The Open Society and Its Enemies, by Karl R. Popper

"Science," the Greek word for knowledge, when appended to the word "political," creates what seems like an oxymoron. For who could claim to know politics? More complicated than any game, most people who play it become addicts and die without understanding what they were addicted to. The rest of us suffer under their malpractice as our "leaders." A truer case of the blind leading the blind could not be found. Plumb the depths of confusion here.

Re: The Open Society and Its Enemies, by Karl R. Popper

Postby admin » Wed Oct 16, 2019 4:34 am

Part 1 of 2

Index

absolute idealism 688
absolute monarchy 259-60
absolutism 267, 493, 501, 506, 590-1
absolutist theory 673
abstract rationalism 271
abstract society 166-7
accumulation 362, 390-1, 398, 692: capital 356, 373, 385; Marxism 374-6: wealth 47, 391
activism 407, 408, 110, 416
activist theory of knowledge 421
ActsTM,
Adam, J, 41, 79, 133, 520-1, 525, 533, 534, 535, 538, 578; autarky 554; awe-inspiring 593:
City in Heaven 598: exile 689: infanticide 541: justice 94, 569: knowledge 593 ; music 542:
Number 558-9; Philosophy of History 140, 520; slavery 537
Adeimantus 573, 578-9
Adler, Alfred ix, Ml, 688, 217
Aesculapius 131
aestheticism 154-5, 156, 157, 663
aesthetics 415, 611
age of Cronos 18-19, 521
age of dishonesty 237, 243, 660
age of industrialization 445
age of irresponsibility 243
age of Zeus 14, 19, 63
aggression 142, 272, 326; see also violence
Alcibiades 144, 181, 182, 595, 598, 600, 615, 622-3, 631
Alcidamas 67, 91, 108, 143, 175, 550, 577, 595, 613, 641
Alcmaeon 75, 165
Alexander the Great 220, 262-3, 596
altruism 96-8, 114, HI, 480, 574, 575
ambiguity, Marxism 365-6, 371
ambition 40, 128, 145, 51i, 623
anamnesis 53 1
Anaximander 179, 515, 516, 512, 523, 620
Ancillon 256
Anderson, E, N, 265-7, 668, 671, 674-6
Anderson, Maxwell 205
animal instincts 75
Antiphon 66, 70, 91, 547, 549, 554, 571, 595, 596, 611, 615, 618
Antisthenes 91, 123, Ml, 175, 550, 555, 600, 611, 642, 652; definitions 217, 660-1:
monotheism 593-6: Plato's attitude 144-5: and Socrates 184, 237, 63 1
Anytus 182-3, 584
Apology 184, 191, 201, 200, 520, 628-31
Aquinas, Thomas 441, 637
Archelaus 547
Archidamian War 615
Archytas of Tarentum 215
aristocracy U, 11, 164, 348, 600-1
Aristophanes HI, 115, 511, 511, 621, 628, 610
Aristotle 24, 28, 29, 61, 641; and
Antisthenes 660: ascent theories 644: banausic 642: corruption 529: doctrine of the mean 220;
equalitarianism 92; essence 27-8, 29, 30, 223-4: forms 36, 223: geometry 190-1, 211:
Heraclitus' influence 9, H, 15,; individualism 91; justice 88; leisured classes 643: logic 655:
love 635, 640; Menexenus 619: music 543: non-being 524: Oligarchs 615: Plato criticism
171, 576-7: protectionism 107, 108: religion as opium 348, 590, 663: roots of Hegelianism
219-41: slavery 220-1: sociology of knowledge 428: Timaeus parallelism 527
arithmetization 190, 563, 583
armed auxiliaries 45
Arndt, E, M, 674
arrested change 20, 29, 37, 44, 83, 169, 419, 420, 536-7: development 540; society 174, 546:
state 45, 79; see also Forms or Ideas; ideal state
art 154, 732
artificial 554
ascent theories 644-5
astrology 483, 521, 546, 569, 664
astronomy 77, 142, 190, 297, 557
Athenians 10-1 1
Athens 45, 51, 168, 169, 170, HI, 172; defence 589; democracy ix, xxxviii, 17, 39, 53, 149:
education 50-2; fall of 169-75, 182, 187: imperialism 172, 173, 174: infanticide 541:
Levinson's critique 194-212: Melian Affair 615: Peloponnesian war 169-75, 182: slavery
42, 46, 67, 172, 595, 616, Ml
Atomists 676
atoms 606, 607, 665, 677, 687
Augustus 238
autarky 84, 111, 549, 554
authoritarian intellectualism 432-3
authoritarianism 123, 127, 268, 432-3, 695: Christianity 293; education 124, 126, 129:
medieval 241, 245; positivism 68; religion 239, 240-1, 497, 498, 500-1: and truth 493,
494, 504-5; Utopian engineering 149
authority 70
autochthonous warriors 589
autonomy 301-10, 321, 322, 500
auxiliary hypothesis 392, 393, 394

Bacon, Francis 232, 451, 452, 494
Bakunin, M, 691
banausic 221, 642
Banse, E, 280
Barker 99, 109, 579, 590, 600; contract theory 577; Cynics 237-8: militarism 574
Barth, K, 477, 731, 762
basic premises 227, 228
beauty 136, 154-5, 156
Beethoven, L, van 415
Bentham, J, 442
Bergson, Henri 273, 435, 460, 512, 513, 544, 677; creative thought 668; Hegelianism 669, 677:
mysticism 635
Bernstein, A, 703
Best State 23, 29, 31, 39, 44-9, 51, 53, 77, 84, M, IM, 221, 521, 523, 534, 536, 540, 625,
640, 642: see also ideal state
Bias 11, 211, 422, 423, 424, 465-7, 502-3: see also prejudices
biological holism 285
biological naturalism 65-8, 69, 73, 74, 75, 76, 78-9, 556
biological theory of state 72, 166, 167, 251, 613, 614, 666
Bismarck, Otto von 270
Black Death 240
Blanc, Louis 555
Bleak House (Dickens) 96-7
Blueher, H, 725
Bodin, J, 115
Bohr, Niels 723
bolshevism 101
Book of the Judge (Kierkegaard) 407
Borel, E, 567
bourgeous economists 379
bourgeousie 347, 349, 355-7, 366, 367, 371, 372, 409, 689-91, 702, 707, 715; overthrow
392-3, 395: war 368
Bowra, C, M, 529
Bradford, Bishop of 514
bravery 280
breakdown of closed societies 178, 546, 613
breeding 77-8, 79, 140-2, 206, 207, 544-5, 560: guardians 45, 49-5i, 75; philosopher king
140-3: Royal Science 601: ruling classes 45, 49, 50, 51; see also eugenics
Broadhead, H, D, 597
Bryson 568
bucket theory of mind 421, 728
Budget 340, 603
Burke, Edmund 2, 107, 250, 271, 346, 432, 435, 575, 666, 669, 671, 696
Burnet, John 63, 180, 527, 549, 584, Ml, 620-1, 632: Aristophanes 627, 628, 630; charmed
circle 546: Demos 632: Greeks and Maoris 613: Parmenides 526: Seventh Letter 584:
Socratic Problem 626-7: soul 621-2: Xenophanes 526, 632-3
Burns, E, 532, 555, 680, 695
Butler, Samuel 2, 128, 585

Caird, E, 225
Callicles HO, HI, 111, 175, 577, 578, 622
Callippus 129, 585
canvas-cleaning 155-6, 188, 198, 200, 205, 305, 686
Capital 298, 299, Ml, 113, 114, 321, 324, 331-2, 341, 345-6, 362, 381, 390-1, 406:
capitalism 373: child exploitation 331, 350, 391: competition 373-4, 375; ethics 406: misery
374-5: profits 388-90, 400: social development 405
capital: centralization 374, 375, 376, 704: concentration 702; constant and variable 389
capitalism: antagonistic tendencies 698: and Christianity 406-7: class structure 355:
contradictions 373-5, 390, 395-6: evils 605: fate 373-96: laissez-faire 299, 350, 456, 690:
Marx 298, 299, HI, HI, 114, 321, 326, HI, 114; moral condemnation 323-4, 416:
overthrow 345-6, 356: rise of HO; unrestrained HO, HI, 185, 187, 190, HI, 691
capitalist competition 448, 375
Carlyle, Thomas 692
Carnap, Rudolf xviii, 547, 650, 654, 678, 718, 728; implicit definitions 656-6: semantics 528
Carneades 1 12, 579
Carmthers, John 610, 683
Carthage 617
caste state 544-5, 554, 589
Catlin, G, E, G, 28, 552, 553, 572, 611, 637
cattle breeders 140
causal explanations 467-8, 728
causality 299, 728, 730
causal laws 517
causal relations 729
centralization 374, 375, 376, 704
centralized economic planning 603
Chaerephon 183, 624, 630
change, theory of 43, 77, 143, 520, 535; Aristotle 222-4; Hegel 250, 259-60: Heraclitus
10-16, 515-18: Jaspers 287; law of revolutions 38, 536: Parmenides 26-7: philosophies of
419-20: Plato 18-20, 23-9, 250; Plato's descriptive sociology 35-8, 53; ruling classes 47;
theory of forms/ideas 524: see also Forms or Ideas; Plato; social change
chaos, myth of 523
Charles V 336
Charmides 18, 519, 583, 586, 590, 623, 630, 632
Charmides 18, Ml, 182, 622
checks and balances, theory of 115-16, 120
child labour 331, 350, 391
children 26, 28, 78, 519, 525, 530, 538, 557, 558, 559, 641: canvas-cleaning 155-6: common
ownership 47-8, 98, 641: communist revolution 94, 389, 636: education 124, 350;
exploitation 389-91: militarist principles 52, 99
Chion 129
chosen people 8, 238, 456, 514
Christianity 9, 63, 293, 716, 722: altruism 98, 99; closed society 237-41, 664, 716; economics
697; equality 476; ethics 285-6, 408-9: French Revolution 245; history 476-7;
humanitarianism 270: Marx 406-7, 457: medieval conversion 270; myths 620; nationalism
662: Plato 134-5: rationalism/irrationalism 440-1, 446-7, 448, 454, 455: rise of 226:
science 478-9; spiritual naturalism 71-2: totalitarianism 100: Toynbee 662-3
Christians in the Class Struggle (Cope) 514
city 54, 533, 598: as super-organism 72, 73, 75, 76
civilization xxxv: origins 38, 304-6, 532-3, 543-4: strain 163, 168, 179, 184, 187, 188, 309,
446, 480, 614
civil peace 576, 606-9
civil war 17, 41, 353, 358, 368, 604-5, 692, 701, 706-16
classes: antagonism 42; collectivism 8; consciousness 301, 322, 394, 395, 681, 696: division
47, 83, 86, 537: egoism 96-7, 99: equilibrium theory 329; Happiness 161, 168: knowing
one's place 87-8, 93, 94, 101-2, 103, 131, 221: Marx 311, 321-6: privileges 87, 91, 93;
rule 83, 168; structure 355, 357; struggles 39, 40, 11, 45-51, 53, 78, 165, 174, 179, 184,
347, 348, 349, 355, 409; war 38-9, 45, 78, 174, 312, 321, 358, 371, 698
class interest 170, 174, 249, 311, Ml, 321-3, 325
classless society 9, 347-8
Clausewitz, Carl von 278
Clearchus 129
Clenias 536
closed societies 55, 57, 165, 166, 178, 179, 180, 189; Christianity 237-41, 664, 716: Fall of
Man 187: naive monism 57-8, 65; organic character 614: see also tribal societies
The Clue to History (Macmurray) 478
Codrus 18, 144, 519, 599, 600
cogs 103
Cohen, M, R, 653, 655, 684, 685
Cole, G, D, H, 688, 693, 709, HO
collective bargaining 384, 401
collective utility 103, 130, HI, 195, 274
collectivism 8, 76, 80, 95-101, 104, 126, 258, 514, 573-4; Hegel 246; H, G, Wells 723;
methodological 303, 686; Plato 91, 94, 130, HI, 195, 196-7: and psychologism 303,
309-10: radical 246; reason 449-50; romantic 481; tribal 75-6
collectivist economic system xxxvi
collectivist theory, morality 452
colonial exploitation 392, 393, 700
commandments 56, 57
commerce 168-9, 174-5
commodity, value 374, 692, 693, 709-10
common meals 47, 538, 574, 575
Communism 2di, xiv, 46-7, 349, 350, 353, 395-6, 555, 682: ideal state 39; principle of 555;
revolution 372, 595
Communist Manifesto ^TL, 329, 352, 356, 364-6, 369, 394, 457, 532, 682, 689, 690, 691, 696,
698, 701, 704, 705-7, 709, 213, 111, 726
competition 331, 373-4, 375: accumulation due to 380: and profits 388
completely abstract society 166
Composition of Forces, principle of 580
compromise 149, 220, 363, 364, 395, 441, 619, 699
Comte, A, 35, 40, 298, 354, 401, 419, 519, 533
condescension 42, 202, 629
Congress of Vienna ix, 263
consciousness 282-3, 301, 116, 322, 324, 325, 329, 335, 348, 355, 356, 362, 394, 395
conspiracy theory of society 306-8, 3 12, 340-1, 687
constant capital 389
constitution 40, 165, 170, 172, 177, 185, 532, 533, 562, 579, 616, 618, 619, 623, 625, 654,
655, 656, 663, 671, 672, 675: democratic 360; England 248, 676; Hegel 256-7, 258, 259:
Kant 562: Plato 597: Roman 663
Constitution of Athens 177-8, 534
consumption 399
contract theory 72, 73, 109, 112, 539, 555, 578, 579; Barker 109, 577; Lycophron 109, 555;
Plato 543: see also social contract
convention, and nature 62, 65, 66, 70, 72-3, 134, 728
conventional social laws 301, 302
conventionalism 72-3, 74, 551: critical see critical dualism; naive 58
Cope, Gilbert 514-15, 611
Corey raean Revolution 170
Cornford, F, M, 524, 525, 536, 537, 642; grading 565; noble lie 587
correlation, definitions 656
correspondence theory 590
corruption 36, 37, 129, 529
cosmic laws 19
cosmos 11
counter cycle policy 387
creative evolution 251, 273, 668, 677
Creator of the Universe 57
credit system 374, 398, Zli
Credo ATL, 731
Crete 40, 45, 53, 536-7, 540, 541
crime 105, 108, HI, 111, 439, 441, 475, 576, 583, 612; Catlin 611; science 609-10
criteria, truth 487-9
Critias 44
Critias 18, 44, IM, 175, 181, 182, 184, 239, 519, 520, 530, 536, 575, 613, 618, 619, 622,
623-4, 630, 632, 638, 680: Levinson's critique 194, 195, 196-7: religion as opium 663
critical dualism 57, 58-61, 63, 65
critical rationalism 435, 437, 442-3, 444, 719
critical thought 513, 619
criticism 176, 492, 493, 496, 504, 505, 507, 640; assumptions 495; free 424-5, 427: scientific
432-3 ; self-criticism 123, IM, 502-3
Critique of All Revelation (Fichte) 266
Critique of Pure Reason (Kant) 252
Crito 184, 624, 625
Cronos 43, 52i, 535; age of 18-19, 521
Grossman, R, H, S, 124, 126, 233, 529, 561, 583-4, 587, 624, 634, 636, 653, 654; definitions
655; Happiness 84-5, 161: propaganda 131, 587
customary life 164, 174
cycles 18, 19, 520-2, 530, 531: laws 18; Plato 40, 471, 530, 531
Cynics 237-8, 550

Damon 542, 543
Darwin, Charles 273, 634, 645
Darwinism 273, 638
Davie s 561, 573
De Anima 228
death duties 376
decay 53,, 250, 521-2, 53 1, 559: historical law of 37-8; human nature 72: Plato 35: ruling
classes 40
decisions 60, 61-3, 64, 482-3, 496, 498, 499, 522, 723
decline and fall 53, 280, 530, 545, 546, 559, 602, 642
Decline of the West 53,
defence 104-5
defined term 227
defining formula 227, 230
definition 95-6, HS, 125, 358; Aristotle 226, 228-9, 230-7: essentialism 226, 227-8, 228-9,
230-1, 233-4, 235-6, 237, 655-61: implicit 656-61: operational 490, 656, 657; and proof
232-3 ; radicalism 154: rationalism/irrationalism 430-1: scientific 230-1, 234-6: theory of
660; of things 29-31; wisdom 122, 123
degeneration, breeding 49-50, 78, 133, 140-2, 222, 250; and change 18-20, 23-5, 27, 29;
Hesiod 10; human nature 72, 76; Plato 35,, 37, 38; ruling castes 143: states 77, 79; see also
change; decay; Forms or Ideas
delusive opinion 26, 27, 66, 21, 21, 523, 524, 526, 549, 557, 588
demands see political demands
democracy 12, 39, 53, iH, 118, 119, 149, 179, 337-8, 360, 361, 368, 370-1, 532; Aristotle
88, 220, 630: Athens ix, xxxviii, 17, 39, 53, 149: criticisms of 120: degeneration 41-3:
economic 335: and freedom 105, 693: Greeks 17; Heraclitus H; industrial revolution 331:
interventionism 340, 350, 391-2: Lenin 705: majority rule 117, 118: and naval imperialism
178: paradox of 1 18, 581-2: Plato on 532, 569-73: requirements of 368-9: Socrates 121,
625-6
Democritus U, 93, 175, 176, 241, 243, 593, 596, 613, 618, 660, 665, 666
demonstrative knowledge 227, 228, 229
Demos 632
depersonalized society 166
derivation 655
Descartes 267, 494, 661-2, 729
descriptive sociology 30; nature and convention 55-80: Plato 35-54
destiny 733; Hegel 225, 277, 282; Heraclitus 10-15, 19; Homer 10, 515; law of 12-15, 19,
36-7: myth of 7-9, 178: Plato 19, 20; see also fate
determinism: biological 9; economic 342: Marx 293-300: science 420; sociological 315, 413,
414, 415-16, 420
de Tocqueville 149, 604
dialecticians 127
dialectical reasoning 698
dialectical studies 126, 584, 592
dialectical twist 254
dialectic triad 253-4
dialectics 243, 670, 672, 716; capitalism, end of 348; Hegel 250-1, 252, 255, 257, 259: and
identity, philosophy of 259-62: Kant 669-70: Marx 313, 698
Dickens, Charles 96-7
dictatorships US, 119, 121, 129, 254, 338, 372; benevolent 149-50, 549, 585-6: Utopian
engineering 149
Diels, H, 190, 192, 502, 515, 517, 525, 543, 612, 618-20, 623
Dik 569
Dio 129, 637
Dionysius 18, 42, 43, 129, 600
dishonesty, age 237, 243, 660
Dissension 78, 133, 163
disunion 40, 43-7, 53, 72, 611, 702
divine: authority 63, 68, 74, 134, 139, Ml, 145-6, 246: city 598; progenitors 71; soul 36-7;
state 246: workmanship 71
division of labour 73, 165, 445, 539, 555, 682, 723, 724
doctrine of the chosen people 8, 238, 514
doctrine of the mean 220
dogmatism 176, 444, 493, 695; reinforced 254, 422, 658, 659, 670
dogs 45, 49, 50, 83, MO, Ml, 285, 539, 540, Ml, 556, 636, Ml
Dorians 48-9, 539, MO, 6M
dualism 313, 314, 526: Christian 3 14: critical 57, 58, 59, 60, 63, 65, 69; facts/decisions 482-3,
498, 522; facts/standards 498-9, 506-7: Marx 315; Plato 79-80
Duboc, M, 667
Duemmler, E, 594
du Gard, Roger Martin 147, IM, 602
Duhem, P, 728
Durkheim, E, 167

earthborn, myth of 49, 132, 133, 273, 521, 538, 539
Eastman, M, 522, 602, 682
economic abstinence 46, 50
economic democracy 335
economic historicism 8, 3 1 1-20, 341
economic interventionism 333-6, 338, 339-40
economic law M6, 373, 385, 405, 410, 6M
economic man 303
economic policy, Lenin 156
economic power 335-6, 336, 337-8, 339
economics 303: Christianity 697: Euken's theory 711: interventionism 333-6, 338, 339-40;
Marx 317, 318, 320; natural laws 60; Plato 38, 40, 45, 73, 79; structure of society 323
economism 315, 317, 318, 320
Eddington ix, 448, 466, 551
education 84, 128-9, 350, 480, 540-1, 643: authoritarianism 124, 126, 129: canvas-cleaning
188: future leaders 121, 123, 128: instincts 301-2: institutionalism 126, 129: liberal 221,
643: literary 51, 541, Ml; military 52, 99, 676; morals 482; Plato 50-2, iH, 126-7: ruling
castes 143, 584; state control 106, 124, 125, 138-9
egoism 96-7, 99
Egyptians 537, 544
Eighth Letter 641
Einstein, Albert 235-6, 426, 427
Eisler, Robert 515, 540, 546, 556, 569, 572, 589, 599, 731
emergent evolution 251
Empedocles 519, 520, 521, 523, 526, 529, 531, 644
empiricism 241, 430, 504, 558
employment, children 331, 350, 391: see also unemployment
Encyclopaedia (Hegel) 259, 260, 268, 276
ends 147-8, 150-1, 604-6, 733
energy 75
Engels, F, 311, Ml, 363, 367, 368, 371, 392-3, 408, 110, 680, 682, 684, 686, 688, 690, 691,
693, 695, 696, 701, 703, 705, 706, 215, 726; freedom 316; production 710; theory of
surplus value 378-9, 710
England 248, 268-9, 346, 350, 363, 387, 407, 519, 528, 561, 602, 675; constitution 676:
interventionism 350
England, E, G, 99, 535, 536, 575
entelechy 224, 646
environment, natural/social 55-80, 547, 664-5: marriage laws 301: and morality 414: snakes,
aversion to 302: tribalism 164
Ephesians 12,
Epicureanism 241
Epicurus 665
equalitarianism 88, 89, 90, 91-5, 113, 550, 595: biological naturalism 66; dialectics 257: Kant
722-3: leadership 122: Lycophron 109: open society 179: Pericles 177: Plato 143, 187-8,
563, 569-73; politics 155: private property 534: protectionism 109, Ill: religion 476:
Socrates 93, 95, 124, 125, 179, 180
equalitarian society 45
equality: geometrical 578; Glaucon 636: individual differences 723: Marxism 412: of
opportunity 335; proportionate 563: rationalism 439-41, 445
equilibrium, theory of 38, 44, 50, 329
Eskimos 638
essences 27-8, 29, 30, 70, 71, 526, 528, 533, 562, 576, 581, 591; Aristotle 645, 647-9, 662:
England's note 528; Hegel 250, 251, 254; hidden 729; Marx 383
essentialism 651, 652, 656, 661, 662, 664, 668, 669: Aristotle 223-4: biological 273:
definitions 528, 655-61: fate 282; legal system 328; Marx 317, 692-3: methodological 29,
30-1: social sciences 528; versus nominalism 649-61
Estabrooks, G, H, 638
ethical idea 86, 277: war 274
ethical individuahsm 66
ethical naturalism 68, 552
ethical nihilism 68, 1 12
ethical positivism 65, 68, 69, 74, 255
ethics: education 482; Marx 405-16: moral judgements 169, 551, 572, 656: rationalism
437-45, 448; relativism 408-9: rehgion 483; responsibility 59; scientific 551, 552: Socrates
27-8: see also morality
Euclid 190, 193
eugenics 49-50, 77, 78, 138, 139, 140-2, 187, 206, 207, 559
Euken, Walter 711
Eurastus 585
Euripides 67, 91, 175, 550, 618
Euthyphro 186, 635
evil: degeneration 39, 597; Fall of Man 187; Plato's 36, 37; state 43
evolution: creative 251, 273, 668, 677; emergent 251: law of 684: of society 40; origin of
species 37, 522, 644
evolutionary mysticism 635
Ewing, A, C, 561
Existence 225, 286, 287
exogamy, rules of 301
experience 228, 230, 503-6
expertise 124, 129
exploitation 330, 375, 376, 379, 380, 382, 384, 389; children 389-91: colonial 392, 393, TOO

facts: and decisions 59-64, 20, 482-3, 493, 496, 498, 499, 522, 723, 728; and standards
485-95, 498-510
faith in reason 436, 439, 442-3, 450, 460-1
fallibilism 490-94, 510
fallibilistic absolutism 493
Fall of Man 39, 54, 77, 78, 133, 143, 187, 520, 532
false morality 278
fame 15, 282, 480, 482
families 17, 25, 39
fanaticism 240
Faraday, M, 448
Farrington, B, 529
fascism 245, 272-3, 350, 371-2: Central Europe 700: heroic man 274: historical philosophy 9
fatalism 2di, xxxviii, 282
fate 15,, 225, 282, 484: see also destiny
fatherhood of God 237-8, 461
feudalism 221, 323, 345: medieval 245
Fichte, J, G, 236, 265-9, 281, 293, 562, 598, 666, 668, 669, 674-5, 680: and Kant 718:
national state 680
Field, G, C, 522, 526: Second Letter 633: Socratic Problem 627
fierceness 50-1, 52
final cause 222-4
fire 13-14, 518-19
First World War 326
Fisher, H, A, L, 401, 733
flux, universal 515-18, 520, 523: see also change, theory of
formal freedom 332, 335, 337, 675-6, 681, 693
Forms or Ideas 17-31, 39, 83, 127, 522, 523; Aristotle 223: bed 554: descriptive sociology
35-6, 37, 38, 53, 54; divine state 77; education 126: Good 136, 137, 590-2: natural/social
environments 70; searching after truth 125: wisdom 136, 137-8
Foster, M, B, 673, 732
Fourier, C, 398
Fowler 197, 198, 199
fraternity 278
Frederick William III, king 246, 247, 248, 249, 254, 256-7, 262, 267
free markets 333, 400
free will 414
freedom: class struggles 322; education 124: Engels 316: formal/material 332, 337; Hegel
257-8, 261; interventionism 338; kingdom of 331; love of 406, 116; Marx 313, 314, 114,
412: paradox of HI, 333, 338, 339, 575, 581, 582, 671, 111, 219; planning 398; and
power of the state 104-6: and rationalism/irrationalism 443: realm of 420, 429: and religion
476: revolt against 178: thought 256: and violence 360
French Revolution 16, 245, 265, 267-8, 298, 119, 514
Freud, S, Ill, Mi, 611, 660, 717
Freyer, H, 280, 677, 678
friends 167, 334, 402, 441, 442, 450, 480, 555, 569, 574, 587, 599, 601, Ml, 630, 690
futurism 521; moral 411, 412, 413, 476, 681, 724

Gabii 616, 611
Galiani, Abbe 716
gamblers 679, 733
gangster philosophy 189, 284, 287, 336, 647
Gauss 232
general interpretations 471-2
generalizing sciences 468-9, 470
genus 533
geometrical equality 578
geometry 190-1, 211, 563-9, 567
German Idealism 243, 247
German manhood 281
German nationalism 262-70, 275, 286
German Romantic Movement 271
Germany 249, 261, 287-8, 326, 674
Glaucon 94-5, 95, HO, HI, Ml, 155, 578-9, 636
Glauconic Edict Ml, 142
glory 282, 283
Gobineau, Count 9, 514
Godel, K, 490
gods 68, 237-8, 261-2, 306, 532; Form or Idea 25; Heraclitus 10; will of 8, 23
Goethe, J, W, von 668, 6M
Gogarten 285
gold Zli, 111
Golden Age 10, 18, 20, 23, 521, 530
Golden Rule 443
Gombrich, E, H, xvii-xxviii, 673, 687
Gomperz, T, 85, 127, 220, 222, 526, 537, 542, 550, 561, 573, 574, 594, 619, 620, 622, 647,
619, 640: ascent theories 644-5: Crito 624
good 84, 551-2, 590-2: and evil 80, 590; fmal cause 222-4: life 644
Good Samaritan 240
good shepherd analogy 48, 49, 52, 538-9
goodness 136, 137, 523, 53 1, 533
Gorgias 66, M, 111, 112; equalitarianism 90, 122: geometry 191: individualism/collectivism
100: protectionism UO, HI, 113
Gorgias 175, 577, 593, 595
grasshopper analogy 521, 539, 589
Great Cycle 517-18
Great Dictator 254, 283
Great Dog 146
Great Generation 67, 175, 177, 184, 185, 187, 188, 202, 238, 245; open/closed society, conflict
237,241
great lawgiver 43
Great Man 16, 274, 278, 283, 471, 480
Great Men 278, 283, 421
Great Mystery 126
Great Myth of Sparta 40
Great Philosopher 247
Great Year 18, 518, 520, 521, 521
Greeks 16-18, 25, 35, 29, 598; religion 25; slavery 122, 220-1, 630: society 163-5, 167,
167-70
Green, T, H, 288, 525
Grote, G, 21, 85, 516, 519, 521, 539, 621, 616, 642, 661, 662; Aristotle 640, 641, 642; and
Meyer 616; Nous 648; Plato criticism 529, 561, 521, 592, 625; Socrates 556, 584, 589, 590,
625
guardians 45, 49-51, 25, 82, 94, 102, 101, HI, 140, Ml, 141, 144, 206, 202
guns 92, 116, 202
gymnastics 51

Haeckel, E, 273, 676
Haiser, F, 277-8
Happiness 136, 161, 163, 441-3, 501, 533, 548-9, 554, 602-3
harmonics 142, 144
Harris, W, T, 646
Hastie 562
Hayek, F, A, von xxn, xxy, xxvii, 498, 119, 603-4, 636, 659, 677, 686, 695, 700, 213
heat 651, 666: and sound 243
Heath, T, 564, 566, 568
Hecker, J, F, 688, 697
Hegel, F, ix, x, 9, 135, 244-7, 248, 249-50, 254, 256, 259, 267, 289: absolute idealism 688:
Aristotelian roots 2 1 9-4 1: change 250, 259-60: formal freedom 693: freedom 257-8, 261,
293: historicism 219, 226, 242, 246, 250-62, 269-70, 271, 272, 278, 285, 288; idealism
244, 247, 319, 320; Kierkegaard 479; knowledge 420, 428, 429; logic 515; Marx 313-14:
Meyer 616: morality 416: new tribalism 272-89; rationalism 432, 451-2, 460; relativism
507-10: Schopenhauer 732: self-consciousness 646, 717: slavery 225, 646-7: Whitehead
452
Hegemann, W, 612, 624, 621
Heidegger, M, 286, 628, 629
Heine, H, 319, 320
Heraclides 129
Heraclitus 9, 10-16, 38, 53, 69, 28, 515, 521; beasts quote H, 42, 69, 25, 94, 99, 145, 189,
241, 313, 546, 579: cyclic laws 18; history 260-1: leadership 117: oppo sites 251-2: Plato
19, 20; strife 39, 129; universal flux 515-18, 520, 523
Herder, J, G, 264-5, 545, 562, 612, 666, 674
herdsmanship 49
heredity 414, 115, 560
heritage 440
Hermias 585
Hermodoms 12
Herodotus 91, 175, 619
heroes 25, HO, 122, 142, 180, 187, 247, 283, 284, 480
heroic life 274
heroic man 274, 284
heroism 164, 284
Hesiod 10, 11, 37, 38, 53, 103, 178, 515, 542, 549, 569, 588; metals 521, 531; myth of chaos
523
hidden reason 260
Hippias 66, 91, 203, 550
Hippodamus 165, 522, 612, 614
historical decay, law of 37-8
historical descriptions 467
historical: materialism 311-13, 315, 317-20, 321, 688
historical prophecy see historicism; prophecy, historical
historical relativism 408-9, 681
historical sciences 469
historical theory of the nation 269-70
historicism x, xxxvi, 521, 733: and change 16; definition xxxvii, 7-8, 681: economic 8,
311-20, 341, 345: and Forms/Ideas 26, 31; Hegel 219, 226, 242, 246, 250-62, 269-70,
271, 272, 278, 285, 288; Heraclitus 10, H; Marxism 272; myth of destiny 7-9; social
engineering clash 21-3, 334: theory of society 40; see also Marx; Plato; prophecy
historicist methodology 71
historicist moral theory 405-16, 481
historism 413, 421
History of the Peloponnesian War (Thucydides) 169-75, 182
Hobbes, T, HI, 133, 662
Hobhouse 288
holism 2d-2di, 2dii, 2dY, 91, 89, 303, 338, 450, 635; justice 89; Marxism 338; Plato 75, 76, 88,
94
Homer 10, 306, 477, 479, 515, 539, 541-2, 572, 598, Ml
hubris 179
human: Plato 597-8
human cattle 45, 46, 49, 51, 52, 83, 541
humanism 460
humanitarianism 67, 86, 97, 113, 174, 179, 199-200, 202, 203, 579, 663; anti-281; Athens
176, 177: biological naturalism 65-8, 69; Hegel 262, 293 ; justice 99, 100; Marx 293-4,
330, 341, 402; Plato 85, IM, 187, 188, 200; rationalism 440, 443, 444-5, 460: and religion
270, 476, 477: and protectionism 109, 113: Socrates 186: and tyranny 173
humanity 143: Fichte 281
human nature 64, 69, 72, 79, 284, 302, 551, 580, 609; hidden motives 422, 423; laws 301, 401,
458; Mill 299, 301, 303, 304; limitations 629; rationalism 433, 439, 440; society 69, 305,
310: Toynbee 458
Humboldt, Wilhelm von 509
Hume, D, ix, 252, 267, 420, 451, 543-4, 577, 655
Husserl, E, 232, 670, 678, 685, 720, 728
Huxley, A, 723
Huxley, T, H, 643, 684
hypotheses 56, 469: science 229: working 466-7

idealism 83, 129, 153: absolute 688: German 243, 247
ideal state 39, 40, 43, 44, 45, 74, 75, 77, 79, 80, 84, 148; see also Best State; Forms or Ideas;
Plato
Ideas, theory of 17-31, 39, 532: Aristotle 223: change, theory of 529: descriptive sociology
35-6, 37, 38, 51, 54; education 126: Hegel 251, 255: natural/social environments 70;
philosopher king 130: Plato 83; power of 318-19: truth 125: Socrates 527: space 525: see
also Forms or Ideas
identity 259: of opposites 15,; philosophy of 254, 255, 509, 670
imagination 438, 444, 445-6
immobilized capital 389
immorality see morality
impartiality 51, 86, 93, 170, 424, 426, 440, 441, 442, 443, 615
imperfections 188: see also perfection
imperialism 393, 700, 702; Athens 169, 171-4: modern 392; naval 178; Sparta 173
implicit definition 656-61
incest 301
independent thought 139, 592
indeterminism 415
individualism 80, 91, 95-101, 104, 109, 111, 111, 143, 155, 167, 177, 480, 481, 585 ; Plato on
187-8: and protectionism 1 11, 113: and psychologism 303, 309-10: and rationalism
449-50;; and religion 135; Socrates 122, 124, 180
indoctrination 106
induction 649: problem of 722: Socrates 192
inductive interference 70
inductive method 580, 581, 655
industrial reserve army 391, 374, 375-6, 386, 391
industrial revolution 330, 331
industrialization 356, 357: age of 445
inequality 47, 73,, 76, 89, 439: Kant 722-3: Rousseau 674: see also equalitarianism
infanticide 49, 207, 541
initial conditions 468
innovation, fear of 84, 531
inquisition 184 the Inquisition 189, 239
instincts 75, 301-2
institutional control, of rulers 116, 117, 119, 129
institutional intervention 340-1
institutional selection 128
institutions 401, 686: beginnings of society 304-6: education 126, 129: legal system 328;
machine analogy 64-5: personal solutions 339-40; psychologism 302-3
insubordination 127
intellectual independence 139, 592
intellectual intuition 29, 231-2, 651-60
intellectual superiority 48, 50
intellectualism xiv-xvi, xxxix, 84, 430; authoritarian 432-3 ; Hegel 271: moral 121, 123; and
rationalism 447, 450, 455; Socrates 121, 121, 121, HA, 129
international crime 108, 151, 460, 475, 476, 482, 576, 606
international peace 576, 606-9
international relations 102, 225
international trade, theory of 64
inter-personal theory 432-3
interpretation, historical 163, 471-2, 473-4, 628
interventionism 350, 352, 387, 391-2, 393, 699, 712: economic 333-6, 338, 339-40:
institutional 340-1: piecemeal 397-8; state 384-5, 398: and rationalism 459
intuition 285, 433, 434, 513, 635; of essences 651-3: intellectual 29, 227, 228, 231-2, 651-60
intuitive knowledge 227, 228, 503-6
Ionian school 515, 619
irrational behaviour 309
irrationalism 156, 157, 420, 422, 659-60, 664; geometric 190-1: and truth 496; Hegel 271:
Toynbee 454-60; Whitehead 451-4: see also rationalism
irresponsibility, age of 243
Isocrates 129, 144, Ml, 682
isolation 166
isonomy 569, 570, 612

Jaspers, K, 286, 287, 679
Jeans, J, 448
Jews 10, 238, 620: Babylonian conquest 16, 238
Joad, C, E, M, 84, 561
judges 93
Julian the Apostate 239, 663
Jung, E, 281
juridical positivism 65, 68, 254, 262, 269, 552, 676
justice xxxix: absolute 84; Adam 94, 569: Aristotle 88; definition 86-9: and individualism 97;
Marx 416: Plato 135, 293; relativist interpretation 408: Socrates 180: totalitarian 83-1 13: to
the universe 223; and war j_5; World's Court of 225, 251

Kafka, F, 449
Kant, Immanuel 205-6, 252, 258, 669: constitution 562: dialectics 669-70: equalitarianism
722-3: and Ewing 561: Golden Rule 443: and Hegel 508, 509; individualism 98; knowledge
421: nationalism 265, 266: and Nietzsche 497-8; peace 594: Prolegomina 451-2: proof 236
Kapp, W, 370
Katz, D, 685
Kaufmann, E, 280
Kautsky, K, 544
keeping one's station 87-8, 93, 94, 101-2, 103: Aristotle 221: and happiness 161, 168:
physician example 131
Keller, A, 445
Kelsen, H, 529, 601-2, 634
Kepler, J, 242, 493
Kierkegaard, S, 407, 479, 731
King, C, 504
Kingship of the Law 117
Kleist, Heinrich von 497-8
knowledge: and fallibihsm 491-2; growth of 491-2, 498: intuitive 227, 228, 503-6: know
thyself 193, 629: moral 121: and opinion 227, 557: receptacle theory 421: sociology of
419-29, 447: sources 493-4, 503-6: theory of 420, 485, 496
Kolnai, A, 281, 282, 287, 288, 725
Kraus, K, 698, 701
Krohn 573
Kuratowski, K, 545

labour 339, 379, 380, 384; division of 73, 165, 445, 539, 555, 682, 723, 724; manual 555, 595,
642; productivity 388-90, 398-9: theory of value 377-83, 709-10
Laird, J, 720
laissezfaire 124, 299, 350, 456; capitalism 299, 350, 456, 690; liberalism 299
Langford, C, H, 720
language 443-4: Carnap 725: precision 96, 231, 234-5, 250; theory 264-5, 269: tripartition
721, 722
Lassalle, Ferdinand von 515, 519
Laurat, L, 695
Laws 44, 66, 21, 525: best state 523 ; betrayal of Socrates 184: change, theory of 530: critique of
text, reply to 200, 201: cyclicity 521: degeneration 522: descriptive sociology 38-9, 43, 44,
46, 48, 53,; equalitarianism 92; essence of things 528; Forms, theory of 524:
individualism/collectivism 98-9: indoctrination 125: influence on Aristotle 221: justice 88;
origins of things 72; Plato 36, 520: reactionary character 85; religion 134-5: soul 524, 529:
spiritual naturalism 74
laws 535: accumulation 390-1: brutal 141: competition 375: destiny 12-15: development 37-8,
346: Heraclitus 517: increasing misery 376, 377, 385, 392, 393-6; of increasing wealth 376;
political revolutions 38, 53, 536: sociology 19; sociological 36-7, 44, 60-2, 64, 65, 684:
supply and demand 381-2: see also natural laws; normative laws; universal laws
leadership 2, 3, 99, 208, 209, 210, 211, 283, 585; and education 121: natural leaders 69; Plato
114-29: principle 149; selection 119, 125, 127, 128, 129
legal system 327-42
leisured classes 643
Lenin 156, 295, 313, 318, 373: imperialism 393: New Economic Policy 156: social engineering
683 ; Vulgar Marxists 311, Ml, 322, 422
Lenz, F, 281
Leptines 129
Lessing 674
Leucippus 517
Levinson, Professor Ronald B, 194-212
Lewis, Sinclair 637
liar, paradox of 435, 436, 458, 719, 720, 721
liberal education 221, 643
liberalism 117, 106, 406, 506-7, 509; laissezfaire 299
liberty 28, 39, 41, 176, 203, 233, 406, 562, 570, 581, 636, 664, 671; Hegel 257, 258, 259
lies 130-2, 134-5, 141, 206: lordly/noble 587-8; Plato 186, 195; see also paradox of liar;
propaganda
Lindsay, A, D, 534, 588, 593
Lippmann, Walter 214, 293, 336, 513
liquidation 611
literary education 51, 541, 643
Locke 729
logic 655; Hegel 515; norms 547; power 308-9, 687: situational 308-9, 324, 326, 470
love 531; freedom 406, 116; mystic 635; and rationalism 440, 441-2, 444, 450
Loyola, Ignatius 459, 727
Ludendorff, General 280
Lutoslawski 633
Lybyer, A, H, 540
Lycophron 67, 72, 91, 108, 109, UO, 175, 577
Lysander 175
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Re: The Open Society and Its Enemies, by Karl R. Popper

Postby admin » Wed Oct 16, 2019 4:34 am

Part 2 of 2

Mabbott, J, D, xxix, 523
Macaulay 580, 581
Macedon 220, 221, 640-1
machinery 64-5, 385-6: Marx 297, 318, 323, 328, 330, 334, 369, 374, 376, 379, 380, 382,
385, 386, 389, 398, 446, 689, 713-14
Macleod, W, C, 544
Macmurray, J, 447, 448, 478, 731
McTaggart, J, 244, 634, 635, 224
Magee, Bryan xxx, 522, 604, Ml, 698
magical monism 65
magical thinking 63, 122, 165, 167-8, 176
magical tribalism 55, 58, 164, 178, 513, 613
majority rule ill, 118, 117, US, 581, 582
Malinowski, B, 684
managerialism xxxviii
manhood 281
Manifesto see Communist Manifesto
mankind 406, 638; history 332, 345, 455, 474-6, 681, 731: unity 550, 595-8
Mannheim, H, 606
Mannheim, K, 420, 716, 211
manual labour 555, 595, 642
Maoris 611
Marinelli, W, 567
Marx, Karl 154, 219, 325, 326, 328: autonomy of sociology 301-10: class struggles 321-6:
coming of socialism 345-54: economic historicism 3 1 1-20: ethics 405-16: fate of
capitalism 373-96: historical materialism 18; historical philosophy 9; legal/social system
327-42; method 291-342: moral theory 405-16, 481: prophecy, historical 397-402:
psychologism 299-303, 322: rationalism 455-7: revolution, social 355-72: Schwarzchild's
book 510-11: Toynbee's assessment 455-7: utopianism, criticism of 153-4
Marxism 293-300, 522: Capitalist evils 605: communism 683-4: dogmatism 695: essentialism
692-3: Hegel 245, 313-14: Hegelianism 681; historicism 293-8, 315-17, 353, 362, 364
Masaryk, T, 261, 673-4, 680
material things H, H, 71
materialism 74, 241; historical 18, 311-13, 315, 317-20, 321, 688: and rationalism 414, 435,
440, 445-6
mathematics 318, 451, 563, 563-9, 567, 657, 725: geometry 190-1, 211, 563-9, 567: see also
Platonic Number
meals 64, 473, 575
meanings 653-5, 657-8, 722, 731: definitions 230, 234-5: history 474-84: life 732-3
means and ends 147-8, 150-1, 604-6, 733
mechanical engineering 64, 686
mechanization 445-6
medicine, lies as 131, 141
medieval feudalism 245
Meletus 584
Menexenus or the Funeral Oration 92, 177, 186, 92, 570, 571, 619
Menger, A, 683
Menger, K, 547, 650, 687
Meno 121
Mesopotamian civilization 544
meta-biology 78, 560
Metaphysics 221, 516, 517, 518, 523-7, 530, 549, 554, 564, 577
metaphysics xxxvii, 252, 273, 286, 451, 454, 590, 696, 732; Marx 696, 711; soul 622
methodological collectivism 303, 686
methodological determinism 315, 413, 414, 415-16, 420
methodological essentialism 29, 30-1
methodological individualism 303, 309, 310
methodological nominalism 30-1, 528, 647
Metz, R, 288
Meyer, E, HI, 172, 278, 615-16, 617, 618, 620, 623, 637, 678, 730, 731
middle classes 355-7
midwifery 122
Miksch, Leonhard 711
Milford, P, 612
militarism 574
militarist principles 98, 208, 209, 210, 211
military caste 45
military discipline 98, 127
military education 52, 99, 676
Mill, James 580
Mill, J, S, 298, 299, 301, 303, 304, 308, MO, 312-13, 316, 528, 533, 560, 579-81
mind, bucket theory of 421, 728
misanthropy 601, 619
misery 373, 375-7, 382, 384, 385, 387, 388, 391, 402, 554, 111; decreasing 391, 392, 394:
Euken's theory 711: Marxism 357, 364: revolutions 714: trade cycle 389
misology 189, 619
mistakes, learning from 152-3, 156-7, 491-2, 498, 501, 503-5, 510
modern imperialism 392, 393
The Modern Nation (Ziegler) 288
modernism, moral 412
Mohammed 447, 459
Monarchy 259, 260
money 337, 538, Ml, 573, 577, 583, 617, 618, 636-7, 642, 709, 711-13
monism 70, 551: magical 65; naive 57-8, 65
monopoly 54, 125, 362, 378, 381, 384, 393
monotheism 237, 593, 595, 596
Moore, G, E, 656
moral conservatism 412
moral degeneration 19, 76
moral excellence 121
moral futurism 411, 412, 111, 476, 681, 724
moral intellectualism 121, 123
moral judgements 169, 551, 572, 656
moral knowledge 121
moral modernism 412
moral nihilism 102
moral opinion 554
moral positivism 225, 250-62, 411-13, 547
moral theory: historicism 405-16: rationalism 437-45
moral urgency 548
moral valuations 47, 572, 604
morality 107, 278, 448, 483; and capitalism 323-4; closed society 103, 480; collectivist theory
452: equality 572; false 278; Hegel 225, 250-62, 262: theory of 452; totalitarian 102, 103,
113, 130, 133: value theory 709-10: see also ethics
Morgenthau, H, J, 576
Morrow, G, R, 538, 562
motion, theory of 223, 525
motives 422, 423
Mueller, A, 266, 288
music 5i, 52, 139, 415-16, 542-3
mystic: intuition 635
mysticism 14, 78, 79, 139, 236, 237, 258, 396, 408, 422, 515, 634-5, 718, 724: closed society
513: evolutionary 635: Heraclitus 517: and rationalism 434, 445-50: number 78, 242, 536:
religion 460
Myth of Blood and Soil 132, 133
myth of chaos 523
myth of destiny 7-9, 178
Myth of the Earthborn 132, 133, 273, 521, 538, 539
Myth of the Metals in Man 132
myth of revolution 445

Nagel, E, 653, 655
naive conventionalism 58
naive monism 57-8, 65
naive naturalism 58
Napoleon 61, 244, 264, 266, 267, 269, 411, 674
National Genius 275
nationalism 175, 274, 460, 662, 675, 680; Christianity 662; German 262-70, 674; Hegel 275,
279, 676, 715; Schopenhauer 668
national self-determination 263, 680
national state, principle of 263, 264, 606, 607, 674, 680
natural environment 55-80, IM, 301, 302, 414, 547, 664-5
natural laws 55-70, 552-4, 555-6; see also natural environment
natural leaders 69
natural places, theory of 223, 225
natural privilege 87, 91, 93
natural rights 68, 69, 92
naturalism 70, 72-3, 273, 549, 554: biological 65-7, 577; equality 67; ethical 68, 552: naive
58; Plato 83, 72-3, 92, 549, 555, 556, 561, 578, 612; psychological/spiritual 65, 69, 71-2,
74, 134, 552-3, 554, 555-6
naturalistic historicism 8, H, 83
naturalistic theory of slavery 220
nature 71-2: and convention 72-3: of the good 551-2: and soul 71, 554
naval imperialism 178
« -dimensionality 650
Nelson, L, 545, 582, 585
Neurath, Otto 196
New Economic Policy (NEP) 156, 295
Newton 190, 242, 455, 471, 493, 729
Nicolovius 675
Nietzsche, F, 497-8, 498, Ml, 544, 601-2
nihilism 175, 286, 287, 497, 498
nominalism 528, 649-61: definitions 230-1, 234, 528; methodological 30-1, 528, 647
non-intervention 106, 333, 384
normative laws (norms) 56-70, 74, 96, 546, 547, 552, 553, 686: logic of 547-8: monistic
tendency 551
Nothingness 286, 287
Nous 648

objective: description 467: Hegel 255, 261, 271: knowledge 422: methods 423-7, 687: value
379, 709
objectivity 431, 423-8, 431, 442, 473, 502
offence 278, 447, 475
Old Oligarch 187, 188, 195, 262, 619, 622, 623
oligarchy 39, 40-1, 43, 519
operational definitions 490, 656, 657
opinion 66; delusive 26, 27, 66, 71, 77, 523, 524, 526, 549, 557, 588: knowledge distinction
227, 527: moral 554: science 229
Oppenheimer, F, 544
opportunism 134, 135, 413
opportunity, equality 335
opposites: identity of 15,, 254: table of 523, 524, 560: unity of 251-5, 257, 518-19: war of 252
oracular philosophy 226, 237, 402, 413, 438, 444, 447, 659, 660
organic theory of state 72, 166, 167, 251, 613, 614, 666
organic tribalism 167
origin of species 37, 522, 644
Orphic mystery 620
Orphic sects 178, 540
Osborn, H, F, 645

Paine, T, 69
paradox of democracy 118, 581-2
paradox of freedom UJ, 333, 338, 339, 575, 581, 582, 671, 111, 719
paradox of the liar 719, 720
paradox of sovereignty 115, 116, 117, 118, 582, 719
paradox of tolerance 581, 723
Pareto 38, 118, 239, 268, 270, 348, 482, 536, 636, 680
Paris Commune 701, 726
Parkes, H, B, 366, 388, 391, 703, 709, 111, IM
Parmenides 127
Parmenides 26-7, 524, 620, 633: change il; knowledge and opinion 647: mystic unity 718:
Opinion of the Mortals 526: Way of Delusive Opinion 523
passion 149, 283, 411, 434, 439, 440, 531
passivist theory of knowledge 420-1
patriotism 170, 175, 177, 262, 266, 589, 600, 673
pauperism 392
peace, civil/international 576, 606-9
Peloponnesian war 17, 169-75, 182
perception 557-8; limitations of 77-8, 79-80
Perdiccas III 585
perfect competition 693-4
perfect state 39, 40, 43, 44, 45, 74, 75, 77, 79, 80, M, 148; see also Best State; Forms or Ideas;
Plato
perfection 24, 25, 29, 36, 39, 72, 530
perfectionism 147-57
Pericles 3, 91, 92, 93, 100, 175, 176, 237, 238, 514; funeral oration 176-7: School of Hellas
172, 177: Thucydides' version 570
Persian conquests 620
Persian Empire 53,, 530, 620
personal decisions 165
personal intervention 340
personal relations, theory of 225, 432, 480
personal responsibility xxxix, 164, 165, 188, 189, 239-40, 416, 483
personal solutions 339-40
personalism 120: anti-institutional 585
persuasion 76, 132, 327, 577, 586, 588-90, 637
pessimism/optimism 222-3, 250-1, 285, 401, 535
Phaleas 165
Pharisaism 48
Philebus 137
philosopher king 130-46, 599, 601, 673-4: Mill 601; Plato as 144-6, 601
philosophical method 242
Philosophy of Existence 286, 287
Philosophy of History (Hegel) 261, 279, 646, 666, 673, 675, 678
Philosophy of History (Marx, Plato) 9, 79, 140
philosophy of identity 254, 255, 509, 670
Philosophy of Law (Hegel) 256, 257, 259, 268, 276, 279
Philosophy of Nature (Hegel) 243-4
physics U, 30, H, 297, 427, 451, 467-9, 471, 517, 518, 577, 645, 654, 653, 655, 729, 731
piecemeal interventionism 397-8
piecemeal scientific methods 428
piecemeal reform 156, 537, 610
piecemeal social engineering xxxvi, 21, 147, 148-9, 150, 152, 153, 156, 157, 338, 340, 341,
352, 387, 442, 443, 537, 603, 610, 699, 734
Pindar 66, 73, 547, 549, 555, 577
planets 493
Plataea 615
Plato ix, X, xxxix, 3, 9, 147-57, 185, 189, 201, 207-8, 211, 549; Aristotle's criticism 642:
Aristotle, influence 220-6; attack background 161-89: betrayal of Socrates 184-5:
biographical details 17-18; change 13, 419, 420, 530; class struggles 39, 40-1, 43-50;
collectivism 196-7: conflict of 185-7, 188-9: cycles 530: critique, reply to 193-212:
descriptive sociology 36, 38-9, 41, 43, 44, 46, 49, 51; education 127; equality 91, 92, 93;
Fall of Man 187 geometry 190-1: Gospels, influence 662: Greek tribes 10; and Hegel 242,
245-7, 250, 251, 254, 257, 732; and Heraclitus 15, 16, 19, 20, 516-17: individualism 98,
100: inquisition 184: intellectualism 124: leadership principle 1 14-29: Macedon 640-1:
philosopher king 144-6, 601: political programme 83-157: and Protagoreanism 549:
religion as opium 348, 590, 663: Seventh Letter 519, 520; slavery 186, 203-5, 537; theory
of definition 660: theory of forms/ideas 1 7-3 1: totalitarian justice 83-1 13: tyranny 187:
violence, approval 196: see also Republic
Platonic Number 77, 78, 79, 142, 143, 144, 557, 558-9, 599
pleasure maximization 501, 548-9: see also utilitarianism
Plutarch 550, 557, 563, 565, 569, 615, 642
Poincare 55 1
Poland 470
Polanyi, K, 528
political constitution: Hegel 256-7, 258, 259: see also constitution
political demands 35, 38, 44, 85, 86, 91, 104, 106, 107, 120, 140, 142, 143, 263, 440, 442,
443, 582, 691, 723: see also propositions/proposals
political economy: Marx 682, 685, 686, 688, 689, 690, 691, 696
political history 475-6, 480, 484
political intervention see interventionism
political justice 88, 563
political power 335-8; history 475-6, 480, 484; Marx 338-9, 405: money 709, 711-13:
proletariat 706: unchecked 115-16: see also power
political problems 496-8
political programme, Plato's 83-157
political revolutions 16, 44, 167, 330, 110; law of 38, 53, 536
political utilitarianism 102
politics xv-xvi, 171, 641: state theory 327-42
Politicus see Statesman
Polybius 663
polytheism: Homer 10
Poor Law 406, 716
Popper-Linkeus, J, 613, 683
Poseidon 519
positivism, ethical 225, 250-62, 411-13, 547
Posterior Analytic 228
Pound, Roscoe 522, 602, 604
poverty, avoidance 47
The Poverty of Historic ism (Popper) xxxvii, 522
power ill, 124, 129, IM, 309, 370, 379, 398, 667; economic 335-6, 337-8, 339: and
freedom 104-6: history 475-6, 480; logic 308-9, 687: Marxism 338-9, 405: philosopher
king 130-46: unchecked 115-16: will to 601-2: see also political power
power-politics 180, 636
pragmatic rationalism 723
pragmatism 296, 297
prediction xxxvii, 576, 604, 687, 695, 714: science 352, 401-2: see also historicism; prophecy,
historical
prejudices 427, 428, 429: see also bias
priest caste 592, 663
Primary Bodies, Theory of 564-6
primitive society 44, 48
primogenitor 23-6, 29, 36, 20, 21
privileges 87, 91, 93, 108
Process and Reality (Whitehead) 451-4
production 322, 330, 324, 126, 328, 385, 696, 204, 211; Marx 316-17, 318, 346-7
productivity: increasing 321, 388-90, 398-9, 400, 401
professionalism 221-2
profits 328, 388-90, 400
prognosis 468, 469
progressivists 44, 45, 85, 154, 401, 509, 535, Mi
Prolegomina (Kant) 45 1-2
proletariat 329, 338, 355, 357, 365, 715: bourgeousification 392-3, 395; morality 409, 410:
revolution 353, 364: see also workers
proof 229-31, 232-3, 647: doctrine of 236
propaganda 131-2, 206, 233-4, 274, 278-9: see also lies
property 15, 42, 46, 82, 98, 112, 156, 252, 269, 332-4, 336, 339, 350-1, 356, 362, 689, 693,
704, 705, 711, 715, 721
prophecy xxxvii, xxxix, 20, 689: evaluation 397-402: law of increasing misery 394-5: Marx
345-93: see also historicism
proportionate equality 563, 565
propositions/proposals 498-9, 499-501, 507, 548, 657, 659
prosperity 47, 176: dangers of 279
Protagoras 55, 58, 63, 64, 72, 73, 134, 175, 203, 550
Protagoreanism 549
protection by the state 334, 335
protectionism 106-13, 175, 577-9, 582, 694
Proudhon, P, 332
Providence 260, 262, 278, 280
Prussia 244, 246, 249, 250, 254, 256, 259, 261, 268; monarchism 260; nationalism 263, 265-6
Prussianism 246, 250
pseudo-rationalism 433, 434, 483
psycho-analysis 422-3, 446-7, 634, 111
psychological naturalism 65, 69, 71-2, 74, 134, 552-3, 554, 555-6
psychologism 299-300, 301, 302-3, 304-6, 308, 309-10, 316, 322, 547, 560, 609, 685
public opinion 279
Pure Being 286
Pure Nothingness 286, 287
Pythagoras 14, 78, 139, 180: geometry 563-9, 567: table of opposites 523, 524, 560: theorem
122
Pythagorean creed 185
Pythagorean number mysticism 78, 242, 536
Pythagorean programme 190, 191, 564
Pythagorean taboos 514, 619
Pythagorean theory, soul 644
Pythagoreanism 185, 191, 526, 527, 564, 569, 583, 620, 628, 631, 632

quasi-theories 472
Quine, W, V, 492, 545

rabble proletariat 357
race: Kolnai 282: and nature 71
The Race as the Principle of Value (Lenz) 281
racial degeneration 19, 76, 78, 142, 143, 250, 599
racial superiority 9, 47-50
racialism 9, 132, 133, 143, 201, 273, 282, 545: Plato 206: see also eugenics
Rader, M, M, 619
radical collectivism 246
radicalism 156: and aestheticism 154-7: irrationalism 156: Marx 362; skepticism 421, 424, 427
Ramsey, R, P, 226
rate of profit 388-90, 400
rational behaviour 309
rationalism 165, 166, 178, 271, 284, 119, 420, 430-52, 459-61, 512-13, 524, 671-2, 718:
abstract 271: comprehensive/critical/uncritical 435, 437, 442-4, 719: pragmatic 723; see
also irrationalism
rationality 78, 79, 165, 166, 178, 284, 419
Rats, Lice, and History (Zinsser) 240-1
reality 317, 383
reason 27, 75, 125, 149, 176, 179-80, 189, 252-3, 283-4: faith in 436, 439, 442-3, 450,
460-1; Hegel 255, 261, 271, 432, 451-2, 460, 733; Heraclitus' theory 14; international
affairs 460, 576: Marx 455-7: Parmenides 27; revolt against 430-61: Schopenhauer 669
reasonableness 431-2, 667
receptacle theory 421, 728
The Red Prussian (Schwarzchild) 510
Reformation 245, 261
reinforced dogmatism 254, 422
relativism 15, 271, 467; criticism 427, 485, 486, 487, 490-1, 497, 502-3, 508: Hegel 507-10:
historicist 408: values 15,
religion 9, 62-4, 134, 267, 273, 283, 134-5, 401-2, 442, 513, 620; authoritarian 497, 498,
500-1: ethics 483; Greek beliefs 25; historicism 476, 477-9: mysticism 455, 460: as opium
348, 590, 663: Protagoras 549: standards 506: state -worship 107: see also Christianity; Jews
Renan 676
Republic (Plato) 26, 73, 75, Hi, 132, 134, 520, 522, 526, 532, 537; authoritarianism 124:
betrayal of Socrates 184: critique, reply to 200, 203-4, 206, 207: debased states 43; divine
state 246: Earth-born 521: equalitarianism 91, 92, 93 ; Forms or Ideas 524: justice 86, 89, 90,
100: myth 72, 132, 133: Pericles caricature 177: primitive society 44; protectionism 110,
111, 113: strong, rule by the 66; translation 85; tribal collectivism 98, 100
rest: Plato's descriptive sociology 35-53
revolution 38, 229, 395, 689, 704, 708; bourgeousie TOO; industrial 330, 331; law of 536:
misery 714: myth of 445: social 347, 355-72: violence 707; see also French Revolution;
Russian revolution
revolutionaries, Plato as 85
Revue Positiviste 354
Ricardo, David 377, 378, 709, 210, ZM, 215
Robespierre, Maximilian 319
Robinson, Richard xxix, 202, 208, 211
Rodman, H, N, 508
Rogers, A, K, 522, 627
romantic collectivism 481
romantic medievalism 240
Romanticism 157, 236-7, 271, 284, 285, 442, 446-7, 481, 482, 561, 572, 697
Rome 111, 238, 550, Ml, 616, 611, 663
Rosenberg 281, 283
Ross, W, D, 641, 647, 648, 653
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques 40, 251, 254, 264, 265, 261, 284, 293, 303, 119, 516, 666, 674:
inequality 572: paradox of freedom 258, 671: Plato's influence 115, 533, 561, 612
Royal Science 629
rule of the strong 66, 73, UA, Ul, 254, Ml
rules of exogamy 301
ruling classes 44-51, 53, 73, 78, 83, 84, 208, 697, 705; breeding 143; degeneration 40, 76,
143: education 47, 52, 143, 584; origins 48-9; revolution 38, 691
Russell, Bertrand 124, 267, 336, 419, 451, Ml, 591, 653, 658, 665, 694, 720, 725
Russell, L, J, 498, 547, 548, 691, 723
Russia 156, 249, 294-5, 397, 402, 470, 683, 689, 691; interventionism 699; social engineering
295
Russian Communists 350, 353, 371
Russian Revolution 318, 319-20, 371, 613, 700, 214

Sachs, Eva 192
St, Vitus' dance 240
Salomon, E, von 679, 725
Samos 172
Sanazzaro 533, 561
Schallmeyer, W, 273
Scheler, Max 280, 286, 420, 678
Schelling, F, 236, 243-4, 265
Schiller, F, 203, 509, 666, 667, 675
schism 78, 214, 238, Ml
Schlick, M, 654, 659
scholasticism 226, 236, 237, 428, 434, 444
Schopenhauer, A, xxi, 242, 247, 249, 252, 255, 259, 288-9, 467, 479, 497, 508, 666, 667,
669, 675, 766, 680, 728, 731, 732; age of dishonesty 237, 243, 660; on Fichte 266, 281;
and Hegel 242, 243, 247, 248, 266, 287, 288, 289, 294, 731, 732; historical description
467; metaphysics 660: nationalism 274, 668: and Nietzsche 497
Schwarzchild, Leopold 510
Schwegler, A, 249, 667
scientific description 30, 467
scientific determinism 420, 684
scientific method xxxvii, 28, 176, 229, 234-6, 244, 245, 253, 255, 465-7, 469, 492, 504:
causality 730: knowledge 655: and morality 409-10, 438, 448: politics 153: and prophecy,
historical 352, 401-2: nationalism 434, 435, 448; social engineering 294-9: theories
467-70; and truth 229-31, 490-1
scientific objectivity 423-7
Scientific Socialism 323, 349, 353, 396
scientism 604
sea-communications 168-9
searchlight theory of science 466, 728
Second Letter 633
security 168, 398
self-analysis 429
self-assertion 225, 646
self-conscious 325
self-consciousness 275, 286, 646, 717
self-control 50, 66
self-criticism 123, IM, 503
self-evidence 236, 255, 498, 651-2
self-protection 109-10
self-sufficiency (autarky) 84, 173, 549, 554
selfishness 96-8, 1 14, 121, 480, 574, 575; see also individualism
semantics 528, 547, 590, 591, 651, 654, 670, 728
Seventh Letter 18, 519, 520, 584, 592, 600, 629, 633
Shaw, G, B, 273, 438, 560, Ml, 677
Sherrington, C, 547
Shorey 198, 203, 204, 205, 207
shorthand labels/symbols 230-1, 234
Simkhovitch, V, G, 611
Simkin, C, G, F, 521
Simplicius 633, 660
simultaneity 235-6
situational logic 308-9, 324, 326, 470
slavery 42, 46, 66, 67, 175, 534, 537-8, 541, 562, 630, 662, 676: Aristotle 220 social
technology 1; Athens 42, 46, 67, 112, 595, 616, 641; Hegel 221, 646-7, 677: Marx 405,
691, 692, 705; naturalistic theory 220; Plato 186, 203-5, 537
Slavery: Its Biological Foundation and Moral Justification 277-8
Smith, Adam 377, 391, HO, 214
social change 16, 18, 29, 35, 40, 53, 102, 163, 168, 174, 189, 221, 410, 419, 137, 631
social contracts 72, 73, 109, 1 10: see also contract theory
social decay 40
Social Democrats 353, 367, 371-2, 394, 699, 700, 703
social development 39-40
social dynamics 15, 39
social engineering 29, 147, 148-9, 294, 338, 522, 604, 683 ; attitude of 21; historicism clash
334; Russia 295; see also piecemeal social engineering; Utopian social engineering
social environment 55-80, IM, 301, 302, 414, 547, 664-5
social habitat 72, 420-1, 423, 455, 458, 502, 555, 716
social institutions 21-3
social laws 576
social problems 496-8
social psychology 299
social reconstruction xxxi, xxxvi
social revolution 347, 354, 355-72
social system 327-42
social technology 21, 151, 294-5, 298-9, 306, 323-4, 352, 398, 402, 428, 522, 603, MO, 682,
701
socialism 293-300, 318, 345-54, 397, 407, 611, 612: origins 457; see also Communism; Marx;
Marxism
society 513: breakdown of closed 178, 546, 613: primitive beginnings 38, 304-6, 532-3,
543-4
Society of the Friends of Laconia 177
socio-analysis 422, 423, 447
sociological determinism 293-300, 315, 413, 414, 415-16, 420
sociological laws 36-7, 44, 60-2, 64, 65, 684
sociologism 413, 414, 415-16, 720; see also sociological determinism
sociology: autonomy 301-10, 321, 322: of knowledge 419-29, 447
socio-therapy 422, 423, 447
Socrates 17, 27, 28, 31, 63, 64, 69, HI, 125, 132, 176; and Alcibiades 631; and Antisthenes
184, 237, 631: betrayal 184-5: comparison with Plato 202; condescension 42, 629: critique
of closed societies 179, 180-1: Crito 624, 625: democracy 121, 625-6: dialectics 255-6:
education 127: equalitarianism 93, 95, 124, 125, 179, 180: ethics 27-8: execution/death
124, 181-4, 193, 239, 629: and Glaucon 636: humanitarianism 186:
individualism/collectivism 100, 104, 180: integrity 188: intellectualism 121, 122, 123, 179:
justice 101, 180: mistrust 441: Myth of Blood and Soil 132, 133: philosopher king 130:
protectionism 111: religion 134, 135: reply to Callicles 577, 578, rule of the strong 66;
Second Letter 633: self-criticism 180: ship-yard criticism 622: soul 180, 184-5, 621-2:
teaching 179-80, 181, 185: temperance 94-5: theory of Forms or Ideas 527: Thirty Tyrants
626: trial 624, 628; truth 180, 629
Socratic Problem 202, 203, 512, 522, 626, 627, 631
soldiers 99, 138, 139, 210
Solon 18, 58
Sophistic Refutations 219
Sophists 55, 524-5, 527, 628
Sophocles 175, 618
sophocracy 136
soul 69, 180, 201, 204, 524, 525, 533; Aristotle 224; divine 36-7; divisions of 75, 78; doctrine
of 69: immortality 628: Laws 529: and nature 554: origins of things 74; perfect 72: Plato
176, 186, 224, 528; political theory 556; power of 71; Socrates 180, 184-5, 621-2: split 634
sound 243-4
sovereignty: paradox of 115, 116, 117, 118, 582, 719: philosopher king 142: theory of 115,
116, 117, 118, 120, 121, 125, 136, 142, 146
space 25, 523-4, 525
Sparta 17, 40, 45, 46-7, 51, 52, 53, 168, 169, 170, HI, 173, 174, 187, 541; arrested change
536-7, 540; common meals 47; human cattle 45, 46, 49, 51, 52, 83,, 541: infanticide 49;
Levinson's critique 195, 196: Peloponnesian war 17; ruling classes 40
Spearman, Diana 212
species origin 37, 522, 644
specific interpretations 472
Spencer 35,
Spengler, O, 53, 281, 285, 401, 545, 678, 679
Speusippus 222, 223, 529, 549, 644, 645
Spinoza 267, 575, 666, 667, 669, 718
Spirit 251, 261, 673, 285, 313-15, 440: Great Men 283; of the Nation 251, 258, 269, 274-5,
279-80
spiritual historicism 8
spiritual naturalism 65, 69, 71-2, 74, 134, 552-3, 554, 555-6
square roots 523, 564, 565, 566, 568, 583
standards 485-95, 498-510
Stapel 282, 285
state 115-16, 124, 339; degeneration 77, 79; divine 246; foundation of 136-8: Hegel 276, 277,
279: interventionism 384-5, 398: Marx 327-8, 330, 338, 338-9, 405: morality 123; national
263, 264, 606, 607, 674, 680; organic theory of 72, 166, 167, 251, Ml, 614, 666; power of
104-6, 115, 124, 146, 339, 370, 398, 667; preservation of 138-9: protection 334, 334, 335:
social development 39-40; as super-organism 72, 73, 75, 76; theory of 104-1 1, 559:
totalitarianism 274: war 543-4: worship 246: see also ideal state
statements 651, 653
Statesman 19, 20, 38-9, 42, 43, 48, 198-9, 200, 205, 232, 520, 521, 523, 527, 530, 535
Stirling, J, H, 242, 244, 248, 667-8
Stoicism 617
Story of the Number 54
Strabo 663
strain of civilization 163, 168, 179, 184, 187, 188, 309, 446, 480, Mi
strong, rule of the 66, 73, HI, HI, 254, 662
A Study of History (Toynbee) 454-60, 540, 544
Subjective, Hegel 255
subjective freedom 672, 676
subjective methods 687
subjective value 687, 709
Sumer 614
superstition 79, 483, 663: see also magical thinking
supply and demand 381-2, 400, 711
surplus population 382, 383-5, 391, 401, 711: see also trade cycle; unemployment
surplus value 710: theory of 378-9, 710
Sweden 350, 387
syllogism, dialectical 261

tabooism, tribal H, 58, 63, 164-5, 166
taboos ii, 11, 55, 58, 63, 107, 139, 164-6, 173, 175, 189, 517, 559: Pythagorean 514, 619
Tarn, W, W, 550, 595
Tarski, A,: semantics 528, 547, 590, 591, 654, 728; truth 485, 486-7, 489, 490, 492, 650, 722,
728
taxation 152; Athens 172; Marx 376, 697, 699, 715
Taylor, A, E, 144, 516, 537, 559, 578, 599-600, 602, 624, 625-7, 628, 642; Aristophanes 628;
Socrates 200, 522, 527, 622, 624, 627, 632; Thirty Tyrants 623
technological unemployment 385-6
technology, Utopian 405
temperance 94, 573, 592
Thales 515
Theaetetus 527: dating 192
theism: chosen people doctrine 8
theistic historicism 8
Themis 569
Theopompus 660
theoretical sciences 467-70
theory: distrust 176: quasi 472
Theses on Feuerbach (Marx) 407
third man 532
Thirty Tyrants 17, M, IM, 175, 181, 182, 1%, 239, 583, 615, 618, 623, 626, 629, 637, 638:
and Socrates 121, 583, 623-5, 630
thought, freedom of 256
Thrasybulus 182
Thrasymachus 66, 101, HO, HI, 111, 115, 578, 579, 622
Thucydides 91, 178, 541, 614-15, 617, 618, 619: History of the Peloponnesian War 169-75,
182
Timaeus 24-5, 26, 28, 37, 44, 191, 242, 522, 523, 524, 525, 527, 532
timarchy/timocracy 39, 40, 46
time 525
tolerance 443, 459; paradox of 723
total ideology 420, 421, 422, 423, 424, 428, 447, 716
totalitarian justice 83-113
totalitarian morality 103, 130, 133, 278, 592
totalitarianism x, 2di, xviii-xix, xxxv, xxxvi, xxxviii, xxxix, 124, 125, 130, 132, 135, 162-3,
239, 372, 647; critique 179, 206, 210; ethical idea 274; Hegel 245-6: interventionism 350:
law of political revolutions 38; modern 272, 273-4, 277: and nationalism 262, 264, 275:
state 274
Townsend, J, 406, 716
Toynbee, A, J, 584, 723, 726-7, 733: Christian persecution 662-3: division of labour 724: and
Fisher 733: historicism 546, 727: rationalism 723 ; A Study of History 454-60, 540, 544:
schism 613: strain of civilization 614
trade cycle 385-8, 389, 390, 400, 401; theory of 385-8: and unemployment 398, 111
trade unions 384
tradition 174, 178, 432, 494
transformation 13,, 32
Treitschke 276
trends 576
trial and error 153, 156, 294, 340, 427, 428, 498, 505, MO, 631
triangles, sub-elementary 563, 565, 566, 568
tribal aristocracy H, 17
tribal collectivism 75-6
tribal life: Greeks 163-5
tribal morality 480
tribal paradise 638
tribal priest-kings 139
tribal tabooism 13
tribalism xi, xxxv, 38, 47, 79, 139, 180, 189, 434, 450, 460, 546, 620, 725; chosen people 8;
Christianity 446; group spirit 637; Hegel 272-89; Jewish 238; knowing one's place 11-12:
magical thinking 55, 58; organic 167: Plato's theory 44-5, 53,; schools 619
truth 486-7: absolute 493, 501, 590-1: artificial distinction 554; criteria 487-90;
definition/concept 650, 651, 728; dualism 498-9, 506-7; fallibilism 490-2: Hegel 247-8,
255, 507-10: knowledge sources 493-4, 503-6; norms 547: relativism 502-3; science
229-31, 490-1; searching after 125, 129, 130, 111, 135, 136, 243, 294, 491, 492-3:
rationalism 431, 433, 435; relativism 427, 485, 486, 497; Socrates 180, 629; theory of 485,
486-7, 489, 490, 492, 650, 722, 728
tyranny 42, 43, 162, 173, 549, 581, 706; Plato on 187; and violence 360, 361

unalterable facts 60
uncritical rationalism 435, 437, 442-4, 719
undecidability theorem 490
unemployment 374, 375-6, 399, 400: insurance 149, 350, 387, 388: technological 385-6: trade
cycles 398; see also industrial reserve army; surplus population
unity of opposites 251-5, 257, 518-19
universal flux 515-18, 520, 523
Urey, Harold C, 490
utilitarian ethics 66
utilitarianism 102, 103, 548-9
Utopian programme 44
Utopian social engineering xxxvi, 21, 23, 44, 52, 147, 148-9, 150, 151, 152, 153, 154, 156,
295, 298, 338, Ml, 602, MO
Utopian systems 23
Utopian technology 405
utopianism 2di, 2LV, 147-57, 682: crime prevention 108: Marx 294, 295, 338, 701

value theory 377-83, 709-10
values 47; relativism 15
variable capital 389
Vaughan, C, E, 561, 573, 588, 634, 672-3
verbalism 232-6, 237, 294, 662
verification principle ix, 591, 659
Versailles settlement 681
Vico, Giambattista 533, 534
victims 180
Viner, Jacob xxm, 635, 683, 709, 211, 211
violence 149, 156, 475, 703, 707; Marxism 358, 359-69, 371: Plato 196; and rationalism 439,
441, 459-60, 671-2: see also war
virtue 24-8, 37, 41, 84, 88, 93, 94, 103, 107, 122, 174, 176
Voltaire 411
von Humboldt, W, 266
vote buying 337
Vulgar Marxism 311, Ml, 322, 422, 688

wage capital 389
wage-slavery 692
wages 388, 390: constant capital 713-14: depression 386: starvation 373, 386: subsistence 373,
theory of surplus value 378-9, 710: trade cycle 385-8: value theory 383
Wagner, R, 543
Waismann, F, 659
Walkley, Mary Anne 331
Wallas, Graham 513
war x; causes 609: ethical 274: Hegel 276-81: and justice 15,; Marxism 295: of opposites 252:
religious 442
warriors 45, 52, 75, 132, 163, 589
water, heavy 490-1
Way of Delusive Opinion 523, 526
wealth 375, 376, 401: accumulation 47, 391: law of increasing wealth 376
Weber, Max 309, 528, 652, 662, 687, HI, 730, 211
Wells, H, G, 524, 223
White, Morton G, 230
Whitehead, A, N, 432, 451-4, 666, 722, 725
Wiener, N, 545
Wilde, Oscar 503
Will 293; of Gods, 23
Wilson, W, 263, 680, 681
Winckelmann, J, 674
Winspear, A, D, 529, 584
wisdom 22, 122-3, 125, 129, 136, 137-8, 176, 193: rule of the wisest 66, 111, 114-15, 117,
122, 125: see also leadership
Wittgenstein, L, 216, 642, 658, 629, 212, 218, 720-1, 725: mysticism 224, 225, 733:
propositions 653, 654, 657-8, 659, 720-1: sense of life 732: verification principle 659
women: common ownership/property 47-8, 98
Wood, William HI
workers 329, HI, 112, 118, 142, 155, 152, 165, 199, 211; age of death 191; class
consciousness 301, 322: revolution 353, 364: see also human cattle; proletariat
World: creation 620; history 211, 260, 261, 222, 228, 285, 662, 621
World Historical Personality 274, 283
World-Historical People 275
World-Spirit 222
World War, First 326
worship: hero 480: state 475-6

Xenophanes 14, 129, 502, 614, 632-3
Xenophon 631

Zeller 224, 516, 517, 529, 640, Ml, 644, 645
Zeus 14, 19, 63
Ziegler, H, O, 288
Zimmern, A, 273, 677
Zinsser, H, 240-1, 475, 617, 665
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