Savarkar: Echoes from a Forgotten Past by Vikram Sampath

"Science," the Greek word for knowledge, when appended to the word "political," creates what seems like an oxymoron. For who could claim to know politics? More complicated than any game, most people who play it become addicts and die without understanding what they were addicted to. The rest of us suffer under their malpractice as our "leaders." A truer case of the blind leading the blind could not be found. Plumb the depths of confusion here.

Re: Savarkar: Echoes from a Forgotten Past by Vikram Sampath

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Part 1 of 3

Notes

Prologue


1. Information gleaned from the interview of Dr Subodh Naik with Babasaheb Purandhare on 11 November 2018 in Pune.

2. V.D. Savarkar, Savarkar Samagra. Vol. 1. (translated by the author), New Delhi: Prabhat Prakashan.

Chapter 1: The Early Years

1. R. Temple to the viceroy (Lytton): 3 July 1879 and 9 July 1879 (Mss Eur F86/5: 1877–1880), India Office Records and Private Papers, British Library, London.

2. Ibid.

3. Ibid.

4. V.N. Mandlik, ‘Preliminary observations on a document giving an account of the establishment of a new village named Muruda, in Southern Konkana’, Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. Vol. VIII (1864–66), p. 3; J. Wilson, Indian Caste. Vol. II, (Bombay, Edinburgh and London, 1877), pp. 20–21; I. Karve, ‘The Parasurama Myth’, Journal of the University of Bombay. Vol. I (July 1932).

5. E.E. McDonald, ‘The Modernizing of Communication: Vernacular Publishing in 19th Century Maharashtra’, Asian Survey 8.7 (1968), p. 596.

6. R. Temple to the viceroy (Lytton): 3 July 1879; British Library, London.

7. Mss Eur F86/5: 1877–80, British Library, London.

8. References to family ancestry in the Marathi biography of Babarao Savarkar: D.N. Gokhale, Krantiveer Babarao Savarkar. Vol. 2 (Srividya Prakashan, Poona, 1979), pp. 2–3.

9. V.D. Savarkar, Savarkar Samagra. Vol. 1, pp. 126–27.

10. Ibid.

11. Ibid.

12. The biography of Babarao mentions a different story about the idol being brought by an ancestor, Visaji Hari, who had fought the Makrani tribes of Malwa and confiscated it from their custody. It had then passed down the generations.

13. Here too there are different accounts given by Vinayak and Babarao. The latter’s biography by D.N. Gokhale states (p. 7) that once the idol was given away to the priest of the Khandoba temple, he started getting horrifying dreams in which a snake began to appear and terrorize him. In utter fright, he returned the idol to the Savarkar family. Hence, the idol was not away from them for too long. One is not sure which version is correct.

14. Radhabai passed away in the Hindu Shaka Year 1814, Ashadha month, Shuddha Pratipada at 6 a.m. (D.N. Gokhale, Krantiveer Babarao Savarkar. Vol. 2, 1979, p. 11.)

15. Y.D. Phadke, Visaya Shatakatil Maharashtra. Vol. 1 (Srividya Prakashan, Pune, 1989), p. 8.

16. N.C. Kelkar, Lokmanya Tilakyanchi Charitra (Riya Publications, Kolhapur, 2012), p. 120.

17. Stanley Wolpert, Tilak and Gokhale : Revolution and Reform in the Making of Modern India (University of California Press, Berkeley, 1961), p. 36.

18. Agarkar to Tilak, 25 December 1888, Tilak Papers, Kesari Office, Poona.

19. N.C. Kelkar, Lokmanya Tilakyanchi Charitra. p. 221.

20. V.S. Joshi, Wasudev Balwant Phadke: First Indian Rebel Against the British Rule. pp. 40–41.

21. References for the retaliation from Phadke, see: J. Kellock, Mahadev Govind Ranade (Calcutta, 1926); Letter of Temple to Lytton from British Library, London; and G.R.G. Hambly, ‘Mahratta Nationalism before Tilak’, Journal of The Royal Central Asian Society. 49:2 (1962), pp.144–60.

22. Bombay Gazette, 15 May 1879, Maharashtra State Archives, Mumbai.

23. Source Material for a History of the Freedom Movement in India. Vol. I (Bombay State Publication, Bombay, 1957), p. 89.

24. Ibid., p. 86.

25. Ibid., p. 128.

26. Amrita Bazar Patrika. 15 November 1879.

27. Hume to Northbrook, 1 August 1872, Northbrook Papers.

28. Ibid.

29. Ibid.

30. William Bart Wedderburn, Allan Octavian Hume, C.B.: Father of the Indian National Congress, 1829 to 1912 (London, 1913).

31. Presidential Address of 1893 in V.D. Savarkar, Savarkar Samagra. Vol. 1, pp. 37, 90.

Chapter 2: Painful Transitions

1. V.D. Savarkar, Savarkar Samagra. Vol. 1, pp. 309–12.

2. Commissioner-in-Charge, Poona, ‘Riots at Nasik Between Hindus and Muhammadans’ (16 February 1894), enclosed with Commissioner to G.C. Whitworth, Acting Secretary to Government, Judicial Department (15 March 1894), Bombay Archives Judicial Department (hereafter BAJD), Vol. 284, comp. no. 545, part III (1894).

3. Ibid.

4. Ibid.

5. Ibid.

6. Ibid.

7. For references to these Hindu–Muslim disturbances, see, Shabnum Tejani. ‘Music, Mosques and Custom: Local Conflict and Communalism in a Maharashtrian Weaving Town, 1893–1894’, Journal of South Asian Studies , 30:2, pp. 223–40.

8. Copy of ruling in letter from Government Pleader, High Court (24 November 1893), with G.C. Whitworth’s departmental letter (15 March 1894), BAJD, Vol. 284, No. 545, part III (1894).

9. Inspector General of Police Bombay to Government of Bombay, 15 July 1899, Enclosure 2, Home Public A, September 1899, National Archives of India, New Delhi, p. 5.

10. V.D. Savarkar, Savarkar Samagra. Vol. 1, pp. 151–55.

11. Ibid., p. 152.

12. Prachi Deshpande, ‘Narratives of Pride: History and Regional Identity in Maharashtra, India c. 1870–1960’, (Tufts University, 2002), p. 156. (Unpublished Dissertation.)

13. Ibid., p. 151.

14. Ibid.

15. Ibid., p. 152.

16. J.J. Heaton, private secretary to governor, demi-official, 10 March 1897, with GRGD cited no. 13 above; Rand to Secretary, GD, no. 752 of 1 March 1897, with GRGD no. 1272/765-P of 9 March 1897, Plague Compilation no. 127, GD Plague, Vol. 75 of 1897, Maharashtra State Archives, Mumbai.

17. Myron J. Echenberg, Plague Ports: The Global Urban Impact of Bubonic Plague, 1894–1901 (New York University Press, New York, 2007), pp. 66– 68.

18. Damodar Chapekar’s autobiography in source material for A History of the Freedom Movement in India. Vol. II. (Government of Bombay, Bombay, 1958), pp. 954–65.

19. Ibid., p. 957.

20. Ibid., p. 961.

21. Ibid., p. 964.

22. Ibid., p. 1002.

23. Ibid., pp. 1000–10.

24. Ibid., p. 998.

25. Unknown to people, it is said that Tilak secretly funded the Chapekars, as also Chhatrapati Shahu Maharaj. This is referenced in the Marathi biography of Tilak—Lokmanya Tilak aani Krantikarak by Y.D. Phadke, and Jnankoshkar Ganesh Rango Bhide by Pratibha Ranade. Shahu Maharaj had a revolutionary club called Shivaji Club in Kolhapur. It is believed that since Chapekar wrote these in his memoir from the Yeravada jail and knowing that his writings would be tracked, he tried to provide cover to Tilak by even being excessively critical of him at times.

26. Ibid., pp. 975–76.

27. Ibid., p. 1001.

28. Ibid., p. 348.

29. V.D. Savarkar, Savarkar Samagra, Vol. 1, p. 177.

30. Vishwanath Prasad Varma, The Life and Philosophy of Lokmanya Tilak (Lakshmi Narain Agarwal, Agra, n.d.), p. 518.

31. Kal, 17 March 1899.

32. V.D. Savarkar, Savarkar Samagra, Vol. 1, pp. 179–80.

33. S.S. Setlur and K.G. Deshpande, A Full and Authentic Report of the Trial of the Hon’ble Mr. Bal Gangadhar Tilak, B.A., LLB at the Fourth Criminal Sessions 1897 (The Education Society’s Press, Byculla, 1897), p. 69.

34. Ibid., Appendix A, p. 4.

35. Ibid., Appendix A, p. 5.

36. Stanley Wolpert, Tilak and Gokhale : Revolution and Reform in the Making of Modern India (University of California Press, Berkeley, 1961), p. 101.

37. Vishwanath Prasad Varma, The Life and Philosophy of Lokmanya Tilak. pp. 99–106.

38. Ibid., p. 126.

39. Ibid., p. 124.

40. S.S. Setlur and K.G. Deshpande, A Full and Authentic Report of the Trial of the Hon’ble Mr. Bal Gangadhar Tilak, B.A., LLB at the Fourth Criminal Sessions 1897. Appendix D, p. 40.

41. V.D. Savarkar, Savarkar Samagra. Vol. 1, p. 182.

Chapter 3: The Birth of a Revolutionary

1. For more on Nashik’s past, see Gautami. a collection/souvenir of articles by several scholars published by the Itihas Samshodhan Mandal of Nashik and Tryambakeshwar. It states that in the mythical krita yuga Nashik was known as Padmapura. During the Ramayana period, the demons Khara, Dushana and Trishara were believed to have been killed by Lord Rama here. That is how the city got the name Trikantak. During the time of Lord Krishna, it was known as Janmasthan and later became known as Dandakaranya (p. 21). It passed under the Satavahana emperor Gautamiputra Satkarni (AD 106–30) who occupied it from the Kshatrapas in the second century. In the seventeenth century, Shivaji erected several forts all over Nashik, which the British later destroyed. His guru, Saint Ramdas, had done penance at Takli near Nashik (p. 53). In 1766, Peshwa Madhav Rao I started a mint here (p. 22). During Aurangzeb’s time the name of the town was changed to Gulshanabad. Till 1869, Nashik was part of the Ahmednagar district. In 1869, the British formed a separate Nashik district, and on 19 April 1888 Captain Bridge occupied Nashik (p. 22). It used to be a famous industrial town for centuries.

2. This battle took place on the night of 4 February 1670 on the fort of Sinhagad, near Pune, between Shivaji’s commander Tanaji Malusare and Uday Bhan Rathod, the fort keeper under Jai Singh I, who was a chief in the Mughal army. The gallant war and martyrdom of Malusare wrought the fort for the Marathas and is part of Maharashtra’s brave folklore.

3. Thomas Frost. The Secret Societies of the European Revolution, 1776-1876. Vols 1 & 2. London: Tinsley, 1876, Vol. 1, p. xi.

4. V.D. Savarkar. Savarkar Samagra. Vol. 1, p. 224.

5. Waman Krishna Paranjpe, Kal Karte Shivaram Panth Paranjpe Jeevan. 1st ed. 1945 (published by R.S. Deshpande), p. x.

6. Savarkar makes a reference to this episode regarding the pandits of Kashi in his memoir Savarkar Samagra. Vol. 1, p. 240.

7. For more details about the Chiplunkars and their association with Jawhar state, see V.S. Joshi. Kranti Kallol (Bombay: Manorama Prakashan, 1985).

8. This was carried out by Vishnu Pant Chhatre, whom Trimbak Bapuji brought into service as the ADC to the raja.

9. Dhananjay Keer. Veer Savarkar (Bombay: Popular Prakashan, 1950), p. 13.

10. S.G. Malshe (ed.). Savarkarancha Aprasiddha Kavita (Bombay: Marathi Samshodhan Mandal, 1969), pp. 13–14.

11. V.S. Joshi. Kranti Kallol. p. 69.

12. Son of Dadasaheb Khaparde, a close associate of Tilak.

13. V.S. Joshi. Kranti Kallol. p. 68.

14. Ibid., p. 69.

15. Vividha Gyana Vistaar. Edition no. 34, pp. 85–94.

16. V.D Savarkar. Savarkar Samagra. Vol. 1, p. 295.

17. V.S. Joshi. Kranti Kallol. p. 76.

18. Y.D. Phadke. Lokmanya Tilak aani Krantikarak (Bombay: Srividya Prakashan, n.d.), p. 63.

19. Dhananjay Keer. Veer Savarkar. 1950, p. 22.

20. Savarkar Samagra Vangmaya. Vol. 1, p. 148.

21. An honorific given to a scholar of history.

22. Dhananjay Keer. Veer Savarkar. p. 16.

23. D.N. Gokhale. Krantiveer Babarao Savarkar. Vol. 2, p. 46.

24. Vishwas Vinayak Savarkar. Athavani Angarachya. 3rd ed. (Pune: Snehal Prakashan, 2001), p. 140.

25. EPP 1/46 ‘Card with portrait and text of Oath of Abhinava Bharat’, India Office Records (British Library, London).

26. D.N. Gokhale. Krantiveer Babarao Savarkar. Vol. 2, p. 79.

27. Ibid.

28. Y.D. Phadke. Lokmanya Tilak aani Krantikarak. pp. 56–57.

29. The complete list of places where Abhinav Bharat centres mushroomed was mentioned in the police inquest of Vinayak’s maternal cousin Balwant Ramakrishna Barve—Satara, Murtijapur, Poladpur, Harne Bunder, Umargaon, Kalyan, Bhiwandi, Thane, Vasai, Pen, Dahanu, Bhayander, Amhednagar, Baroda, Indore, Calcutta, Nagpur, Bhingar, Sholapur, Belgaum, Kolhapur, Dondaicha, Poona, Khed, Chinchwad, Dhule, Igatpuri, Ratnagiri, Bombay, Jalgaon, Panvel, Karad, Yeola, Aurangabad, and Erandol. See Y.D. Phadke. Lokmanya Tilak. p. 53.

30. He was a goldsmith and banker (sowcar ) who administered the oath to Anant Laxman Kanhere who later assassinated Jackson. Post-trial, Tonpe’s entire property, including several kilograms of gold and silver, were confiscated by the British and never returned to the family. His descendants continue an unsuccessful struggle to include Tonpe’s name in the hallowed list of freedom fighters of the country.

31. His brother was one of the Tilak followers who helped Tilak and Kakasaheb Khadilkar in their unsuccessful attempt of starting the Nepal Arms Factory.

32. V.M. Bhat. Abhinav Bharat athava Savarkaranchi Krantikari Gupta Sanstha (Mumbai: G.P. Parchure Prakashan Mandir, 1950), p. 32.

33. V.D. Savarkar. Savarkar Samagra. Vol. 1, pp. 292–94.

34. Ibid., p. 294.

35. Ibid., pp. 299–300

36. S.R. Vartak. Bhaartiya Swatantryache Ranazunzar. n.d., pp. 39–40; Y.D. Phadke. Lokmanya Tilak aani Krantikarak. p. 66; D.N. Gokhale. Krantiveer Babarao Savarkar. Vol. 2, p. 52.

37. Wacha to Naoroji, 16 February 1901 (Naoroji Papers, National Archives of India, New Delhi).

38. Curzon to Hamilton, 18 November 1900, Curzon Papers, MSS EUR F 111/159, India Office Records, British Library, London.

39. Gokhale to Natesan, 19 May 1904; Gokhale to Krishnaswami Iyer, 11 July 1904 and 2 August 1904, Gokhale Papers, Reel 5, National Archives of India, New Delhi.

40. Ray and others to Gokhale, 27 December 1905, Gokhale Papers, Reel 3, National Archives of India, New Delhi.

41. Hindustan Review. October–November 1905, p. 355.

42. T.N. Sareen. Japan and the Indian National Army (Delhi: Agam Publication, 1986), p. 1; For an overall impact of the war on Indian psyche, see also K.P. Dua. The Impact of the Russo-Japanese War (1905) on Indian Politics (Delhi: S. Chand and Co., 1966).

43. Chitragupta. Life of Barrister Savarkar (Madras: B.G. Paul & Company Publishers, 1926), pp. 23, 126–27. See also, Waman Krishna Paranjpe. Kal Karte Shivaram Panth Paranjpe Jeevan. 1st ed. (Published by R.S. Deshpande, 1945).

44. V.S. Joshi. Kranti Kallol. pp. 81–82.

45. Waman Krishna Paranjpe. Kal Karte Shivaram Panth Paranjpe Jeevan. 1st ed., p. 127.

46. Great-grandfather-in-law of contemporary Indian politician Prakash Ambedkar.

47. Vishwas Vinayak Savarkar. Athavani Angarachya. 3rd ed., p. 90.

48. Y.D. Phadke. Lokmanya Tilak aani Krantikarak, p. 64.

49. V.S. Joshi. Kranti Kallol, p. 85.

50. B.G. Tilak. Bal Gangadhar Tilak: His Writings and Speeches (Madras: Ganesh and Co., 1922), pp. 49–50.

51. G.D. Karve and D.V. Ambekar (eds). Speeches and Writings of Gopal Krishna Gokhale Vol. 2 (Poona: Asia Publishing House, 1966), pp. 196–97.

52. Waman Krishna Paranjpe. Kal Karte Shivaram Panth Paranjpe Jeevan. p. 128.

53. Dhananjay Keer. Veer Savarkar. p. 21.

54. V.M. Bhat. Abhinav Bharat athava Savarkaranchi Krantikari Gupta Sanstha. p. 49.

55. V.D. Savarkar. Savarkar Samagra. Vol. 1, pp.302–04.

56. Agamya Guru was also known as Nirvikalpa Yogendra and Laataswamy. He was a Kashmiri Saraswat Brahmin and a graduate from Punjab University. He had also worked as sub-judge previously. He made a first public appearance in Calcutta on 11 June 1905 after a tour of Europe, the US and Japan. He was the Duke of Manchester’s guru. He was rumoured to have an affair and a live-in relationship with a married European lady, Mrs Stanard. He started an ashram at Umbargaon for the translation of the Vedas. But having come under British surveillance for some of his speeches and activities, he was expelled from there and this was when he made his way to Poona on 17 February 1906 (Source: Y.D. Phadke. Lokmanya Tilak aani Krantikarak. p. 65.)

57. Dhananjay Keer. Veer Savarkar. pp. 24-25; Jaywant D. Joglekar. Veer Savarkar: Father of Hindu Nationalism. 2006, p. 43.

58. For reference to Agamya Guru’s imprisonment, see Dhananjay Keer. Veer Savarkar. pp. 24–25.

59. Sedition Committee Report 1918 (Government of India Publication of 1918), p. 5.

60. Testimony of Hari Narayan Pimple Khare; Savarkar Case; Trial and Conviction; Question of extradition in case of failure at the Hague, 9 December 1910 to 23 February 1911; IOR/L/PJ/6/1069, File No. 778, British Library, London.

61. Y.D. Phadke. Shodh Savarkarancha (Bombay: Shrividya Prakashan, 1984), p. 1.

62. Dhananjay Keer. Veer Savarkar. p. 25.

63. Report of A. Montgomerie, Savarkar Case; Trial and Conviction; Question of extradition in case of failure at the Hague. 9 December 1910 to 23 February 1911; IOR/L/PJ/6/1069, File No. 778, British Library, London.

64. Gaelic American was a prominent Irish-Catholic newspaper owned and operated by the Irish nationalist John Devoy who was a supporter of the Indian independence movement, and occasionally reprinted excerpts from the Indian Sociologist in the Gaelic American. Holding a position at his newspaper provided good ‘cover’ for an aspiring India House plant. R.V. Comerford. ‘Devoy, John (1842-1928),’ in Lawrence Goldman (ed.). Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004).

65. Nicholas Owen. The British Left and India: Metropolitan Anti-Imperialism, 1885–1947 (New York: Oxford University Press, 2007), p. 67.

66. Indian Sociologist, January 1905. British Library, London.

67. A.M. Shah. ‘The Indian Sociologist, 1905-14, 1920-22’. Economic and Political Weekly 41.31 (2006), p. 3437.

68. Now 65 Cromwell Avenue, London N6.

69. V.D. Savarkar, Shatruchya Shibirat (Utkarsh Prakashan, 2019), p. 38.

70. Letter from Rana to Shyamji, 12 November 1905, Indulal Yagnik. Shyamji Krishna Varma: Life and Times of an Indian Revolutionary (Bombay: Laxmi Publication, 1950), pp. 152–53.

71. The fact that the scholarships did not come free but were on a repayment basis has been seldom revealed. It is mentioned in a note by Sir Curzon Wyllie; Foreign Department, Internal-B, May 1906, #308; National Archives of UK, London.

72. Dhananjay Keer. Veer Savarkar. p. 25.

73. Letter from Tilak to Shyamji, Kesari Wada, Poona.

74. Letter Courtesy Savarkar Smarak, Mumbai.

75. During a trial in an English court in 1919 where he sued Sir Valentine Chirol for libel but lost, Tilak was hauled up for recommending a revolutionary like Vinayak. This is when he revealed that the first letter of recommendation had come from an anglophile such as Wrangler Paranjpe. V.S. Joshi, Kranti Kallol. p. 99.

76. Dhananjay Keer. Veer Savarkar. p. 26

77. Translation of a report submitted by Waman Narhar Dani, Constable 3rd Class, Buckle No. 739 of Nasik City to Chief Constable Nasik regarding speeches made by Vinayak Rao Sawarkar. Savarkar Case; Trial and Conviction; Question of extradition in case of failure at the Hague. 9 December 1910 to 23 February 1911; IOR/L/PJ/6/1069, File No. 778, British Library, London.

78. Ibid.

79. V.S. Joshi, Kranti Kallol. p. 104; Y.D. Phadke, Lokmanya Tilak aani Krantikarak. p. 66.

80. V.S. Joshi. Kranti Kallol. p. 104.

81. V.D. Savarkar. Shatruchya Shibirat. pp. 22–23; V.M. Bhat, Abhinav Bharat athava Savarkaranchi Krantikari Gupta Sanstha. p. 51.

82. D.N. Gokhale. Krantiveer Babarao Savarkar. Vol. 2, p. 51.

83. Report of Constable Vithal Dattatraya, Buckle No. 493, to Chief Constable of Nasik. Savarkar Case; Trial and Conviction; Question of extradition in case of failure at the Hague. 9 December 1910 to 23 February 1911; IOR/L/PJ/6/1069, File No. 778; British Library, London.

84. Smallpox is called ‘Devi’ in Marathi.

85. V.S. Joshi. Kranti Kallol. p. 105.

86. V.D. Savarkar. Shatruchya Shibirat. p. 1.

Chapter 4: Inside the Enemy Camp

1. ‘Indian Students at Cirencester College’, 1908, Public and Judicial Department, IOR/L/PJ/6/897 3787, British Library, London.

2. S.N. Banerjea. The Nation in the Making: Being the Reminiscences of Fifty Years of Public Life (London: Oxford University Press, 1925), p. 26.

3. V.D. Savarkar. Inside the Enemy Camp. http://savarkar.org/en/encyc/2018/3/23/ ... ction.html

4. Ibid.

5. Ibid.

6. Accessed online from http://savarkar.org/mr/pdfs/savarkaranchi-kavita-mrv002. pdf.

7. Sir Valentine Chirol. Indian Unrest (London: Macmillan & Co. Ltd, 1910), pp. 348–49.

8. Harindra Srivastava. Five Stormy Years: Savarkar in London (New Delhi: Allied Publishers, 1983), p. 12.

9. Shompa Lahiri. Indians in Britain: Anglo-Indian Encounters, Race and Identity, 1880-1930 (London and Portland, OR: Frank Cass, 2000), p. 5.

10. Ibid., p. 4.

11. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, An Autobiography, or, the Story of My Experiments with Truth (Ahmedabad: Navajivan Publishing House, 1996), p. 66.

12. Ibid., p. 67.

13. Lord Morley, Secretary of State for India and a Liberal leader.

14. V.D. Savarkar. Newsletters from London. http://satyashodh.com/Savarkar%20Newsletters1A.htm#one

15. Retired ICS officer, one of the founding members of the Indian National Congress.

16. V.D. Savarkar. Newsletters from London. http://satyashodh.com/Savarkar%20Newsletters1A.htm#two

17. Lala Har Dayal Private Paper, List No. 77, Acc. No. 427, National Archives of India, New Delhi; ‘History Sheet of Har Dayal of Delhi’, prepared by The Director of Criminal Intelligence, Government of India, Judicial and Public Department, Home Proceedings. Vol. 817, 2507/07, India Office Library, London; Lala Lajpat Rai. Young India: An Interpretation and a History of the Nationalist Movement from Within (New York: B.W. Heubsch, 1916), p. 195; Dharm Vir, ‘Dr. Har Dayal’, Punjab’s Eminent Hindu s, edited by N.B. Sen (Lahore: New Book Society, 1953), p. 57

18. ‘History Sheet of Har Dayal of Delhi’, prepared by The Director of Criminal Intelligence, Government of India, Judicial and Public Department, Home Proceedings. Vol. 817, 2507/07, India Office Library, London.

19. Sir Michael Francis O’Dwyer. India As I Knew It (London: Constable & Company, Ltd., 1925), p. 185.

20. See newsletters of the Ghadr Party: ‘The Wickedness Practiced by English Missionaries’, 7 April 1917, and ‘The West Endeavouring to Christianize the East’, 15 April 1917.

21. Balshastri Hardas. Armed Struggle for Freedom: Ninety Years War of Independence, 1857-1947 (Poona: Kal Prakashan, 1958), p. 191.

22. Ibid., p. 196.

23. Sedition Committee Report, 1918, p. 61 (Secret Report published by the Government of India in 1918).

24. Indian Sociologist. Vol. III, October 1907, p. 38.

25. Chandra Chakraberty. New India and its Growth and Problems (Calcutta: Vijoyakrishna Brothers, 1951), pp. 25–26.

26. Virendranath Chattopadhyay Private Papers, PA Acc. No. 236, National Archives of India, New Delhi.

27. Chandra Chakraberty. New India and its Growth and Problems. pp. 25–26.

28. Shripad Shankar Navare. Senapati (Bombay: Mauj Prakashan, 1976), p. 30.

29. The Mahratta. 27 May 1938.

30. Shripad Shankar Navare. Senapati. p. 28.

31. A pleader drafts pleas in a court of law on behalf of his/her client.

32. R.A. Padmanabhan, V. V. S. Aiyar (New Delhi, 1980), p. 12.

33. M.P.T. Acharya. Reminiscences of an Indian Revolutionary. Edited by B.D. Yadav (New Delhi: Anmol Publications, 1991), p. 12.

34. M.P.T Acharya. The Mahratta. 27 May 1938.

35. ‘History Sheet of Madame Bhikaji Cama’, prepared by the Criminal Intelligence Office, August 1913, No. 61. A.C. Bose. Indian Revolutionaries Abroad: 1905-1927. Select Documents. New Delhi: Northern Book Centre, 2002, p. 64.

36. Extracts from History Sheet of Madame B.R. Cama; Bombay Police Commissioner’s Office File No. 3218/H; Bulu Roy Chowdhury. Madame Cama: A Short Life Sketch (New Delhi: People’s Publishing House, 1977); India Office Records: MSS EUR F341/108.

37. Bulu Roy Chowdhury. Madame Cama: A Short Life Sketch. p. 6–7.

38. R.C. Majumdar. History of the Freedom Movement in India (Calcutta: Firma K.L Mukhopadhyay, 1962), p. 235.

39. Chitragupta. Life of Barrister Savarkar. Madras, 1926, p. 66.

40. Ibid., p. 67.

41. For more see, Gita Srivastava. Mazzini and His Impact on the Indian National Movement. (Allahabad: Chugh Publications, 1982).

42. S.N. Banerjea. The Nation in the Making: Being the Reminiscences of Fifty Years of Public Life ( London: Oxford University Press, 1925), p. 40.

43. V.D. Savarkar. Inside the Enemy Camp. http://savarkar.org/en/encyc/2018/3/23/ ... ction.html

44. Ibid.

45. Joseph Mazzini. Life and Writings of Joseph Mazzini. New ed., 6 vols (London: Smith, Elder, and Co., 1890).

46. V.D. Savarkar. Inside the Enemy Camp. http://savarkar.org/en/encyc/2018/3/23/ ... ction.html.

47. Ibid.

48. ‘Opinion of the Honourable Advocate General in Regard to the Preface to a Translation of Joseph Mazzini’s Autobiography’, Judicial Department (Confidential) Proceedings, October 1907, pp. 31–34, Maharashtra State Archives, Mumbai.

49. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. My Experiments with Truth. http://www.arvindguptatoys.com/arvindgu ... iments.pdf

50. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi. Vol. 1 https://www.gandhiashramsevagram.org/ga ... tmagandhi- collected-works-volume-1.pdf (also mentioned the same in a speech in Bombay in 1896).

51. Ibid., Vol. 8. https://www.gandhiashramsevagram.org/gandhiliterature/ mahatma-gandhi-collected-works-volume-8.pdf

52. Ibid., Vol. 5. https://www.gandhiashramsevagram.org/gandhiliterature/ mahatma-gandhi-collected-works-volume-5.pdf.

53. Harindra Srivastava. Five Stormy Years: Savarkar in London. p. 29.

54. Notes from the Criminal Intelligence Department. Stevenson-Moore’s note dated 13 January 1909. Home (Political A) February 1909, #204: ‘Interception of the Khalasa (Khalsa) series of pamphlets’, National Archives of India, New Delhi.

55. This is now a part of the British Library in London on Euston Road.

56. For a complete bibliography of the book, refer to V.D. Savarkar. The Indian War of Independence of 1857. http://savarkar.org/en/pdfs/the_indian_ ... rs_note.57. Ibid.

58. Lichfield Mercury. 17 May 1907, courtesy British Newspaper Archive, London.

59. Newspaper Leeds Mercury. 13 May 1907, courtesy British Newspaper Archive, London.

60. V.D. Savarkar. The_Indian_War_of_Independence. http://savarkar.org/en/pdfs/the_indian_ ... rs_note.61. For full text of ‘O! Martyrs!’ please see Appendix I.

62. ‘Indian Students at Cirencester College’, 1908, Public and Judicial Department, IOR/L/PJ/6/897 3787, British Library, London.

63. V.D. Savarkar. The_Indian_War_of_Independence. http://savarkar.org/en/pdfs/the_indian_ ... shers_note.).

64. Ibid.

65. Ibid.

66. Ibid.

67. Ibid.

68. Ibid.

69. Ibid.

70. Ibid.

71. Ibid.

72. Ibid.

73. M.P.T. Acharya. Reminiscences of an Indian Revolutionary. p. 91.

74. Home/13-13A/1909/An Interception of book or pamphlet, Letter 14 December 1908. National Archives of India, New Delhi.

75. This was a law passed in 1878 by the British to control both revenue coming in from maritime trade, as also maintaining a vigil and control over movement (import and export) of goods to and from India.

76. Home/13-13A/1909/An Interception of book or pamphlet, Letter 14 December 1908, National Archives of India, New Delhi; Letter 18 December 1908, National Archives of India.

77. Courtesy British National Archives (BNA), London.

78. Harindra Srivastava. Five Stormy Years: Savarkar in London. p. 101.

79. ‘Weekly extract, paragraph 26 from Report on Native Papers Home (Special), 60-C/1908-10: ‘V.D. Savarkar: Book entitled “Indian War of Independence of 1857” by an Indian Nationalist’, Maharashtra State Archives, Mumbai.

80. James Campbell Kerr. Political Trouble in India: 1907-1917 (New Delhi: Orient Longman, 1973), p. 242.

81. V.D. Savarkar. Inside the Enemy Camp. http://savarkar.org/en/encyc/2018/3/23/ ... ction.html.

82. G.M. Joshi. ‘The Story of This History’, in V.D. Savarkar, The Indian War of Independence of 1857 (Bombay: Phoenix Publications,1947), p. xvi.

83. Hamsaraja Rahabara. Bhagat Singh and His Thought (Delhi: Manak Publications, 1990), p. 90.

84. Recorded in the Oral Archives—Interview Transcripts at the Nehru Memorial Museum and Library (NMML), New Delhi.

85. Free Hindustan. Special No., 28 May 1946.

Chapter 5: And the Storm Breaks

1. Indian Sociologist. June 1907, p. 22.

2. Ibid., p. 28.

3. (Secret) Prog. no. 144, DCI, 24.8.1907, B. August 1907, no 135–45; A.C. Bose. Indian Revolutionaries Abroad: 1905-1927. Select Documents. New Delhi: Northern Book Centre, 2002, p. 15.

4. The Times. 17 May 1907, British Newspaper Archives (BNA).

5. National Review. June 1907, British Newspaper Archives (BNA)

6. Indian Sociologist. July 1907, p. 25.

7. Ibid., September 1907, p. 35

8. Ibid.

9. The Daily Telegraph, courtesy British Newspaper Archives (BNA)

10. The Standard, courtesy British Newspaper Archives (BNA)

11. Indian Sociologist. July 1907, p. 35.

12. A.C. Bose. Indian Revolutionaries Abroad: 1905-1927. Select Documents. New Delhi: Northern Book Centre, 2002, p. 15.

13. Home (Political), 1908, No. 1: ‘Diary of Political Events, 1907’, National Archives of India, New Delhi.

14. Weekly Report of the Director of Criminal Intelligence, 30 September 1907, POS 3094, British Library, London; Richard Popplewell. ‘The Surveillance of Indian Revolutionaries in Great Britain and on the Continent, 1905–14’, Intelligence and National Security. 3.1 (1998): 56–76, p. 59. O’Brien was posing as a member of the staff of the New York Gaelic American, Weekly Report for 28 September 1907 in H.D.(B); October 1907, Nos. 40–49.

15. Weekly Report dated 23 January 1909 H.D.(B); February 1909, Nos. 2–11 from Richard Popplewell. ‘The Surveillance of Indian Revolutionaries in Great Britain and on the Continent, 1905–14’, Intelligence and National Security. 3.1 (1998): 56–76, p. 135.

16. Madame Cama to the editor of the Indian Sociologist. quoted in the Proceedings of the Home Department, July 1913, Notes–Political–A, July 1913, pp. 4. OIOC, POS 6052, British Library, London.

17. Weekly Report of the DCI, 6 December 1910, OIOC, POS 3095, British Library, London.

18. Weekly Report of the DCI, 12 December 1910, OIOC, POS 3095, British Library, London.

19. David Garnett. The Golden Echo, Vol. I. (New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1954), pp. 143–44.

20. Courtesy British Newspaper Archive (BNA).

21. Some opine that this flag was designed by Hemchandra Kanungo. See K.V. Singh. Our National Flag (Delhi: Publications Division, Government of India, 1991), pp. 30–32; Arundhati Virmani. A National Flag for India: Rituals, Nationalism and the Politics of Sentiment ( Ranikhet: Permanent Black, 2008), pp. 61–62.

22. Emily C. Brown. Har Dayal: Hindu Revolutionary and Rationalist (New Delhi: Manohar Book Service, 1975), p. 68.

23. The Mahratta. 29 October 1937. There is no mention of the colours and their correlation with communities in his speech.

24. Harindra Srivastava. Five Stormy Years: Savarkar in London. p. 67.

25. Bulu Roy Chowdhury. Madame Cama: A Short Life Sketch. pp. 15–16.

26. A.C. Bose. Indian Revolutionaries Abroad: 1905-1927. Select Documents. pp. 15–17.

27. Ibid., p. 16.

28. ‘History Sheet of Madame Bhikaji Cama prepared by the Criminal Intelligence Office—August 1913, No. 61’; A.C. Bose. Indian Revolutionaries Abroad: 1905-1927. Select Documents. 2002, p. 63.

29. Emily. C. Brown. Har Dayal: Hindu Revolutionary and Rationalist. 1975, p. 62.

30. R.A. Padmanabhan. V.V.S. Aiyar ( New Delhi: National Book Trust, 1980), p. 20.

31. Oral Archives: Transcripts of Interviews at Nehru Memorial Museum and Library (NMML), Delhi.

32. Y.D. Phadke. Senapati Bapat (Delhi: National Book Trust, 1993), p. 14.

33. Ibid.

34. Ibid., p. 15. The original reference in this book is also an article by Senapati Bapat himself for the Marathi newspaper Daily Navakal. 22 July 1956.

35. V.D. Savarkar. Newsletters from London. dated 19 July 1907. http://satyashodh.com/Savarkar%20Newsletters1A.htm#d14

36. David Garnett. The Golden Echo, Vol. I. p. 157. See also Janaki Bakhle. ‘Savarkar (1883–1966), Sedition and Surveillance: the Rule of Law in a Colonial Situation’. Social History 35.1 (2010): 51–75.

37. Home (Political), December 1908, National Archives of India, New Delhi and IOR Files, British Library, London.

38. Richard Popplewell. ‘The Surveillance of Indian Revolutionaries in Great Britain and on the Continent, 1905–14’. Intelligence and National Security. 3.1 (1998): 56–76, p. 57.

39. Known also as CID or Criminal Intelligence Department.

40. Note of H.A. Stuart, Director, Criminal Intelligence Department, 13 June 1907, Home (Political), May 1908, No. 1: ‘Proposed formation of a political service under the control of the Criminal Intelligence Department to furnish information about the spread of sedition’, National Archives of India, New Delhi.

41. J&P, 826/04 in L/PJ/6/670; ‘The Establishment of a Central Criminal Investigation Department in India’, British Library, London.

42. Note of C. J. Stevenson-Moore, officiating director, Criminal Intelligence, 13 May 1908, Home (Political), May 1908, No. 1, National Archives of India, New Delhi.

43. ‘Personal Correspondence of Secretary of State Morley’, 1908, Private Manuscripts, IOR/MSS/EUR/D/1090/2, British Library, London.

44. Harold Brust. I Guarded Kings ( New York: Hillman-Curl, Inc., 1936), pp. 106–08.

45. ‘Internal Correspondence’ 1907, Public and Judicial Department IOR/L/PJ/6/994, British Library, London.

46. M.P.T. Acharya. Reminiscences of an Indian Revolutionary. Edited by B.D. Yadav (New Delhi: Anmol Publications, 1991), p. 83.

47. Ibid.

48. Ibid.

49. Ibid., p. 84.

50. ‘Subversive Speeches at India House’. See Paul Schaffel, ‘Empire and Assassination: Indian Students, “India House”, and Information Gathering in Great Britain, 1898-1911’, unpublished dissertation, Wesleyan University, 2012, p. 94.

51. M.P.T. Acharya. Reminiscences of an Indian Revolutionary. pp. 86–87.

52. IOR/L/PS/8/67; Sep 1909-Sep 1913; Employment and expenses of Indian informant, Sajani Ranjan Banerjea, alias Sukasagar Dutt, to watch Indian students in London ; British Library, London.

53. Ibid. Letter dated 26 August 1913.

54. Kirtikar’s existence in India House as a spy is produced from Koregaonkar’s testimony. He also appears in Bakhle’s account of surveillance during this period. He is also mentioned in Padmanabhan (pp. 36–41), Dhananjay Keer and Harindra Srivastava in their accounts. However, he is conspicuously absent in the accounts of Popplewell, who instead mentions an agent cryptically named ‘C’ who infiltrated India House successfully around the same time as Kirtikar. Whether this ‘C’ was Kirtikar is unknown.

55. Richard Popplewell, ‘The Surveillance of Indian Revolutionaries in Great Britain and on the Continent, 1905–14’, p. 67.

56. Shreedhar Raghunath Vartak, Swatantryaveer Savarkaranchi Prabhaval (Nasik: S.R. Vartak, 1972), p. 76.

57. V.M. Bhat. Abhinav Bharat athava Savarkaranchi Krantikari Gupta Sanstha (Mumbai: G.P. Parchure Prakashan Mandir, 1950), p. 87.

58. Vartak, Shridhar Raghunath. Swatantryaveer Savarkaranchi Prabhaval (Nasik: S.R. Vartak, 1972), p. 79.

59. Home (Political) / December 1908, 8 June 1908, National Archives of India, New Delhi.

60. Home Department/Political/60-A, 23 August 1908, National Archives of India, New Delhi.

61. Radhika Singha. ‘Settle, Mobilize, Verify: Identification Practices in Colonial India’. Studies in History 16.2 (2000): 151–98, p. 193. Bhangis were, as Singha mentions, ‘those who removed filth from habitations— treated as a highly polluting social strata in India, and were forced to wear distinguishing clothing’.

62. IOR/L/PJ/6/920; ‘Establishment of a miniature rifle range at India house’, Highgate; British Library, London.

63. Sedition Committee Report 1918, Secret report published by the Government of India, p. 31.

64. Ibid.

65. Thomas Frost. The Secret Societies of the European Revolution, 1776-1876. Vols. 1 & 2. ( London: Tinsley, 1876).

66. Ibid., p. 32.

67. Home Department/Political 1909, Important Documents at Ganesh Damodar Savarkar’s House, National Archives of India, New Delhi.

68. Home Department/Political 1909-60-A, S-21, National Archives of India, New Delhi.

69. Ibid.

70. Ibid.; Letter dated 27 May 1909 C.J. Stevenson-Moore, Officiating Director, Criminal Intelligence.

71. English translation of the biography of Babarao Savarkar. http://savarkar.org/en/pdfs/babarao-savarkar-v003.pdf. p. 21.

72. Ibid., p. 22.

73. Ibid.

74. Ibid., p. 31.

75. Details about the insults Yesu Vahini from Uttara Sahasrabuddhe. Bharatiya Swatantryaladhyatil Streeya (Pune: Mehta Publishing House, n.d.)

76. English translation of the biography of Babarao Savarkar. http://savarkar.org/en/pdfs/babarao-savarkar-v003.pdf. p. 24

77. CID Circular No. 11, 28 October 1909, British Library, London, p. 7.

78. Home Political, May 1910, No. 1, National Archives of India, New Delhi.

79. Daniel Brückenhaus. ‘The Transnational Surveillance of Anti-Colonialist Movements in Western Europe, 1905-1945’. Unpublished dissertation, Yale University, 2011, p. 57.

80. Proceedings of the Foreign Department, February 1906, Pro. No. 44, p 1–4, National Archives of India, New Delhi.

81. Foreign Department Notes, Internal-B, February 1910; Nos 9–10, p. 1, National Archives of India, New Delhi.

82. Home Political, May 1910, No. 1, National Archives of India, New Delhi.

83. From the testimony of Miss Beck, ‘Proceedings of the Central Criminal Court, 19 July 1909; The trial of Madan Lal Dhingra’ CRIM 1/1135, National Archives of UK, London.

84. Ibid. Journalist Douglas William Thorburn’s testimony.

85. Ibid.

86. Dundee Evening Telegraph. 6 July 1909, British Newspaper Archive (BNA).

87. Testimony of Constable Frederick Nicholls and Detective Sergeant Frank Eadly; also Dundee Evening Telegraph. 6 July 1909, British Newspaper Archive (BNA).

88. The Times. 6 July 1909, p. 10.

89. V.N. Datta. Datta Madan Lal Dhingra and the Revolutionary Movement. (New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House, 1986), pp. 46–51.

90. Dundee Evening Telegraph. 6 July 1909, British Newspaper Archive (BNA).

91. ‘Information About the Revolutionary Party in London from H. K. Koregaonkar of India House’, 1909, Political Department: Indian States, IOR/R/R/1/1/10, British Library, London. Shompa Lahiri too talks about the ‘particularly crude and racist’ articles of the newspaper that spoke of Indians as dangerous sexual deviants, Shompa Lahiri. Indians in Britain: Anglo-Indian Encounters, Race and Identity, 1880-1930 ( London and Portland, OR: Frank Cass, 2000), p. 89.

92. Testimony of Henry Stanton Morley, proprietor of an exhibition of automatic machines and the shooting range.

93. M.P.T. Acharya. Reminiscences of an Indian Revolutionary. p. 92.

94. Ibid.

95. Dhananjay Keer. Veer Savarkar. p. 52.

96. Ibid., p. 53.

97. Arguments to this effect have been made by A.G. Noorani. Savarkar and Hindutva: The Godse Connection ( New Delhi: Leftword Books, 2002), p. 14–15.

98. Testimony of Superintendent Alfred Isaac, National Archives of UK, London.

99. Testimony of Sub-Divisional Inspector Charles Glass, National Archives of UK, London.

100. Testimony of Inspector Albert Draper, National Archives of UK, London.

101. Dundee Evening Telegraph. 7 July 1909, British Newspaper Archive (BNA).

102. IOR/L/PJ/6/961: Files related to murder of Sir Curzon Wyllie, British Library, London.

103. Harindra Srivastav. Five Stormy Years: Savarkar in London. p. 155.

104. EPP 2/1, Bande Mataram. 10 September 1909, British Library, London.

105. Dublin Daily Express. 6 July 1909, British Newspaper Archive (BNA).

106. Birmingham Daily Gazette. 6 July 1909, British Newspaper Archive (BNA).

107. Ibid.

108. He is mentioned as ‘Mr Palmer’ by M.P.T. Acharya in his Reminiscences of an Indian Revolutionary. p. 94.

109. Ibid.

110. The Times. 8 July 1909, British Newspaper Archive (BNA); London Evening Standard, 8 July 1909, British Newspaper Archive (BNA).

111. The Daily Dispatch and also Northampton Chronicle and Echo. 7 July 1909, British Newspaper Archive (BNA).

112. The Bolton Evening News. 13 July 1909, British Newspaper Archive (BNA).

113. The Homeward Mail from India, China and the East, 19 July 1909, British Newspaper Archive (BNA).

114. The Mahratta. 3 September 1937.

115. Memoirs of Pandurang Sadashiv Khankhoje, File no. 1, P.S. Khankhoje Collection.

116. The Telegraph, 12 July 1909, British Newspaper Archive (BNA).

117. Testimony of Dr Thomas Neville, Trial of Madan Lal Dhingra, National Archives of UK, London.

118. The Telegraph. 12 July 1909, British Newspaper Archive (BNA).

119. The Trial of Madan Lal Dhingra, National Archives of UK, London.

120. Ibid.

121. Ibid.

122. Dhananjay Keer. Veer Savarkar. p. 56.

123. Daily News. 16 August 1909, BNA.

124. W.S. Blunt. My Diaries, Being a Personal Narrative of Events, 1884-1914. Vol. II (New York: Knopf, 1921), p. 288.

125. The Daily News. 18 August 1909, British Newspaper Archive (BNA).

126. Harindra Srivastava. Five Stormy Years: Savarkar in London. p. 170.

127. Paul Schaffel. ‘Empire and Assassination: Indian Students, “India House”, and Information Gathering in Great Britain, 1898-1911’, unpublished dissertation, Wesleyan University, 2012, p. 87.

128. Ibid., pp. 170–71.

129. P&J Dept. 1909, No. 956, British Library, London.

130. W.S. Blunt, Secret History of the English Occupation of Egypt. Part II (London, 1907), pp. 267–68.

131. The Times. 10 July 1909, British Newspaper Archive (BNA).

132. Indian Sociologist. July 1909.

133. Ibid.. August 1909.

134. Indulal Yagnik. Shyamji Krishna Varma: Life and Times of an Indian Revolutionary. p. 263.

135. Ibid.

136. The Times. 1 March 1909, British Newspaper Archive (BNA).

137. Ibid.. 19 March 1909, British Newspaper Archive (BNA).

138. Indian Sociologist. August 1909.

139. Ibid.

140. Ibid.

141. Case/Trial Details: Trial of Guy A. Aldred; CRIM 1/114/4, National Archives of UK, London.

142. The Bande Mataram, September 1909, published by Bhikaji Cama from Geneva, Switzerland; British Library, London. (The location is mentioned as ‘Post Restante’. It is not a proper residential address but a message to say ‘Send my post to the local post office and not to my home address and I shall collect it from the post office’. It was a way of concealing one’s home address.)

143. Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi. Vol. 9, 23 July 1908 to 4 August 1909, pp. 428–29. https://www.gandhiashramsevagram.org/gandhiliterature/ mahatma-gandhi-collected-works-volume-9.pdf

144. Ibid.. Vol. 10, 5 August 1909–9 April 1910, p. 258. https://www.gandhiashramsevagram.org/ga ... collected- works-volume-10.pdf

145. Ibid., p. 259.

146. Ibid., p. 195.

147. Ibid., p. 190.

148. Harindra Srivastava. Five Stormy Years: Savarkar in London. pp. 186–87.

149. Chitragupta. Life of Barrister Savarkar. p. 126.

150. ‘Personal Correspondence of Secretary of State Morley’, July 1909, Private Manuscripts, IOR/MSS/EUR/D/573/21, British Library, London.

151. Richard Popplewell. ‘The Surveillance of Indian Revolutionaries in Great Britain and on the Continent, 1905–14’. Intelligence and National Security. 3.1 (1998): 56–76, p. 62.

152. A.C. Bose. Indian Revolutionaries Abroad: 1905-1927. Select Documents. p. 55.

153. Ibid., p. 70.

154. David Garnett. The Golden Echo, Vol. I, p. 148.

155. Weekly Report of the DCI, 23 October 1909, OIOC, POS 3094, British Library, London.

156. Ibid., 25 December 1909, OIOC, POS 3095, British Library, London.

157. David Garnett. The Golden Echo, Vol. I. pp. 148–49.

158. English translation of the biography of Babarao Savarkar, http://savarkar.org/en/pdfs/babarao-savarkar-v003.pdf., pp. 34–35

159. Published in the Mahratta. 27 May 1938.

160. Translation by Anurupa Cinar, http://anurupacinar.net/wpcontent/ uploads/2013/09/Sagaras-Translation.pdf

Chapter 6: Endgame London

1. Bimanbehari Majumdar. Militant Nationalism in India and Its Socioreligious Background, 1897–1917 (Calcutta: General Printers & Publishers, 1966), p. 94.

2. Testimony of Vishwanath Krishna Kale.

3. The entire episode of the Jackson murder in Nashik has been gleaned and reconstructed from extensive original sources of the court proceedings, witness depositions and the trial. Source material: ‘Savarkar Case; Trial and Conviction; Question of Extradition in Case of Failure at the Hague’, 9 December 1910 to 23 February 1911; IOR/L/PJ/6/1069, File No. 778.

4. Testimony of Ganesh Balwant Vaidya.

5. Nasik Trial Judgment: Karve, Deshpande, Soman, Waman Joshi, Ganu and Datoo Joshi were arrested on 24, 23, 30, 22 and 22 December 1909 respectively. They made their statements on 6, 6, 3, 4, 2 and 5 January 1910 respectively.

6. Source: Testimonies of the accused accessed from ‘Savarkar Case; Trial and Conviction; Question of Extradition in Case of Failure at the Hague’, 9 December 1910 to 23 February 1911; IOR/L/PJ/6/1069, File No. 778.

7. Aberdeen Press and Journal and The Times. 23 December 1909, British Newspaper Archive (BNA).

8. Daily Telegraph. 23 December 1909, British Newspaper Archive (BNA).

9. Belfast Telegraph. 31 December 1909, British Newspaper Archive (BNA).

10. Emily. C. Brown. Har Dayal: Hindu Revolutionary and Rationalist. p. 79.

11. Harindra Srivastava. Five Stormy Years: Savarkar in London, p. 200.

12. Mlechchha means a non-Aryan tribe, a Greek settler in India, from that a non-Indian, thus a foreigner, the British in this case.

13. Indian Sociologist. January 1910.

14. Ibid.

15. This is suggested in S.L. Karandikar. Savarkar Charitra Kathan ( Pune: Modern Book Depot Prakashan, 1947), p. 332.

16. ‘Savarkar Case; Trial and Conviction; Question of Extradition in Case of Failure at the Hague’, 9 December 1910 to 23 February 1911; IOR/L/PJ/6/1069, File No. 778.

17. Incident narrated by Jaywant D. Joglekar. Veer Savarkar: Father of Hindu Nationalism (n.p., 2006) and also by Harindra Srivastava, Five Stormy Years: Savarkar in London.

18. R.A Padmanabhan. V. V. S. Aiyar, p. 73.

19. Harindra Srivastava. Five Stormy Years: Savarkar in London. p. 207.

20. Home Department/Political/Notes, 60-B, 1910; National Archives, New Delhi, p. 269.

21. Ibid., p. 271.

22. ‘The Savarkar Conspiracy’, Herald of Revolt. October 1912 issue (Guy Aldred, London).

23. Italicized comments by Guy Aldred.

24. Janaki Bakhle. ‘Savarkar (1883–1966), Sedition and Surveillance: the Rule of Law in a Colonial Situation’. Social History 35.1 (2010): 51–75, pp. 68– 69.

25. Larry Collins and Dominique Lapierre. Freedom at Midnight (Noida: Vikas Publishing House, 2016), p. 361.

26. Indulal Yagnik. Shyamji Krishna Varma: Life and Times of an Indian Revolutionary. pp. 286–87.

27. Daily Telegraph. 19 March 1910, British Newspaper Archive (BNA).

28. Willesden Chronicle. 25 March 1910, British Newspaper Archive (BNA).

29. Globe. 14 March 1910, British Newspaper Archive (BNA).

30. Daily Telegraph. 15 March 1910. Alleged Indian Sedition: Murder Abetment Charge, British Newspaper Archive (BNA).

31. IOR/J&P 847-1910: 189/349/2, British Library, London.

32. Harindra Srivastava. Five Stormy Years: Savarkar in London. p. 219.

33. Ibid., pp. 220–21. Letter from Aiyar to Shyamji from 81, Clarendon Road, North Kensington (West), dated 15 March 1910.

34. Ibid., pp. 222–23.

35. Dhananjay Keer. Veer Savarkar. p. 67.

36. David Garnett. The Golden Echo, Vol. I. pp. 151–52.

37. Harindra Srivastava. Five Stormy Years: Savarkar in London. pp. 224–27. For full text of the Will and Testament, see Appendix II.

38. Bose, A.C. Indian Revolutionaries Abroad: 1905-1927. Select Documents. p. 33.

39. Koregaonkar’s testimony from IOR/L/PJ/6/1069: ‘Savarkar Case: Trial and Conviction’, British Library, London.

40. ‘Judgment’ of the Special Tribunal Cases No. 2, 3, and 4 of 1910, pp. 8–9; from IOR/L/PJ/6/1069: ‘Savarkar Case: Trial and Conviction’, British Library, London.

41. Ibid.

42. ‘Testimony of Chanjeri Rao’, from IOR/L/PJ/6/1069: ‘Savarkar Case: Trial and Conviction’, British Library, London.

43. R. A. Padmanabhan. V. V. S. Aiyar. p. 80.

44. Solicitor General Sir Rufus Isaacs was later the viceroy of India, Lord Reading.

45. The Times. 25 April 1910.

46. Ibid. Here, Vinayak makes reference to the Arms Act of 1878 rendering it illegal for Indians to possess guns and any other weapons.

47. The Times. 2 May 1910.

48. London Daily News. 10 May 1910, British Newspaper Archive (BNA).

49. The Times. 3 June 1910.

50. Ibid.

51. Section 2 of the FOA reads: ‘When a person accused of having committed an offence (to which this part of the Act applies) in one part of (His) Majesty’s dominions, such person (in this Act referred to as a fugitive from that part) if found in another part of (His) Majesty’s dominions shall be liable to be apprehended and returned in manner provided by this Act to the part from which he is a fugitive.’

52. London Daily News. 3 June 1910, British Newspaper Archive (BNA).

53. Section 33 of the FOA: ‘Where a person accused of an offence can... be under this Act, or otherwise, tried for or in respect of the offence in more than one part of H.M’s Dominions, a warrant for the apprehension of such person may be issued in any part of (His) Majesty’s Dominions, in which he can, if he happens to be there, be tried, and each part of this Act shall apply as if the offence had been committed in the part of (His) Majesty’s Dominions where such warrant is issued, and such person may be apprehended and returned in pursuance of this Act, notwithstanding that in the place in which he is apprehended, a Court has jurisdiction to try him.’

54. Section 10 of the FOA: ‘Where it is made to appear to a Supreme Court that, by reason of the trivial nature of the case, or by reason of the application for the return of a fugitive not being made in good faith in the interests of justice or otherwise, it would, having regard to the distance, to the facilities of communication, and to all the circumstances of the case, be unjust or oppressive or too severe a punishment to return the fugitive either at all, or until the expiration of a certain period, such Court may discharge the fugitive, either absolutely or on bail, or order that he shall not be returned until after the expiration of the period named in the order, or may make some such other order in the premises as the Court seems just.’

55. The Times. 4 June 1910.

56. ‘The Savarkar Conspiracy’, Herald of Revolt. Vol. 2, No. 10, London, October 1912; IOR/L/PJ/6/1198; File 3899, ‘Proposed Prohibition of the “Savarkar Issue” of Herald of Revolt’. British Library, London.

57. The Times. 17 June 1910.

58. The Times. 21 June 1910.

59. Ibid., 22 June 1910.

60. ‘The Savarkar Conspiracy’, Herald of Revolt. Vol. 2, No. 10, London, October 1912; IOR/L/PJ/6/1198; File 3899, ‘Proposed Prohibition of the “Savarkar Issue”’ of Herald of Revolt’ ; British Library, London.

61. Ibid.

62. A left-wing Irish republican political party that was active in both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. It was founded by Arthur Griffith on 28 November 1905. It had close associations with several Indian revolutionaries including Shyamji, Madame Cama and Vinayak Savarkar.

63. David Garnett. The Golden Echo, Vol. I. p. 157.

64. Harindra Srivastava. Five Stormy Years: Savarkar in London. p. 234.

65. Government of Bombay, Home Department (Special) 60-B/1910, 18/195, Maharashtra State Archives, Mumbai.

66. Herald of Revolt. October 1912, p. 99.

67. Harindra Srivastava. Five Stormy Years: Savarkar in London. pp. 235–36.

68. R.A. Padmanabhan, V.V.S. Aiyar. pp. 85–86.
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Re: Savarkar: Echoes from a Forgotten Past by Vikram Sampath

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Part 2 of 3

Chapter 7: L’Affaire Savarkar

1. ‘Savarkar Case: Conduct of the Police Officials’. IOR/L/PJ/6/1058, File No. 284, 26 March 1910 to 25 January 1911, British Library, London.

2. This entire sequence has been reconstructed from the several letters exchanged between officers and the departmental inquiry reports that contain the testimonies of all the key players in this incident. Gleaned from: ‘Savarkar Case: Conduct of the Police Officials’. IOR/L/PJ/6/1058, File No. 284, 26 March 1910 to 25 January 1911, British Library, London.

3. Harindra Srivastava. Five Stormy Years: Savarkar in London, p. 247.

4. Translation by Anurupa Cinar, http://anurupacinar.net/wpcontent/ uploads/2013/09/Atmabal-Translation.pdf

5. Statement of Mr Guider, ‘Savarkar Case: Conduct of the Police Officials’. IOR/L/PJ/6/1058, File No, 284, 26 March 1910 to 25 January 1911, British Library, London.

6. No. 5730 of 1910, Judicial Department. ‘Savarkar Case: Conduct of the Police Officials’. IOR/L/PJ/6/1058, File No. 284, 26 March 1910 to 25 January 1911, British Library, London.

7. Ibid., p. 253.

8. Quoted in a letter from L.D. Carnegie of the British Embassy in Paris to Sir Edward Grey, Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs. ‘V.D. Savarkar: Arrest and Extradition; Escape and Recapture at Marseilles’. IOR/L/PJ/6/994. British Library, London.

9. Quoted in Daily Gazette. 25 July 1910, British Newspaper Archive (BNA).

10. Daily Press. 21 July 1910, British Newspaper Archive (BNA).

11. London Daily News. 20 July 1910, British Newspaper Archive (BNA).

12. Weekly Report of the DCI, 27 September 1910 and 11 October 1910, p. 2, OIOC, POS 3095, British Library, London.

13. Weekly Report of the DCI, 23 August 1910, OIOC, POS 3095, British Library, London.

14. Weekly Report of the DCI, 16 August 1910, OIOC, POS 3095, British Library, London.

15. Weekly Report of the DCI, 8 November 1910, OIOC, POS 3095, British Library, London.

16. ‘Shall he be given up?’, Evening Telegraph. 25 July 1910, BNA.

17. No. 26218/10 and no. 280 (26255), IOR/L/PJ/6/1058, File No. 284, 26 March 1910 to 25 January 1911, British Library, London.

18. J. & P. 2395. IOR/L/PJ/6/1058, File No. 284, 26 March 1910 to 25 January 1911, British Library, London.

19. Telegram from the governor of Bombay, 23 July 1910, IOR/L/PJ/6/1058, File No. 284, 26 March 1910 to 25 January 1911, British Library, London.

20. J. & P. 2521, IOR/L/PJ/6/1058, File No. 284, 26 March 1910 to 25 January 1911, British Library, London.

21. Note on Minute dated 29 July 1910, #1441063, National Archives, London.

22. Minutes of Interdepartmental Committee Meeting, IOR/L/PJ/6/1058, File No. 284, 26 March 1910 to 25 January 1911, British Library, London.

23. Annex 2–Copy of Opinion of Attorney General on Savarkar’s case. IOR/L/PJ/6/1058, File No. 284, 26 March 1910 to 25 January 1911, British Library, London.

24. Telegram from governor of Bombay, 5 August 1910, IOR/L/PJ/6/1058, File No. 284, 26 March 1910 to 25 January 1911, British Library, London.

25. Telegram from Secretary of State to governor of Bombay, 15 August 1910, IOR/L/PJ/6/1058, File No. 284, 26 March 1910 to 25 January 1911, British Library, London.

26. Annex 2–Foreign Office statement dated 24 September 1910, IOR/L/PJ/6/1058, File No. 284, 26 March 1910 to 25 January 1911, British Library, London.

27. ‘Savarkar Case: Conduct of the Police Officials’, IOR/L/PJ/6/1058, File No. 284, 26 March 1910 to 25 January 1911, British Library, London.

28. Telegram from governor of Bombay, 20 August 1910, IOR/L/PJ/6/1058, File No. 284, 26 March 1910 to 25 January 1911, British Library, London.

29. Annex 2–Foreign Office statement dated 24 September 1910, IOR/L/PJ/6/1058, File No. 284, 26 March 1910 to 25 January 1911, British Library, London.

30. Ibid.

31. Letter from F.A. Campbell dated 30 September 1910, ‘Savarkar Case: Proceedings at The Hague (including result)’, IOR/L/PJ/6/1077, File No. 1131, British Library, London.

32. J. & P. 3317. IOR/L/PJ/6/1058, File No. 284, 26 March 1910 to 25 January 1911, British Library, London.

33. FO 881/9746 ‘Savarkar Arbitration Case’, National Archives, London.

34. Ibid. Appendix.

35. ‘Savarkar Case: Trial and Conviction; Question of Extradition in Case of Failure at the Hague’, IOR/L/PJ/6/1069, File No. 778, 9 December 1910 to 23 February 1911, British Library, London.

36. The Times. 7 October 1910, British Newspaper Archive (BNA).

37. Homeward Mail from India, China, and the East. 15 August 1910, British Newspaper Archive (BNA).

38. ‘Savarkar case: Reference to Arbitration’, IOR/L/PJ/6/1069, File No. 3823, 30 September 1910 to 10 February 1911, British Library, London.

39. London Daily News. 23 August 1910, BNA.

40. Born on 2 December 1855, Narayan Ganesh Chandavarkar was a Saraswat Brahmin. He served as a Dakshina Fellow at Elphinstone College and completed his law degree in 1881. In 1885, he was sent to England as part of a three-member committee to advocate Indian general elections in Britain. On his return, he joined the INC on 28 December 1885 and became president of the Lahore Congress Session in 1900. In 1901, he was appointed a judge at Bombay High Court. For his loyalty and service, the British knighted him in 1910. In fact, the judge who had sentenced Tilak in the sedition case, Justice Dawar, was also knighted immediately after passing the sentence. (Source: M.C. Chagla. Roses in December: An Autobiography [ Bombay: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, 1975]). He was appointed as the first non-political president of the Bombay Legislative Assembly after the Montagu–Chelmsford Reforms. Even today his statue stands at the Bombay University Convocation Hall and his portrait hangs in the Bombay High Court. While Jawaharlal Nehru was studying at Harrow, his father, Motilal Nehru, sent him a letter with a photograph of Chandavarkar, advising him to follow the latter as his ideal. (Source: B.R. Nanda. The Nehrus: Motilal and Jawaharlal [London: Allen & Unwin, 1962]).

41. ‘Savarkar Case: Trial and Conviction; Question of Extradition in Case of Failure at the Hague’, 9 December 1910 to 23 February 1911, IOR/L/PJ/6/1069, File No. 778.

42. Harindra Srivastava. Five Stormy Years: Savarkar in London. pp. 265–66.

43. Ibid., p. 267.

44. As listed in the warrant of arrest issued against Vinayak dated 8 February 1910 by a magistrate of first class for Nasik, Bombay Presidency. ‘Savarkar Case: Trial and Conviction; Question of Extradition in Case of Failure at the Hague’, 9 December 1910 to 23 February 1911, IOR/L/PJ/6/1069, File No. 778.

45. Ibid. Judgment in the Case.

46. The Poona branch was led by Keshav Shripad Chandwadkar, popularly known as Brahmagiri Bua.

47. Sedition Committee Report, secret report published by Government of India, 1918, p. 32.

48. Key witnesses in the case were Raghunath Venkatesh Gosavi, Vaman Narhari Dani, Hari Narayan Pimple, Keshav Sakharam Sindhakar, Keshav Raoji Gondhalekar, Ramachandra Appaji Ballad, Kashinath Shamras Phatak, Chaturbhuj Jhaveribhai Amin Patidar, Harishchandra Krishnarao Koregaonkar, Chanjeri Rama Rao, Gopal Krishna Patankar, Ganesh Balwant Vaidya, Trimbak Krishna Burkule, Dattatraya Panduranga Joshi, Krishnaji Raoji Lele, Shaikh Lal, E.J. Parker, J.A. Guider and others. Their detailed oral testimonies are recorded in: ‘Savarkar Case: Trial and Conviction; Question of Extradition in Case of Failure at the Hague’, 9 December 1910 to 23 February 1911, IOR/L/PJ/6/1069, File No. 778.

49. Ibid.

50. J.A. Guider’s Testimony, ibid.

51. R.V. Gosavi’s testimony, ibid.

52. Incidentally, the manner of initiating members and the process of taking oaths was strikingly similar to how Mazzini recruited members for his ‘Young Italy’, as also was the process in other Italian secret societies such as Carbonari.

53. Bapu Joshi’s testimony: ‘Savarkar Case: Trial and Conviction; Question of Extradition in Case of Failure at the Hague’, 9 December 1910 to 23 February, IOR/L/PJ/6/1069, File No. 778.

54. Chaturbhuj Amin’s testimony, ibid.

55. Patankar’s testimony, ibid.

56. E. Parker’s testimony, ibid.

57. Judgment of the Nasik Conspiracy Case, ibid., p. 12.

58. Ibid.

59. Gopal Krishna Patankar’s testimony, ibid.

60. Barve’s testimony, ibid.

61. Kashikar’s testimony, ibid.

62. Narayanrao Damodar Savarkar’s testimony, ibid.

63. Judgment of the Nasik Conspiracy Case, ibid., p. 12.

64. Harindra Srivastava. Five Stormy Years: Savarkar in London. p. 269

65. This meant a jail term for twenty-five years.

66. Judgment of Nasik Conspiracy Case, pp. 13, 29, ‘Savarkar Case: Trial and Conviction; Question of Extradition in Case of Failure at the Hague’, 9 December 1910 to 23 February, IOR/L/PJ/6/1069, File no. 778.

67. Emperor vs Vinayak Damodar Savarkar. Case No. 1 of 1911, Judgment, ibid.

68. For the other accused the following punishments were meted: Keshav Shripad Chandwadkar (fifteen years); Gopal Krishna Patankar, Trimbak Gangadhar Marathe and Krishnaji Gopal Khare (ten years each); Vyankatesh Parashram Nagpurkar (seven years); Vishnu Mahadev Bhat, Sakharam Dadaji Gorhe, Purushottam Laxman Dandekar, Damodar Mahadev Chandratre and Gopal Govind Dharap (five years each); Shridhar Vasudev Shidhaye, Raghunath Vidyadhar Bhave, Damodar Chintaman Paranjpe and Vaman Kashinath Palande (four years each); Vishnu Ganesh Kelkar, Kashinath Daji Tonpe, Parashram Vaman Gokhale, Anant Vishnu Konkar and Vishwas Balwant Dawre (three years each); Vinayak Govind Tikhe, Balwant Ramachandra Barve and Sakharam Ranganath Kashikar (two years each); Narayan Damodar Savarkar, Vinayak Vasudev Manohar, Gangaram Rupchand and Raghunath Chintaman Ambedkar (rigorous imprisonment for six months). Vinayak Kashinath Gaidhani, Ramchandra Babaji Kathe, Govind Sadashiv Bapat, Hari Anant Thatte, Shankar Pandurang Mahajan, Mukund Pandurang Moghe, Keshav Ganesh Paranjpe, and Trimbak Vinayak Jog were acquitted and discharged. S.V. Vaidya, V.S. Barve and V.K. Phulamrikar had already been discharged at an early period of the trial. The judgment spelt a virtual death knell to the Abhinav Bharat as most of its important members were jailed and the ignominy and fear ensured that it lost all prevalent and future members as well. (Source: Nasik Case Trial Judgment; ‘Savarkar Case: Trial & Conviction: Question of Extradition in case of failure at the Hague’, File No. J. & P. 448/1911, British Library, London).

69. Harindra Srivastava. Five Stormy Years: Savarkar in London. pp. 283–84.

70. Letter from Eyre A. Crowe to Sir Edward Grey, 15 February 1911. ‘Savarkar Case: Proceedings at The Hague’ (including result), IOR/L/PJ/6/1077, File No. 1131, British Library, London.

71. Letter of Jean Longuet, ‘Savarkar Case: Proceedings at The Hague’ (including result), IOR/L/PJ/6/1077, File No. 1131, British Library, London.

72. Ibid.

73. Ibid.

74. Award delivered at The Hague, ‘Savarkar Case: Proceedings at The Hague’ (including result), IOR/L/PJ/6/1077, File No. 1131, British Library, London.

75. Ibid.

76. Harindra Srivastava. Five Stormy Years: Savarkar in London. p. 296.

77. Ibid., pp. 294–95.

78. Ibid., pp. 296–97.

79. Weekly Report of the DCI, 10 October 1911, OIOC, POS 3095, British Library, London.

80. Indulal Yagnik. Shyamji Krishna Varma: Life and Times of an Indian Revolutionary. p. 292.

81. Weekly Report of the DCI, 30 August 1910 and 11 October 1910, OIOC, POS 3095, British Library, London.

82. Guy Aldred, ‘The White Terror in India’, August 1910, EPP 1/3, British Library, London.

83. Herald of Revolt. March 1911.

84. Ibid., October 1912.

85. The descriptive roll of Vinayak Damodar Savarkar taken on the 9 February 1911 at Bombay has the following personal details about him: 26 years old as on date, Height: 5’-2 ½”, fair complexion, medium build, Chest measurement: 32 inches; Special marks: Broad forehead, high cheek bones, a scar (1/2” x 1/8”) on left frontal eminence, scar (3/4”x1/8” above inner end of right eyebrow, Scar (1/2”x1/8” above middle of left eyebrow). Is short-sighted and wears glasses. It was signed by the deputy inspector general of police, Criminal Investigation Department of Bombay on 10 February 1911. (Source: ‘Savarkar Case: Trial & Conviction: Question of Extradition in case of failure at the Hague’, File No. J. & P. 448/1911, British Library, London.)

86. V.D. Savarkar. My Transportation for Life, http://savarkar.org/en/pdfs/My- Transportation-for-Life-Veer-Savarkar.pdf. p. 15.

87. For references to Congress and Tilak’s Kesari. ibid., pp. 15–16.

88. Harindra Srivastava. Five Stormy Years: Savarkar in London. p. 297.

89. V.D. Savarkar. My Transportation for Life, http://savarkar.org/en/pdfs/My- Transportation-for-Life-Veer-Savarkar.pdf. p. 18.

90. Ibid., pp. 6, 19.

91. Memo by the Judicial Department in Government of India, Home Department, Letter no. 1555C, 28 February 1919, Bombay, File 60D(a)/1919: ‘Political Prisoners’, Maharashtra State Archives, Mumbai. The memorandum provided reference to Government letter no. 2022.

92. V.D. Savarkar. My Transportation for Life, http://savarkar.org/en/pdfs/My- Transportation-for-Life-Veer-Savarkar.pdf. p. 25.

93. Ibid., p. 27.

94. Ibid., pp. 28–30.

95. Dhananjay Keer. Veer Savarkar. p. 99.

96. Of all the convicts in the Presidency, the most hardened criminals, coldblooded murderers, rapists, heartless dacoits and others, who were deemed unfit to languish in any prison in the country, were the ones bundled up in steamers and dispatched to the Cellular Jail in the Andaman Island.

97. V.D. Savarkar. My Transportation for Life. http://savarkar.org/en/pdfs/My- Transportation-for-Life-Veer-Savarkar.pdf. p. 43.

Chapter 8: Sazaa-e-Kalapani

1. V.D. Savarkar. My Transportation for Life, http://savarkar.org/en/pdfs/My- Transportation-for-Life-Veer-Savarkar.pdf

2. All the details about the islands and the settlement gleaned from: R.C. Majumdar Penal Settlement in the Andamans (New Delhi: Gazetteers Unit, Dept. of Culture, Ministry of Education and Social Welfare, 1975, pp. 1–2); V.D. Savarkar. My Transportation for Life, http://savarkar.org/en/pdfs/My- Transportation-for-Life-Veer-Savarkar.pdf ); Barindranath Ghose. The Tale of My Exile (Pondicherry: Arya Office, 1922); Ullaskar Dutt. Twelve Years of Prison Life ( Calcutta: n.p. 1924); Sachindranath Sanyal. Bandi Jeevan (New Delhi: Atma Ram & Sons, 1963). Author’s interviews with Dr Rashida Iqbal, curator of Cellular Jail Memorial, Port Blair.

3. Letter from Sir Stamford Raffles, governor of Benkoelen to the Government of India in 1818, in which he also rues that this policy did not meet its desired objective of transforming the criminals.

4. L.P. Mathur. History of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. 1756–1966 (Delhi: Sterling Publishers, 1968).

5. R.C. Majumdar. Penal Settlement in the Andamans. pp. 62–63; Also interview with Dr Rashida Iqbal at Cellular Jail, Port Blair.

6. Alison Bashford and Carolyn Strange. Isolation: Places and Practices of Exclusion (London: Taylor & Francis, 2004), p. 37.

7. R.C. Majumdar. Penal Settlement in the Andamans. 1975, p. 119.

8. Document at Cellular Jail, 4 September 1914 from J. Hope Simpson, officiating chief commissioner of Andaman and Nicobar Islands and superintendent of Port Blair to the secretary to the Government of India’s home department describing the punishments meted to Vinayak and his stay in jail. Document courtesy Dr Rashida Iqbal, Cellular Jail, Port Blair.

9. V.D. Savarkar. My Transportation for Life. http://savarkar.org/en/pdfs/My- Transportation-for-Life-Veer-Savarkar.pdf. p. 63.

10. Upendranath Banerjee. Nirvasiter Atmakatha. n.p., n.d., p. 72.

11. V.D. Savarkar. My Transportation for Life. http://savarkar.org/en/pdfs/My- Transportation-for-Life-Veer-Savarkar.pdf. pp. 64–65.

12. Ibid., p. 65.

13. Barindra Kumar Ghose. The Tale of My Exile. p. 53.

14. V.D. Savarkar. My Transportation for Life. http://savarkar.org/en/pdfs/My- Transportation-for-Life-Veer-Savarkar.pdf. pp. 68–69.

15. Barindra Kumar Ghose. The Tale of My Exile. pp. 66–67.

16. Ibid., pp. 84.

17. V.D. Savarkar. My Transportation for Life. http://savarkar.org/en/pdfs/My- Transportation-for-Life-Veer-Savarkar.pdf. p. 86.

18. Ibid.

19. Barindra Kumar Ghose. The Tale of My Exile. p. 68.

20. Ibid., p. 100.

21. Ibid., pp. 71–72.

22. Ibid., p. 160.

23. V.D. Savarkar. My Transportation for Life. http://savarkar.org/en/pdfs/My- Transportation-for-Life-Veer-Savarkar.pdf. p. 139.

24. Barindra Kumar Ghose. The Tale of My Exile. p. 80.

25. 25. V.D. Savarkar. My Transportation for Life. http://savarkar.org/en/pdfs/My-Transpor ... varkar.pdf. p. 140.

26. Barindra Kumar Ghose. The Tale of My Exile., pp. 60–61.

27. Ullaskar Dutt. Twelve Years of Prison Life. p. 49.

28. Original article by Prem Vaidya published in Tumhi Ahmi Apan Saglech. a Marathi bimonthly (21 February–6 March 2000), edited by Avinash Dharmadhikari of Pune. Courtesy: Savarkar Smarark, Mumbai.

29. Barindra Kumar Ghose. The Tale of my Exile. p. 86.

30. V.D. Savarkar. My Transportation for Life. http://savarkar.org/en/pdfs/My- Transportation-for-Life-Veer-Savarkar.pdf. p. 82.

31. Ibid., p. 102.

32. Ibid., p. 149.

33. This version of Nand Gopal’s resistance is presented from Barindra Kumar Ghose. The Tale of My Exile. pp. 88–93.

34. Ibid., p. 90.

35. V.D. Savarkar. My Transportation for Life. http://savarkar.org/en/pdfs/My- Transportation-for-Life-Veer-Savarkar.pdf. p. 90.

36. Ibid., pp. 96–97.

37. Ibid., p. 101.

38. Ibid., p. 96.

39. English translation of the biography of Babarao Savarkar accessed online from http://savarkar.org/en/pdfs/babarao-savarkar-v003. p. 47.

40. V.D. Savarkar. My Transportation for Life. http://savarkar.org/en/pdfs/My- Transportation-for-Life-Veer-Savarkar.pdf. p. 103.

41. Dhananjay Keer. Veer Savarkar. p. 115.

42. The Jail History Ticket was a document that maintained a catalogue of the punishments given to a prisoner. This did not include the regular tasks, such as working on the oil mill or picking oakum, assigned to anyone. Even the punishments meted out were vastly underrated and reported, lest it catch the government’s attention.

43. ‘Jail History Ticket of V.D. Savarkar’ [1911–1921], Government of India, Home Department (Special), 60(D)-F/1921, Maharashtra State Archives, Mumbai. Vinayak’s Jail History Ticket also noted a petition submitted by him on 29 October 1912: ‘Petitioner [requested] to be released from Cellular Jail because he has been in sixteen months and that his conduct has been better.’ He sought to be released from Cellular Jail into the penal colony where ‘ordinary’ prisoners resided under much better conditions. That petition dated 29 October was rejected on 4 November 1912.

44. V.D. Savarkar. My Transportation for Life. http://savarkar.org/en/pdfs/My- Transportation-for-Life-Veer-Savarkar.pdf. p. 133.

45. Ibid., p. 148.

46. Ibid., p. 106.

47. Ibid., p. 114–15.

48. The ‘Jail Ticket’ mentions that he was allowed this information on 18 December 1912.

49. V.D. Savarkar. An Echo from Andamans. Poona: Venus Book Stall, 1947, p. 13.

50. Ibid., pp. 14–15.

51. Ibid., p. 15.

52. V.D. Savarkar. My Transportation for Life. http://savarkar.org/en/pdfs/My- Transportation-for-Life-Veer-Savarkar.pdf. p. 152.

53. Ibid., pp. 152–53.

54. EPP 2/11, Bande Mataram. July 1912, British Library, London.

55. R.C. Majumdar. Penal Settlement in the Andamans. p. 172.

56. Ibid.

57. Ibid., p. 173.

58. Ibid., p. 175.

59. Ibid.

60. Mahratta, 28 July 1912, courtesy Savarkar Smarak, Mumbai.

61. D.O. no. 18, 30 May 1912, Home. Poll. Dept. Cons. 1912, No 1. Quoted in R.C. Majumdar. Penal Settlement in the Andamans. pp. 181–82.

62. Letter from Medical Superintendent, Jail District, Port Blair, F.A. Baker, to Deputy Secretary of Home Department, M.S.D. Butler; Quoted in R.C. Majumdar. Penal Settlement in the Andamans. pp. 182–83.

63. V.D. Savarkar. My Transportation for Life. http://savarkar.org/en/pdfs/My- Transportation-for-Life-Veer-Savarkar.pdf. p. 155.

64. Ibid., p. 156.

65. Ibid., p. 157.

66. Ibid., p. 159.

67. Ibid.

68. Details from ‘Jail History Ticket of V.D. Savarkar’ [1911–1921], Government of India, Home Department (Special), 60(D)-F/1921, Maharashtra State Archives, Mumbai.

69. V.D. Savarkar. My Transportation for Life. http://savarkar.org/en/pdfs/My- Transportation-for-Life-Veer-Savarkar.pdf. p. 170.

70. Ibid., p. 171.

Chapter 9: The Jail Chronicles

1. V.D. Savarkar. My Transportation for Life. http://savarkar.org/en/pdfs/My- Transportation-for-Life-Veer-Savarkar.pdf. p. 174.

2. Ibid.

3. Petition from V.D. Savarkar (convict no. 32778) to the Home Member of the Government of India, 14 November 1913. GOI, Home Department (Political A), February 1915, #68–160, National Archives of India, New Delhi.

4. Someone transported for life.

5. A leave ticket confers a limited degree of freedom at the settlement wherein convicts were provided a six-month allowance by the authorities in a transitional stage leading to eventual promotion to ‘self-support’. It was hoped that ‘self-supporters’ act as independently employed settlers. In time, ‘self-supporters’ would be granted a pardon to freely settle in the Andamans.

6. Petition from Nand Gopal (Prisoner No. 32240) to the Home Member of the Government of India, 15 November 1913, quoted in R.C. Majumdar. Penal Settlement in the Andamans. p. 209.

7. Petition from V.D. Savarkar (convict no. 32778) to the Home Member of the Government of India, 14 November 1913, Government of India, Home Department (Political A), February 1915, #68–160, National Archives of India, New Delhi.

8. A.G. Noorani. Savarkar and Hindutva: The Godse Connection. pp. 51–55; Dhananjay Keer. Veer Savarkar. pp. 150–53.

9. Home Department, Pol A. Feb 1915, No. 68–160, quoted in R.C. Majumdar. Penal Settlement in the Andamans. pp. 202–03.

10. Ibid., pp. 204–05, 221–22.

11. ‘Jail History Ticket of V.D. Savarkar’ [1911–1921], Government of India, Home Department (Special), 60(D)-F/1921, Maharashtra State Archives, Mumbai.

12. IOR/L/PJ/1314. File no 2286, 12 June 1914–24 September 1914, ‘Report on V.D. Savarkar, imprisoned for importing weapons into India; treatment in prison in the Andamans’; British Library, London.

13. V.D. Savarkar. My Transportation for Life. http://savarkar.org/en/pdfs/My- Transportation-for-Life-Veer-Savarkar.pdf. p. 178.

14. First Boer War from 1880-1881 and Second Boer War from 1899-1902.

15. Shashi Tharoor. An Era of Darkness: The British Empire in India (New Delhi: Aleph Book Company, 2016), pp. 87–88.

16. Complete Works of Mahatma Gandhi. Vol. 14, pp. 291–92, https://www.gandhiashramsevagram.org/ga ... collected- works-volume-14.pdf

17. Vedica Cant. India and the First World War: ‘if I die here, who will remember me?’ (New Delhi: Roli Books, 2014).

18. Himani Savarkar. Tejasvi Taare (Mumbai: Savarkar Smarak, n.d.)

19. V.D. Savarkar. My Transportation for Life. http://savarkar.org/en/pdfs/My- Transportation-for-Life-Veer-Savarkar.pdf. p. 230.

20. Ibid., p. 232.

21. Ibid., pp. 230–31.

22. Petition sent by V.D. Savarkar to the Chief Commissioner, Andaman Islands, October 1914, Government of India, Home Department (Political A), National Archives of India, New Delhi. Full text in Appendix III.

23. ‘Jail History Ticket of V.D. Savarkar’ [1911–1921], Government of India, Home Department (Special), 60(D)-F/1921, Maharashtra State Archives, Mumbai.

24. Covering note to the ‘Petition of V.D. Savarkar’, IOR/L/PJ/6/1525, File no. 806; October 1917–March 1918, British Library, London.

25. Sedition Committee Report, pp. 119–25. Secret report published by Government of India in 1918.

26. James Campbell Kerr. Political Trouble in India: 1907-1917 (New Delhi: Orient Longman, 1973), pp. 241–42.

27. Alan. J. Ward. The Easter Rising: Revolution and Irish Nationalism (Wheeling, IL: Harlan Davidson, 1980), pp. 4, 99–102.

28. James Campbell Kerr. Political Trouble in India: 1907-1917. pp. 246–47.

29. Peter Hopkirk. Like Hidden Fire: The Plot to Bring Down the British Empire (New York: Kodansha, 1994).

30. This marginal note by the Kaiser on a telegram from the German ambassador in St Petersburg is quoted in Fritz Fischer, Griff nach der Weltmacht : die Kriegszielpolitik des kaiserlichen Deutschland 1914–18 (Dusseldorf: Droste, 2002) (original pub. 1962), p. 110.

31. The Kaiser’s comments to Bernhard Heinrich Karl Martin von Bülow, a German statesman who served as Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs for three years and then as Chancellor of the German Empire from 1900 to 1909, 11 August 1908, quoted in Nirode Barooah. India and the Official Germany, 1886–1914. (Frankfurt: Peter Lang, 1977), p. 59.

32. James Campbell Kerr. Political Trouble in India: 1907-1917. p. 252.

33. R21088-2, 114, clipping from Nieuws van den Dag reported to Nadolny, 3 September 1915, Politisches Archiv des Auswa r¨tigen Amts, Berlin.

34. 21084-2, 94–5, Papen to Foreign Office, 31 May 1916; Politisches Archiv des Auswa r¨tigen Amts, Berlin.

35. Sachindranath Sanyal. Bandi Jeevan. pp. 136–38.

36. Details of the ‘Siam Project’ and ‘Batavia Plan’ gleaned from James Campbell Kerr. Political Trouble in India: 1907-1917. pp. 259–65.

37. V.D. Savarkar. My Transportation for Life. http://savarkar.org/en/pdfs/My- Transportation-for-Life-Veer-Savarkar.pdf. pp. 246–47.

38. Ibid., p. 125.

39. Ibid., p. 181.

40. Ibid., pp. 198–99.

41. Ibid., p. 199.

42. Ibid., p. 199.

43. Ibid., p. 194.

44. Ibid., p. 196.

45. Ibid., p. 198.

46. English translation of the biography of Babarao Savarkar http://savarkar.org/en/pdfs/babarao-savarkar-v003.pdf. pp. 53–54.

47. J.E. Llewellyn. The Arya Samaj as a Fundamentalist Movement: A Study in Comparative Fundamentalism. ( New Delhi: Manohar, 1993), p. 99; see also, Kenneth W. Jones. ‘The Arya Samaj in British India, 1875-1947’, in Religion in Modern India. Robert Baird (ed.) (New Delhi: Manohar, 1976).

48. V.D. Savarkar. My Transportation for Life. http://savarkar.org/en/pdfs/My- Transportation-for-Life-Veer-Savarkar.pdf. pp. 218–19.

49. Ibid., pp. 317–18.

50. Ibid., pp. 283–85.

51. James Campbell Kerr. Political Trouble in India: 1907-1917. p. 372.

52. V.D. Savarkar. My Transportation for Life. http://savarkar.org/en/pdfs/My- Transportation-for-Life-Veer-Savarkar.pdf. p. 252.

53. Ibid., p. 210.

54. V.D. Savarkar. An Echo from Andamans. p. 55.

55. V.D. Savarkar. My Transportation for Life. http://savarkar.org/en/pdfs/My- Transportation-for-Life-Veer-Savarkar.pdf. p. 270.

56. Oral Archives–Interview transcript of Prithvi Singh Azad, Nehru Memorial Museum and Library (NMML), New Delhi.

57. Petition of V.D. Savarkar, IOR/L/PJ/6/1525, File no 806; October 1917– March 1918, British Library, London. Complete text in Appendix III.

58. Ibid.

59. John George Lambton, First Earl of Durham.

60. Ibid.

61. William Macneile Dixon. Summary of Constitutional Reforms for India: Being Proposals of Secretary of State Montagu and the Viceroy, Lord Chelmsford (New York: G.G. Woodwark, n.d.), p. 24.

62. Shane Ryland. ‘Edwin Montagu in India: Politics of the Montagu- Chelmsford Report’. South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies. (2011), pp. 79–92.

63. Philip Woods. ‘The Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms (1919): A Re- Assessment’. South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies. pp. 25–42.

64. Complete Works of Mahatma Gandhi. Vol. 19, https://www.gandhiashramsevagram.org/ga ... collected- works-volume-19.pdf, pp. 197–98.

65. Indian Annual Register. 1920, Part I, pp. 379–84. (Published by the Government of India.)

66. Complete Works of Mahatma Gandhi. Vol. 19, https://www.gandhiashramsevagram.org/ga ... collected- works-volume-19.pdf, pp. 197–98.

67. V.D. Savarkar. An Echo from Andamans. p. 56.

68. Ibid., p. 70.

69. V.D. Savarkar. My Transportation for Life. http://savarkar.org/en/pdfs/My- Transportation-for-Life-Veer-Savarkar.pdf. pp. 288–89.

70. An often-practised Hindu tradition where the wife gave up her maiden name after marriage to take on a new one that her husband’s family gave her during the ceremonies.

71. English translation of the biography of Babarao Savarkar, http://savarkar.org/en/pdfs/babarao-savarkar-v003.pdf. pp. 37–38.

72. Reference of her date of death from Uttara Sahasrabuddhe. Bharatiya Swatantryaladhyatil Streeya. The other date of her death mentioned by a few other authors is 20 April 1919.

73. V.D. Savarkar. An Echo from Andamans. p. 63.

74. IOR/L/PJ/6/1594, File No. 3132; February 1919–August 1920, The Rowlatt Bills and Disturbances in India: House of Commons questions and replies, British Library, London.

75. R.C. Majumdar. History of the Freedom Movement in India, Vol. 3 ( Calcutta: Firma K.L. Mukhopadhyay, 1962), p. 15.

76. Ibid., pp. 41–42.

77. Nigel Collett. The Butcher of Amritsar: General Reginald Dyer ( London: Hambledon, 2005), p. 323.

78. Complete Works of Mahatma Gandhi. Vol. 18, pp. 219–22, https://www.gandhiashramsevagram.org/ga ... collected- works-volume-18.pdf

79. V.D. Savarkar. My Transportation for Life. http://savarkar.org/en/pdfs/My- Transportation-for-Life-Veer-Savarkar.pdf. p. 300.

80. Indian Jails Committee Report, pp. 145–52. Government of India Publication, 1919-1920.

81. Ibid., p. 276.

82. ‘Royal Proclamation’ found in ‘Resolution recommending royal amnesty to the political prisoners, the Savarkar brothers, Bombay’, parliamentary question, IOR/L/PJ/6/1677, File no 3153, May 1920–June 1921, British Library, London.

83. 60D(b)/1919: ‘Political Prisoners: Proposed release of Ganesh Savarkar and Vinayak Savarkar in view of the Royal Amnesty,’ pp. 63–73, Maharashtra State Archives, Mumbai.

84. Refer to Appendix III.

85. Letter from Chief Commissioner, Andaman and Nicobar Islands to Government of India, Home Department, 20 May 1919, file 60D(a)/1919: Political Prisoners, 7, Maharashtra State Archives, Mumbai. It is not clear from the letter what these forbidden articles actually were.

86. Government of Bombay, Home Department, F. #60D(a)/1919, 7, Maharashtra State Archives, Mumbai.

87. Notes of the Government of India, Judicial Department, 29 May 1919, para. 2, 60D(a)/1919, 17, Maharashtra State Archives, Mumbai.

88. DuBoulay was quoting clause (iii) of paragraph 4 of the Government of India’s letter #1555C, 28 February 1919: ‘As regards persons convicted by Courts in British India, and sentenced under Chapter VI of the Indian Penal Code for offences against the State or for kindred offences either under special laws, such as the Newspapers (Incitement to Offences) Act or the provisions of laws which require the sanction of Government to a prosecution, the following principles have been suggested as appropriate: [. ..] (iii) Those who have been convicted of murder or attempted murder or abetment of murder to have any sentence above a single life sentence remitted.’

89. Telegram #4438 from Morrison, Government of Bombay to Superintendent, Port Blair, n.d. (ca May 1919).

90. Morrison, Internal Note, Government of Bombay, 30 May 1919, Maharashtra State Archives, Mumbai.

91. Confidential letter from Montgomery, Government of Bombay, Judicial Department, Bombay, 19 June 1920 to H. McPherson, Secretary to the Government of India, Home Department, in F# 60 D(b)/1919, 85. The Home Department’s recommendation was made in telegram #1439, Government of India, 8 December 1919. Maharashtra State Archives, Mumbai.

92. Letter from Government of India, Home (Political) to J. Crerar, Secretary to Government of Bombay, Delhi, 24 February 1920, F# 60D(b)/1919: ‘Political Prisoners: Proposed Release of Ganesh Savarkar and Vinayak Savarkar in View of the Royal Amnesty Announced in December 1919’, Maharashtra State Archives, Mumbai.

93. Demi-official no. 1193, 20 May 1920, from H. McPherson, Secretary to the Government of India, Home Department (Political), Simla to J. Crerar, Secretary to the Government of Bombay, Political Department, Bombay, 59-61, F# 60D(b)/1919, Maharashtra State Archives, Mumbai.

94. Sachindranath Sanyal. Bandi Jeevan. p. 226.

95. V.D. Savarkar. An Echo from Andamans. p. 65.
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Re: Savarkar: Echoes from a Forgotten Past by Vikram Sampath

Postby admin » Sat May 15, 2021 4:25 am

Part 3 of 3

Chapter 10: Political Potboiler

1. Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi. Vol. 19, https://www.gandhiashramsevagram.org/ga ... collected- works-volume-19.pdf, p. 348.

2. Ibid. The ‘earlier letter’ that Gandhi refers to in this letter is missing in Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi.

3. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. Young India: 1919-1922. B.R. Prasad (ed). 2nd ed. (Madras: S. Ganeshan, 1924), pp. 94–98.

4. Telegram #2845, from C.E. Gwynne, Deputy Secretary to the Government of India, Home Department (Political), Simla, 12 July 1920, to the Chief Commissioner, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, 60(D)b/1919, 93 National Archives of India, New Delhi.

5. V.D. Savarkar. An Echo from Andamans. p. 69.

6. V.D. Savarkar. My Transportation for Life. http://savarkar.org/en/pdfs/My- Transportation-for-Life-Veer-Savarkar.pdf. p. 353.

7. ‘Question Regarding Savarkar Brothers in Assembly’—Home Department, 403–407 & K.W. 1921. Part A, National Archives of India, New Delhi.

8. Details of Council proceedings, from ‘Release on medical grounds of Ganesh Savarkar, sentenced in 1909 to transportation for life for sedition’, IOR/L/PJ/6/1819, File no. 4701, September 1922, British Library, London.

9. Note from C.E. Gwynne, Deputy Secretary to Government of India, Home Department, 10 February 1921, Home Political, 1921 A 64–83 & K.W. Political Prisoners in Andamans, National Archives of India, New Delhi.

10. Ibid.

11. V.D. Savarkar. My Transportation for Life. http://savarkar.org/en/pdfs/My- Transportation-for-Life-Veer-Savarkar.pdf. p.326.

12. Ramdulare Trivedi. Kakori ke Diljale ( Delhi: Pravin, 1992), p. 112.

13. Courtesy Savarkar Smarak, Mumbai, and interview of author with Vinayak Damodar Savarkar’s grand-nephew, Ranjit Savarkar.

14. V.D. Savarkar. My Transportation for Life. http://savarkar.org/en/pdfs/My- Transportation-for-Life-Veer-Savarkar.pdf. p. 342.

15. Ibid., pp. 343–44.

16. Pattabhi Sitaramayya. History of the Indian National Congress (1885-1947). (New Delhi: S. Chand, 1988), p. 1189.

17. Indian Annual Register. Government of India Publication, 1921, Part 1, p. 103.

18. B.R. Ambedkar. Pakistan or the Partition of India (Delhi: Samyak Prakashan, 2013), pp. 165–66.

19. Ibid., pp. 165.

20. B.R. Ambedkar. Pakistan or the Partition of India (Delhi: Samyak Prakashan, 2013), p. 167.

21. Indian Annual Register. Government of India Publication, 1921, part 1, p. 206.

22. R.C. Majumdar. History of Freedom Movement in India. Vol. III ( Calcutta: Firma K.L. Mukhopadhyay, 1962), p. 122.

23. R.C. Majumdar. History of Freedom Movement in India, Vols 1-3 ( Calcutta: Firma K.L. Mukhopadhyay, 1962), p. 58.

24. Ibid., p. 68.

25. Bipin Chandra Pal, Nationality and Empire: A Running Study of Some Current Indian Problems (Calcutta: Thacker and Spink, 1916), pp. 372–73, 390.

26. Annie Wood Besant. The Future of Indian Politics: A Contribution to the Understanding of Present Day Problems (Madras: Theosophical Publishing House, 1922), p. 250.

27. B.R. Nanda. The Collected Works of Lala Lajpat Rai. Vol. 2 (New Delhi: Manohar Publications, 2008), p. 144.

28. Ibid., p. 165.

29. Young India. 10 December 1919.

30. Sachin Sen. The Birth of Pakistan (Calcutta: General Printers & Publishers, 1955), p. 73.

31. Ibid.

32. A Muslim scholar from the Firangi Mahal in Lucknow and an active participant of the Khilafat movement.

33. Complete Works of Mahatma Gandhi. Vol. XVII, 21 July 1920, https://www.gandhiashramsevagram.org/ga ... collected- works-volume-17.pdf); Young India. pp. 76–77.

34. Saradindu Mukherji. ‘Caliphate Movement in India, 1919-1924’ (New Delhi: India Policy Foundation, 2015), p. 12.

35. Home Political. June 1920. 196–197, Part B, National Archives of India, New Delhi.

36. Home Political, June 1920, Secret No. 112, National Archives of India, New Delhi; see also Saradindu Mukherji. ‘Caliphate Movement in India, 1919-1924’, p. 10.

37. Stephen Hay. Sources of Indian Tradition (Columbia: Columbia University Press, 1958), p. 777.

38. This was an informal meeting convened in Allahabad during 1–2 June 1920, with the Khilafat leaders, after Gandhi failed to get the AICC to adopt his idea of initiating non-cooperation in alliance with the Khilafatists. Motilal Nehru, Jawaharlal Nehru, C. Rajagopalachari, Lala Lajpat Rai, Bipin Chandra Pal and others were present with Gandhi and the Khilafatists.

39. Jawaharlal Nehru. Nehru on Gandhi: Selections from Writings and Speeches (New York: The John Day Company, 1948), pp. 12–14; Jawaharlal Nehru. Towards Freedom: The Autobiography of Jawaharlal Nehru (New York: The John Day Company, 1958), pp. 52–53.

40. Swami Shraddhanand. Inside Congress (Bombay, Phoenix Publications, 1946), p. 122.

41. Ibid., pp. 122–23.

42. C. Sankaran Nair. Gandhi and Anarchy ( Madras: Tagore Press, 1923), p. 38; Indian Annual Register. Government of India Publication, 1922–23, Vol. 2, p. 43.

43. Young India. 8 September 1920.

44. Ibid.

45. Complete Works of Mahatma Gandhi. Vol. XVIII, https://www.gandhiashramsevagram.org/ga ... collected- works-volume-18.pdf, pp. 80–81.

46. Ibid., vol. XIX, p. 254.

47. Young India. 4 May 1921.

48. Saradindu Mukherji. ‘Caliphate Movement in India, 1919-1924’, p. 10.

49. Young India. 4 May 1921.

50. R.C. Majumdar. History of Freedom Movement in India. Vol. 3, pp. 105– 06.

51. Report of the Civil Disobedience Enquiry Committee. set up and published by the Congress in 1922, p. 70.

52. Indian Annual Register, 1924, II, p. 205. Government of India publication.

53. Swami Shraddhanand. Inside Congress. p. 126.

54. Sanderson Beck. World Peace Efforts Since Gandhi (Santa Barbara, CA: World Peace Communications), 2006.

55. Subhash Chandra Bose. The Indian Struggle: 1920-1942. Vol. II (CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2017), pp. 99–101.

56. Ibid.

57. Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi. Vol. V, https://www.gandhiashramsevagram.org/ga ... collected- works-volume-22.pdf, pp. 22, 377.

58. V.D. Savarkar. My Transportation for Life. http://savarkar.org/en/pdfs/My- Transportation-for-Life-Veer-Savarkar.pdf. p. 350.

59. Subhash Chandra Bose. The Indian Struggle: 1920-1942. Vol. II, p. 108.

60. Jawaharlal Nehru. Nehru on Gandhi: Selections from Writings and Speeches. pp. 38–39.

61. R.G. Pradhan. India’s Struggle for Swaraj (Madras: J.A. Natesan & Co., 1930,) p. 196.

62. V.D. Savarkar. My Transportation for Life. http://savarkar.org/en/pdfs/My- Transportation-for-Life-Veer-Savarkar.pdf. p. 356.

63. Ibid.

64. Ibid., p. 362.

65. Ibid., p. 363.

66. Home Department, Political, File no 354, 1921, ‘Letter regarding release of Savarkar Brothers’, National Archives of India, New Delhi.

67. Ibid.

68. F.# 60D(d)/21–23, Maharashtra State Archives, Mumbai. See full text in Appendix III.

69. V.D. Savarkar. My Transportation for Life. http://savarkar.org/en/pdfs/My- Transportation-for-Life-Veer-Savarkar.pdf. p. 318.

70. F. #60D(d)/21–23, 89-93 and F #60D(d)/21–23, 95–99, Maharashtra State Archives, Mumbai. See full text in Appendix III.

71. Letter from G. Wiles, Secretary to Government of Bombay, Home Department to D.D. Kamat, Superintendent of District Prison, Ratnagiri, 23 November 1921. F# 60-D(d)/1921–23: ‘Convicts, Port Blair: Remission of sentence to convicts transferred from Andamans: Savarkar, V.D. and Savarkar, G.D.’

72. English translation of the biography of Babarao Savarkar http://savarkar.org/en/pdfs/babarao-savarkar-v003.pdf. p. 60.

73. Ibid., p. 73.

Chapter 11: Who Is a Hindu?

1. Amrita Bazar Patrika. 12 August 1869. Quoted by J.C. Bagal. Bharatbarsher Svadhinata ( n.p, n.d.), p. 177; see also R.C. Majumdar. History of the Freedom Movement in India. pp. 443–45.

2. Amrita Bazar Patrika. 12 August 1869. Quoted by J.C. Bagal. Bharatbarsher Svadhinata. p. 177.

3. Syed Ahmed Khan, Akhari Madamin (Urdu), pp. 46–50; Translated into English in Stephen Hay. Sources of Indian Tradition, pp. 746–47.

4. Syed Ahmed Khan. Sir Syed Ahmed on the Present State of Indian Politics: Consisting of Speeches and Letters ( Allahabad: The Pioneer Press, 1888), p. 37.

5. S.M. Ikram. Indian Muslims and Partition of India (Atlantic Publishers and Distributors, 1995), p. 44–45.

6. R.C. Majumdar. History of Freedom Movement in India. p. 431.

7. Bahadur Lal. The Muslim League: Its History, Activities and Achievements (Lahore: Book Traders, 1979), p. 4.

8. Ibid., p. 66.

9. Rajendra Prasad. India Divided (New Delhi: Penguin, 2017), pp. 112–13.

10. James Ramsay MacDonald. The Awakening of India (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1910), p. 176.

11. Lal, Bahadur. The Muslim League: Its History, Activities and Achievements, p. 43.

12. R.C. Majumdar. History of the Freedom Movement in India. p. 223.

13. Aligarh Institute Gazette. 14 August 1907, pp. 7–8; Quoted in Bahadur Lal. The Muslim League: Its History, Activities and Achievements. p. 43.

14. Sir Percival Griffiths. The British Impact on India (London: Macdonald, 1952), pp. 309–10.

15. Bahadur Lal. The Muslim League: Its History, Activities and Achievements. p. 66.

16. Lovat Fraser. India Under Curzon and After (London: H. Holt, 1911), pp. 391–92.

17. R.C. Majumdar. History of Freedom Movement in India. pp. 211.

18. Gopal Krishna Gokhale. Speeches of Gopal Krishna Gokhale. G.A. Natesan (ed) (Madras: G.A. Natesan, 1920), pp. 209, 1137.

19. Ibid., p. 1136.

20. Manchester Guardian. 1 September 1921–12 December 1921.

21. C. Sankaran Nair. Gandhi and Anarchy ( Madras: Tagore Press, 1923), Appendix V.

22. Ibid., p. 40.

23. R.C. Majumdar, History of the Freedom Movement in India, p. 195.

24. Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi. Vol. 22, https://www.gandhiashramsevagram.org/ga ... collected- works-volume-22.pdf, p. 269.

25. Saradindu Mukherji. ‘Caliphate Movement in India, 1919-1924’, p. 18.

26. B.R. Ambedkar. Pakistan or the Partition of India, pp. 177–78.

27. Ibid., pp. 178–79.

28. V.D. Savarkar. Savarkar Samagra. pp. 600–15.

29. Vinayak’s claim on Muhammad Ali: V.D. Savarkar. Savarkar Samagra. p. 607.

30. Gyanendra Pandey. Routine Violence: Nation, Fragments, History (California: Stanford University Press, 2006), p. 108.

31. Janaki Bakhle. ‘Country First? Vinayak Damodar Savarkar (1883-1966) and the Writing of Essentials of Hindutva'. Public Culture 22.1(2010), pp. 149–86.

32. Ibid., p. 151.

33. Ibid., p. 157.

34. Amiya Sen. Hindu Revivalism in Bengal, 1872-1905 ( Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1993), p. 210.

35. V.D. Savarkar. Hindutva (Mumbai: Swatantryaveer Savarkar Rashtriya Smarak, 1999), pp. 2–3.

36. Ibid. p. 8.

37. Anthony Parel (ed.). Hind Swaraj ( Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997), pp. 48–49.

38. V.D. Savarkar. Hindutva. pp. 11–12.

39. Ibid., p. 13.

40. Ibid., p. 56.

41. Ibid., p. 28.

42. Ibid.

43. Ibid., p. 51.

44. Ibid., pp. 55–56.

45. Ibid., p. 58.

46. Ibid., p. 60.

47. Ibid., p. 26.

48. Ibid., p. 52.

49. It is erroneous to assume that Savarkar visualized the nation as a masculine ‘Fatherland’, as is normally postulated to provide equivalence with fascist movements in Europe. The nation for him since childhood was visualized as a Goddess, a Mother, a divine feminine power. Here, pitrubhumi means the land of the pitrus or ancestors to whom devout Hindus offer oblations during the pitrupaksha (fortnight dedicated to forefathers) each year to assist the journey of their souls and seek their blessings.

50. V.D. Savarkar. Hindutva. p. 71.

51. Ibid., pp. 71–72.

52. Ibid., pp. 81.

53. In the wake of the communal mobilization of Muslims after the Morley– Minto Reforms and the birth of the Muslim League, a need was felt for establishing a national organization to represent Hindus and their interests. This finally took shape in 1915. It was named Sarvadeshik Hindu Sabha (later Akhil Bharat Hindu Mahasabha in 1920) and met at Haridwar during the Kumbh Mela under the leadership of Maharaja Manindrachandra Nandi of Kasim Bazar. Several important personalities such as Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya, Swami Shraddhanand and Sir Tej Bahadur Sapru attended the conference. The goals of the new organization were: 1. To promote greater union and solidarity amongst all sections of Hindu community and to unite them as closely as parts of one organic whole; 2. To promote education among members of the Hindu community; 3. To ameliorate and improve the condition of all classes of the Hindu community; 4. To protect and promote Hindu interests wherever and whenever it may be necessary; 5. To promote good feelings between the Hindus and other communities in India and to act in a friendly way with them and in loyal co-operation with the government; 6. Generally to take steps for promoting religious, moral, social, educational and political interests of the community.

54. M.J. Akbar. India: The Siege Within: Challenges to a Nation’s Unity ( New Delhi: Roli Books, 2017), p. 306.

55. Janaki Bakhle. ‘Country First? Vinayak Damodar Savarkar (1883-1966) and the Writing of Essentials of Hindutva'. Public Culture 22.1(2010): pp. 149–86. Emphasis mine.

Chapter 12: The Interpretation of Thoughts

1. V.D. Savarkar. Savarkar Samagra. Vol.7, pp. 76–84 (translated by the author).

2. Ibid. pp. 33–46.

3. Ibid., pp. 433–45.

4. Marathi article in the May 1934 Issue of the magazine Manohar. sourced from the Savarkar Smarak, Mumbai; original translation by Niranjan Rajadhyaksha published for The Mint dated 20 March 2016.

5. V.D. Savarkar. Savarkar Samagra. Vol. 3, pp. 496–517 (translated by the author).

6. In this undated interview to a Marathi journalist, Vinayak spoke about the virtues of modern cinema. Published in his book Vividha Lekha or Various Essays. Translation of the original Marathi piece by Niranjan Rajadhyaksha published for The Mint dated 20 March 2016.

7. V.D. Savarkar. My Transportation for Life. http://savarkar.org/en/pdfs/My- Transportation-for-Life-Veer-Savarkar.pdf. pp. 374–75.

8. Ibid., p. 368.

9. First-hand account by Vinayak on the namaz and bhajans in V.D. Savarkar. My Transportation for Life. http://savarkar.org/en/pdfs/My-Transportationfor- Life-Veer-Savarkar.pdf. p. 369.

10. V.D. Savarkar. My Transportation for Life. http://savarkar.org/en/pdfs/My- Transportation-for-Life-Veer-Savarkar.pdf. p. 369.

11. Ibid., p. 378

12. F# 143-K (d)/1928: ‘The Indian Stability Commission, 1923: Movements of a subversive character: 1) Communism, 2) Press and Platform (revolutionary)’, Maharashtra State Archives, Mumbai.

13. A. Montgomerie, Secretary to the Government of Bombay, Home Department, Resolution #724, Bombay Castle, 4 January 1924. F# 60-D (e)/l923-24, Home (Special): ‘Convict (Life): Release of Vinayak Damodar Savarkar’, Maharashtra State Archives, Mumbai.

14. 60-D (e)/1923-24, Home (Special). Maharashtra State Archives, Mumbai.

15. Ibid.

16. V.D. Savarkar. My Transportation for Life. http://savarkar.org/en/pdfs/My- Transportation-for-Life-Veer-Savarkar.pdf. pp. 382

17. Ibid., p. 383.

Appendix IV

1. An article by Vinayak Savarkar that appeared in Volume 1 of The Talwar magazine from Berlin, April–May 1910. EPP 2/22, India Office Library, London.

2. Possibly means Deshbhakt Gokhale. A reference to Gopalkrishna Gokhale.
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