other side was denominated from the people, who there 30 [The bay is now called Bahhr al Akaba. See Description d'Arabie par Mons. Niebuhr. 1773. p. 345.] settled. They were Cuthites, of the same race as the Ionim and Hellenes of Babylonia, from which country they came. They built the city Elana; and were called 31 [The people still retain their primitive name Ellanes. Dr. Pocock expresses it Allauni. "The Arabs about Acaba are called Allauni." Pocock's Egypt, p. 138.] Hellenes, from the great luminary, which they worshiped; and to which their city was sacred. In the days of Moses the whole world seems to have been infected with the rites of the Zabians:

Zabians, an ancient sect said to be Chaldeans, addicted to astrology and star-worship. The word is derived, according to Pococke, from the Aramaic tsabad, the heavenly host, from which same root the word Sabian is taken, but in the different sense of "to change religion." The Zabians were idolaters, (dwelling in the north of Mesopotamia, in the Biblical Haran. An Arabic writer, quoted by Chwolsohn, says that they adopted the name Zabian as being a religion tolerated by the Koran, and so escaped the persecution to which their star-worship would have exposed them. They first gave planetary names to the days of the week; the feast day of each planet being determined by the time of its culmination; hence, also, the alchemists of the Middle Ages, and through them heralds, have borrowed the notion of assigning a particular metal and a particular color to the several planets. In common with other Aramaic races they had a civil year, which began like the Jewish Rosh Ia-Shanah in autumn, and an ecclesiastical year commencing at the vernal equinox. Before the time of Mohammed they offered human sacrifices to the deities which they believed were embodied in the planets. See Herzog, Real-Encyklop. s.v. SEE SABIANS.

-- Zabians, by McClintock and Strong Biblical Cyclopedia


and Jethro the Cuthite was probably high-priest of this order, whose daughter Moses 32 [Exodus, c. 2. v. 1 6. Numbers, c. 12. v. i.] married. The very first idolatry consisted in worshiping the luminary El Ain; which worship was accordingly styled Hellenismus. El Ain signifies Sol Sons, the fountain of light: and Ulpian upon Demosthenes seems to have had some intimation of this etymology; for he explains the term [x] by 33 [P. 118.] [x] and [x], "something very pure and clear, like a fountain. Heyschius also intimates, that the name related to the 34 [[x]. Hesych.] fountain of day; and in a secondary sense to the fountain of wisdom. [x].

The people styled Hellenes are the descendants of Hellen, the son of Zeuth: and by this title are denoted people of intelligent and enlightened minds.


Hellen was the same as Ion; the same also as Helius, Osiris, and Apollo: by which titles was signified the Deity of light and of science.

From Babylonia the Hellenes came into Egypt; and were the same as the Auritae, those Cuthite shepherds, who so long held that country in subjection. Hence we read of
35 [Africanus apud Syncellum. p. 61.] [x], and 36 [Syncellus. ibid.] [x], "Hellenic Shepherds," and "Hellenic princes", who reigned in the infancy of that nation. They were what I term collectively Amonians; being the descendants of Ham, who by the Gentile writers was reputed the first-born of Deucalion, or Noah. 37 [Apollodorus. 1. i. p. 20. [x]. Syncellus. p. 157. [x]. Dicrearchus. Geog. Gr. Vol. p. 22. Strabo. L. 8. p. 587. [x]. Thucyd. L. i. c. 3. [x]. Schol. in Apollon. L. 3. v. 1086. Strabo mentions the tomb of Hellen; [x]. L. 9. p. 660.] [x]. "Hellen was the first-born of Deucalion by Pyrrha: though some make him the son of Zeuth, or Dios.— There was also a daughter Protogeneia;" so named from being the first-born of women. He was also said to have been the son of Prometheus: but in this there is no inconsistency; for they were all titles of the same personage, whose son was 38 [ [x], Sol.] Ham, represented both as Hellen, and Helius. The Cuthite Hellenes, who came into Egypt, introduced their arts and learning; by which that country was benefited greatly. Hence the learning of Egypt was styled Hellenic from the Hellenic shepherds: and the ancient theology of the country was said to have been described in the 39 [Manethon apud Euseb. Chron. p. 6.] Hellenic character and language. This had no relation to the Hellenes of Greece; being, as I have before observed, far prior to that nation. The Grecians,  it is true, were both Ionim and Hellenes; but by a long descent, being the posterity of the people here spoken-of. This theology was said to have been derived from 40 [Syncellus. p. 40. The history was supposed to have been by him translated "after the deluge, [x], from the sacred language into the Hellenic:" by which must be meant the ancient Chaldaic.] Agathodaemon, that benign deity, the benefactor of all mankind. He was supposed to have had a renewal of life; and on that account was represented under the figure of a serpent crowned with the lotus, and styled 41 [The name Noe the Greeks transposed, and expressed it [x]. See Vol. II. p. 336. Plate VI. where the Patriarch is described under the symbol of a serpent, with the emblems of plenty and peace. Agathodaemon was the same as Cneph. Euseb. Prep. Evang. L. i. c. 10. p. 41.] Noe Agathodaemon. The Grecians supposed, that by the Hellenic tongue was meant the language of Greece; and that the Hellenic characters were the letters of their own country. But these writings were in reality sculptures of great antiquity: and the language was the Cuthite, styled by 42 [Joseph. contra Apion. L. i. p. 445.] Manethon the sacred language of Egypt.

Philo Judaeus, not being apprised of this, has been guilty of a great mistake in his Life of Moses. For mentioning how that great personage had been instructed in his youth; and that he was skilled in all the learning of Egypt, in numbers, geography, and hieroglyphics; he adds, that the rest of the circle of sciences he learned of the Hellenes, or Grecians:
43 [In Vita Mosis, V. 2. p. 84.] [x]: as if the circle of sciences had been established, and the Greeks were adepts in philosophy, so early as the time of Moses. The Hellenes, who were supposed to have instructed the Patriarch, were undoubtedly an order of priests in Egypt: which order had been instituted before the name of Hellas, or the Helladians, had been heard of. Stephanus mentions from Aristagoras, a place called Hellenicon ([x]) at Memphis; and says, that the persons, who resided there, were styled. 44 [[x]. Steph. Byzant.] Helleno-Memphitae. Clemens Alexandrinus has transmitted the same account concerning Moses, as has been given above by Philo. 45 [Strom. L. i. p. 413.] [x]. "The Hellenes educated him in Egypt as a princely child; and instructed him in the whole circle of sciences." These writers have certainly mistaken the history, from whence they borrowed. It did not relate to Greece, but to the Hellenes of Egypt; those Hellene-Memphitae of Stephanus and Aristagoras. When Clemens therefore tells us concerning Moses, [x], "The Hellenes taught him in Egypt": it should be rendered, [x], "the Hellenes of Egypt taught him": for such, we may be assured, was the purport of the original, and true history. And this may be proved by the account given of Osiris; of whom it is said, that after his travels over the earth, he instituted religious rites, and founded schools of eloquence in Egypt. Of these he made Hermes professor, who instructed the 46 [[x]. Diodorus. L. I. p. 15.] Hellenes in that science. This was many ages before the supposed arrival of Danaus, or of Cadmus, in Greece: consequently these Hellenes could have no relation to that country. They were undoubtedly an order of priests; the same as are said to have instructed Moses. The history was certainly true, though the persons have been mistaken. Zoroaster is by Ebn Batrick styled Iuna-Hellen; and said to have been the author of the Zabian worship, which commenced about the time that the tower of Babel was erected. 47 [Vol 1. p. 63. from the Latin version.] Autumant autem nonnulli, primum religionis Sabiorum auctorem suisse Graecum (Hellenem) quendam nomine Iunam. — Fertur etiam illum, qui primus Sabiorum religionem instituit, ex eorum numero suisse, qui turri Babelis extruendae adsuerunt [Google translate: It is claimed that some, the first author of the religion of the Sabines a Greek (Hellen) named Juna. - it is said that the one who first established the religion of the Sabii in the number of Suisse, who were accustomed to rebuild the tower of Babel.]. According to Dicaearchus, the great Sesostris was a favourer of 48 [[x]. Schol. in Apollon. L. 4. v. 273.] Hellenism.

From what has been said, it appears plainly, that the Hellenes and Iones were the same people under different appellations. They were the descendants of Hellen and Ion, two names of the same personage; among whose sons idolatry first began in the region of Babylonia. He was styled Ion, Ionan, Ionichus; and was supposed to have been the author of magic. From him the Babylonians had the name of Ionim, as well as of Hellenes: for these terms were used as in some degree synonimous. Hence when the sacred writer mentions people's flying from the weapons of the 49 [[x], the sword of the Ionah.] Ionim, or Babylonians, it is very truly rendered by the Seventy "from the Hellenic sword: 50 [Jeremiah, c. 46. v. 16.] [x]. Arise, and let us go again to our own people, and to the land of our nativity, from the HELLENIC sword." The like expression is to be found in the same version, and of the same prophet: 51 [Ibid. c. 50. v. 6. See Vol. II. p. 302. of this work.] [x]. "From the sword of the HELLENES they shall turn every one to his own people, and they shall flee every one to his own land." In each instance the words in the original are the "sword of [x], Ionah:" by which are meant the Ionim or Babylonians. The same worship, of which the Hellenes are said to have been the authors, is attributed to the Ionim, the sons of Ionah. 52 [Euseb. Chron. p. 13.] [x]. "The Ionim, the reputed sons of Ionah, who became the head of the Hellenes, introduced the adoration of images." They also introduced Zabaism, as is mentioned by the same 53 [[x]. Ibid. See also Cedrenus. p. 46.] author; and worshiped the celestial constellations. The person, from whom the Hellenes had their name, was Hellen, the same as Cham, the son of Noah. 55 [Euseb. Chron. p. 28.] [x]. "Hellen was the son of the person who escaped the flood." The Iones were from the same personage, under a different title.

Such was the first heresy in the world, which was styled Hellenismus: and such the Hellenes, by whom it was propagated. They were dissipated from Babylonia, and passed into Egypt; and betook themselves to Syria, Rhodes, and Hellas; and many other countries. Many traces of them are to be found in Syria
; where particularly is to be observed a city, which from them must have had its name. Stephanus, speaking of places called Hellas, tells us, [x]. "There is also another city Hellas in Coile Syria. The Gentile, derivative, or possessive, is Hellen." There were Hellenes at Rhodes; the same as the Heliadae, of whom 56 [[x]. L. 4. p. 26.] Diodorus Siculus makes mention. They seem to have been the first, who peopled that island. Those Hellenes, who settled at Dodona, were the first of the name among the Helladians, and from them it became at last universal. They had also the name of Elli, and Selli, and were properly priests of the oracle, which they brought from Thebes in Egypt. 57 [Hesych. Elli and Selli are terms of the same purport; being derived from El and Sel, two names of the sun. What the Grecians rendered Hellas would have been expressed more truly Hellan.] [x] (it should be [x]). "The Elli are the same as the Hellenes at Dodona: and the priests of the place have the same name. Ellan is the name of the temple dedicated to Jupiter at Dodona." The like is said by 58 [Meteorolog. L, 1. C. 14. p. 772.] Aristotle and 59 [L. 7. p. 505.] Strabo. Of this people I shall say more, when I come to the Jonah-Hellenic colonies of Greece.
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Re: A New System/Analysis of Ancient Mythology, by Jacob Bry

Postby admin » Sun Mar 20, 2022 7:08 am

Volume 3, Page 163-174

Of The Golden Age, or Age of the Cuthim.

I have taken notice of the manner, in which the first ages of the world were distinguished: and I have shewn, that Scythismus and Hellenismus were mistaken terms: that they were not the characteristics of times in succession, as many of the learned fathers have supposed; but related each to nearly one particular season, the age of Chus; and to the worship introduced by his sons. The Golden Age of the poets took its rise from a mistake of the same nature: which mistake being once established, a Silver, a Brazen, and an Iron Age were in consequence of it added. What was termed [x] and [x], should have been expressed [x] and [x]: for it relates to the same aera, and history, as the terms beforementioned; to the age of Chus, and to the domination of his sons. It is described as a period of great happiness: and the persons, to whom that happiness is attributed, are celebrated as superiour to the common race of men: and upon that account, after their death, they were advanced to be Deities.

1 [Hesiod. [x]. L. i.v. 109.] [x]

The Immortals first a Golden race produced:
These liv'd, when Saturn held the realms of heaven;
And pass'd their time like Gods without a care.
No toil they knew, nor felt solicitude;
Not e'en th' infirmities of age —
Soon as this race was sunk beneath the grave;
Jove rais'd them to be Daemons of the air,
Spirits benign, and guardians of mankind,
Who sternly right maintain, and sorely punish wrong.
 

We have in this short account a just history of the rise of idolatry, when deified men had first divine honours paid to them: and we may be assured of the family, in which it began. The ancients had a high notion of this Golden, or Cusean age; and always speak of it with great deference, as a time of uncommon equity and happiness. They indeed take into the account the aera of patriarchal government, when all the world was as yet one family, and under the mild rule of the head of mankind. Aratus says, that this was the season, when Astraea, or Justice, appeared personally in the world.

2 [Phaenom. v. 113.] [x].

She stay'd, while yet the Race of Gold survived.


And he laments, that those excellent persons, who then flourished, should have been succeeded by a posterity so degenerate and base.

3 [Ibid. v. 123.] [x];

What an unworthy and degenerate race Our Golden Sires bequeath'd?


By this we find, that not only a particular age, but also persons were styled [x], or Golden. Those who came into Greece, and built the temple at Olympia, are represented as 4 [Pausan. L. 5. p. 391.] [x], a Golden Race: by which is certainly meant Cusoan or Cusean. But however this people may have been celebrated, they were the first idolaters, who introduced a plurality of Gods, and made other innovations in life. 5 [Steph. Byzantin.] [x]. The AEthiopes, or Cuthites, were the first, who paid honours to more Gods than one, and who enacted laws.

The Grecians by rendering what should be Cusean, Crusean, have been led still farther in characterising the times: and to this supposed Golden Age, which they have embellished with many fictions, they have added an age of Silver, and of Brass and of Iron. In the first of these periods the poet manifestly alludes to the longevity of persons in the patriarchic age: for they did not, it seems, die at threescore and ten, but took more time even in advancing towards puberty.

6 [Hesiod. [x]. L. i. v. 130.] [x]

In early times, for full an hundred years
The fostering mother with an anxious eye
Cherish'd at home the unwieldy backward boy.


He speaks however of their being cut off in their prime: and whatever portion of life Nature might have allotted to them, they were abridged of it by their own folly, and injustice; for they were guilty of rapine and bloodshed; and in a continual state of hostility.

7 [Ibid. v. 132.] [x]

Soon to the term of blooming youth they came,
But did not long survive it: their short life
Was a sad scene of misery, brought on
By mutual acts of insult.


They were at the same time highly irreligious and great contemners of the Gods; and for that reason removed from all commerce with other beings.

8 [Ibid. v. 137.] [x]

This race Jove soon consign'd to endless night;
Vex'd, that due honours they should dare refuse
To the great Gods, who high Olympus hold.


Yet what is extraordinary, when they were through the anger of the offended Gods, swept away from the face of the earth, they were made subordinate Deities, and great reverence was shewed to them: 9 [[x]. v. 141.] [x]: "These too had their share of honour."

The third Age, styled the Brazen, was like the former: only, to diversify it a little, the poets supposed that there was now a more regular process of war. They had now, it seems, brazen arms, and brazen houses: and every implement was of brass. This race is said to have been quite different from those of the Silver Age; 10 [[x]. v. 143. See Aratus of the Golden Age, and of those succeeding. Phaenom. v. 108. Also [url]Ovid. Metamorph[/url]. L. i. v. 89.] [x].

Bk 1:89-112 The Golden Age

This was the Golden Age that, without coercion, without laws, spontaneously nurtured the good and the true. There was no fear or punishment: there were no threatening words to be read, fixed in bronze, no crowd of suppliants fearing the judge’s face: they lived safely without protection. No pine tree felled in the mountains had yet reached the flowing waves to travel to other lands: human beings only knew their own shores. There were no steep ditches surrounding towns, no straight war-trumpets, no coiled horns, no swords and helmets. Without the use of armies, people passed their lives in gentle peace and security. The earth herself also, freely, without the scars of ploughs, untouched by hoes, produced everything from herself. Contented with food that grew without cultivation, they collected mountain strawberries and the fruit of the strawberry tree, wild cherries, blackberries clinging to the tough brambles, and acorns fallen from Jupiter’s spreading oak-tree. Spring was eternal, and gentle breezes caressed with warm air the flowers that grew without being seeded. Then the untilled earth gave of its produce and, without needing renewal, the fields whitened with heavy ears of corn. Sometimes rivers of milk flowed, sometimes streams of nectar, and golden honey trickled from the green holm oak.

Bk 1:113-124 The Silver Age

When Saturn was banished to gloomy Tartarus, and Jupiter ruled the world, then came the people of the age of silver that is inferior to gold, more valuable than yellow bronze. Jupiter shortened spring’s first duration and made the year consist of four seasons, winter, summer, changeable autumn, and brief spring. Then parched air first glowed white scorched with the heat, and ice hung down frozen by the wind. Then houses were first made for shelter: before that homes had been made in caves, and dense thickets, or under branches fastened with bark. Then seeds of corn were first buried in the long furrows, and bullocks groaned, burdened under the yoke.

Bk 1:125-150 The Bronze Age

Third came the people of the bronze age, with fiercer natures, readier to indulge in savage warfare, but not yet vicious.

The harsh iron age was last. Immediately every kind of wickedness erupted into this age of baser natures: truth, shame and honour vanished; in their place were fraud, deceit, and trickery, violence and pernicious desires. They set sails to the wind, though as yet the seamen had poor knowledge of their use, and the ships’ keels that once were trees standing amongst high mountains, now leaped through uncharted waves. The land that was once common to all, as the light of the sun is, and the air, was marked out, to its furthest boundaries, by wary surveyors. Not only did they demand the crops and the food the rich soil owed them, but they entered the bowels of the earth, and excavating brought up the wealth it had concealed in Stygian shade, wealth that incites men to crime. And now harmful iron appeared, and gold more harmful than iron. War came, whose struggles employ both, waving clashing arms with bloodstained hands. They lived on plunder: friend was not safe with friend, relative with relative, kindness was rare between brothers. Husbands longed for the death of their wives, wives for the death of their husbands. Murderous stepmothers mixed deadly aconite, and sons inquired into their father’s years before their time. Piety was dead, and virgin Astraea, last of all the immortals to depart, herself abandoned the blood-drenched earth.

-- Metamorphoses, by Ovid

Yet I cannot see wherein the difference consisted. The former were guilty of violence and bloodshed; and slew one another so fast, that they scarce attained the age of manhood. The latter had the same love for war; and fell in like manner by each other's hand; so that not one survived.

11 [Hesiod supra. v. 151.] [x]

This race engag'd in deadly feuds, and fell
Each by his brother's hand. They sunk in fight,
All to the shades of Erebus consign'd,
Their name forgotten.


After these came another Age, by most poets called the Iron; but by Hesiod mentioned as the Heroic, or Age of Demigods; and described as a time of great justice and 12 [[x]. v. 156. Hesiod makes the Iron Age the fifth in succession.] piety. Yet these heroes, whose equity is so much spoken of, upon a nearer enquiry are found to be continually engaged in wars and murders: and, like the specimens exhibited of the former Ages, these are finally cut off by one another's hands, in acts of robbery and violence: some for purloining oxen; others for stealing sheep; and many for carrying away the wives of their friends and neighbours.

13 [Hesiod. [x]. L. i. v. 161.] [x]

In battle some were carried off; and fell
At Thebes, renown'd for its seven tow'ring gates,
The seat of Cadmus: here they sternly strove
Against th' Oedipodae for their flocks and herds.
Some passed the seas, and fought the Trojan shore:
There joined in cruel conflict for the sake
Of Helen, peerless dame: till their sad fate
Sunk them to endless night.


In like manner it is said of the hero Cycnus, that he robbed people of their cattle, as they went to Delphi: whence he was called [x]. He, like the 14 [Hesiod. [x]. v. 478.] rest, was slain in fight, having rashly encountered Hercules. Such was the end of these laudable banditti: of whom Jupiter, we are told, had so high an opinion, that after they had plundered and butchered one another, he sent them to the Islands of the Blessed, to partake of perpetual felicity.

15 [Hesiod. [x]. L. I. v. 170.] [x].

These, freed from grief and every mortal care,
And wafted far to th' ocean's verge extreme,
Rove uncontroul'd amid the Happy Isles,
Illustrious heroes.


We have here seen four divisions of times: in some of which the poet has endeavoured to make a distinction, though no material difference subsists. And as these times are supposed to be in succession, he has brought the last period as low as the aera of Troy. The whole relates to a series of history, very curious and interesting; but ruined, by being diversified, and in a manner separated from itself.

From what has been said we may perceive, that the Crusean Age being substituted for the Cusean, and being also styled the aera of the 16 [Cuthim, [x], signified Gold and Golden.] Cuthim, was the cause of these after-divisions being introduced; that each Age might be distinguished in gradation by some baser metal. Had there been no mistake about a Golden Age, we should never have been treated with one of Silver; much less, with the subsequent of Brass and Iron. The original history relates to the patriarchic age, and to what the Greeks termed the Scuthic period, which succeeded: when the term of man's life was not yet abridged to its present standard; and when the love of rule, and acts of violence first displayed themselves upon the earth. The Amonians, wherever they settled, carried these traditions with them: which were often added to the history of the country; so that the scene of action was changed. A colony, who styled themselves Saturnians, came to Italy; and greatly benefited the natives. But the ancients, who generally speak collectively in the singular, and instead of Herculeans, introduce Hercules; instead of the Cadmians, Cadmus; suppose a single person, 17 [It is said of Saturn also, that he built the ancient city Byblus in Syria. This was many ages before his supposed arrival in Italy. See Sanchoniatho in Euseb. Praep. Evang. L. i. c. 13. p. 37. The city was built by Saturnians.] Saturn, to have betaken himself to this country. Virgil mentions the story in this light: and speaks of Saturn's settling there; and of the low state of the natives upon his arrival, when he introduced an Age of Gold.

18 [Virg. AEneid. 1. 8. 314.] Haec nemora indigenae Fauni, Nymphaeque tenebant,
Gensque virum truncis et duro robore nata;
Queis neque mos, neque cultus erat; nec jungere tauros,
Aut componere opes norant, aut parcere parto:
Sed rami, atque asper victu venatus alebat.

(Google translate: These native groves were occupied by the Fauns and Nymphs,
People were born of stumps and hardened strength;
For them there was neither custom nor worship; don't join the bulls
They knew either to settle their wealth, or to spare them;
But he fed the branches, and the game with a rough diet.)


He then proceeds to shew, how this people were disciplined and improved: all which, according to the usual mistake, he supposes to have been effected by one person, Saturn, instead of Saturnians.

19 [Virg. AEneid. L. 8. v. 319.]

Primus ab aethereo venit Saturnus Olympo,
Arma Jovis fugiens, et regnis exul ademptis.
Is genus indocile, ac dispersum montibus altis,
Composuit; legesque dedit: Latiumque vocari
Maluit, his quoniam latuisset tutus in oris.
Aurea, quae perhibent, illo sub rege fuerunt
Saecula: sic placida populos in pace regebat.
Deterior donec paulatim, ac decolor aetas,
Et belli rabies, et amor successit habendi.

Lo! mighty prince, these venerable woods
Of old were haunted by the sylvan Gods,
And savage tribes, a rugged race, who took
Their birth primeval from the stubborn oak.
No laws, no manners form'd the barbarous race:
But wild the natives rov'd from place to place.
Untaught, and rough, improvident of gain,

They heap'd no wealth, nor turn'd the fruitful plain.
Their food the savage fruits the forests yield;
Or hunted game, the fortune of the field:
Till Saturn fled before victorious Jove,
Driven down, and banish'd from the realms above.
He by just laws embodied all the train,
Who roam'd the hills; and drew them to the plain;
There fix'd: and Latium call'd the new abode,
Whose friendly shores conceal'd the latent God.
These realms in peace the monarch long controll'd,
And bless'd the nations with an Age of Gold.


-- Translated by Pitt.
 

This account is confused: yet we may discern in it a true history of the first ages; as may be observed likewise in Hesiod. Both the poets, however the scene may be varied, allude to the happy times immediately after the deluge: when the great Patriarch had full power over his descendants; when equity prevailed without written law.

These traditions, as I have repeatedly taken notice, being adopted and prefixed to the histories of the countries, where the Amonians settled, have introduced a Saturn in Ausonia; and an Inachus and Phoroneus at Argos: and in consequence of it, the deluge, to which the two latter were witnesses, has been limited to the same place, and rendered a partial 20 [[x]. Clem. Alexandr. Strom. L. i. p. 379.] inundation. But, in reality, these accounts relate to another climate, and to a far earlier age: to those times, when, according to 21 [Fab. 143.] Hyginus, the first kingdom upon earth was constituted: and when one language only prevailed among the sons of men. [???]
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Re: A New System/Analysis of Ancient Mythology, by Jacob Bry

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Volume 3, Page 175-192

Of Cushan or Ethiopia; And of the Various Colonies, and Denominations of the Cuthites.

The ancient Greeks, till even a comparatively late period in their history, possessed little, if any, real knowledge of India. It is indeed scarcely so much as mentioned by name in their greatest poets, whether epic, lyric, or dramatic. They must, however, have known of its existence as early as the heroic times, for we find from Homer that they used even then articles of Indian merchandize, which went among them by names of Indian origin, such as kassiteros, tin, and elephas, ivory.

But their conception of it, as we gather from the same source, was vague in the extreme. They imagined it to be in Eastern Ethiopia which stretched away to the uttermost verge of the world, and which, like the Ethiopia of the West, was inhabited by a race of men whose visages were scorched black by the fierce rays of the sun.* [See Homer, Od. I. 23-24, where we read [x]. (The Ethiopians, who are divided into two, and live at the world's end — one part of them towards the setting sun, the other towards the rising.) Herodotus in several passages mentions the Eastern Ethiopians, but distinguishes them from the Indians (see particularly bk. vii. 70). Ktesias, however, who wrote somewhat later than Herodotus, frequently calls the Indians by the name of Ethiopians, and the final discrimination between the two races was not made till the Makedonian invasion gave the Western world more correct views of India. Alexander himself, as we learn from Strabo, on first reaching the Indus mistook it for the Nile.]

Much lies in a name, and the error made by the Greeks in thus calling India Ethiopia led them into the further error of considering as pertinent to both these countries narrations, whether of fact or fiction, which concerned but one of them exclusively. This explains why we find in Greek literature mention of peculiar or fabulous races, both of men and other animals, which existed apparently in duplicate, being represented sometimes as located in India, and sometimes in Ethiopia or the countries thereto adjacent....

"The first knowledge of the mythical geography of the Indians dates from this period, when the Greeks were the unconscious recipients of Indian fables. Fresh knowledge was imparted by Skylax, who first gave a description of India; and all writers from the time of Skylax, with not a single exception, mention those fabulous races, but in such a way that they are wont to speak of them as AEthiopians
; by doing which they have incurred obloquy and the suspicion of dishonesty, especially Ktesias....

Of fabulous tribes.

But deviating into fables he says there are men five spans and even three spans in height, some of whom want the nose, having only two orifices above the mouth through which they breathe. 2 Against the men of three spans, war, as Homer has sung, is waged by the cranes, and also by partridges, which are as large as geese. These people collect and destroy the eggs of the cranes, for it is in their country the cranes lay their eggs, and thus the eggs and the young cranes are not to be found anywhere else. Frequently a crane escapes having the brazen point of a weapon in its body, from wounds received in that country. 3 Equally absurd is the account given of the Enotokoitai, of the wild men, and of other monsters.

4 The wild men could not be brought to Sandrakottos, for they refused to take food and died. Their heels are in front, and the instep and toes are turned backwards.* [These wild men are mentioned both by Ketesias and Baeto. They were called Antipodes on account of the peculiar structure of their foot, and were reckoned among Aethiopian races, though they are often referred to in the Indian epics under the name Paschadangulajas, of which the [x] of Megasthenes is an exact translation.]

5 Some were brought to the court who had no mouths and were tame. They dwell near the sources of the Ganges, and subsist on the savour of roasted flesh and the perfumes of fruits and flowers, having instead of mouths orifices through which they breathe. They are distressed with things of evil smell, and 6 hence it is with difficulty they keep their hold on life, especially in a camp.


-- Ancient India as Described by Megasthenes and Arrian; Being a Translation of the Fragments of the Indika of Megasthenes Collected by Dr. Schwanbeck, and of the First Part of the Indika of Arrian, by J.W. McCrindle, M.A., 1877

We may, I think, be assured, that by the term Scuthai, [x], are to be understood Cuthai or Cutheans. It may therefore be proper to go to the fountain head, and to give an account of the original people; from whom so many of different denominations were derived. They were the sons of Chus; who seized upon the region of Babylonia and Chaldea; and constituted the first kingdom upon earth. They were called by other nations Cushan: also [x], Cuseans, Arabians, Oreitae, Eruthraeans, and Ethiopians: but among themselves their general patronymic was Cuth; and their country Cutha. I shall take notice of them in their several migrations under each of these appellations. They were an ingenious and knowing people, as I have before observed; and at the same time very prolific. They combined with others of the line of Ham; and were enabled very early to carry on an extensive commerce, and to found many colonies; so that they are to be traced in the most remote parts of the earth. These settlements have been enumerated by 1 [Syncellus. p. 46. 47. 48. Johan. Malala. p. 15. Euseb. Chron. p. 11. 12. See also Vol. II. of this work, p. 187. 188. 191. See particularly the Chronicon Paschale. p. 29. 30.] Eusebius, Syncellus, and other writers; as far as they could be discovered. Nor must we wonder if they appear so numerous, and so widely extended, as it is perfectly consonant to their original history. For we are informed by 2 [Genesis. c. 10. On account of the comparative smallness to be observed in the line of Japhet, that encouraging prophecy was given, that Japhet should one day be enlarged. God shall enlarge Japhet. This, within these few centuries has been wonderfully completed.] Moses, when he enumerates the principal persons, by whom the earth was peopled, that Ham had 3 [Most of the Fathers make the number thirty-two, counting Canaan: so that the total of the three families they suppose to have been seventy-two.] thirty and one immediate descendants, all of them heads of families, when Shem had but twenty-six; and fourteen only are attributed to Japhet. A large body of this people invaded Egypt, when as yet it was in its infant state, made up of little independent districts, artless and unformed, without any rule or polity. They seized the whole country, and held it for some ages in subjection, and from their arrival the history of Egypt will be found to commence. The region between the Tigris and Euphrates, where they originally resided, was styled the country of the Chusdim or Chasdim; but by the western nations Chaldea. It lay towards the lower part of the Tigris, to the west, and below the plain of Shinar. On the opposite side to the east was the province of Elam, which country they seem soon to have invaded; and to have occupied the upper part. This consisted of that fine region called afterwards Susiana, and Chusistan, which was watered by the Ulai, Chobar, and Choaspes, and by other branches of the Tigris. When the Persians gained the sovereignty of Asia, it was from them denominated Persis. Some have thought Elam was Persis: but Elam lay to the south, and Persis was only another name for Cutha: for the Persians were the Cuthites of that country under a different appellation. The prophet Isaiah distinguishes these nations very accurately, when he mentions a return of the captives from 4 [C. 11. v. 11. Thus far is true, that Susiana was originally apart of Elam. See Daniel, c. 8. v. 2. but it was dismembered, and on that account esteemed a separate region.] Elam, Chus, and Shinar. This country is said to have been also called Scutha; and the author of the 5 [[x]. Arrian mentions a region called Scuthia near the Persian Gulf. [x]. Arriani Periplus apud Geog. Gr. minores. vol. i. p. 15.] Chronicon Paschale mentions Scuthae in these parts, who were so called even in his days. But he supposes that the name Scutha was given to the region on account of I know not what, Scythians from the north. Josephus, whose language had a greater affinity with the Chaldaic, and to whom the history of the country was better known, expresses it Cutha; and speaks of a river Cutha, which was probably the same as the Choaspes. Hence we have another proof, and, I think, very determinate, that what the Grecians styled Scutha, was Cutha, the land of the Cuthites. It extended a great way eastward, and was in great measure bounded by Media to the north. When Salmanasser had taken Samaria, and carried the people into captivity, he repeopled it with a colony from 6 [See 2 Kings, c. 17. v. 24. Men of Babylon and Cutha.] Cutha, Media, Babylonia, and other conquered nations. And to this the Samaritans allude, when they give an account of themselves in Josephus. 7 [Antiq. L. 11. c. 4. p. 556.] [x]. "Salmanasser, the king of the Assyrians, brought us hither from the countries of Cuthia and Media." In process of time, through conquest the empire of the Persians was greatly enlarged: and Cuthia made but a part of it. Hence in another place Josephus, speaking of the people of Samaria coming from Cuthia, makes it but a portion of Persis. He calls it here Cutha, and says, 8 [Josephus Ant. L. 9. c. 14. p. 507.] [x]: "The province of Cutha, of which I have been speaking, is a region in Persis." This is one of the countries styled Cushan in Scripture: for there are certainly more than one referred to by the sacred writers. By other people it was rendered Ethiopia. Having thus traced the Scythae, or Cuthites, to their original place of residence, and ascertained their true history; I shall proceed to describe them in their colonies, and under their various denominations.

Of Cushan Styled Ethiopia.

As I have repeatedly mentioned Cushan, or Ethiopia, and it is likely to continually recur again; I think it will be proper to describe the countries of this name, and the people, who were in like manner denominated: for to the best of my knowledge, I never yet saw this properly performed. It is well known, that the Ethiopians were Cuthites or Cuseans. 9 [Zonaras. p. 21. Syncellus. p. 47. [x]. Josephi Antiq. L. I. C. 6. p. 22.] [x]. "Chus is the person, from whom the Cuseans are derived. They are the same people, as the Ethiopians." So also says Eusebius: 10 [Chron. p. 11. [x]. Malala. p. 18.] [x]. "Chus was the person, from whom came the Ethiopians." The name is supposed to have been given to this people from their complexion; as if it were from [x], and [x]: but it is not a name of Grecian original. It was a sacred term; a title of the chief Deity: whence it was assumed by the people, who were his votaries, and descendants. Eustathius tells us, 11 [Schol. in Homerum. Odyss. A. v. 22.] [x]: AEthiops is a title of Zeus. Prometheus was styled AEthiops, who had particular honours among the people of the east. 12 [V. 533. Some read [x].] Lycophron styles him, [x]. "Prometheus AEthiops, the Daemon or tutelary Deity.] Pliny speaking of the country, says, that it was first called AEtheria, and then Atlantia: and last of all AEthiopia, 13 [L. 9. p. 345.] aVulcani filio AEthiope, "from AEthiops, the son of Vulcan." Homer speaks of two nations only, which were named AEthiopes.

14 [Odyss. L. A. v. 22. Heyschius styles Dionusus [x], or [x].] [x]

"Neptune was now visiting the Ethiopians, who reside at a great distance: those Ethiopians, who are divided into two nations, and are the most remote of mankind. One nation of them is towards the setting sun; the others far in the east, where the sun rises."


But this is much too limited. For, as the Cuthites got access into various parts of the world; we shall find an Ethiopia in most places, where they resided. The Scripture seems to mention three countries of this name. One, and the nearest to Judea, was in Arabia, upon the verge of the desart, near Midian and the Red Sea. This is alluded to by the prophet Habakkuk, where he says that 15 [Habakkuk. c. 3. v. 7.] he "saw the tents of Cushan in affliction; and the curtains of the land of Midian did tremble." A second Ethiopia lay above Egypt to the south; and is taken notice of by the prophet Ezekiel, where he is foretelling the destruction of the latter country; and says that it shall be laid waste from one extreme part to the other. 16 [Ezekiel. c. 29. v. 10. Our version seems to be very faulty, and renders the passage, from the tower of Syene unto the borders of Ethiopia, or Cush. In a former treatise I was under a mistake, from understanding it in this light: but was led to the right interpretation by the version of Xantes Pagninus and Montanus. Migdol, or Magdalum, was a fort not far from Pelusium, at one extremity of the country: Syene was the uttermost city at the other extreme; and stood under the Tropic upon the borders of Ethiopia. The meaning of the prophet is plain, that the whole length of Egypt, north and south, from Migdol the garrison to Syene, shall be utterly made desolate. Syene stood at the extremity of Pathros, or superior Egypt; Migdol, the fort, was near Daphnae Pelusiae upon the sea. Jeremiah states the chief divisions of the country very accurately, speaking of the Jews who dwelt "in the land of Egypt: which dwell at Migdol, and at Tapobanes, and at Noph, and in the country of Pathros." c. 44. v. i. See Observations and Inquiries, &c. p. 152.] "Behold therefore, I am against thee, and against thy rivers: and I will make the land of Egypt utterly waste and desolate, from Migdol to Syene and the borders of Ethiopia." The third country, styled Ethiopia, comprehended the regions of Persis, Chusistan, and Susiana. 17 [[x]. L. 7. c. 70. p. 541.] Herodotus takes notice of Ethiopians about these parts: and the country is mentioned by the prophet Zephaniah, when he speaks of the return of Judah from captivity. 18 [Zephaniah. c. 3. v. 10.] "From beyond the rivers of Cushan, or Ethiopia, my suppliants, even the daughter of my dispersed shall bring mine offering." The principal rivers, to which he referred, were the 19 [Upon the banks of the Ulai, or Eulaeus, the prophet Daniel had his visions. Even Chaldea was esteemed Ethiopia; and Tacitus speaking of the Jews, whose ancestors came from Ur in Chaldea, styles them AEthiopum prolem. Histor. L. 5. c. 2.] Ulai, Kur, Chobar, and Choaspes; all eastern branches of the Tigris; near which were the chief places of captivity. Still further east, beyond Carmania, was another region of this name, which by Eusebius is termed 20 [Euseb. Chron. P. 12. he adds, [x].] [x], "the Ethiopia, which looks towards the Indi, to the south-east": and even the Indi themselves will in the sequel be found to have been Ethiopians. The sons of Chus came into Egypt under the name of Auritae and Shepherds, as also of Ethiopians. Hence Egypt too inherited that name: 21 [Eustath. Comment, in Dionys. V. 241. p. 42.] [x]. "This country was called — both Aeria, and Potamia", or the River Country; "also Ethiopia; which name it received from some Ethiopians, who settled there; and of whom many of the very ancient writers have spoken." The Cuthites settled at Colchus, the Colchis of the Greeks: in consequence of which it was called Cutaia and Ethiopia. 22 [Hieron. de Scriptoribus Ecclesiasticis.] Jerome in his Catalogue of Ecclesiastical Writers mentions St. Andrew preaching the gospel in the towns upon the two Colchic rivers, the Apsarus and Phasis; and calls the natives AEthiopians. "Andreas, frater Simonis Petri, ut majores nostri prodiderunt, Scythis, Sogdianis, et Saceis in Augusta civitate praedicavit, quae cognominatur magna; ubi est irruptio Apsari, et Phasis fluvius: illic incolunt AEthiopes interiores." [Google translate: Andrew, Simon's brother Peter, as our ancestors have told us, the Scythians, Sogdians, and Saceis. He preached in the city of Augusta, which is known as the great; where is the invading Apsari, and the river Phasis: there the Ethiopians inhabit the interior. ] He relates the same circumstance of Matthias. "In altera Ethiopia, ubi est irruptio Apsari, et Hyssi portus, praedicavit." [Google translate: In the other Ethiopia, where there is an invasion of Apsari, and the harbor of Hyssus, preached.] The port of Hyssus near Colchis is taken notice of by Arrian in his Periplus, and by Socrates in his Life of the same saint:[x]. I have observed that the sons of Chus are said to have come under the titles of Casus and Belus into Syria and Phenicia, where they founded many cities: and we are informed by Strabo, that this country was called Ethiopia. 23 [Strabo, L. i. p. 73. These nations were the Scythae of the Grecians. Hence it is said, [x]. Pind. Pyth. Od. 4. Schol. adv. 376. for they were a known colony from Egypt.] [x]. "There are people, who would introduce an Ethiopia into the region, which we esteem Phenicia." In the account of the Cadmians, who are styled Arabians, [x], I have shewn that Euboea was the place, to which they first came: and here was a place called 24 [Strabo. L. 10. p. 683. de Cotho et Cadmo. [x]. Harpocration. [x] Steph. Byzantinus.] Ethiopium. Samothrace was also so called: 25 [Heyschius. Lesbos had the name of Ethiope and Macaria. Plin. Nat. Hist. L. 5. c. 31. p. 288. Arabians sometimes distinguished from the sons of Chus. "Moreover, the Lord stirred up against Jehoram the spirit of the Philistines, and of the Arabians, that were near the Ethiopians. 2. Chron. c. 21. v. 16. Beth Arabah.] [x]. The extreme settlement of this people was in Spain, upon the Baetis, near Tartessus and Gades: and the account given by the natives, according to the historian Ephorus, was, that colonies of Ethiopians traversed a great part of Africa: some of which came and settled near Tartessus; and others got possession of different parts of the sea coast. 26 [Strabo. L. i. p. 57.] [x]. "They mention it as a tradition among the people of Tartessus, that the Ethiopians once traversed the regions of Africa, quite to its western limits: and that some of them came, and settled at Tartessus: others got possession of different parts of the sea-coast." They lived near the island Erythea, which they held.

27 [Dionys. Perieg. v. 558.] [x]

Upon the great Atlantic, near the isle
Of Erythea, for its pastures fam'd,
The sacred race of Ethiopians dwell.


It is on this account, that we find some of the same family on the opposite coast of 28 [These are the Ethiopians alluded to by Homer. [x]. Odyss. A. v. 22.] Mauritania; who are represented as people of great stature. 29 [Scylax Caryandensis. v. i. p. 54. See also Strabo. L. 3. p. 237. who mentions the Ethiopians near Mauritania, upon the western ocean. [x].] [x]. "The people of this country (Mauritania) are Ethiopic: and they are in stature the largest of any nation with which we are acquainted." The original Ethiopia was, as I have said, the region of Babylonia and Chaldea, where the first kingdom upon earth was formed, and the most early police instituted. Here also the first idolatry began. Hence it is very truly said by Stephanus of Byzantium: [x]. "Ethiopia was the first established country upon earth: and the people were the first, who introduced the worship of the Gods, and who enacted laws." And as the Scythae, or Cuthites, were the same people, no wonder, that they are represented as the most ancient people in the world; even prior to the Egyptians. Scytharum gens antiquissima semper habita. "The Scythae, says Justin, were ever esteemed of all nations the most ancient." But who were meant by the Scythe has been for a long time a secret.

Of the Erythreans.

ANOTHER title, by which the Cuthites were distinguished, was that of Erythreans: and the places, where they resided, received it from them. And here it may not be improper to first take notice of the Erythrean Sea; and consider it in its full extent; for this will lead us to the people from whom it was called. We are apt to confine this name to the Red Sea, or Sinus Arabicus; but that was only an inlet, and a part of the whole. The Cuthite Erythreans, who settled near Midian, upon the Sinus Elanitis, conferred this name upon that gulf: but the Persic Sea was also denominated in the same manner, and was indeed the original Erythrean Sea. Agathemerus seems to make it commence at the junction of the bay with the sea. 30 [Agathemer. apud Geogr. Gr. Minores, vol. 2. p. 50.] [x]. Herodotus, speaking of the coast of Asia and Persis, after having mentioned the coast of the Pontus Euxinus above, says, 31 [Herodotus. L. 4. c. 39. So Megasthenes, who wrote concerning the Babylonish history, calls the Sinus Persicus Mare Erythraeum. He is quoted by Abydenus in Euseb. Praep. Evang. L. 9. c. 41. p. 457. [x]. This was the agger Semiramidis; a work attributed to an imaginary queen. Nearchus mentions king Erythras in the Indic Sea; and says that sea was called Eruthrean from him: [x]. Nearch Parapl. apud Geogr. Graec. vol. i. p. 30. See also Marcellinus. L. 23. c. 6. p. 287.] [x]. "The other coast, of which I am to speak, commences from among the Persians" (that is, from the outlet of the Tigris), "and extends to the Erythrean Sea:" which Sea both he and Agathemerus industriously distinguish from the Arabian Gulf; though the latter was certainly so called, and had the name of Erythrean. The Parthic empire, which included Persis, is by Pliny said to be bounded to the south by the 32 [Plin. Nat. Hist. L. 6. c. 25.] Mare Rubrum, which was the boundary also of the 33 [Persae Mare Rubrum temper accoluere, propter quod is Sinus Persicus vocatur. [Google translate: The Persians inhabited the Red Sea, on account of which it is called the Persian Gulf.] Pliny. L. 6. c. 25. p. 330.] Persians. By Mare Rubrum he here means the great Southern Sea. And the poet Dionysius, speaking of the limits of the same country, says, that to the south it was bounded by the same sea, even to the farthest east; comprehending under this name the whole tract of ocean, to Carmania and Gedrosia.

34 [Dionys. Perieg. v. 931. Moses Chorenensis gives a true account of this sea, as being one of the three, with which the earth is surrounded. Primum est Mare Indicum, quod etiam Rubrum vocatur; ex cujus finu Persicum et Arabicum profluunt maria; atque a meridie inhabitabili ignotaque terra, ab oriente regione Sinensi, a septentrionibus India, Perside et Arabia, &c. terminatur [Google translate: The first is the Indian Sea, which is also called the Red Sea; from the end of which flow the Persian and Arabian seas; and on the south an uninhabited and unknown land, on the east the region of China, on the north India, Persia, and Arabia, &c. it ends.]. Geog. p. 342.] [x].


Speaking of the island Taprobane, which he places far in the east, towards the Golden Chersonese, he says, that this too was situated in the Erythrean Sea.

Taprobana (Ancient Greek: Ταπροβανᾶ) and Taprobane (Ταπροβανῆ, Ταπροβάνη) was the name by which the Indian Ocean island of Sri Lanka was known to the ancient Greeks.

Taprobana [Taprobane], by Wikipedia

He places it so, as not to be mistaken, in Asia, near the region of the Indian Colcas, or Colchis; and styles it the great breeder of Asiatic elephants;

35 [Dionys. Perieg. v. 593.] [x].


He mentions the whales, with which its coast used to be infested; which are taken notice of by other writers.

36 [Dionys. Perieg. v. 597. Also of the Erythrean Sea to the south of India. [x]. v. 1132. The same as the Colchic Sea, or Indian Ocean. [x]. Nonni Dionysiac. L. 35. p. 876.] [x].


But further: whales are to be found in the Indian Sea, and these five times larger than the largest elephant. A rib of this monstrous fish measures as much as twenty cubits, and its lip fifteen cubits. The fins near the gills are each of them so much as seven cubits in breadth.

-- Ancient India as Described by Megasthenes and Arrian; Being a Translation of the Fragments of the Indika of Megasthenes Collected by Dr. Schwanbeck, and of the First Part of the Indika of Arrian, by J.W. McCrindle, M.A., 1877

High places, and ancient temples were often taken by the Greeks for places of sepulture [burial]; and the Deity there of old worshiped for the person buried. A tomb of this sort is mentioned by the same poet in the island Ogyris upon the coast of Carmania.

37 [Dionys. Perieg. v. 606.] [x].

As you sail onward towards Carmania's cape,
You meet the island Ogyris, where stands
The tomb of king Eruthrus.


Island in the Arabian Sea. Ancient authors reported a monument to Erythras, the eponym of the Red sea, on O. (Deinias FGrH 306 F 7; Steph. Byz. s.v. Ὤ.). Perhaps the island of Maṣīra.

-- Ogyris, by Brill's New Pauly


Those of this family, who passed still farther, and settled in India, and upon the peninsula beyond the Ganges, conferred this name upon the great Indic Ocean. The author of the Periplus wrote professedly about the history of this part of the world; and the whole is styled the navigation of the Erythrean Sea. The people themselves must consequently have been called Eruthreans, from whom it was named. People of their family founded many places westward, which were called Erythra, in 38 [Vide Sceph. Byzantin.] Ionia, Libya, Cyprus, AEtolia; and one in Boeotia, mentioned by Homer:

39 [Homeri Iliad. B. v. 499.] [x].


I took notice that there were Erythreans about Tartessus.

Tartessos (Greek: Ταρτησσός) or Tartessus, was a semi-mythical harbor city and the surrounding culture on the south coast of the Iberian Peninsula (in modern Andalusia, Spain), at the mouth of the Guadalquivir River. It appears in sources from Greece and the Near East starting during the first millennium BC. Herodotus, for example, describes it as beyond the Pillars of Heracles (Strait of Gibraltar). Roman authors tend to echo the earlier Greek sources but from around the end of the millennium there are indications that the name Tartessos had fallen out of use and the city may have been lost to flooding, though several authors attempt to identify it with cities of other names in the area. Archaeological discoveries in the region have built up a picture of a more widespread culture, identified as Tartessian, that includes some 97 inscriptions in a Tartessian language.

The Tartessians were rich in metal. In the 4th century BC the historian Ephorus describes "a very prosperous market called Tartessos, with much tin carried by river, as well as gold and copper from Celtic lands". Trade in tin was very lucrative in the Bronze Age, since it is an essential component of bronze and is comparatively rare. Herodotus refers to a king of Tartessos, Arganthonios, presumably named for his wealth in silver.

Pausanias wrote that Myron, the tyrant of Sicyon, built a treasury, which was called the treasury of the Sicyonians, to commemorate a victory in the chariot-race at the Olympic games. In the treasury he made two chambers with two different styles, one Dorian and one Ionic, with bronze. The Eleans said that the bronze was Tartessian.

The people from Tartessos became important trading partners of the Phoenicians, whose presence in Iberia dates from the 8th century BC and who nearby built a harbor of their own, Gadir (Greek: Γάδειρα, Latin: Gades, present-day Cádiz).

-- Tartessos, by Wikipedia

Pliny from Philistus and Ephorus acquaints us, that Gades itself was called Erythia: a small variation from Erythria. 40 [Plin. Nat. Hist. L. 4. p. 230. If they came from the Erythrean Sea, and were thence named, the text should be altered to Erythria: for that must have been the true name.] Gadis insula — vocatur ab Ephoro et Philistide Erythia [Google translate: The island of Gad is called by Ephorus and the Philistines Erythia]: and he adds, that it received this name from people, who came from the coast of Tyre; but originally from the Erythrean Sea. Erythia dicta est, quoniam Tyrii aborigines eorum orti ab Erythraeo Mari serebantur [Google translate: It is called Erythia, because the Tyrians are their aborigines they were born from the Erythraean Sea.]. What is here meant by Mare Erythraeum, may be known from Strabo, who says, that the people styled Phenicians, among whom are included the Tyrians, were by some said to come originally from the ocean, or from people, who resided upon its confines. 41 [Strabo. L. i. p. 73. I cannot but take notice here of a mistake, which I made in a former work, concerning these Eruthreans of Iberia. I supposed that they were Edomites from the Red Sea: but they were certainly of another family, and came from the vicinity of the Tigris, and the Sinus Persicus; where the original Eruthreans inhabited.] [x]; by which must be meant the Persic Gulf near Chaldea. In respect to Gades, or Gadir, the same author mentions, that it was called by Pherecydes Syrus Erutheia: [x]: "Pherecydes seems to speak of Gadeira, as the same as Erytheia. Here lived the [x] of 42 [Dionysii Perieg. v. 559.] Dionysius; under which characteristic the Cuthites are particularly denoted.

It may seem wonderful, that any one family should extend themselves so widely, and have settlements in such different parts. Yet, if we consider, we shall find nations within little more than two centuries, who have sent out immense colonies, and to places equally remote. Moreover, for the truth of the facts abovementioned, we have the evidence of the best histories. Cedrenus speaks of the usurpations of the sons of Ham: and says, that in his time they lived in a state of apostasy as far as India one way; also in the countries called Ethiopia, quite to Mauritania, the other. 43 [Cedreni Annal. v. i. p. 14. [x]. Epiphanius. L. 1. t. 3. p. 288.] [x] "They have also upon the northern coast (that is, the coast of Europe) settlements upon the sea." Zonaras speaks to the same purpose; but is more particular; mentioning the place, where they last resided, before they spread themselves in the west. 44 [Zonar. L. i. p. 21.] [x]. "The sons of Ham seized upon all the country, which reaches from Syria, and from the mountains of Abanus and Libanus — They got also possession of the places, which lie upon the sea-coast, even to the Ocean," or great Atlantic. These writers speak of this people very properly under the name of the sons of Ham: they were, however, chiefly Cuthites, or Ethiopians: to the vast extent of whose colonies Strabo bears witness. 45 [Strabo. L. i. p. 60.] [x]. He had been speaking of many nations, comprehended under one name: and in consequence of it says; "What I have been mentioning relates equally to the Ethiopians, that twofold people, whom we must look upon in the same light; as they lie extended in a long tract, from the rising of the sun, to the setting of the same. Ephorus gave a similar account: 46 [Strabo. L. i. p. 59.] [x]. "This family of the Ethiopians," says Ephorus, "seems to me to have extended themselves from the winter tropic in the east to the extremity of the west."

In some places, as I have before mentioned, they mixed with the natives, and held many islands in common with them.
47 [Chron. Paschale. p. 30.] [x]. " These islands, which I have just specified, are those that are jointly held by the sons of Ham, and those of Japhet; and they are in number twenty and six." The principal of them in the Egean Sea were Cos, Chios, Cnidos, Imbros, Lesbos, Samos. The author adds, 48 [Ibidem.] [x]. "There were other islands occupied by this people, such as Sardinia, Crete, and Cyprus." Eusebius enumerates almost the same places occupied by the Amonians; and concludes with their settlements upon the Atlantic, where they mixed with the natives: 49 [Euseb. Chronicon. p. 12.] [x].

Thus by reciprocal evidences from the most genuine history it appears, that the Cuthites, Ethiopians, and Erythreans were the same people. And it has been shewn, that they had a still more general name of [x], Scuthai. This, though an incorrect appellation, yet almost universally obtained.
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Re: A New System/Analysis of Ancient Mythology, by Jacob Bry

Postby admin » Wed Mar 23, 2022 1:17 am

Volume 3, Page 192-212

Cuthia Indica, Or Scythia Limyrica.

As so much depends upon my clearing up this article, which I have taken in hand; I shall proceed to shew, that not only the Scythae of Colchis, Media, and Thrace, with those upon the Palus Maeotis, were in great measure of the race of Chus: but that all nations styled Scythian were in reality Cuthian or Ethiopian. This may be ascertained from the names of places being the same, or similar among them all; from the same customs prevailing; from the same rites and worship, among which was the worship of the sun; and from those national marks, and family characteristics, whence the identity of any people may be proved. I have mentioned, that the Cuthites sent out many colonies; and, partly by their address and superiority in science, and partly by force, they got access among various nations. In some places they mixed with the people of the country, and were nearly absorbed in their numbers: in other parts, they excluded the natives, and maintained themselves solely and separate. They are to be met with in the histories of the first ages under different names and titles; being denominated sometimes from the cities, which they built; sometimes from the worship, which they professed: but the more general name, both of themselves, and of the countries, which they occupied, was in the Babylonish dialect Cuth, Cutha, and Cuthia. They were by other nations styled Chus, Chusan, Cusei: and these terms again were altered to Casus, Casius, Cissii, and Cissaei. 50 [Of Kissia in Persis, AEschyl. Pers. v. 16. [x]. Strabo. L. 15. p. 1058. [x]. Saitae in Susia. Plin. Nat. Hist. L. i. p. 334.]

After they had seized upon the province of Susiana, and Chusistan, they were in possession of the navigation of the Tigris downwards; and probably commenced a very early trade. They got footing in India, where they extended themselves beyond Gedrosia and Carmania, upon the chief river of the country. The author of the Periplus takes notice of them under the name of Scythians; and mentions those places in the east, where they resided. 51 [Arriani Perip. 2. Geogr. Vet. vol. i. p. 21.] [x] "After the country of Ora, the continent now, by reason of the great depth of its gulfs and inlets, forming vast promontories, runs outward to a great degree from the east, and inclofes the sea coast of Scythia, which lies towards the north, that is, in the recess of one of these bays. It is low land, and lies upon the river Sinthus; which is the largest river of any, that run in the Erythrean Sea; and affords the greatest quantity of water." I need not mention, that what he calls the Sinthus is the same as the Sindus, or Indus. They occupied also that insular province, called in their language from its situation Giezerette, or the island; and from their ancestor, as well as from their worship, Cambaiar, or the Bay of Cham, which names it retains at this day. They settled also upon the promontory Comar, or Comarin; and were lords of the great island Pelaesimunda, called afterwards Seran-dive. They were all styled the Southern Scuthae; of whom the poet Dionysius gives the following description:

52 [Dionysii Perieg. v. 1088.] [x]


This country is likewise taken notice of by Priscian under the name of Scythia:

53 [Priscian. v. 996. The Erythrean Sea is by most writers supposed to be the same as the Arabian Gulf, or Red Sea: but Herodotus calls the Persic Gulf Erythrean: and Agathemerus, Dionysius, and the author of the Periplus call the whole Indic Ocean by this name. Many other authors extend it in the same manner.] Est Scythiae tellus australis flumen ad Indum [Google translate: Scythia is the southernmost river of the Indus]:


The inhabitants of which country were certainly Cuthians, the posterity of Chus and Ham. Cedrenus expressly mentions them in this light, when he is taking notice of some of the principal Amonian settlements in a passage before quoted:

54 [Cedren. Hist. Compend. vol. i. p. 14.] [x].


That this Scythia was the land of Cutha, may be known from its being styled Ethiopia; under which character it is alluded to by Eusebius, when he speaks of 55 [Eusebii Chron. p. 12. The arrangement of the oriental nations by Eusebius is very particular: [x]. Chron. p. 11.] [x] 56 [These are the Ethiopians mentioned by Apuleius, Qui nascentibus Dei Solis inchoantibus radiis illustrantur AEthiopes, Ariique. L. 11. p. 364. [Google translate: Who are the newborn god of the sun. At the beginning of the rays the Ethiopians and the Arii are enlightened.] [x]. The Cuthites worshiped the Patriarch Noah under the name of Nusos, and Dio-nusos: and wherever they came, they built cities to his memory, called Nusa. They also worshiped Chus under the character of lachus, Pachus, Bacchus: and their history is always attended with an obscure account of some check, which they once received; of a retreat, and dissipation; which is veiled under the notion of the flight of Bacchus. It related to the dispersion at Babel; and is mentioned in the histories of most places, where they settled: and was particularly preserved among the traditions of the Indian Cutheans.

25 The men of greatest learning among the Indians tell certain legends, of which it may be proper to give a brief summary.

They relate that in the most primitive times, when the people of the country were still living in villages, Dionusos made his appearance coming from the regions lying to the west, and at the head of a considerable army. He overran the whole of India, as there was no great city capable of resisting his arms. 26 The heat, however, having become excessive, and the soldiers of Dionusos being afflicted with a pestilence, the leader, who was remarkable for his sagacity, carried his troops away from the plains up to the hills. There the army, recruited by the cool breezes and the waters that flowed fresh from the fountains, recovered from sickness. 27 The place among the mountains where Dionusos restored his troops to health was called Meros; from which circumstance, no doubt, the Greeks have transmitted to posterity the legend concerning the god, that Dionusos was bred in his father's thigh.

28 Having after this turned his attention to the artificial propagation of useful plants, he communicated the secret to the Indians, and taught them the way to make wine, as well as other arts conducive to human well-being. 29 He was, besides, the founder of large cities, which he formed by removing the villages to convenient sites, while he also showed the people how to worship the deity, and introduced laws and courts of justice. 30 Having thus achieved altogether many great and noble works, he was regarded as a deity and gained immortal honours. It is related also of him that he led about with his army a great host of women, and employed, in marshalling his troops for battle, drums and cymbals, as the trumpet had not in his days been invented; 31 and that after reigning over the whole of India for two and fifty years he died of old age, while his sons, succeeding to the government, transmitted the sceptre in unbroken succession to their posterity. 32 At last, after many generations had come and gone, the sovereignty, it is said, was dissolved, and democratic governments were set up in the cities.

33 Such, then, are the traditions regarding Dionusos and his descendants current among the Indians who inhabit the hill-country. 34 They further assert that Herakles* ...

-- Ancient India as Described by Megasthenes and Arrian; Being a Translation of the Fragments of the Indika of Megasthenes Collected by Dr. Schwanbeck, and of the First Part of the Indika of Arrian, by J.W. McCrindle, M.A., 1877


57 [Dionys. Perieg. v. 1152.] [x].


In consequence of this, they had many rites similar to those in Greece. 58 [Arrian. Hist. Ind. p. 318. p. 321. Diod. Sic. L. 2. p. 123. The Indians also worshiped Osiris. Ibid. L. i. p. 17.] It was customary with them to crown themselves with ivy; which was to be found only at Meru, a mountain sacred to Bacchus.

After the subjugation of the Aspasians, Alexander moved, according to Curtius, to the city of Nysa; Arrian records the visit in detail, but gives no indication of the position of Nysa, and is openly sceptical not only of the legendary details, but of the existence of the city itself. The inhabitants of Nysa offered no resistance, but sent an embassy with presents and claimed kinship with the Greeks on the score that their city had been founded by Dionysus and named after his nurse, Nysa, and that the Nysans were the descendants of his followers; the mountain near the city also bore the name Meros (thigh) because Dionysus grew, before his birth, in the thigh of Zeus. Nysa had remained a free city with its own laws ever since, and Alexander should permit them to continue as they were. ‘It gratified Alexander to hear all this' from Akuphis [Acouphis], the leader of the Nysan deputation, and he was not inclined to be too critical of legends that were pleasing to the ears of his soldiers, and promised him the glory of excelling the achievements of Dionysus. So he offered a sacrifice to his divine predecessor and confirmed his colony in the enjoyment of its ancient laws and liberty as an aristocratic republic. When Alexander asked for three hundred horsemen from Nysa and one hundred of their best men to accompany him, Akuphis [Acouphis] smiled and agreed readily to give the horsemen, but offered two hundred of the worst men of Nysa instead of the hundred best demanded by Alexander. The reply by no means displeased Alexander who took the cavalry and waived the other demand. He made a pilgrimage to Mount Meros (Koh-i-Mor ?) where his followers rejoiced at the sight of the ivy and laurel and wove chaplets of them for their heads while they joyfully chanted hymns to the divine forerunner of Alexander.

-- Chapter II: Alexander's Campaigns in India, Excerpt from "Age of the Nandas and Mauryas", by K.A. Nilakanta Sastri


They also at their sacrifices wore the nebris, or spotted skin, like the Bacchanalians in the west: and used cymbals and tabours upon the like solemn occasions. They had also, [x], the satyric dance, which was common among the Thracians, and the people of Greece.

The Malloi (Malavas) and the Oxydrakoi (Kshudrakas) were getting ready to give a hostile reception to the invader, and Alexander wanted to press on quickly and attack them before they completed their dispositions...

Alexander himself landed with a body of picked troops and made an inroad against the Siboi (Sibis) and the Agalassoi (Agrasrenis) to prevent their joining the powerful confederacy of the Malloi lower down the river. The Sibis, a wild people clad in skins and armed with clubs, who claimed descent from the soldiers of Hercules, made their submission when Alexander encamped near their capital. Their neighbours, the Agalassoi, were not so amenable; they had mustered an army of 40,000 foot and 3,000 horse and offered battle.

-- Chapter II: Alexander's Campaigns in India, Excerpt from "Age of the Nandas and Mauryas", by K.A. Nilakanta Sastri


On this account, when Alexander came into this country, the natives looked upon the Grecians as in great measure of the same family, as they were themselves: and when the people of Nusa sent Acouphis [Akuphis], the chief person of their city, to solicit their freedom of the Grecian conqueror; they conjured him by the well-known name of Dionusus, as the most efficacious means of obtaining their purpose. 59 [Arrian. Exp. Alex. L. 5. p. 196.] [x]. " O king, the Nusseeans intreat thee to suffer them to enjoy their liberties and their laws, out of regard to their God Dionusos." Their chief city was Nusa: and wherever the Cutheans settled, they seemed to have founded a city of this name. 60 [The Scholiast upon Homer. Z. v. 129. mentions a Nusa in Arabia, and in Egypt. Nusa in Arabia is taken notice of by Herodorus, a later poet. [x]. Scholia Apollonii. L. 2. v. 1215.] Hence Stephanus says, 61 [Steph. Byzant. of cities styled Nusa. Also Eustathii [x] in Dionys. v. 1159. — Stephanus of Nusa in Euboea: [x].] [x]. The Amonian colonies may be continually traced by this circumstance: for there was a city Nusa in Arabia, in Egypt, in Syria, in Colchis, upon Mount Caucasus, in Thrace, upon Helicon near Thebes, in Naxos, in Euboea; and one in Libya, 62 [Strabo. L. 7. p. 459. Nusa in Libya, the city of Dionusus. There was a city Scythopolis in Canaan, undoubtedly founded by Cuthites, who came early into these parts of the country near Hermon. It is remarkable, that this place was of old called Nusa: Scythopolim, antea Nysam, a Libero Patre, sepulta nutrice, ibi Scythis deductis [Google translate: at Scythopolis, formerly Nysa, by Father Liber, buried nurse, there the Scythians launched.]. Plin. Nat. Hist. L. 5. c. 18. So that there is an uniformity in the history of all these places. It was also called Tricomis, [x], and Bethsan, which last signifies, the house or temple of San, or Zan, the Shepherd Deity, the Zeus of the Greeks: [x]. Jamblich. in Vita Pythag.] of which it was said, that it could never be seen twice by the same person. The Oxydracae, another Indian people, pretended that they were immediately descended from Dio-Nusos; of whom Strabo takes notice: 63 [Strabo. L. 15. p. 1008. 1026.] [x].

There were many other tribes of people, which lay upon the Indus and the Ganges; and betrayed their origin in their name. Of the latter river Dionysius speaks:

64 [Dionys. Perieg. v. 1096. He expresses Arabes, [x].] [x]


65 [Priscian. v. 1001.] Ganges
Separat innumeras et vastas gurgite gentes;
Oritasque, Aribasque simul, linique Arachotas
Utentes laenis.

(Google translate: Ganges He separates innumerable and vast nations; And the Oritas, Aribas and Arachotas anoint at the same time When using smooth skin.)


And the Scholiast upon Dionysius more particularly; [x]. The titles of Oritae and Aribes, like that of AEthiopes, 66 [[x]. Chron. Pasch. p. 29.] were peculiar to the sons of Chus. Hence, when mention is made of Scythia Indica, and when the poet to the same purpose tells us,

Est Scythiae tellus australis slumen ad Indum [Google translate: The Scythian region is the southernmost river of the Indus];


... we may be assured that the country alluded to was Cuthia. The inland 67 [Insula Solis — in qua Ori gens. Pliny. L. 6. p. 326.] Oritae in some degree degenerated from their forefathers, and became in habit like the natives of the country; but differed from them in speech, and in their rites and customs: 68 [Arrian. Hist. Indic, p. 340. and 338. of the Oritae.] [x]: so that we may be assured, that they were not the original inhabitants, though they came thither very early. One region of the Gangetic country was named Cathaia, and the people Cathaians. 69 [The Cathaians, famous for a breed of fierce dogs; and for mines of salt, and others of gold and silver. Strabo. L. 15. p. 1025. Cathaia is no other than Cuthaia, the name, by which Persis and Cusistan were called, according to Josephus. [c]. Antiq. Jud. L. 11. c. 4. P. 556.]
When the heavy summer rains were over, we began to explore the long valleys systematically. We often stayed out for several days, taking provisions, drawing materials and compass with us. At these times we camped on the high pastures alongside the herdsmen who, just as they do in the Alps, spent the summer months grazing their cattle on the luxuriant mountain meadows. There were hundreds of cows and female yaks feeding on the green stretches of pasture in the middle of a world of glaciers. I often helped with the butter-making and it was a pleasure to receive a slab of fresh golden butter for my pains.

By all the inhabited huts are found fierce, pugnacious dogs. Mostly they are chained up and by their barking at night protect the cattle from leopards, wolves and wild dogs. Very powerfully built, their usual diet of milk and calves’ flesh gives them enormous strength. They are really dangerous, and I had several disagreeable encounters with them. Once one of these dogs broke loose from his chain as I came up and sprang at my throat. I parried his attack, and he sank his teeth into my arm and did not let go till I had wrestled him down. My clothes hung in rags from my body, but the dog lay motionless on the ground. I bound up my wounds with what remained of my shirt, but I still bear deep scars on my arm. My wounds healed very quickly as a result of prolonged baths in the hot springs, which at this season of the year are more frequented by snakes than by Tibetans. The herdsmen told me later that I was not the only sufferer from this battle. The dog had lain in his corner and refused to eat for a week afterwards....

We often saw, happily in the far distance, men on horseback, whom we knew to be Khampas from the unusual type of dogs which accompanied them. These creatures are less hairy than ordinary Tibetan dogs, lean, swift as the wind and indescribably ugly. We thanked God we had no occasion to meet them and their masters at close quarters.
Image
A dog in a Khampa camp in the hills around Yatung. On Tibetan New Year's Day Hopkinson found himself left alone and was able to take a walk and to climb a nearby mountainside. He was surprised to come across a vicious dog, which was owned by a group of Khampa people, whom he was then able to photograph. -- A. J. Hopkinson's Tour of Duty as British Trade Agent, Gyantse, 1927-28

-- Seven Years in Tibet, by Heinrich Harrer, translated from the German by Richard Graves, With an introduction by Peter Fleming, 1953


Arrian speaks of them as a very brave and respectable people; and says, that their chief city was Singala: 70 [Arrian. Expedit. Alexandr. L. 5. p. 224.] [x]. Cathaia is a small variation for Cuthaia, as Aribes before was for Arabes: 71 [The country is called Araba at this day, to the west of the Indus.] and the latter are rendered by Arrian Arabians, [x]; who speaks of them as residing upon one of the mouths of the Indus, near the island Crocale. 72 [Arrian. Hist. Indic, p. 336.] [x]. They lived upon the river Arabis; which served as a boundary to them, and to their brethren the Oreitae: 73 [Arrian. Hist. Indic. p. 336. [x]. Euseb. Chron. p. 11.] [x]: "'which ran through their territories; and so passed into the ocean; serving as a boundary to their country, and to that of the Oreitae." The chief city of the latter was Ur, like that in Chaldea; but expressed by the Greeks [x], Ora.74 [Arrian. Expedit. Alexandr. L. 4. p. 190. L. 6. p. 261.] They had been for ages an independent people; but were forced to submit to the fortunes of Alexander, to whom they surrendered their city.

Together with the Oreitae and Arabians of Dionysius, are mentioned the Arachoti. These are undoubtedly the same as the Cathaians above; and were denominated from their city. Ar-Chota is the same as Cothopolis, or the city of Cutha,
somewhat varied in the poet's description. The Arachotians are styled [x], from their particular habit, which was of linen. This circumstance is a strong characteristic of the Amonians. I believe, in every place where they settled, they were famous for this manufacture. 74 [Of the Colchi: [x]. Schol. in Pind. Pyth. Od. 4. v. 376. Solomon sent for linen from Egypt. I Kings, c. 10. v. 28. "Moreover they that work in fine flax shall be confounded." Isaiah. c. 19. v. 9 of the Egyptians. Eustathius of the Egyptians; [x]. Schol. in Dionys. Perieg. ad v. 689.] They introduced it in Colchis, which was celebrated for its flax and linen: so was the country of Campania, where they settled in Italy. The Egyptians were styled Turba linigera: and the 75 [Thucydides, L. i. p. 6.] Athenians had not long left off this kind of apparel in the time of Thucydides. The same habit prevailed in Baetica, especially among the priests:

76 [Silius Italic. L. 3. v. 25.] velantur corpora lino,
Et Pelusiaco praesulget stamine vertex.

[Google translate: their bodies are covered with linen
And the top of the Pelusian warp should be preferred.]


It seems to have been universally the garb of the Cuthic Indians: as we may infer from Philostratus: 77 [Philostrati Vita Apollonii. L. 2. p. 79.] [x]. This was the express habit of the Egyptians, whom this people resembled in many other respects. From circumstances of this nature, many learned men have contended that the Indians, and even the 78 [Memoire, dans lequel on prouve, que les Chinois sont une colonie Egyptienne, &c. [Memoir, in which it is proved that the Chinese are an Egyptian colony, &c.] Par M. de Guignes, de l'Academie Royale, &c. &c. A Paris. 1760.] Chinese, were a colony from Egypt: while others have proceeded as warmly upon the opposite principle; and have insisted that the Egyptians, or at least their learning and customs, are to be derived from the Indi and Seres. But neither opinion is quite true: nor need we be brought to this alternative; for they both proceeded from one central place: and the same people, who imported their religion, rites, and science into Egypt, carried the same to the Indus and Ganges; and still farther into China and Japan. Not but that some colonies undoubtedly came from Egypt: but the arts and sciences imported into India came from another family, even the Cuthites of Chaldea; by whom the Mizraim themselves were instructed: and from Egypt they passed westward. 79 [Zonar. v. i. p. 22.] [x], "The most approved account is, that arts came from Chaldea to Egypt; and from thence passed into Greece." Hence we must not be surprised, if we meet with the same customs in India, or the same names of places, as are to be found in Egypt, or Colchis, or the remotest parts of Iberia. In this country were cities named Ur, Cuta, Gaza, and Gaugamela. The river Indus was said to rise in Mount Caucasus, similar to the mountain in Colchis. There was a place called Aornon in Epirus, in Campania, and in Iberia near Tartessus. The like was to be found in India: 80 [Strabo. L. 15. p. 1008.] [x]. It was supposed here, as in other places, to have received its name from the impossibility of birds flying over it; as if it were of Grecian etymology. By Dionysius it is expressed Aornis.

81 [Dionys. Perieg. v. 1151. He places it at the extremity of the isthmus, near Cape Comar: for there were two places in India of this name.] [x].


I took notice that the Oreitae and Oxydracae pretended to be descended from Dionusus. The like was said of the Gargaridae, who lived upon the Hypanis [Beas River], near Mount Hemodus,...
India, which is in shape quadrilateral, has its eastern as well as its western side bounded by the great sea, but on the northern side it is divided by Mount Hemodos from that part of Skythia which is inhabited by those Skythians who are called the Sakai, while the fourth or western side is bounded by the river called the Indus, which is perhaps the largest of all rivers in the world after the Nile....

India is bounded on the north by the extremities of Tauros, and from Ariana to the Eastern Sea by the mountains which are variously called by the natives of these regions Parapamisos, and Hemodos, and Himaos, and other names, but by the Macedonians Kaukasos.


-- Ancient India as Described by Megasthenes and Arrian; Being a Translation of the Fragments of the Indika of Megasthenes Collected by Dr. Schwanbeck, and of the First Part of the Indika of Arrian, by J.W. McCrindle, M.A., 1877


The northern boundaries of India so defined are formed by Mount Tauros, though the range does not retain that name in these parts. Tauros begins from the sea which washes the coasts of Pamphylia, Lykia, and Kilikia, and stretches away towards the Eastern Sea, intersecting the whole continent of Asia. The range bears different names in the different countries which it traverses. In one place it is called Parapamisos, in another Emodos [Hemodos], and in a third Imaos, and it has perhaps other names besides. The Makedonians, again, who served with Alexander called it Kaukasos, — this being another Kaukasos and distinct from the Skythian, so that the story went that Alexander penetrated to the regions beyond Kaukasos.

On the west the boundaries of India are marked by the river Indus all the way to the great ocean into which it pours its waters, which it does by two mouths. These mouths are not close to each other, like the five mouths of the Ister (Danube), but diverge like those of the Nile, by which the Egyptian delta is formed. The Indus in like manner makes an Indian delta, which is not inferior in area to the Egyptian, and is called in the Indian tongue Pattala.

On the south-west, again, and on the south, India is bounded by the great ocean just mentioned, which also forms its boundary on the east. The parts toward the south about Pattala and the river Indus were seen by Alexander and many of the Greeks, but in an eastern direction Alexander did not penetrate beyond the river Hyphasis, though a few authors have described the country as far as the river Ganges and the parts near its mouths and the city of Palimbothra, which is the greatest in India, and situated near the Ganges.

-- Translation of the First Part of the Indika of Arrian. Ancient India as Described by Megasthenes and Arrian; Being a Translation of the Fragments of the Indika of Megasthenes Collected by Dr. Schwanbeck, and of the First Part of the Indika of Arrian, by J.W. McCrindle, M.A., 1877

and are mentioned by the poet Dionysius.

82 [Dionys. Perieg. v. 1143. Pompon. Mela speaks of the city Nusa in these parts. Urbium, quas incolunt, Nysa est clarissima et maxima: montium, Meros, Jovi sacer. Famam hic prjecipuam habent in illa genitum, in hujus specu Liberum arbitrantur esse nutritum: unde Graecis auctoribus, ut semori Jovis insitum dicerent, aut materia ingessit, aut error. L. 3. c. 7. p. 276. The most knowing of the Indi maintained that Dionusos came from the west. (Google translate: Nysa is the most famous and the largest of the cities which they inhabit: mountains, Meros, sacred to Jupiter. They have a special reputation here, begotten in it, they think in this cave that they had been brought up; whence, according to Greek authors, to say that it was implanted in the seed of Jupiter, it either caused the matter, or an error.)] [x]


He styles them from their worship and extraction "the servants of Dionusos." As there was a Caucasus in these parts, so was there also a region named Colchis; 83 [Colchis mentioned by AEthicus, and styled Colche: also by Ptolemy.] which appears to have been a very flourishing and powerful province. It was situated at the bottom of that large isthmus, which lies between the Indus and Ganges: and seems to have comprehended the kingdoms, which are styled Madura, Tranquebar, and Cochin. The Gargaridae, who lived above upon the Hypanis, used to bring down to the Colchians the gold of their country, which they bartered for other commodities. The place, where they principally traded, was the city Comar, or Comarin, at the extremity of the isthmus to the south. The Colchians had here the advantage of a pearl fishery, by which they must have been greatly enriched.
Gangaridai also finds a mention in Greek mythology. In Apollonius of Rhodes' Argonautica (3rd century BCE), Datis, a chieftain, leader of the Gangaridae who was in the army of Perses III, fought against Aeetes during the Colchian civil war. Colchis was situated in modern-day Georgia, on the east of the Black Sea. Aeetes was the famous king of Colchia against whom Jason and the Argonauts undertook their expedition in search of the "Golden Fleece". Perses III was the brother of Aeetes and king of the Taurian tribe.

-- Gangaridai [Gandaridai] [Gandaridae] [Gandaritae] [Gandridae] [Gangaridae] [Gargaridae], by Wikipedia

A learned commentator upon the ancient geographers gives this account of their country. 84 [Geographi Minores. Prolegom.] Post Barim amnem in Aiorum regione est Elancon emporium, et Cottiara metropolis, ac Comaria promontorium; et oppidum in Periplo Erythrari [x] et [x], nunc servato nomine Comarin. Ab hoc promontorio sinus Colchicus incipit, cui Colchi, [x], emporium adjacens, nomen dederunt [Google translate: Next to the river Bari, in the region of the Aii, is Elancon, the commercial port. and Cottiara the metropolis, and Comaria the promontory; and a town in the Periplo of Erythrarus, now being maintained by the name of Comarin. From this promontory the bay of Colchicus begins to whom the Colchis, adjoining the bazaar, gave their name.]. The Periplus Maris Erythraei, here spoken of, is a most valuable and curious treatise, whoever may have been the author: and the passage chiefly referred to is that which follows: 85 [Arriani Peripl. Maris Erythraei, apud Geograph. Graecos Minores. v. i. P. 33. Dionysius calls this region [x] instead of [x]. [x]. Perieg. v. 1148. And others have supposed it was named Colis from Venus Colias. But what has any title of a Grecian Goddess to do with the geography of India? The region was styled both Colica, and Colchica. It is remarkable, that as there was a Caucasus and Regio Colica, as well as Colchica, in India: so the same names occur among the Cutheans upon the Pontus Euxinus. Here was Regio Colica, as well as Cholcica at the foot of Mount Caucasus. Pliny L. 6. c. 5. p. 305. They are the same name differently expressed.] [x]. "From Elabacara extends a mountain called Purrhos, and the coast styled Paralia" (or the pearl coast), "reaching down to the most southern point, where is the great fishery for pearl, which people dive for. It is under a king named Pandion; and the chief city is Colchi. There are two places; where they fish for this 86 [Paralia seems at first a Greek word; but is in reality a proper name in the language of the country. I make no doubt, but what we call Pearl was the Paral of the Amonians and Cuthites. Paralia is "the Land of Pearls." All the names of gems, as now in use, and of old, were from the Amonians: Adamant, Amethyst, Opal, Achates or Agate, Pyropus, Onyx, Sardonyx, AEtites, Alabaster, Beril, Coral, Cornelian. As this was the shore, where these gems were really found, we may conclude, that Paralia signified the Pearl Coast. There was pearl fishery in the Red Sea, and it continues to this day near the island Delaqua. Purchass. v. 5. p. 778. In these parts, the author of the Periplus mentions islands, which he styles [x], or Pearl Islands. See Geogr. Gr. Minores. Periplus. v. i. p. 9.] commodity: of which the first is Balita: here is a fort, and an harbour. In this place, many persons who have a mind to live an holy life, and to separate themselves from the world, come and bathe, and then enter into a state of celibacy. There are women, who do the same. For it is said that the place at particular seasons every month is frequented by the Deity of the country, a Goddess who comes and bathes in the waters. The coast, near which they fish for pearl, lies all along from Comari to Colchi. It is performed by persons, who have been guilty of some crime, and are compelled to this service. All this coast to the southward is under the aforementioned king Pandion. After this there proceeds another tract of coast, which forms a gulf."

The author then proceeds to describe the great trade, which was carried on by this people, and by those above, upon the Hypanis and Ganges: and mentions the fine linen, which was brought down from Scythia Limyrica, and from Comara, and other places. And if we compare the history, which he gives, with the modern accounts of this country, we shall find that the same rites and customs still prevail; the same manufactures are carried on: nor is the pearl fishery yet exhausted. And if any the least credit may be afforded to etymological elucidation, the names of places among the Cuthite nations are so similar in themselves, and in their purport, that we may prove the people to have been of the same family; and perceive among them the same religion and customs, however widely they were scattered. 87 [The mountain Pyrrhus, [x], was an eminence sacred to Ur, or Orus; who was also called Cham-Ur, and his priests Chamurin. The city Ur in Chaldea is called Chamurin by Eupolemus, who expresses it [x]. Euseb. Praep. Evang. L. 9. p. 418. Hence this promontory in Colchis Indica is rendered Comar by the author of the Periplus; and at this day it is called Comorin. The river Indus is said to run into a bay called Sinus Saronicus. Plutarch. de Flumin. Sar-On, Dominus Sol.] The mountains Caucasus and Pyrrhus, the rivers Hypanis, Baris, Chobar, Soana, Cophis, Phasis, Indus, of this country, are to be found among the Cuthite nations in the west. One of the chief cities in this country was Cottiara. This is no other than Aracotta reversed; and probably the same that is called Arcot at this day. The city Comara, and the promontory Comarine are of the same etymology as the city Ur in Chaldea; which was called Camar and Camarina from the priests and worship there established. The region termed Aia above Colchis was a name peculiarly given by the Amonians to the places, where they resided. Among the Greeks the word grew general; and Aia was made to signify any land: but among the Egyptians, at least among the Cuthites of that country, as well as among those of Colchis Pontica, it was used for a proper name of their country:

88 [Apollon. Rhod. L. 4. v. 277.] [x].


And again;

89 [Apollon. Rhod. L. 2. v. 423.] [x].


It was owing to this, that the name given to the chief person of the country was Aiates: and when some of the family settled at Circeum in Italy, the name was there preserved. Hence the Goddess Circe, who is represented as sister to Aiates, is called by Homer Aiaia; which is the Gentile epithet from Aia, the country. It occurs in some enchanting verses, where Ulysses describes his being detained by the two Goddesses Calypso and Circe:

90 [Homer. Odyss. L. I. v. 29.] [x]


The adoration of fire prevailed no where more than in these countries, together with the worship of the sun. They were likewise Ophites, such who reverenced the Deity under the symbol of a serpent. All the names of 91 [Hence so many places end in patan and patana, which signifies a serpent.] places in these parts have a manifest reference to the rites and worship: and if they be compared with names of other places, where this people are supposed to have settled; they will be generally found very similar, and oftentimes the same. And this not only in ancient accounts; but in those of later date, since the people of Europe have got footing in those parts. We read of Onor, Canonor, Candonor, all terms relating to the sun and fire. Calicut, Calcutta, Cotate, Comar, Comarin, Cottia, Cathaia, are of an etymology too obvious to need an interpretation. The most considerable mission in Madura is called 92 [Travels of Jesuits by Lockman. v. i. p. 470.] Aour ([x]) at this day. Near it is a city and river Balafore. Bal is the Chaldean and Syrian Deity, well known: Azor was another name of the Deity, worshiped in the same countries. He is mentioned by Sanchoniathon and other writers; and was supposed to have been the founder of Carthage. He was also known in Sicily, where there were rivers named from him. This people got likewise possession of the island Palaesimunda or Ceylon, called also Taprobane [Ceylon/Sri Lanka].

93 [Dionys. Perieg. v. 593. That Taprobane, named also Palaesimunda and Serandive, was the island now called Ceylon, may be proved from many authors. [x]. Marcian. Heracleot. apud Geog. Vet. v. i. p. 14. [x]. [x]. Marcian. Heracleot. p. 26. [x]. The poet Dionysius places it in the great Eruthrean Ocean: and mentions the whales, with which that sea once abounded: a circumstance taken notice of by other writers. He speaks of it as a very large island. [x]. v. 596.] [x].


The adoration of fire and the worship of the sun was introduced here very early. In this island is an high mountain, held very sacred; the summit of which is called the Pike of Adam. This had no relation to the great Protoplast, though generally understood to be denominated from him. For writers may make what inferences they please from Sanchoniathon, and other antiquarians, ill interpreted, and worse applied: I am persuaded, that there are very few allusions in ancient history to the antediluvian [before the flood] world. The Pike of Adam is properly the summit sacred to Ad Ham, the King or Deity Ham, the Amon of Egypt. This is plain to a demonstration from another name given to it by the native Cingalese, who live near the mountain, and call it Hamalel, This without any change, is Ham-al-El, "Ham the Sun"; and relates to the ancient religion of the island. 94 [On the side of Conde Uda is an hill, supposed to be the highest in the island, called in the Chingulay language Hamalel, but by the Portugueze and the Europeans Adam's Peak. It is sharp as a sugar-loaf, and on the top is a flat stone, with the print of a foot like a man's on it; but far bigger, being about two feet long. The people of this land count it meritorious to go and worship this impression; and generally about the new year, the men, women, and children go up this vast and high mountain to worship. Knox. Hist. of Ceylon, p. 5. The notion of this being Adam's Pike, and the print of Adam's foot, did not arise from the Portugueze, or any Europeans; but was very ancient. It is mentioned by the Mahometan travellers in the ninth century: and the name of the mountain, Ad Ham, was undoubtedly as old as the first Cuthite inhabitants. See p. 3. of Renaudot's Edition of Mohammedan Travellers; and Notes, p. 8.]

Furthermore you must know that in the Island of Seilan [Ceylon] there is an exceeding high mountain; it rises right up so steep and precipitous that no one could ascend it, were it not that they have taken and fixed to it several great and massive iron chains, so disposed that by help of these men are able to mount to the top. And I tell you they say that on this mountain is the sepulchre of Adam our first parent; at least that is what the Saracens say. But the Idolaters say that it is the sepulchre of SAGAMONI BORCAN, before whose time there were no idols. They hold him to have been the best of men, a great saint in fact, according to their fashion, and the first in whose name idols were made....

The Idolaters come thither on pilgrimage from very long distances and with great devotion, just as Christians go to the shrine of Messer Saint James in Gallicia. And they maintain that the monument on the mountain is that of the king's son, according to the story I have been telling you; and that the teeth, and the hair, and the dish that are there were those of the same king's son, whose name was Sagamoni Borcan, or Sagamoni the Saint. But the Saracens also come thither on pilgrimage in great numbers, and they say that it is the sepulchre of Adam our first father, and that the teeth, and the hair, and the dish were those of Adam....

Now it befel that the Great Kaan heard how on that mountain there was the sepulchre of our first father Adam, and that some of his hair and of his teeth, and the dish from which he used to eat, were still preserved there. So he thought he would get hold of them somehow or another, and despatched a great embassy for the purpose, in the year of Christ, 1284. The ambassadors, with a great company, travelled on by sea and by land until they arrived at the island of Seilan, and presented themselves before the king. And they were so urgent with him that they succeeded in getting two of the grinder teeth, which were passing great and thick; and they also got some of the hair, and the dish from which that personage used to eat, which is of a very beautiful green porphyry. And when the Great Kaan's ambassadors had attained the object for which they had come they were greatly rejoiced, and returned to their lord. And when they drew near to the great city of Cambaluc, where the Great Kaan was staying, they sent him word that they had brought back that for which he had sent them. On learning this the Great Kaan was passing glad, and ordered all the ecclesiastics and others to go forth to meet these reliques, which he was led to believe were those of Adam.


And why should I make a long story of it? In sooth, the whole population of Cambaluc went forth to meet those reliques, and the ecclesiastics took them over and carried them to the Great Kaan, who received them with great joy and reverence. And they find it written in their Scriptures that the virtue of that dish is such that if food for one man be put therein it shall become enough for five men: and the Great Kaan averred that he had proved the thing and found that it was really true....

"The veneration with which this majestic mountain has been regarded for ages, took its rise in all probability amongst the aborigines of Ceylon…. In a later age, … the hollow in the lofty rock that crowns the summit was said by the Brahmans to be the footstep of Siva, by the Buddhists of Buddha, … by the Gnostics of Ieu, by the Mahometans of Adam, whilst the Portuguese authorities were divided between the conflicting claims of St. Thomas and the eunuch of Candace, Queen of Ethiopia." (Tennent, II. 133.)

["Near to the King's residence there is a lofty mountain reaching to the skies. On the top of this mountain there is the impress of a man's foot, which is sunk two feet deep in the rock, and is some eight or more feet long. This is said to be the impress of the foot of the ancestor of mankind, a Holy man called A-tan, otherwise P'an-Ku." (Ma-Huan, p. 213.)—H.C.]

-- The Travels of Marco Polo, by Marco Polo and Rustichello of Pisa: The Complete Yule-Cordier Edition

In short, every thing in these countries favours of Chaldaic and Egyptian institution. The worship of the ape; the imputed sanctity of the cow; the symbolical adoration of the serpent have been introduced by people from those parts: not so much by the Mizraim, or genuine inhabitants of Egypt, as by the Cuthites. They came hither from that country, as well as from Chaldea: but they came first and principally from the latter. Whatever therefore was similar in the rites of the Indians and the Mizraim, was imported into each country, principally by the sons of Chus; though some chance colonies of real Egyptians may have likewise come hither. When Alexander had taken Nusa in India, he appointed one of the natives to be governor, whose name was Acouphis. In like manner the person, whom he made his substitute at the great city Palimbothra, is styled Moph or Mophis. He seems to have had more appellations than one: for he is by Curtius called Omphis. Lastly, the person, to whom Alexander applied to get Porus to surrender, had the name of Meroe. All these are names apparently similar to Egyptian and Chaldaic terms. Even Porus is nothing else but Orus, with the Egyptian prefix.

Porus himself, mounted on a tall elephant, not only directed the movements of his forces but fought on to the very end of the contest; he then received a wound on his right shoulder, the only unprotected part of his body, all the rest of his person being rendered shot-proof by a coat of mail remarkable for its strength and closeness of fit; he now turned his elephant and began to retire. Alexander who had observed and admired his valour in the field was anxious to save his life and sent Taxiles after him on horseback to summon him to surrender; but the sight of this old enemy and traitor roused the indignation of the Paurava, who gave him no hearing and would have killed him, had not Taxiles instantly put his horse to the gallop and got beyond the reach of Porus’. Even this Alexander did not resent; he sent other messengers till at last Meroes (Maurya?), an old friend of Porus, persuaded him to hear the message of Alexander.

-- Chapter II: Alexander's Campaigns in India, Excerpt from "Age of the Nandas and Mauryas", by K.A. Nilakanta Sastri


Through the mist of vague reports and geographical misconceptions, it is difficult to probe into the Hyphasis revolt, which came as a serious jolt to Alexander. After this, even though there were safer routes, Alexander chose to return to Iran through the desert of Gedrosia, suffering heavy losses in soldiers and civilians from lack of water, food and the extreme heat. That the motive behind this voyage has appeared so perplexing is due to two crucial lapses—the false location of Palibothra, capital of the Prasii, and the concomitant failure to recognise the mysterious Moeris of Pattala who played a determinant role...

The reports of Alexander’s historians clearly indicate that southeast Iran was within Greater India in the fourth century BC. As Prasii was in the Gedrosia area, the question arises—did the army refuse to fight the Prasii or only to march eastwards? If Alexander wanted to move eastward it was not to defeat the Prasii. Tarn writes that he had nothing to do with Magadha on the Ganges. If he had learnt that the fertile Gangetic plains were only a few days’ march away, and wanted to be there for mere expansion of empire, he would have met little resistance. Reluctance of the army could be due to the lack of any tangible gain, not fear of the mighty Easterners. If this was the case, then Alexander bowed down to the wishes of his men. However, if the reluctance was to confront the Prasii, it appears sensible due to their formidable strength. As Moeris had fought beside Porus, the Prasiian army cannot have been left intact, though it could still have been a fighting force. It is probable that Moeris and his agents fomented discord among Alexander’s officers and soldiers. The magicians and other secret agents of Moeris probably overblew the might of the Prasii in order to frighten the invaders. From this point onwards, if not earlier, Eumenes, Perdikkas and Seleucus may have been in touch with Moeris.

Only Justin (Just. xii, 8) reports that Alexander had defeated the Prasii...

The height of absurdity is reached when we are told that eighteen months after the battle with Porus, Alexander suddenly remembered his ‘victory over the Indians’ in the wilderness of Carmania and set upon to celebrate it with fabulous mirth and abandon. Surprisingly it did not jar with the common sense of anyone why this was not celebrated in India. The ‘victory over the Indians’ in southeast Iran can lead to only one judicious conclusion—this was India in the fourth century BC. Moreover, if Alexander had indeed defeated the Indians, who could have been their leader but Moeris or Maurya? This clearly indicates that Alexander had indeed conquered the Prasii in Gedrosia....

It is therefore clear that Alexander did not run away from the Prasii, as Badian imagines, but had in fact pursued Moeris, their leader, through Gedrosia....

Nearchus certainly had other tasks than scientific fact-finding; the army was ordered to keep close to the shore and the navy moved in tandem. This orchestration and the large number of troops and horses on ships (quite unnecessary for a scientific mission) show that the navy was not only carrying provisions for the army which was engaged in a grim and protracted battle with a mighty adversary, but that the troops on the ships were also ready to support the army if needed. This is why the navy waited for twenty-four days near Karachi. The names Pataliputra and Pattala and Moeris and Maurya leave little to imagination.

-- An Altar of Alexander Now Standing at Delhi [EXPANDED VERSION], by Ranajit Pal, Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Pune, India, January, 2006


And as names of this kind continually occur, it is impossible but that some relation must have subsisted between those nations, where this similitude is found. The Cuthic Indians worshiped particularly Dionusus; but confessed that he was not a native of their country, and that his rites were imported: 95 [Diodorus Sic. L. 2. p. 123.] [x]: He came from the west; that is from Babylonia and Chaldea. Arrian, speaking of the Nuseans, says, that they were not the original inhabitants of the country. 96 [Arrian. Hist. Indica. p. 315.] [x]. "The people of Nusa are not 97 [They were mistaken in saying, [x]: but their meaning is plain, that they were not Aborigines.] properly an Indian race; but are part of the company, who attended Dionusus in his expedition into these parts." They were therefore of the family of Chus, and styled Cuseans, Cuthites, Arabians, and Ethiopians; which were the most common titles of people of that family. The same author tells us, that they differed very little in their appearance from the Ethiopians of Africa, especially those of the south: being of the same dark complexion; but without woolly hair. Those, who lived to the north, resembled the Egyptians. 98 [Arrian. Hist. Indica. p. 320.] [x]. "The inhabitants upon the Indus are in their looks and appearance, not unlike the Ethiopians (of Africa). Those upon the southern coast resemble them 99 [Vincentius Bellovacensis mentions two Indian nations particularly professing the rites of Bacchus; one of which was named Albarachuma. Al-bara-Chuma means the sons of Chum or Cham: and that they were the sons of Cham may be inferred from Eusebius: [x]. Chron. P. 13.] most: for they are very black: but they are not so flat-nosed; nor have they woolly hair. They, who are more to the north, have a greater resemblance to the Egyptians." Strabo describes them in the same manner; and says that the southern Indians were very like the Ethiopians. 100 [Strabo. L. 15. p. 1012.] [x]. They might well be like the nations specified: for they were colonies from Chaldea; colonies chiefly of Cuthites, who settled at different times in India. These writers all concur in shewing their likeness to the Ethiopians: whereas they were Ethiopians. Herodotus speaks of them plainly by that name: and says, that they differed in nothing from their brethren in Africa, but in the straitness of their hair: 1 [[x]. Hesiod. L. 7. c. 70. P. 541.] [x]. They extended from Gedrosia to the Indus, and from thence to the Ganges, under the name of 2 [AEthiopum Gymnosophistae mentioned by Hieronymus. L. 4. in Ezechiel. c. 13.] Ethiopians, Erythreans, and Arabians. When Nearchus, by the appointment of Alexander, sailed down the Stour, an arm of the Indus; the first nation, which he encountered, was that of the Arabians. They resided, according to Arrian, below Carmania, in the mouth of the great river, near the island Crocale. 3 [Arrian. Hist. Indic, p. 336. Oras tenent ab Indo ad Gangem Palibothri: a Gange ad Colida (or Colchida) atrae gentes, et quodammodo AEthiopes [Google translate: They hold the shores from the Indus to the Ganges of Patna: the Ganges to the Colida (or Colchis), black peoples, and in a way the Ethiopians.]. Pomp. Mela. L. 3. c. 7. They worshiped Zeus [x], Strabo. L. 15. p. 1046. He mentions the promontory Tamus, and the island Chruse. Tamus was the name of the chief Egyptian Deity; the same as Thamuz of Syria.] [x]. They lived upon the river Arabis, by some called 4 [[x]. Arrian. Expedit. L. 6. p. 260. Of the Oritae, ibid, and p. 261.] Aribis, to which they had given name.
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Re: A New System/Analysis of Ancient Mythology, by Jacob Bry

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Volume 3, Page 212-232

Of the Indi.

The Grecian writers, finding that the Ethiopians and Cutheans of this part of the world were not the original inhabitants, have very properly distinguished them from those who were Aborigines: but they have been guilty of a great mistake, in making these Aborigines the Indi, and separating the latter from the AEthiopes. The Cuthites, styled AEthiopes, were the original Indi: they gave name to the river, upon which they settled; and to the country, which they occupied. Hence 5 [Philostrati Vit. Apollon. L. 3. p. 125.] Iarchus of India tells Apollonius; [x]. And almost in 6 [Diodorus Sicul. L. i. p. 17. The chief inhabitants upon the Indus were Cuseans.] every place, where their history occurs, the name of Indi will be found likewise. The river Choaspes, of whose waters only the kings of Persis drank, was esteemed an Indian river.

7 [Dionys. Perieg. v. 1073. Coros is the river Cur, the river of the Sun. [x] Sol. Heysch. [x]. Hesychius.] [x].


It ran through Chusistan, and was a branch of the Tigris: whence that river, from which the former was derived, must have been Indian. This is rendered certain from the Cuthite Ethiopians, who came under the title of shepherds into Egypt. They came from Chaldea upon the river Tigris: and they are said expressly to have come from the Indus. 8 [Euseb. Chron. p. 26.] [x]. "About this time," says Eusebius, "some Ethiopians, taking leave of their country upon the river Indus, came and settled in Egypt." Hence it is that 9 [Philostrati Vit. Apollonii. L. i. p. 64.] Bacchus has been represented as the son of the river Indus. Hence also arose the true notion that the Indian Dionusos was the most ancient: [x]. The genuine and most ancient person of this title must be referred to Babylonia. This is the country, to which Phylarchus alluded, when he said that Bacchus first brought the worship of the two bulls, which were called Apis and Osiris, from India into Egypt. 10 [Plutarch. Isis et Osir. v. 2. p. 362.] [x]. It was a true history, though Plutarch would not allow it. This worship was common in Egypt before the Exodus: for it was copied by the Israelites in the wilderness near Mount Sinai. It was of too early date to have been brought from the country near the Ganges: and was introduced from Chaldea, and the Tigris, the original Indus. The Africans, who had the management of elephants in war, were called Indi, as being of Ethiopic original. Polybius says in the passing of the Rhone; 11 [Polyb. L. 3. p. 200.] [x]: "it happened that Hannibal lost all the Indi; but the elephants were preserved." The same author says of the consul Caecilius Metellus in the battle against Asdrubal: 12 [Polyb. L. i. p. 42.] [x]. The fable of Perseus and Andromeda, whatever it may mean, is an Ethiopia story: and it is said of that hero;

13 [Ovid, de Arte Amandi. L. i. v. 53.] Andromeden Perseus nigris portavit ab Indis.
[Google translate: Andromeda, Perseus, carried black men from the Indians.]


Virgil, speaking to Augustus of the people of this family, calls them by the same name:

14 [Virg. Georg. L. 2. v. 173. The poet means here the Parthians, who were in possession of Persis and Babylonia.] Imbellem avertis Romanis arcibus Indum.

[Google translate: You turn away their warlike Indus from the Roman citadels.]


If we change the scene, and betake ourselves to Colchis, we shall meet with Indians here too. The city Asterusia upon Mount Caucasus is styled Indica. 15 [Stephan. Byzantinus.] [x]. I have mentioned from Jerom, that St. Matthias preached the gospel at Colchis, near the Phasis and Apsarus; which country is called Ethiopia. Socrates in his 16 [Socratis Hist. Ecclesiast. L. i. c. 19. See also L. i. c. 20. p. 50. and 51, [x]. p. 49.] Ecclesiastical History mentions the same: and adds, that St. Bartholomew was in these parts; and that his particular province was India; which India joined to Colchis, and to the region upon the Phasis, where Matthias resided. [x]. He calls it the innermost India, to distinguish it from that which was not mediterranean, but lay on the Southern Ocean. The country here mentioned was a part of Iberia Colchica: and as some of the same family settled in Iberia Hispaniae, we find there too an Indic city; 17 [Steph. Byzantin.] [x]. The author adds, what is very remarkable, [x]; "Some call it Blaberoura." Is not Blaberoura ill expressed? I think that there is a transposition of a single letter; and that it was originally Babel-Oura; so denominated from the two chief cities of the Cuthites, Babel and Our, in Babylonia, and Chaldea. The river Indus was often called the Sindus: and nations of the family, whereof I am treating, were called Sindi. There were people of this name and family in Thrace, mentioned by Heyschius: [x]. "The Sindi" (of Thrace) "are an Indian nation." Some would alter it to [x], Sindicum: but both terms are of the same purport. He mentions in the same part of the world, [x]; "a city, which was denominated the Sindic," or Indian, "harbour." 18 [Herodot. L. 4. c, 86.] Herodotus speaks of a regio Sindica upon the Pontus Euxinus, opposite to the river Thermodon. This some would alter to Sindica; but both terms are of the same amount. This Indica was the country of the Moeotiae, a Cuthic tribe. The Ind, or Indus, of the east is at this day called the Sind; and was called so in the time of Pliny: 19 [Plin. Nat. Hist. L. 6. c. 20. p. 319. [x]. Arriani Peripl. apud Geogr. Vet. Graec. v. i. p. 21.] Indus, incolis Sindus appellatus, in jugo Caucasi montis, quod Paropamisus vocatur, adversus solis ortum effusus, &c. [Google translate: The Indus, the inhabitants of the Sindus called, in the yoke The Caucasus Mountains, which is called Paropamisus, facing the rising sun poured out, &c.]

If this title be peculiar to the Cuthite Ethiopians, we may well expect those above Egypt, among whom the Nile took its rise, to be so called. We accordingly find that river distinguished for being derived from the country of the Indi;

20 [Virgil. Georg. L. 4. v. 293.] Usque coloratis amnis devexus ab Indis:

[Google translate: Colored up by the Indians.]


and the same poet, in another place, speaking of Augustus, says,

21 [Virgil. AEn. L. 6. v. 794. The like occurs in another place. Omnis eo terrore AEgyptus, et Indi, Omnis Arabs, omnes verterunt terga Sabaei. [Google translate: All the Egyptians and the Indians were alarmed by this, All the Arabs, all the Sabeans, turned their backs.] AEneid. L. 8. v. 75. By the Indi are meant the Ethiopians above Egypt. -- super et Garamantas et Indos Proferet imperium.

[Google translate: over the Garamantes and the Indians Bring out the command.]


Nor is this a poetical rant, but a just appellation. AElian, in describing the Libyans of interior Africa, says that they bordered upon the Indi; 22 [AElian. de Animalibus. L. 16. c. 33.] [x], by which were meant the Ethiopians. And Apollonius of Tyana, in a conference with these southern Ethiopians, finding that they spoke much in praise of the Indians in general, tells them, 23 [Philostrati Vit. Apollon. Tyanaei. L. 6. c. 6. p. 277. There are some remains of an ancient city between the Tigris and Euphrates, near the ruins of ancient Babylon, which still retains the name of Sindia, mentioned by Gaspar Balbi. See Purchas. v. 2. L. 10. c. 5. p 1723.] [x]: "You speak much in favour of every thing relating to the Indians; not considering that originally you were Indians yourselves." In short, Egypt itself was in some degree an Indic nation; having received a colony of that people, by whom it was named Ait or Aetia. 24 [Stephanus Byzantinus.] [x] 25 [[x]. Eustath. in Dionys. Perieg. v. 241.] [x]. Hence it is said, 26 [Diodor. Sic. L. i. p. 17. Add to the above a remarkable passage, concerning the people about the Palus Moeotis, who were a colony of Cuthites: [x]. Dionys. Perieg. v. 680.] [x], "That Osiris was an Indian by extraction:" because the Cuthite religion came from the Tigris.

Thus have I endeavoured to shew, from the names of places, and of men, but more particularly from various parts of ancient history, that the Scythic Indians were in reality 27 [Hence Heyschius: [x], or, as Albertus truly reads it, [x].] Cuthic; as were all people of that denomination. They were divided into various casts, most of which were denominated from their worship. The principal of these names I have enumerated, such as Erythraei, Arabes, Oritae, AEthiopes, Cathei, Indi: and, however various in title and characteristic, I have shewn they were all one family, the Cuthites from Babylonia and Chaldea. There is a remarkable passage in the Chronicon Paschale, which must not be omitted. This author tells us, 28 [Chron. Pasch. p. 36.] [x] [x]. "At the time, when the tower of Babel was erected, a certain person made his appearance in the world, who was (Indus) an Indian, and said to have been of the race of Arphaxad, He was famed for his wisdom, and for his skill in astronomy, and named Andoubarios. He first delineated schemes of the heavens, and instructed  the Indi in that science." The same history occurs in 29 [Cedren. Hist. p. 14.] Cedrenus. Why these writers make this personage of the race of Arphaxad, I know not. This astronomer is probably Chus, the father of the Magi, who is said to have first observed the heavens, and to have paid an undue reverence to the celestial bodies. The name Andoubarios seems to be a compound of Andou-Bar, Indi filius. Hence the original Indus must have been Ham.

I cannot conclude this account of the Cuthites in India Limyrica, without taking notice of the great character they bore in the most early times for ingenuity and science. Traditions to this purpose prevailed, wherever they settled: and I have given many instances of their superiority herein. They were, like the Egyptians, divided into seven orders; of which the philosophers were the most honourable. Each tribe kept to the profession of its family; and never invaded the department of another.
30 [Strabo. L. 15. p. 1025.] [x]. Nilus the Egyptian tells Apollonius Tyanaeus, that the Indi of all people in the world were the most knowing; and that the Ethiopians were a colony from them, and resembled them greatly. 31 [Philostrat. Vit. Apollon. L. 6. p. 287. So p. 125. [x].] [x] "The Indi are the wisest of all mankind. The Ethiopians are a colony from them: and they inherit the wisdom of their forefathers."

The philosophy of this 32 [[x]. Antiphanes Comicus apud Athenaeum. L. 6. p. 226.] people was greatly celebrated: insomuch that Alexander visited the chief persons of the country, who were esteemed professors of science. Among the Persians they were styled Magi: but among the Indo-Cuthites they had the title of Sophim and Sophitae. Many regions in different parts were denominated from them Sophitis, Sophita, Sophene. 33 [Strabo. L. 15. p. 1024.] Strabo mentions an Indian province of this name: and Diodorus Siculus speaks largely of their institutions. The march of Alexander through their country is particularly taken notice of by 34 [Quint. Curtius. L. 9. c. i. See Vossius de Philosophorum Sectis. L. 2. c. 2. §. 2. [x]. Steph. Byzantin. Pliny mentions Magi among the Arabians. The people are styled Catheans by Strabo: and he supposes one Sopeithes to have been the chief person of the country. [x] (read with Berkelius [x]) [x]. L. 15. p. 1024.] Curtius. Hinc in regnum Sophitis perventum est. Gens, ut Barbari credunt, sapientia excellit, bonisque moribus regitur. [Google translate: Curtius. Hence they entered into the kingdom of the Sophites. A nation that the barbarians believe he excels in wisdom, and is governed by good manners.] They were formed into societies, and resided in colleges as recluses: others lived at large, like so many mendicants. Their religion, like that of all the Amonians, consisted in the worship of the sun, and adoration of fire. Hence they were denominated, from Cham the Sun, Chamin and Chomin; and their wise men Chomini Sophite, and Sophitim: but the Greeks from the term Chomin and Chominus formed [x], and rendered this people [x] and [x]; as if they were naked philosophers. Suidas seems to have been aware of the mistake; and owns that [x] was the Indian name of a philosopher. Consequently, it had no relation to Greece. The people of this sacred character were divided into different societies, which were denominated from the Deity Manes, whom they served. He was sometimes compounded Achmanes and Oro-Manes; and was well known in Persis, and in Egypt. From him these priests in India were styled Bar-Achmanes, contracted Brachmanes: also Ger-manes, Sar-manes; and Al-Obii. 35 [Clemens Alexand. Strom. L. i. p. 359. Bar-Achmanes, the sons of the great Manes. In Phrygia and Pontus he was styled Ac-mon: [x].] [x]. These were the titles, by which the professors of science were distinguished. They were the same as the 36 [Of the Babylonian and Chaldean Magi, see Aristotle [x]: and Sotion in Libris[x] apud Laertium in Procemio. p. 2. [x]. Lucian. de Longaevitate. vol. i. p. 632.] Magi, and so famed for their knowledge, that many of the Grecian philosophers are said to have travelled to them for information. This is reported of 37 [Democritus went to the Indians. [x]. Aelian. Van. Hist. L. 4. c. 20. p. 375. Of Thracian Philosophy, see Ger. Vossius de Philosophorum Sectis. c. 3. p. 19.] Democritus, Pyrrho of Elea, and Apollonius Tyaneus. Nay, the very Scriptures seem to allude to their superlative knowledge: for it is said of Solomon, that his 38 [I Kings, c. 4. v. 30.] wisdom excelled all the wisdom of the children of the east country, and all the wisdom of Egypt. In which account I cannot but suppose that the learning of the Cuthim Sophitim was included; if not principally alluded to.

Thus have I endeavoured to shew, that all this interamnian country between the Indus and the Ganges was called Scythia; like that about the river Phasis, and upon the Palus Maeotis; as well as regions in other parts. As all these places were apparently inhabited by Cutheans; I think we may be assured, that the name Scuthia, [x], is a mistake for Cuthia; and that the Scythae were Cuthae, or Cuthians, and this will be found to obtain, wherever the name of Scythia prevails: the people of that country, wherever situated, will be found upon examination to be in some degree descended from Chus, whom the Babylonians and those of his family seem to have expressed Cuth.

It is very remarkable that the poet, Dionysus, having described all the nations of the known world, concludes with the Indo-Scythae; of whom he gives a more ample, and a more particular account, than of any who have preceded. He dwells long upon their habit and manners, their rites, and customs, their merchandize, industry, and knowledge: and has transmitted some excellent specimens of their ancient history. And all this is executed in a manner so affecting, that if Homer had been engaged upon the same subject, he could not have exceeded either in harmony of numbers, or beauty of detail. Some extracts I have given: but as the poet is so diffuse in his description of this wonderful people, and his history so much to the purpose, I will lay the greater part of it before the reader, that he may be witness of the truth.

39 [Dionysii Perieg. v. 1088. &c.] [x]. 40 [Scholia Eustathii ad v. 1096. Two nations Arachotae. [x].] [x]. 41 [Ad v. 1107. [x]. The Scholiast supposes the complexion to have arisen from the climate. [x]. Ibid.] [x]. 42 [Adv. 1138.[x]. Dardan was the original name of each people: it signified little what termination the Greeks were pleased to affix.] [x]. 43 [Adv. 1143. [x]. Peuce at the mouth of the Danube. — Alaricum babara Peuce Nutrierat. Peuca-On, and Peuce-El. See here accounts of Aornis and Aornon— probably a metathesis for Ouranon.] [x] 44 [Ad. v. 1153. [x].] [x] 45 [Adv. 1176. [x]. Priscian adds to the character of the Indians great size and agility, and speaks of their philosophy and rites. Hic alii superant procero corpore tantum, Insiliant equitum faciles ut more elephantos. Ast alii vivunt sapienti pectore nudi, Luminibusque vident rectis, mirabile, solem; Et radios oculis et sacra mente retractant; Signaque concipiunt arcana luce futuri. [Google translate: Here the others rise above only their tall body, and leap from the horse, as easily as the elephants are. But others live naked in the wise breast, they see with the right eyes, amazing, the sun; And the rays of the eyes and the sacred mind pulled back; They conceive the secrets and standards of the light of the future.] v. 1027. Of whales, v. 600. Of the Tigris; [x]. Dionys. Perieg. v. 982. According to this poet, Dionysus was born in Arabia, v. 939. [x]. i.e. Chaldea, ascribed to Arabia, according to his limits. Of the wealth of Arabia. Ibid.]. [x]

Upon the banks of the great river Ind,
The southern Scuthae dwell: which river pays
Its watery tribute to that mighty sea,
Styled Erythrean.
Far removed its source,
Amid the stormy cliffs of 46 [Mount Caucasus in India was different from the mountain so called upon the Euxine: there were more than one of this name. The poet Dionysius makes the Tanais take its rise in Caucasus: [x]. v. 663. The Tanais and the Indus cannot be supposed to have the same source.] Caucasus:
Descending hence through many a winding vale,
It separates vast nations. To the west
The Oritae live, and Aribes: and then
The Aracotii famed for linen geer.
Next the Satraidae; and those, who dwell
Beneath the shade of Mount Parpanisus,
Styled Arieni.
No kind glebe they own,
But a waste sandy foil, replete with thorn.
Yet are they rich: yet doth the land supply
Wealth without measure. Here the coral grows,
Ruddy and smooth: here too are veins of gold;
And in the quarries deep the sapphire's found,
The sapphire, vying with the empyreal blue.
To the east a lovely country wide extends,
India; whose borders the wide ocean bounds.

On this the sun new rising from the main
Smiles pleased, and sheds his early orient beam.
The inhabitants are swart; and in their looks
Betray the tints of the dark hyacinth,
With moisture still abounding: hence their heads
Are ever furnish'd with the sleekest hair.
Various their functions: some the rock explore.
And from the mine extract the latent gold.
Some labour at the woof, with cunning skill,
And manufacture linen: others shape,
And polish, ivory with the nicest care:
Many retire to rivers shoal; and plunge
To seek the beryl flaming in its bed,
Or glittering diamond. Oft the jasper's found
Green, but diaphonous: the topaz too,
Of ray serene and pleasing: last of all
The lovely amethyst, in which combine
All the mild shades of purple. The rich soil,
Washed by a thousand rivers, from all sides
Pours on the natives wealth without controul.
Here mighty meadows, stretch'd out wide, produce
Herbs of all species, trees of every leaf.
The succulent grass, styled cenchrus, here abounds,
And yields redundant pasture.
High above
Wave the tall groves of Erythrean 47 [Ad v. 1127. Eustathius of these canes or reeds: [x].] cane,
Sweet to the sense and grateful .....
Nor is this region by one people held:
Various the nations under different names,
That rove the banks of Ganges and of Ind.
Lo, where the streams of Acasine pour,
And in their course the stubborn rock pervade
To join the Hydaspes! here the Dardans dwell;
Above whose seat the river Cophes rolls.

The sons of 48 [Ad v. 1141. Genes. c. 10. v. 7. "And the sons of Chus, Saba, and Havilah, and Sabtah, &c. "People of this name by also to the west of the Indus, towards the extreme part of Persis. [x]. Perieg. v. 1069. Upon which passage Eustathius observes, [x]. The same poet mentions a people of this name in Arabia. [x]. v. 959.] Saba here retired of old:
And hard by them the Toxili, appear,
Join'd to the Scodri: next a savage cast,
Yclep'd Peucanian. Then a noble race,
Who style themselves Gargaridae, and shew
To Dionusos a peculiar care.
Near a fair stream their happy lot is fallen,
Where the swift Hypanis and Megarsus speed
From Mount Hemodus to Gangetic shores,
Fraught as they run with the rich seeds of gold.
Not far from hence, but near the southern main,
The limits of the country Colis reach,
By others Colchis named. Here towering steep,
The rock Aornon rises high in view,

E'en to the mid-air region: not a bird
Of boldest pinion wings this subtile clime,
There is moreover, wonderful to tell,
In the rich region, which the Ganges laves,
A pass esteemed most sacred: this of old
Bacchus is said, in wrathful mood, distress'd,
To have travers'd, when he fled: what time he changed
The soft Nebrides for a shield of brass;
And for the Thyrsus, bound with ivy round,
He couched the pointed spear.
Then first were seen
The zones and fillets, which his comrades wore,
And the soft pliant vine-twigs, moving round
In serpentine direction, chang'd to asps.
These facts lay long unheeded: but in time
The natives quickened paid memorial due;
And call the road Nusaia to this day.
Soon as the lovely region was subdued
By the God's prowess, glorying down he came
From Mount Hemodus to the circling sea,
There on the strand two obelisks [pillars] he reared,
High and conspicuous, at the world's
49 [Ad v. 1164. He mentions these obelisks or pillars in another place, v. 623. [x]. At India's verge extreme, on hills remote, Where the proud Ganges pours the sacred stream, Nusean call'd, and joins the southern wave, Beneath a grove of stately plane arise, The lofty pillars of this arc-born God. The poet confounds Dionusus with Bacchus, as many others have done. [x] is Arc-born: it alludes to the Patriarc's preservation and second birth the arc. The Greeks interpreted this, "born at Thebes." Hence Dionusus was made a native of Boeotia.] extreme.

***

To enumerate all, who rove this wide domain
Surpasses human pow'r:
the Gods can tell,
The Gods alone: for nothing's hid from Heaven.
Let it suffice, if I their worth declare.
These were the first great founders in the world,
Founders of cities and of mighty
50 [Dionysius seems in this passage to speak of the Gods: but those, who by the ancients were styled Gods, were the [x], the heads of the Cuthite family, who performed, what is here mentioned.] states:
Who shewed a path through seas, before unknown:
And when doubt reign'd and dark uncertainty,
Who rendered life more certain. They first viewed
The starry lights, and form'd them into schemes.
In the first ages, when the sons of men
Knew not which way to turn them, they assigned
To each his just department: they bestowed
Of land a portion, and of sea a lot;
And sent each wandering tribe far off to share
A different soil and climate. Hence arose
The great diversity, so plainly seen
Mid nations widely severed ......

........ Now farewell
Ye shores and sea-girt isles: farewell the surge
Of ancient Nereus, and old Ocean's stream.
Ye fountains too, and rivers; and ye hills,  
That wave with shady forests, all farewell.
My way I've sped through the wide pathless deep,
By the bluff cape and winding continent:
'Tis time to seek some respite and reward.


Obelisk, tapered monolithic pillar, originally erected in pairs at the entrances of ancient Egyptian temples. The Egyptian obelisk was carved from a single piece of stone, usually red granite from the quarries at Aswān. It was designed to be wider at its square or rectangular base than at its pyramidal top, which was often covered with an alloy of gold and silver called electrum. All four sides of the obelisk’s shaft are embellished with hieroglyphs that characteristically include religious dedications, usually to the sun god, and commemorations of the rulers. While obelisks are known to have been erected as early as the 4th dynasty (c. 2575–2465 BCE), no examples from that era have survived.

Obelisks of the 5th dynasty’s sun temples were comparatively squat (no more than 10 feet [3.3 metres] tall). The earliest surviving obelisk dates from the reign of Sesostris I (1918–1875 BCE) and stands at Heliopolis, a suburb of Cairo, where once stood a temple to Re. One of a pair of obelisks erected at Karnak by Thutmose I (c. 1493–c. 1482 BCE) is 80 feet (24 metres) high, square at the base, with sides of 6 feet (1.8 metres), and 143 tons in weight.

-- Obelisk (Pillar), by Britannica


Such is the character given by the poet Dionysius of the Indian Cuthites under their various denominations. It is to be observed, that the sons of Chus, however they may be distinguished, whether they be styled Oritae, Arabians, Ethiopians, or Erythreans, are in all places celebrated for science. They were sometimes called Phoinices: and those of that name in Syria were of Cuthite extraction; as I have before shewn. In consequence of this, the poet, in speaking of them, gives the same precise character, as he has exhibited above, and specifies plainly their original.

51 [Dionys. Perieg. v. 905. He adds, v. 910. [x]. He does not distinguish between the Philistim and the true Phoinices, who were of a different family. The former were the Caphtorim, of the Mizraim race; the latter Cuthites, of whom he says truly, v. 911. that they possessed, [x]. Here, they mixed with the sons of Canaan.] [x].

Upon the Syrian sea the people live,
Who style themselves Phenicians. These are sprung
From the true ancient Erythrean stock;
From that sage race, who first assayed the deep,
And wafted merchandize to coasts unknown.

These too digested first the starry choir;
Their motions mark'd, and call'd them by their names.
 
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Re: A New System/Analysis of Ancient Mythology, by Jacob Bry

Postby admin » Mon Apr 11, 2022 6:12 am

Part 1 of 2

Volume 3, Page 233-275

Of Egypt, and of the Arrival of the Titans in that Country.

I have mentioned, that there were two memorable occurrences in ancient history, which the learned have been apt to consider as merely one event. The first was a regular migration of mankind in general by divine appointment: the second was the dispersion of the Cuthites, and their adherents, who had acted in defiance of this ordination. Of the consequences of their apostasy I have taken notice; and of their being scattered abroad into different parts. The Mizraim seem to have retired to their place of allotment a Iong time before these occurrences: and were attended by their brethren the sons of Phut. They had no share in the rebellion of the Cuthites; nor in the Titanic war, which ensued. The country, of which they were seized, was that, which in aftertimes had the name of Upper Egypt. They called it the land of Mezor, and the land of Cham, from their two chief ancestors: which the Greeks rendered 1 [The land of Egypt is called Mestre, [x], by Josephus. Ant. L. i. c. 7. also [x]. Stephanus styles Egypt Muara, which is certainly a mistake for Musara,, [x], the land of Mysor. Cairo by the Arabs is now called Meser, and Mesre. See Leo Africanus. L. 8.] Mesora, and 2 [The land of Ham by the Ionians, and later writers, was expressed Chemia. [x]. Plutarch. Is. et Osir. p. 364. By Stephanus it is compounded, and rendered Hermo-Chumius, [x], in the masculine. The Copti call it Chemi at this day.] Chamia. The lower region was at that time in great measure a morass, and little occupied. The Caphtorim had made some settlements between Mount Casius and Pelusium; but were obliged to quit them, and retire to 3 [Amos. c. 9. v. 7. Jeremiah, c. 47. v. 4.] Palestina. In process of time, the Mizraim were divided into several great families, such as the Napthuhim, Lehabim, Ludim, Pathrusim, and others. They lived chiefly upon the lotos of the Nile, and the herb agrostis: and sheltered themselves under sheds of mean workmanship, which they thatched with the slags of the 4 [Diodorus Sic. L. i. p. 41. [x].] river. In process of time, they began to feed upon fish, which the same stream afforded; and were cloathed with the skins of beasts. They held the river in high reverence; and supposed, that man had somehow a relation to 5 [Ibid.] water. It is probable that some centuries lapsed, while they proceeded in this simple way of life, separated in a manner from the world, and unmolested by any foreign power. At last the Titanic brood, the Cuthites, being driven from Babylonia, fled to different parts: and one very large body of them betook themselves to Egypt. Eupolemus speaks of their dissipation, and calls them giants. 6 [Apud Euseb. Praep. Evang. L. 9. p. 418. Diodorus mentions that there was a gigantic brood in the time of Isis. L. i. p. 23.] [x]. "When the tower of Babel was by the hand of Heaven overthrown, the Giants were scattered over the face of the earth. We may perceive, from what has preceded, that they were a knowing and experienced people; of a family, which had been Iong engaged in opposition, and tried in some severe conflicts. As they had maintained themselves by a grand confederacy, they knew how to obey, and were sensible of the advantages of being under one head. It is then no wonder, that a people well disciplined, and united, should at once get the sovereignty over a nation so rude and unexperienced as the Mizraim. They took Memphis with ease, which was then the frontier town in Egypt. This they held solely to themselves; and afterwards overran the whole region above, and kept it in subjection. Manethon therefore might very truly say, [x]. "They seized the country without the least opposition: not a single battle was hazarded." There are many fragments of ancient history, which mention the coming of the Cuthites from Babylonia into the land of Mizraim; and the country changing its name. An account of this sort is to be found in Suidas. He tells us, that 7 [[x]. See also Eusebii Chron. p. 29. [x] .] "Ramesses, the son of Belus (of Babylonia) who was the son of Zeuth, came into the region called Mestraea, and gained the sovereignty, over the people of the country. He was the person, whom they afterwards called AEgyptus; and the region was denominated from him." Others say, that it was 8 [[x]. Theoph. ad Autolycum. p. 392. There seems to be some mistake in this history; for Sethos was a king of later date.] Sethos; others that it was Belus, who was called AEgyptus; and that from him the country had its name. 9 [Scholia in AEsch. Prometh. p. 52.] [x]. "Belus having conquered the Mizraim, styled Melampodes, called the country, after one of his own titles, AEgyptus. In all these cases I have shewn, that for a singular we must put a plural; and by Belus understand a people styled Beleidae, who came from Babylonia. Manethon, who was an Egyptian, gives the most particular account of their inroad. "We had once," 10 [Josephus contra Apion. L. i. p. 444.] says he, "a king named Timaus, in whose reign, I know not why, it pleased God to visit us with a blast of his displeasure, when of a sudden there came upon this country, a large body of obscure people ([x]) from the east; who with great boldness invaded the land, and took it without opposition. The chief of our people they reduced to obedience, and then in a most cruel manner set fire to their towns; and overturned their temples. Their behaviour to the natives was very barbarous: for they slaughtered the men, and made slaves of their wives and children. At length they constituted one of their body to be their king; whose name was Salatis. He resided at Memphis, holding all the Upper and Lower country tributary; and having garrisons in every place of consequence. He took particular care to secure every part to the east; as the Assyrians were then very powerful; and he foresaw, that they would one time or another make an attempt upon his kingdom. And having observed a city, which lay particularly commodious in the name of Sais, to the east of the Bubastite river, which was called Avaris (a name, that had some relation to the ancient mythology of the country); he set about fortifying it in the strongest manner; placing in it a garrison of two hundred and forty thousand men. Hither he resorted in summer to receive the corn, which he exacted; and to pay his army: and at the same time to make a shew of exercising and disciplining his troops, by way of terror to other nations." He afterwards gives an account of six kings, who are represented "as in a continual state of hostility with the natives; and who seemed to labour, if possible, to root out the very name of an Egyptian." The Shepherds are said to have maintained themselves in this aituation for five hundred and eleven years. At last the natives of Upper Egypt rose in opposition to them, and defeated them under the conduct of king Halisphragmuthosis. They afterwards beleaguered them in their strong hold Avaris; which seems to have been a walled province, containing no less than ten thousand square 12 [[x]. Joseph. cont. Ap. L. i. p. 445. Avaris was the city Aur, the Cercasora of Grecian writers, at the apex of Delta. Abaris was properly Abarim, the city of the passage near the mountain of Arabia. These two places are continually confounded. Avaris was from [x], the city of Orus: Abaris from [x] so denominated from being situated in the passage into Upper Egypt, and guarding that pass. It was probably the same, which was afterwards called Babylon. The two places were very near, which makes the mistake of more consequence.] Arourae. Here they maintained themselves for a Iong space: but at last under Thumosis, the son of the former king, they were reduced to such straits, as to be glad to leave the 12 [Manethon apud Josephum supra.] country.

In the course of this history Manethon tells us, that the whole body of this people were called Ucsous, or, as 13 [Praep. Evang. L. 10. p. 500.] Eusebius more truly expresses it, [x], Ucousos. This term is analogous to Usiris, Uchoreus, and many other titles in Egypt; and undoubtedly means the Noble 14 [See Vol. I. p. 76.] Cusean. Manethon gives another interpretation; but owns, that Uc in the sacred language signified something Royal. [x]. Hence we may learn for certain, what was meant by the sacred language; and consequently, what was also the sacred character in Egypt: and be assured, that they were the ancient Ethiopic, or Chaldaic: for the original Ethiopia was no other than Chaldea. This writer adds, [x]: "but some say, that they were Arabians." This is a title of the same purport; for the Arabians were originally Cuthites, or Ethiopians. Hence the province of Cushan in Egypt, the same as the land of Goshen, was called the Arabian nome; which was the best of the land of Egypt. They were also styled Hellenes, Phoenices, Auritae; the last of which titles is of great consequence in the history and chronology of the country. The people so called were the first who reigned in Egypt: and with them the history of that people must commence. Syncellus, who follows the ancient Chronicle, in speaking of the dynasties in the Egyptian chronology, mentions the Auritae as the first who reigned. 15 [Syncellus. p. 51.] [x]. They were the same as the [x], Semidei, who are placed in the same rank.

We are told by Manethon, that the whole body of this people had the appellation of Royal Shepherds. But I should imagine, that this title was more particularly given to their kings; who, by Africanus and others are styled the 16 [[x]. Syncellus p. 61.] Hellenic and Royal Shepherds. It was a mark of distinction, which they borrowed from their ancestors in Babylonia; among whom it seems to have been common. 17 [[x]. Scholia in AEschyli Persas, v. 74. I am the Lord, that faith of Cyrus, he is my Shepherd. Isaiah. c. 44. v. 28.] It is remarkable, that the first tyrant upon earth masked his villainy under the meek title of a Shepherd. If we may credit the Gentile writers, it was under this pretext, that Nimrod framed his opposition, and gained an undue sovereignty over his brethren. He took to himself the name of Orion, and Alorus; but subjoined the other abovementioned: and gave out that he was born to be a protector and guardian: or, as it is related from Berosus; 18 [Abydenus apud Euseb. Chron. p. 5.] [x]. "He spread a report abroad, that God had marked him out for a Shepherd to his people. Hence this title was assumed by other kings of the country, as may be seen in the 19 [[x]. Apollodorus. ibid. p. 5. This title was probably borrowed from the church of God. The Deity seems from the most early times to have been represented as the Shepherd of his people. This was retained by those, who were apostates from the truth. They gave it to the Gods, which they introduced; and assumed it themselves. Many types and allusions were borrowed from the same quarter.] Chaldaic history: and from them it was borrowed by those of the family, who came into Egypt. It was a favourite appellation: and by this they may be traced, both here, and in every 20 [It obtained in Greece. Hence [x]. Hesych. [x]. Scholia in Persas AEschyli. v. 241.] settlement which they made. All their ancestors were esteemed of this profession: and most of their Gods were styled, 21 [Eusebii Chron. Hieron. Interprete. p. 14.] [x], Pastors and Shepherds; particularly Dionusus, Orus, Pan, Zeuth, and Osiris. An ancient writer, alluding to the Cuthites in Egypt, and to their first king, styles the latter Telegonus, "a foreigner; one that came from a far country:" and he describes him as the son of Orus, "the Shepherd." 22 [Syncellus expresses it Acheres. p. 155. Acheres, like Uchorus, is probably a compound of Ach or Uch, and Heres; "the great Sun."] Sub Acherre, in AEgypto regnavit Telegonus, Ori Pastoris filius. The name Acherres is a compound of Heres, pronounced Cheres, and Cherres, the Sun. Most of the primitive occurrences in Egypt are appropriated to the reigns of Apis, Orus, Vulcan, Timaus, the same as Tamus and Thamuz. These were all sacred titles, and did not relate to any particular king. For notwithstanding the boasted antiquity, and the endless dynasties of the Egyptians, they had in reality no king of the country to whose time these fads could be referred. Their first monarchs were certainly the Cuthites styled Auritae, who built the city Aur, called Avaris, in the land of: Goshen, and nome of Heliopolis. Telegonus is above said to have been the offspring of a Deity: for it was usual for persons to be denominated the children of the God, whom they worshiped. From hence it arose, that this foreigner was styled the son of Orus; and his people in like manner were called the Oritae or Auritae; as I have mentioned before. They likewise esteemed themselves the offspring of Zeuth: and are said to have been the first after the Gods, who reigned in Egypt. These Gods were no other than their principal ancestors; whose names were in aftertimes prefixed to the lists of their kings. Alexander the Great, in a very large letter to his mother Olympias, takes notice of this intelligence, which he had extorted from one of their priests. He learned from this person the secret history of the country: and among other things, that after Hephaistus, or Vulcanus, succeeded the offspring of Zeuth. These were deified men, to whom divine honours were paid; and who were the Daemones and [x] of after ages. 23 [Minucii Felicis Octavius. 163.] Alexander ille magnus, Macedo, insigni volumine ad matrem suam scripsit, metu suae potestatis proditum sibi de Diis hominibus, a sacerdote secretum. Illic Vulcanum facit omnium principem; et postea Jovis gentem. [Google translate: That great Alexander, a Macedonian, with a remarkable book he wrote to his mother, "for fear of betraying his own power" to him of the gods of men, from the secret priest. There the Vulcan makes him the prince of all; and then the nation of Jupiter.]

However they may have degenerated afterwards, their religion at first was the purest Zabaism. They worshiped the sun and moon, and other celestial bodies: but had no images; nor admitted any resemblance by way of adoration. The Egyptians seem to have been quite the reverse; and were lapsed into a gross species of idolatry. This was the reason, when the Cuthites came among them, that they ruined their temples, and overthrew their altars; not being able to bear the baseness of their superstition. They were however of great service to this people; and compensated for the evil, which they are said to have brought upon them. Their history is continually alluded to by ancient writers, who point out the country, from whence they came. Eusebius takes notice of a tradition of the Ethiopians arrival in these parts: and says, that they came from the river 24 [[x]. Euleb. Chron. p. 26. Syncellus. p. 151. [x]. Diodorus Sic. L. 3. p. 143. 144.] Indus. I have shewn, that the Tigris was the original river called Indus: that the Choaspes, a branch of it, was said, 25 [Dionys. [x]. v. 1074.] [x], "to furnish an Indic stream: and this name came from the sons of Chus; who both in these parts, and in others, where they settled, were peculiarly styled Indi. Stephanus Byzantinus, speaking of the ancient names of Egypt, among others mentions, that it was called 26 [[x] (read [x])— [x]. See also Scholia in Dionys. v. 239.] Musara, and Aetia; which last it received from one Aetus, "an Indian." I have taken notice, that the name AEgyptus was from the same quarter; and that it was conferred by a son of Belus of Babylonia. Eustathius gives a like account of the ancient names of Egypt: and says, that it was called Aetia from one Aetus, an Indian. He adds, that it was also called Ethiopia from a body of Ethiopians, who settled there, 27 [[x]. Eustath. in Dionys. ad v. 239. See Eusebii Chron. p. 29.] [x]: "of whom many of the ancient historians make mention. They might well take notice of them; for their arrival was a wonderful aera, and much to be remembered in the annals of AEgypt. Though they behaved in a tyrannical manner, yet they performed mighty works, and benefited the country greatly. Their very oppression obliged the Mizraim to exert themselves; and afforded them an opportunity of improving both in literature and arms. Hence the latter were of necessity enriched with much knowledge, to which otherwise they had been strangers.

At the time, when the Cuthite Ethiopians arrived, Lower Egypt was in great measure a 28 [[x]. Diodor. L. 3. p. 144. [x]. Ibid. [x]. Plut. Is. et Osiris. p. 367.] morass: but under their direction it was drained by numerous canals; and rendered the most beautiful country in the world. They carried a sluice with vast labour from the Pelusiac branch of the Nile to the western gulf of the Red Sea. Part of it remains at this day; and passes through Grand Cairo towards Matarea, and is kept up with 29 [See Pocock, and Norden's Travels in Egypt.] great care. The chief of the pyramids at Cochome were erected by them. Herodotus mentions a tradition of their being built in the time of the Shepherd 30 [Herod. L. 2. c. 128.] Philitis, when Egypt was under great calamities; when princes reigned, whose names were held by the people in abomination. The modern Arabs have accounts of their being built by 31 [Herbelot Biblioth. Oriental.] Ian Ebn Ian. By this is signified, that they were constructed by the Ionim, the sons of that, Ion, called Ionas, and Ionichus, of Babylonia. Juba in his history took notice, that the city Heliopolis was not the work of the native Egyptians, but of 32 [Plin. L. 6. p. 343.] Arabians; by which name the sons of Chus are continually distinguished. They raised the most ancient obelisks in Egypt: which were formed of one piece; yet of an amazing size: and the granate, of which they consist, is so hard, that scarcely any tool now-a-days can make an impression. Hence it is matter of wonder, how they were originally framed, and engraved. They are full of hieroglyphics, curiously wrought; which, as we learn from Cassiodorus, were ancient 33 [Obeliscorum prolixitas ad Circi altitudinem sublevatur: sed prior Soli, inferior Lunae dicatus est: ubi sacra priscorum Chaldaicis signis, quasi literis, indicantur. Cassiodorus. (Google translate: The length of the obelisks is raised to the height of the circus; but first to the sun, lower It is dedicated to the moon, where the sacred symbols of the ancient Chaldean are indicated, as it were by the letters. Cassiodorus.) L. 3. Epist. 2. and Epist. 51.] Chaldaic characters. These were the sacred characters of Egypt, known only to the 34 [They had two sorts of letters. [x]. Herod. L. 2. c. 36.] priests;. which had been introduced by the Cuthite Ethiopians.

I have often taken notice of a common mistake among the Greek and Roman writers; who, when the sacred terms grew obsolete, supposed the Deity of the temple to have been the person, by whom it was built. Thus it is said of the Chaldaic God Mithras, that he first erected the obelisks in Egypt. 34 [Plin. L. 36. c. 8.] Primus omnium id (obeliscorum erectionem) instituit Mitres, qui in Solis Urbe regnavit, somnio jussus. [Google translate: First of all (the erection of obelisks) He appointed Mitres, who reigned in the city of the Sun, and was commanded in a dream.] Mitres was no other than Mithras, the same as Arez, and Osiris, who was greatly reverenced in the eastern world. He, did not reign at 35 [By this however is pointed out the nome, in which the Cuthites settled; the same as Zoan, of which Goshen was a part.] Heliopolis; but was there adored: nor did he raise the obelisks; but they were erected to his honour. His rites were introduced into Egypt by the people abovementioned. But he was more commonly represented under the character of Osiris and Orus. Stephanus, in like manner, speaks of Mithras, as a man, and joins him with Phlegyas. He says, 36 [[x]. Steph. Byzant. By this we find, that the sons of Chus, called here Ethiopians, were the first constituted people, and the authors of idolatrous rites.] that "these two were the authors of, the Ethiopic rites and worship: for they were, by birth Ethiopians: which people were the first nation constituted in the world, and the first, which enacted laws, and taught men to reverence the Gods." All this is true of the Chaldaic Ethiopians. A large body of this people settled in Ethiopia, above Egypt: and from their history we may learn, how much the Egyptians were indebted to their ancestors. They in some degree looked upon the Egyptians as a 37 [[x]. Diodor. L. 3. p. 144.] colony from their family: and so far is true, that they were a draft from the great Amonian body, of which the Mizraim and the Cuthites were equally a part. Nothing can more satisfactorily prove, that the Cuthite Ethiopians had been in Egypt, and ruled there, than the laws of the 38 [[x]. Diodorus. L. 3. p. 144.] country, which were plainly Ethiopic. And not only the laws, but, as we are assured by 39 [Ibid.] Diodorus, the rites of sepulture, and the honours paid to the ancient kings, their ancestors, were Ethiopic institutions. I have mentioned from Cassiodorus, that the sacred characters upon the obelisks were of Chaldaic original; which is the same as 40 [Diodorus makes mention [x]. p. 145.] Ethiopic. In confirmation of this, Diodorus tells us, that these characters in Egypt were known only to a few, who were of the priesthood. But that in Ethiopia they were the national character, and universally 41 [[x]. p. 144.] understood. In short, this writer assures us, that the rites in both nations had a great resemblance, so as to be nearly the 42 [Ibid.] same. The priests in each were recluse, and given to celibacy. They alike used the tonsure, and wore a garment of linen: and they used to carry in their hands a sceptre, or staff, which at the top had [x], "the representation of a plough;" undoubtedly in memorial of their ancestor, [x], the great husbandman. Their bonnets, as well as those of their kings, were ornamented with figures of serpents: for they held the serpent as sacred, and were addicted to the Ophite worship.

Among the cities, which the Cuthites built in Egypt, there was one in the nome called Men El Ai ([x]), or Provincia Dei Luni. This city was called Canobus, and was opposite to the island Argaeus. The Grecians ascribed the building of this city to Menelaus of Sparta: but Aristides assures us, that it was far prior to the aera, when that personage was supposed to have been in Egypt. 43 [[x]. Aristid. Oratio AEgypt. vol. 3. p. 608.] "I was told," says this writer, "from a priest of consequence at Canobus, that this place had its name, many ages before the arrival of Menelaus. He did not mention the name of the place so articulately, as to give me an opportunity of expressing it in Grecian characters. Besides, it did not correspond with our idiom: nor was it round and smooth; but quite of the Egyptian cast, and hard to be uttered. Thus much I learned from him, that it signified a golden foundation." I make no doubt but the term, upon which the priest founded his notion, was Cuthim; which undoubtedly signifies gold: but at the same time it is the plural of Cuth, and relates to the Cuthites. The later Egyptians did but very imperfectly understand their original language; and misinterpreted their traditions. The original terms certainly signified a Cuthite foundation. They related not to gold, but to the 44 [The terms were probably [x], Adon Cuthim. They may be interpreted a golden foundation, or a Cuthite foundation, indifferently. Adon Cuthim may also refer to Canobus, the God of the Cuthites. Adon Cuthim, Deus Cuthaeorum.] Cuthim, who founded the city Canobus upon the lower and most western part of Delta.

The sacred emblems in life among this people were at first innocent; but in time proved the source of much superstition. Many of these were taken from the forms of animals, by which they distinguished both the titles and attributes of their Gods. By these means the Deity and the animal had the same name: and the latter, in consequence of it, was entitled to much honour and reverence. As all their cities were denominated from some God, they seem to have made use of these animals, as so many devices, by which their cities were distinguished. Hence we read of Lycopolis, Leontopolis, Latopolis, and the city of Mendes, the goat. The hawk, the ibis, the crocodile, the dog, were all used for sacred marks of distinction. After the Cuthites had drained Lower Egypt, and had there built cities, it is probable that every city had some one of these sacred emblems, represented in sculpture, either upon the gates, or upon the entablature, of their temples. This characteristic denoted its name, as well as the title of the Deity, to whom the place was sacred. And the Deity in those cities was often worshiped under such particular symbol. This is plainly alluded to in some of the poets. They have represented the dispersion of the sons of Chus from Babel, as the flight of the Gods into Egypt; where they are supposed to have sheltered themselves under the form of these sacred animals. Ovid in particular describes this flight: and though he has in some degree confounded the history, yet the original purport may, I think, be plainly discerned. What I allude to, is to be found in the song of the Pica, when she contends with the Muses.

45 [Metamorph. L. 5. v. 319.] Bella canit Superum; falsoque in honore Gigantas
Ponit, et extenuat magnorum facta Deorum.
Emissumque ima de sede Typhoea narrat
Coelitibus fecisse metum; cunctosque dedisse
Terga fugae: donex fessos AEgyptia tellus
Ceperit, et feptem discretus in ostia Nilus.
Huc quoque Terrigenam venisse Typhoea narrat,
Et se mentitis Superos celasse figuris.
Duxque gregis, dixit, sit Jupiter: unde recurvis
Nunc quoque formatus Libys est cum cornibus Ammon.
Delius in corvo, proles Semeleia capro,
Fele soror Phoebi, nivea Saturnia vacca,
Pisce Venus latuit, Cyllenius Ibidis alis.

(Google translate: Bella sings of the gods; deceived in honor of the Giants
He mentions and reduces the deeds of the great Gods.
Let loose from the seat of Typhoea
that he had caused fear to the Celestials; gave up all
Back to flight: tired Egyptian land
He has captured and separated the seventh at the mouth of the Nile.
Typhoea also relates that the earth-born came hither,
And that he had concealed the gods by false figures.
And the leader of the flock said, let him be Jupiter;
Now also Libya is formed with the horns of Ammon.
Delius in the raven, the offspring of Semele's goat
the cat sister of Phoebus, the snowy cow Saturn
Venus was hidden in Pisces, and Cyllenius in the wings of the Ibid.)


Bk 5:294-331 The contest between the Pierides and the Muses

The Muse was speaking: wings sounded in the air, and voices in greeting came out of the high branches. The daughter of Jupiter looked up, and questioned where the sound came from, that was so much like mouths speaking, and thought it human, though it was birdsong. Nine of them, magpies, that imitate everything, had settled in the branches, bemoaning their fate. While she wondered, the other began speaking, goddess to goddess, ‘Defeated in a contest, they have been added only recently to the flocks of birds. Pierus of Pella, rich in fields, was their father, and Paeonian Euippe was their mother. Nine times, while giving birth, she called, nine times, to powerful Lucina. Swollen with pride in their numbers, this crowd of foolish sisters came here, to us, through the many cities of Achaia and Haemonia, and challenged us to a singing competition, saying “Stop cheating the untutored masses with your empty sweetness. If you have faith in yourselves, contend with us, you goddesses of Thespiae. We cannot be outdone in voice or art, and we are your equals in numbers. If you want, if you are defeated, you can grant us the Heliconian fountains, Hippocrene, of Medusa’s offspring, and Boeotian Aganippe. Or we will grant you the Emathian plains as far as snow-covered Paeonia! Let the nymphs decide the outcome.”

It was shameful to compete with them, but it seemed more shameful to concede. The nymphs were elected, and swore on their streams to judge fairly, and sat on platforms of natural rock. Then, without drawing lots, the one who had first declared the contest sang, of the war with the gods, granting false honours to the giants, and diminishing the actions of the mighty deities. How Typhoeus, issued forth from his abode in the depths of the earth, filling the heavenly gods with fear, and how they all turned their backs in flight, until Egypt received them, and the Nile with its seven mouths. She told how earth-born Typhoeus came there as well, and the gods concealed themselves in disguised forms. “Jupiter” she said, “turned himself into a ram, the head of the flock, and even now Libyan Ammon is shown with curving horns. Delian Apollo hid as a crow, Bacchus, Semele’s child, as a goat, Diana, the sister of Phoebus, a cat, Saturnian Juno a white cow, Venus a fish, and Cyllenian Mercury the winged ibis.”

-- Metamorphoses, by Ovid


Ovid distinguishes between the Giants and the Gods, through mistake. The Giants, or Titans, were the Deities, who fled; and Typhon, the same as Typhoeus, by which is meant divine vengeance, pursued them. The solution of the history is obvious. It amounts to this: that the Cuthites fled from Typhon, or Typhoeus; and betook themselves to Egypt, where they sheltered themselves. Here they built many cities, where they instituted the religion of their country: and where their exiled Deities were in aftertimes worshiped under different symbols; such as a ram, a lion, a 46 [See Antoninus Liberalis from Nicander, concerning the changes, which the Gods underwent upon their flight from Typhon into Egypt. Fab. 28. p. 145.] goat, and the like. Of these Deities I have before taken notice; and shewn, that they were the chief ancestors of the Cuthites: from some of whom the Egyptians were equally descended.

Hence they also looked upon themselves as the offspring of the Gods. 47 [Callisthenes apud Fabricium. vol. 14. p. 148.] [x].

It is extraordinary, that Manethon, in speaking of the Cuthites, should describe them as [x], "people of an obscure and ignoble race." This cannot be rendered consistent with their general character. They were the descendents of persons well known; who were represented even by their enemies as a race of superior beings. They were styled Gods, and Demigods, and the children of Heaven. The Egyptians, who hated their tyranny, yet in some degree revered their memory. They are called by Manethon the Royal Shepherds; and are also styled Phoenices, and Hellenes: which terms, whether they were understood or not by the writers, who have transmitted them, were certainly titles of the highest honor. They were a people who valued themselves greatly upon their descent; and kept up the best memorials of their family. They pretended to be derived from the 48 [[x]. From Hermapion in Marcellinus. L. 17. p. 126.] Sun; and were called Heliadae, or the Solar Race. They were the descendents of the original Titanians, who were so highly reverenced by their posterity; and whom Orpheus addresses, as the origin of the 49 [Orphic. Hymn. 36.] Hellenic nations. In consequence of this, I cannot help thinking, that what is rendered [x], was an ancient term of a very different purport. Manethon wrote in Greek; and being led by the ear, has changed this word to one familiar to him in that language: by which means he has well nigh ruined a curious piece of history. What he has rendered Asemos, ignoble, the Dorians would have expressed Asamos; which in the original was Asamah, noble and divine. By this was signified, that the Shepherds were of a 50 [Analogous to [x], Hasamen, of the Hebrews, which signifies Princes.] royal or celestial race, the children of Heaven. Asamah was the name of the Deity among the Samaritans and Syrians. The God of Hamath was called 51 [Selden de Diis Syris. Syntag. 2. p. 252. Asama was the name of a river in Mauritania. Ptol. Geogr. L. 4. c. i. Fluvius sacer, vel divinus. (Google translate: A river sacred or divine. )] Asamah: and in the ancient Samaritan Pentateuch it is said to have been made use of as the name of the true God: for instead of the words, "In principio creavit Deus," [Google translate: In the beginning God created] there was substituted, "In principio creavit Asamah." [Google translate: In the beginning Asamah created.] Some think, that this is only a false imputation of the Jews, who hated the Samaritans. It may possibly be false, that the term was thus applied: yet it shews, that such a title certainly existed, and was in use. The people of Hamath, who were transplanted into the land of Israel, built a city of this name, undoubtedly in honour of their country 52 [Asima oppidum in terra Judae, quod aedisicarunt hi, qui ad eam venerant de Emat. Hieron. in Locis Hebraeis. Asama seems to be in purport the same as [x]; and to relate to Sam and Samah, Coelum. The priests of this Deity were called Samanaei; and were to be found in many parts of the world. See Clemens Alexand. and others.] God. Selden expresses it Asima; and assures us, that there was such a Deity. 53 [Selden de Diis Syris. Syntag. 2. c. 9. p. 252.] Deum fuisse Asima, et sacra 54 [2 Kings. c. 17. v. 30.] Scriptura, et citatus Josephi locus ostendunt. [Google translate: that Asima was a god, and that sacred Scripture and the summons of Joseph they show a place.] From the above I am inclined to think, that the original term related to 55 [Analagous to Samah of the Arabians, [x].] Heaven; and was of a different purport from that, by which it is rendered in Manethon. It was a title, I imagine, common among the Syrians, and all the family of Ham.
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