The Search for the "Manchurian Candidate": The CIA and Mind

"Science," the Greek word for knowledge, when appended to the word "political," creates what seems like an oxymoron. For who could claim to know politics? More complicated than any game, most people who play it become addicts and die without understanding what they were addicted to. The rest of us suffer under their malpractice as our "leaders." A truer case of the blind leading the blind could not be found. Plumb the depths of confusion here.

Re: The Search for the "Manchurian Candidate": The CIA and M

Postby admin » Wed Jun 10, 2015 3:28 am

CHAPTER 11: HYPNOSIS

No mind-control technique has more captured popular imagination -- and kindled fears -- than hypnosis. Men have long dreamed they could use overwhelming hypnotic powers to compel others to do their bidding. And when CIA officials institutionalized that dream in the early Cold War Days, they tried, like modern-day Svengalis, to use hypnosis to force their favors on unwitting victims.

One group of professional experts, as well as popular novelists, argued that hypnosis would lead to major breakthroughs in spying. Another body of experts believed the opposite. The Agency men, who did not fully trust the academics anyway, listened to both points of view and kept looking for applications which fit their own special needs. To them, hypnosis offered too much promise not to be pursued, but finding the answers was such an elusive and dangerous process that 10 years after the program started CIA officials were still searching for practical uses.

The CIA's first behavioral research czar, Morse Allen of ARTICHOKE, was intrigued by hypnosis. He read everything he could get his hands on, and in 1951 he went to New York for a four-day course from a well-known stage hypnotist. This hypnotist had taken the Svengali legend to heart, and he bombarded Allen with tales of how he used hypnosis to seduce young women. He told the ARTICHOKE chief that he had convinced one mesmerized lady that he was her husband and that she desperately wanted him. That kind of deception has a place in covert operations, and Morse Allen was sufficiently impressed to report back to his bosses the hypnotist's claim that "he spent approximately five nights a week away from home engaging in sexual intercourse."

Apart from the bragging, the stage hypnotist did give Morse Allen a short education in how to capture a subject's attention and induce a trance. Allen returned to Washington more convinced than ever of the benefits of working hypnosis into the ARTICHOKE repertory and of the need to build a defense against it. With permission from above, he decided to take his hypnosis studies further, right in his own office. He asked young CIA secretaries to stay after work and ran them through the hypnotic paces -- proving to his own satisfaction that he could make them do whatever he wanted. He had secretaries steal SECRET files and pass them on to total strangers, thus violating the most basic CIA security rules. He got them to steal from each other and to start fires. He made one of them report to the bedroom of a strange man and then go into a deep sleep. "This activity clearly indicates that individuals under hypnosis might be compromised and blackmailed," Allen wrote.

On February 19, 1954, Morse Allen simulated the ultimate experiment in hypnosis: the creation of a "Manchurian Candidate," or-programmed assassin. Allen's "victim" was a secretary whom he put into a deep trance and told to keep sleeping until he ordered otherwise. He then hypnotized a second secretary and told her that if she could not wake up her friend, "her rage would be so great that she would not hesitate to 'kill.'" Allen left a pistol nearby, which the secretary had no way of knowing was unloaded. Even though she had earlier expressed a fear of firearms of any kind, she picked up the gun and "shot" her sleeping friend. After Allen brought the "killer" out of her trance, she had apparent amnesia for the event, denying she would ever shoot anyone.

With this experiment, Morse Allen took the testing as far as he could on a make-believe basis, but he was neither satisfied nor convinced that hypnosis would produce such spectacular results in an operational setting. All he felt he had proved was that an impressionable young volunteer would accept a command from a legitimate authority figure to take an action she may have sensed would not end in tragedy. She presumably trusted the CIA enough as an institution and Morse Allen as an individual to believe he would not let her do anything wrong. The experimental setting, in effect, legitimated her behavior and prevented it from being truly antisocial.

Early in 1954, Allen almost got his chance to try the crucial test. According to a CIA document, the subject was to be a 35- year-old, well-educated foreigner who had once worked for a friendly secret service, probably the CIA itself. He had now shifted his loyalty to another government, and the CIA was quite upset with him. The Agency plan was to hypnotize him and program him into making an assassination attempt. He would then be arrested at the least for attempted murder and "thereby disposed of." The scenario had several holes in it, as the operators presented it to the ARTICHOKE team. First, the subject was to be involuntary and unwitting, and as yet no one had come up with a consistently effective way of hypnotizing such people. Second, the ARTICHOKE team would have only limited custody of the subject, who was to be snatched from a social event. Allen understood that it would probably take months of painstaking work to prepare the man for a sophisticated covert operation. The subject was highly unlikely to perform after just one command. Yet, so anxious were the ARTICHOKE men to try the experiment that they were willing to go ahead even under these unfavorable conditions: "The final answer was that in view of the fact that successful completion of this proposed act of attempted assassination was insignificant to the overall project; to wit, whether it was even carried out or not, that under 'crash conditions' and appropriate authority from Headquarters, the ARTICHOKE team would undertake the problem in spite of the operational limitations."

This operation never took place. Eager to be unleashed, Morse Allen kept requesting prolonged access to operational subjects, such as the double agents and defectors on whom he was allowed to work a day or two. Not every double agent would do. The candidate had to be among the one person in five who made a good hypnotic subject, and he needed to have a dissociative tendency to separate part of his personality from the main body of his consciousness. The hope was to take an existing ego state -- such as an imaginary childhood playmate -- and build it into a separate personality, unknown to the first. The hypnotist would communicate directly with this schizophrenic offshoot and command it to carry out specific deeds about which the main personality would know nothing. There would be inevitable leakage between the two personalities, particularly in dreams; but if the hypnotist were clever enough, he could build in cover stories and safety valves which would prevent the subject from acting inconsistently.

All during the spring and summer of 1954, Morse Allen lobbied for permission to try what he called "terminal experiments" in hypnosis', including one along the following scenario:

CIA officials would recruit an agent in a friendly foreign country where the Agency could count on the cooperation of the local police force. CIA case officers would train the agent to pose as a leftist and report on the local communist party. During training, a skilled hypnotist would hypnotize him under the guise of giving him medical treatment (the favorite ARTICHOKE cover for hypnosis). The hypnotist would then provide the agent with information and tell him to forget it all when he snapped out of the trance. Once the agent had been properly conditioned and prepared, he would be sent into action as a CIA spy. Then Agency officials would tip off the local police that the man was a dangerous communist agent, and he would be arrested. Through their liaison arrangement with the police, Agency case officers would be able to watch and even guide the course of the interrogation. In this way, they could answer many of their questions about hypnosis on a live guinea pig who believed his life was in danger. Specifically, the men from ARTICHOKE wanted to know how well hypnotic amnesia held up against torture. Could the amnesia be broken with drugs? One document noted that the Agency could even send in a new hypnotist to try his hand at cracking through the commands of the first one. Perhaps the most cynical part of the whole scheme came at the end of the proposal: "In the event that the agent should break down and admit his connection with US intelligence, we a) deny this absolutely and advise the agent's disposal, or b) indicate that the agent may have been dispatched by some other organ of US intelligence and that we should thereafter run the agent jointly with [the local intelligence service]."

An ARTICHOKE team was scheduled to carry out field tests along these lines in the summer of 1954. The planning got to an advanced stage, with the ARTICHOKE command center in Washington cabling overseas for the "time, place, and bodies available for terminal experiments." Then another cable complained of the "diminishing numbers" of subjects available for these tests. At this point, the available record becomes very fuzzy. The minutes of an ARTICHOKE working group meeting indicate that a key Agency official -- probably the station chief in the country where the experiments were going to take place -- had second thoughts. One participant at the meeting, obviously rankled by the obstructionism, said if this nay-sayer did not change his attitude, ARTICHOKE officials would have the Director himself order the official to go along.

Although short-term interrogations of unwitting subjects with drugs and hypnosis (the "A" treatment) continued, the more complicated tests apparently never did get going under the ARTICHOKE banner. By the end of the year, 1954, Allen Dulles took the behavioral-research function away from Morse Allen and gave it to Sid Gottlieb and the men from MKULTRA. Allen had directly pursued the goal of creating a Manchurian Candidate, which he clearly believed was possible. MKULTRA officials were just as interested in finding ways to assert control over people, but they had much less faith in the frontal-assault approach pushed by Allen. For them, finding the Manchurian Candidate became a figurative exercise. They did not give up the dream. They simply pursued it in smaller steps, always hoping to increase the percentages in their favor. John Gittinger, the MKULTRA case officer on hypnosis, states, "Predictable absolute control is not possible on a particular individual. Any psychologist, psychiatrist, or preacher can get control over certain kinds of individuals, but that's not a predictable, definite thing." Gittinger adds that despite his belief to this effect, he felt he had to give "a fair shake" to people who wanted to try out ideas to the contrary.

Gottlieb and his colleagues had already been doing hypnosis research for two years. They did a few basic experiments in the office, as Morse Allen did, but they farmed out most of the work to a young Ph.D. candidate at the University of Minnesota, Alden Sears. Sears, who later moved his CIA study project to the University of Denver, worked with student subjects to define the nature of hypnosis. Among many other things, he looked into several of the areas that would be building blocks in the creation of a Manchurian Candidate. Could a hypnotist induce a totally separate personality? Could a subject be sent on missions he would not remember unless cued by the hypnotist? Sears, who has since become a Methodist minister, refused to talk about methods he experimented with to build second identities. [i] By 1957, he wrote that the experiments that needed to be done "could not be handled in the University situation." Unlike Morse Allen, he did not want to perform the terminal experiments.

Milton Kline, a New York psychologist who says he also did not want to cross the ethical line but is sure the intelligence agencies have, served as an unpaid consultant to Sears and other CIA hypnosis research. Nothing Sears or others found disabused him of the idea that the Manchurian Candidate is possible. "It cannot be done by everyone," says Kline, "It cannot be done consistently, but it can be done."

A onetime president of the American Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, Kline was one of many outside experts to whom Gittinger and his colleagues talked. Other consultants, with equally impressive credentials, rejected Kline's views. In no other area of the behavioral sciences was there so little accord on basic questions. "You could find an expert who would agree with everything," says Gittinger. "Therefore, we tried to get everybody."

The MKULTRA men state that they got too many unsolicited suggestions on how to use hypnosis in covert operations. "The operators would ask us for easy solutions," recalls a veteran. "We therefore kept a laundry list of why they couldn't have what they wanted. We spent a lot of time telling some young kid whose idea we had heard a hundred times why it wouldn't work. We would wind up explaining why you couldn't have a free lunch." This veteran mentions an example: CIA operators put a great deal of time and money into servicing "dead drops" (covert mail pickup points, such as a hollow tree) in the Soviet Union. If a collector was captured, he was likely to give away the locations. Therefore Agency men suggested that TSS find a way to hypnotize these secret mailmen, so they could withstand interrogation and even torture if arrested.

Morse Allen had wanted to perform the "terminal experiment" to see if a hypnotically induced amnesia would stand up to torture. Gittinger says that as far as he knows, this experiment was never carried out. "I still like to think we were human beings enough that this was not something we played with," says Gittinger. Such an experiment could have been performed, as Allen suggested, by friendly police in a country like Taiwan or Paraguay. CIA men did at least discuss joint work in hypnosis with a foreign secret service in 1962. [ii] Whether they went further simply cannot be said.

Assuming the amnesia would hold, the MKULTRA veteran says the problem was how to trigger it. Perhaps the Russian phrase meaning "You're under arrest" could be used as a preprogrammed cue, but what if the police did not use these words as they captured the collector? Perhaps the physical sensation of handcuffs being snapped on could do it, but a metal watchband could have the same effect. According to the veteran, in the abstract, the scheme sounded fine, but in practicality, a foolproof way of triggering the amnesia could not be found. "You had to accept that when someone is caught, they're going to tell some things," he says.

MKULTRA officials, including Gittinger, did recommend the use of hypnosis in operational experiments on at least one occasion. In 1959 an important double agent, operating outside his homeland, told his Agency case officer that he was afraid to go home again because he did not think he could withstand the tough interrogation that his government used on returning overseas agents. In Washington, the operators approached the TSS men about using hypnosis, backed up with drugs, to change the agent's attitude. They hoped they could instill in him the "ability or the necessary will" to hold up under questioning.

An MKULTRA official -- almost certainly Gittinger -- held a series of meetings over a two-week period with the operators and wrote that the agent was "a better than average" hypnotic subject, but that his goal was to get out of intelligence work: The agent "probably can be motivated to make at least one return visit to his homeland by application of anyone of a number of techniques, including hypnosis, but he may redefect in the process." The MKULTRA official continued that hypnosis probably could not produce an "operationally useful" degree of amnesia for the events of the recent past or for the hypnotic treatment itself that the agent "probably has the native ability to withstand ordinary interrogation ... provided it is to his advantage to do so."

The MKULTRA office recommended that despite the relatively negative outlook for the hypnosis, the Agency should proceed anyway. The operation had the advantage of having a "failsafe" mechanism because the level of hypnosis could be tested out before the agent actually had to return. Moreover, the MKULTRA men felt "that a considerable amount of useful experience can be gained from this operation which could be used to improve Agency capability in future applications." In effect, they would be using hypnosis not as the linchpin of the operation, but as an adjunct to help motivate the agent.

Since the proposed operation involved the use of hypnosis and drugs, final approval could only be given by the high-level Clandestine Services committee set up for this purpose and chaired by Richard Helms. Permission was not forthcoming.

In June 1960 TSS officials launched an expanded program of operational experiments in hypnosis in cooperation with the Agency's Counterintelligence Staff. The legendary James Angleton -- the prototype for the title character Saxonton in Aaron Latham's Orchids for Mother and for Wellington in Victor Marchetti's The Rope Dancer -- headed Counterintelligence, which took on some of the CIA's most sensitive missions (including the illegal Agency spying against domestic dissidents). Counterintelligence officials wrote that the hypnosis program could provide a "potential breakthrough in clandestine technology." Their arrangement with TSS was that the MKULTRA men would develop the technique in the laboratory, while they took care of "field experimentation."

The Counterintelligence program had three goals: (1) to induce hypnosis very rapidly in unwitting subjects; (2) to create durable amnesia; and (3) to implant durable and operationally useful posthypnotic suggestion. The Agency released no information on any "field experimentation" of the latter two goals, which of course are the building blocks of the Manchurian Candidate. Agency officials provided only one heavily censored document on the first goal, rapid induction.

In October 1960 the MKULTRA program invested $9,000 in an outside consultant to develop a way of quickly hypnotizing an unwitting subject. John Gittinger says the process consisted of surprising "somebody sitting in a chair, putting your hands on his forehead, and telling the guy to go to sleep." The method worked "fantastically" on certain people, including some on whom no other technique was effective, and not on others. "It wasn't that predictable," notes Gittinger, who states he knows nothing about the field testing.

The test, noted in that one released document, did not take place until July 1963 -- a full three years after the Counterintelligence experimental program began, during which interval the Agency is claiming that no other field experiments took place. According to a CIA man who participated in this test, the Counterintelligence Staff in Washington asked the CIA station in Mexico City to find a suitable candidate for a rapid induction experiment. The station proposed a low-level agent, whom the Soviets had apparently doubled. A Counterintelligence man flew in from Washington and a hypnotic consultant arrived from California. Our source and a fellow case officer brought the agent to a motel room on a pretext. "I puffed him up with his importance," says the Agency man. "I said the bosses wanted to see him and of course give him more money." Waiting in an adjoining room was the hypnotic consultant. At a prearranged time, the two case officers gently grabbed hold of the agent and tipped his chair over until the back was touching the floor. The consultant was supposed to rush in at that precise moment and apply the technique. Nothing happened. The consultant froze, unable to do the deed. "You can imagine what we had to do to cover-up," says the official, who was literally left holding the agent. "We explained we had heard a noise, got excited, and tipped him down to protect him. He was so grubby for money he would have believed any excuse."

There certainly is a huge difference between the limited aim of this bungled operation and one aimed at building a Manchurian Candidate. The MKULTRA veteran maintains that he and his colleagues were not interested in a programmed assassin because they knew in general it would not work and, specifically, that they could not exert total control. "If you have one hundred percent control, you have one hundred percent dependency," he says. "If something happens and you haven't programmed it in, you've got a problem. If you try to put flexibility in, you lose control. To the extent you let the agent choose, you don't have control." He admits that he and his colleagues spent hours running the arguments on the Manchurian Candidate back and forth. "Castro was naturally our discussion point," he declares. "Could you get somebody gung-ho enough that they would go in and get him?" In the end, he states, they decided there were more reliable ways to kill people. "You can get exactly the same thing from people who are hypnotizable by many other ways, and you can't get anything out of people who are not hypnotizable, so it has no use," says Gittinger.

The only real gain in employing a hypnotized killer would be, in theory, that he would not remember who ordered him to pull the trigger. Yet, at least in the Castro case, the Cuban leader already knew who was after him. Moreover, there were plenty of people around willing to take on the Castro contract. "A well- trained person could do it without all this mumbo-jumbo," says the MKULTRA veteran. By going to the Mafia for hitmen, CIA officials in any case found killers who had a built-in amnesia mechanism that had nothing to do with hypnosis. [iii]

The MKULTRA veteran gives many reasons why he believes the CIA never actually tried a Manchurian Candidate operation, but he acknowledges that he does not know. [iv] If the ultimate experiments were performed, they would have been handled with incredible secrecy. It would seem, however, that the same kind of reasoning that impelled Sid Gottlieb to recommend testing powerful drugs on unwitting subjects would have led to experimentation along such lines, if not to create the Manchurian Candidate itself, on some of the building blocks, or lesser antisocial acts. Even if the MKULTRA men did not think hypnosis would work operationally, they had not let that consideration prevent them from trying out numerous other techniques. The MKULTRA chief could even have used a defensive rationale: He had to find out if the Russians could plant a "sleeper" killer in our midst, just as Richard Condon's novel discussed.

If the assassin scenario seemed exaggerated, Gottlieb still would have wanted to know what other uses the Russians might try. Certainly, he could have found relatively "expendable" subjects, as he and Morse Allen had for other behavior-control experiments. And even if the MKULTRA men really did restrain themselves, it is unlikely that James Angleton and his counterintelligence crew would have acted in such a limited fashion when they felt they were on the verge of a "breakthrough in clandestine technology."

_______________

Notes:

i. Sears still maintains the fiction that he thought he was dealing only with a private foundation, the Geschickter Fund, and that he knew nothing of the CIA involvement in funding his work. Yet a CIA document in his MKULTRA sub-project says he was "aware of the real purpose of the project." Moreover, Sid Gottlieb brought him to Washington in 1954 to demonstrate hypnosis to a select group of Agency officials.

ii. Under my Freedom of Information suit, the CIA specifically denied access to the documents concerning the testing of hypnosis and psychedelic drugs in cooperation with foreign intelligence agencies. The justification given was that releasing such documents would reveal intelligence sources and methods, which are exempted by law, The hypnosis experiment was never carried out, according to the generic description of the document which the Agency had to provide in explaining why it had to be withheld.

iii. Referring to this CIA-mob relationship, author Robert Sam Anson has written, "It was inevitable: Gentlemen wishing to be killers gravitated to killers wishing to be gentlemen."

iv. The veteran admits that none of the arguments he uses against a conditioned assassin would apply to a programmed "patsy" whom a hypnotist could walk through a series of seemingly unrelated events -- a visit to a store, a conversation with a mailman, picking a fight at a political rally. The subject would remember everything that happened to him and be amnesic only for the fact the hypnotist ordered him to do these things. There would be no gaping inconsistency in his life of the sort that can ruin an attempt by a hypnotist to create a second personality. The purpose of this exercise is to leave a circumstantial trail that will make the authorities think the patsy committed a particular crime. The weakness might well be that the amnesia would not hold up under police interrogation, but that would not matter if the police did not believe his preposterous story about being hypnotized or if he were shot resisting arrest. Hypnosis expert Milton Kline says he could create a patsy in three months; an assassin would take him six.
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Re: The Search for the "Manchurian Candidate": The CIA and M

Postby admin » Wed Jun 10, 2015 3:30 am

PART 4: CONCLUSIONS

I'm a professional and I just don't talk about these things. Lots of things are not fit for the public. This has nothing to do with democracy. It has to do with common sense.
-- GRATION H. YASETEVITCH, 1978 (explaining why he did not want to be interviewed for this book)

To hope that the power that is being made available by the behavioral sciences will be exercised by the scientists, or by a benevolent group, seems to me to be a hope little supported by either recent or distant history. It seems far more likely that behavioral scientists, holding their present attitudes, will be in the position of the German rocket scientists specializing in guided missiles. First they worked devotedly for Hitler to destroy the USSR and the United States. Now, depending on who captured them they work devotedly for the USSR in the interest of destroying the United States, or devotedly for the United States in the interest of destroying the USSR. If behavioral scientists are concerned solely with advancing their science, it seems most probable that they will serve the purpose of whatever group has the power.
-- CARL ROGERS, 1961


CHAPTER 12: THE SEARCH FOR THE TRUTH

Sid Gottlieb was one of many CIA officials who tried to find a way to assassinate Fidel Castro. Castro survived, of course, and his victory over the Agency in April 1961 at the Bay of Pigs put the Agency in the headlines for the first time, in a very unfavorable light. Among the fiasco's many consequences was Gottlieb's loss of the research part of the CIA's behavior-control programs. Still, he and the others kept trying to kill Castro.

In the aftermath of the Bay of Pigs, President Kennedy reportedly vowed to splinter the CIA into a thousand pieces. In the end, he settled for firing Allen Dulles and his top deputies. To head the Agency, which lost none of its power, Kennedy brought in John McCone, a defense contractor and former head of the Atomic Energy Commission. With no operational background, McCone had a different notion than Dulles of how to manage the CIA, particularly in the scientific area. "McCone never felt akin to the covert way of doing things," recalls Ray Cline, whom the new Director made his Deputy for Intelligence. McCone apparently believed that science should be in the hands of the scientists, not the clandestine operators, and he brought in a fellow Californian, an aerospace "whiz kid" named Albert "Bud" Wheelon to head a new Agency Directorate for Science and Technology.

Before then, the Technical Services Staff (TSS), although located in the Clandestine Services, had been the Agency's largest scientific component. McCone decided to strip TSS of its main research functions -- including the behavioral one -- and let it concentrate solely on providing operational support. In 1962 he approved a reorganization of TSS that brought in Seymour Russell, a tough covert operator, as the new chief. "The idea was to get a close interface with operations," recalls an ex-CIA man. Experienced TSS technicians remained as deputies to the incoming field men, and the highest deputyship in all TSS went to Sid Gottlieb, who became number-two man under Russell. For Gottlieb, this was another significant promotion helped along by his old friend Richard Helms, whom McCone had elevated to be head of the Clandestine Services.

In his new job, Gottlieb kept control of MKULTRA. Yet, in order to comply with McCone's command on research programs, Gottlieb had to preside over the partial dismantling of his own program. The loss was not as difficult as it might have been, because, after 10 years of exploring the frontiers of the mind, Gottlieb had a clear idea of what worked and what did not in the behavioral field. Those areas that still were in the research stage tended to be extremely esoteric and technical, and Gottlieb must have known that if the Science Directorate scored any breakthroughs, he would be brought back into the picture immediately to apply the advances to covert operations.

"Sid was not the kind of bureaucrat who wanted to hold on to everything at all costs," recalls an. admiring colleague. Gottlieb carefully pruned the MKULTRA lists, turning over to the Science Directorate the exotic subjects that showed no short-term operational promise and keeping for himself those psychological, chemical, and biological programs that had already passed the research stage. As previously stated, he moved John Gittinger and the personality-assessment staff out of the Human Ecology Society and kept them under TSS control in their own proprietary company.

While Gottlieb was effecting these changes, his programs were corning under attack from another quarter. In 1963 the CIA Inspector General did the study that led to the suspension of unwitting drug testing in the San Francisco and New York safehouses. This was a blow to Gottlieb, who clearly intended to hold on to this kind of research. At the same time, the Inspector General also recommended that Agency officials draft a new charter for the whole MKULTRA program, which still was exempt from most internal CIA controls. He found that many of the MKULTRA subprojects were of "insufficient sensitivity" to justify bypassing the Agency's normal procedures for approving and storing records of highly classified programs. Richard Helms, still the protector of unfettered behavioral research, responded by agreeing that there should be a new charter -- on the condition that it be almost the same as the old one. "The basic reasons for requesting waiver of standardized administrative controls over these sensitive activities are as valid today as they were in April, 1953," Helms wrote. Helms agreed to such changes as having the CIA Director briefed on the programs twice a year, but he kept the approval process within his control and made sure that all the files would be retained inside TSS. And as government officials so often do when they do not wish to alter anything of substance, he proposed a new name for the activity. In June 1964MKULTRA became MKSEARCH. [i]

Gottlieb acknowledged that security did not require transferring all the surviving MKULTRA subprojects over to MKSEARCH. He moved 18 subprojects back into regular Agency funding channels, including ones dealing with the sneezing powders, stink bombs, and other "harassment substances." TSS officials had encouraged the development of these as a way to make a target physically uncomfortable and hence to cause short-range changes in his behavior.

Other MKULTRA subprojects dealt with ways to maximize stress on whole societies. Just as Gittinger's Personality Assessment System provided a psychological road map for exploiting an individual's weaknesses, CIA "destabilization" plans provided guidelines for destroying the internal integrity of target countries like Castro's Cuba or Allende's Chile. Control -- whether of individuals or nations -- has been the Agency's main business, and TSS officials supplied tools for the "macro" as well as the "micro" attacks.

For example, under MKULTRA Subproject # 143, the Agency gave Dr. Edward Bennett of the University of Houston about $20,000 a year to develop bacteria to sabotage petroleum products. Bennett found a substance that, when added to oil, fouled or destroyed any engine into which it was poured. CIA operators used exactly this kind of product in 1967 when they sent a sabotage team made up of Cuban exiles into France to pollute a shipment of lubricants bound for Cuba. The idea was that the tainted oil would "grind out motors and cause breakdowns," says an Agency man directly involved. This operation, which succeeded, was part of a worldwide CIA effort that lasted through the 1960s into the 19708 to destroy the Cuban economy. [ii] Agency officials reasoned, at least in the first years, that it would be easier to overthrow Castro if Cubans could be made unhappy with their standard of living. "We wanted to keep bread out of the stores so people were hungry," says the CIA man who was assigned to anti-Castro operations. "We wanted to keep rationing in effect and keep leather out, so people got only one pair of shoes every 18 months."

Leaving this broader sort of program out of the new structure, Gottlieb regrouped the most sensitive behavioral activities under the MKSEARCH umbrella. He chose to continue seven projects, and the ones he picked give a good indication of those parts of MKULTRA that Gottlieb considered important enough to save. These included none of the sociological studies, nor the search for a truth drug. Gottlieb put the emphasis on chemical and biological substances -- not because he thought these could be used to turn men into robots, but because he valued them for their predictable ability to disorient, discredit, injure, or kill people. He kept active two private labs to produce such substances, funded consultants who had secure ways to test them and ready access to subjects, and maintained a funding conduit to pass money on to these other contractors. Here are the seven surviving MKSEARCH subprojects:

• First on the TSS list was the safehouse program for drug testing run by George White and others in the Federal Bureau of Narcotics. Even in 1964, Gottlieb and Helms had not given up hope that unwitting experiments could be resumed, and the Agency paid out $30,000 that year to keep the safehouses open. In the meantime, something was going on at the "pad" -- or at least George White kept on sending the CIA vouchers for unorthodox expenses -- $1,100 worth in February 1965 alone under the old euphemism for prostitutes, "undercover agents for operations." What White was doing with or to these agents cannot be said, but he kept the San Francisco operation active right up until the time it finally closed in June. Gottlieb did not give up on the New York safehouse until the following year. [iii]
• MKSEARCH Subproject #2 involved continuing a $150,000- a-year contract with a Baltimore biological laboratory. This lab, run by at least one former CIA germ expert, gave TSS "a quick-delivery capability to meet anticipated future operational needs," according to an Agency document. Among other things, it provided a private place for "large-scale production of microorganisms." The Agency was paying the Army Biological Laboratory at Fort Detrick about $100,000 a year for the same services. With its more complete facilities, Fort Detrick could be used to create and package more esoteric bacteria, but Gottlieb seems to have kept the Baltimore facility going in order to have a way of producing biological weapons without the Army's germ warriors knowing about it. This secrecy-within-secrecy was not unusual when TSS men were dealing with subjects as sensitive as infecting targets with diseases. Except on the most general level, no written records were kept on the subject. Whenever an operational unit in the Agency asked TSS about obtaining a biological weapon, Gottlieb or his aides automatically turned down the request unless the head of the Clandestine Services had given his prior approval. Gottlieb handled these operational needs personally, and during the early 19608(when CIA assassination attempts probably were at their peak) even Gottlieb's boss, the TSS chief, was not told what was happening.
• With his biological arsenal assured, Gottlieb also secured his chemical flank in MKSEARCH. Another subproject continued a relationship set up in 1959 with a prominent industrialist who headed a complex of companies, including one that custom-manufactured rare chemicals for pharmaceutical producers. This man, whom on several occasions CIA officials gave $100 bills to pay for his products, was able to perform specific lab jobs for the Agency without consulting with his board of directors. In 1960 he supplied the Agency with 3 kilos (6.6 pounds) of a deadly carbamate -- the same poison OSS's Stanley Lovell tried to use against Hitler. [iv] This company president also was useful to the Agency because he was a ready source of information on what was going on in the chemical world. The chemical services he offered, coupled with his biological counterpart, gave the CIA the means to wage "instant" chemical and biological attacks -- a capability that was frequently used, judging by the large numbers of receipts and invoices that the CIA released under the Freedom of Information Act.
• With new chemicals and drugs constantly coming to their attention through their continuing relations with the major pharmaceutical companies, TSS officials needed places to test them, particularly after the safehouses closed. Dr. James Hamilton, the San Francisco psychiatrist who worked with George White in the original ass marijuana days, provided a way. He became MKSEARCH Subproject #3. Hamilton had joined MKULTRA in its earliest days and had been used as a West Coast supervisor for Gottlieb and company. Hamilton was one of the renaissance men of the program, working on everything from psychochemicals to kinky sex to carbondioxide inhalation. By the early 19608, he had arranged to get access to prisoners at the California Medical Facility at Vacaville. [v] Hamilton worked through a nonprofit research institute connected to the Facility to carry out, as a document puts it, "clinical testing of behavioral control materials" on inmates. Hamilton's job was to provide "answers to specific questions and solutions to specific problems of direct interest to the Agency." In a six-month span in 1967and 1968, the psychiatrist spent over $10,000 in CIA funds simply to pay volunteers -- which at normal rates meant he experimented on between 400 to 1,000 inmates in that time period alone.
• Another MKSEARCH subproject provided $20,000 to $25,000 a year to Dr. Carl Pfeiffer. Pfeiffer's Agency connection went back to 1951, when he headed the Pharmacology Department at the University of Illinois Medical School. He then moved to Emory University and tested LSD and other drugs on inmates of the Federal penitentiary in Atlanta. From there, he moved to New Jersey, where he continued drug experiments on the prisoners at the Bordentown reformatory. An internationally known pharmacologist, Pfeiffer provided the MKSEARCH program with data on the preparation, use, and effect of drugs. He was readily available if Gottlieb or a colleague wanted a study made of the properties of a particular substance, and like most of TSS's contractors, he also was an intelligence source. Pfeiffer was useful in this last capacity during the latter part of the 1960sbecause he sat on the Food and Drug Administration committee that allocated LSD for scientific research in the United States. By this time, LSD was so widely available on the black market that the Federal Government had replaced the CIA's informal controls of the 19508with laws and procedures forbidding all but the most strictly regulated research. With Pfeiffer on the governing committee, the CIA could keep up its traditional role of monitoring above-ground LSD experimentation around the United States.
• To cover some of the more exotic behavioral fields, another MKSEARCH program continued TSS's relationship with Dr. Maitland Baldwin, the brain surgeon at the National Institutes of Health who had been so willing in 1955 to perform "terminal experiments" in sensory deprivation for Morse Allen and the ARTICHOKE program. After Allen was pushed aside by the men from MKULTRA, the new TSS team hired Baldwin as a consultant. According to one of them, he was full of bright ideas on how to control behavior, but they were wary of him because he was such an "eager beaver" with an obvious streak of "craziness." Under TSS auspices, Baldwin performed lobotomies on apes and then put these simian subjects into sensory deprivation -- presumably in the same "box" he had built himself at NIH and then had to repair after a desperate soldier kicked his way out. There is no information available on whether Baldwin extended this work to humans, although he did discuss with an outside consultant how lobotomized patients reacted to prolonged isolation. Like Hamilton, Baldwin was a jack-of-all-trades who in one experiment beamed radio frequency energy directly at the brain of a chimpanzee and in another cut off one monkey's head and tried to transplant it to the decapitated body of another monkey. Baldwin used $250 in Agency money to buy his own electroshock machine, and he did some kind of unspecified work at a TSS safehouse that caused the CIA to shell out $1,450 to renovate and repair the place.
• The last MKSEARCH subproject covered the work of Dr. Charles Geschickter, who served TSS both as researcher and funding conduit. CIA documents show that Geschickter tested powerful drugs on mental defectives and terminal cancer patients, apparently at the Georgetown University Hospital in Washington. In all, the Agency put $655,000 into Geschickter's research on knockout drugs, stress-producing chemicals, and mind-altering substances. Nevertheless, the doctor's principal service to TSS officials seems to have been putting his family foundation at the disposal of the CIA -- both to channel funds and to serve as a source of cover to Agency operators. About $2.1 million flowed through this tightly controlled foundation to other researchers. [vi] Under MKSEARCH, Geschickter continued to provide TSS with a means to assess drugs rapidly, and he branched out into trying to knock out monkeys with radar waves to the head (a technique which worked but risked frying vital parts of the brain). The Geschickter Fund for Medical Research remained available as a conduit until 1967. [vii]

As part of the effort to keep finding new substances to test within MKSEARCH, Agency officials continued their search for magic mushrooms, leaves, roots, and barks. In 1966, with considerable CIA backing, J. C. King, the former head of the Agency's Western Hemisphere Division who was eased out after the Bay of Pigs, formed an ostensibly private firm called Amazon Natural Drug Company. King, who loved to float down jungle rivers on the deck of his houseboat with a glass of scotch in hand, searched the backwaters of South America for plants of interest to the Agency and/or medical science. To do the work, he hired Amazon men and women, plus at least two CIA paramilitary operators who worked out of Amazon offices in Iquitos, Peru. They shipped back to the United States finds that included Chondodendron toxicoferum, a paralytic agent which is "absolutely lethal in high doses," according to Dr. Timothy Plowman, a Harvard botanist who like most of the staff was unwitting of the CIA involvement. Another plant that was collected and grown by Amazon employees was the hallucinogen known as yage, which author William Burroughs has described as "the final fix."

MKSEARCH went on through the 19608 and into the early 1970s, but with a steadily decreasing budget. In 1964 it cost the Agency about $250,000. In 1972 it was down to four subprojects and $110,000. Gottlieb was a very busy man by then, having taken over all TSS in 1967 when his patron, Richard Helms, finally made it to the top of the Agency. In June 1972 Gottlieb decided to end MKSEARCH, thus bringing down the curtain on the quest he himself had started two decades before. He wrote this epitaph for the program:

As a final commentary, I would like to point out that, by means of Project MKSEARCH, the Clandestine Service has been able to maintain contact with the leading edge of developments in the field of biological and chemical control of human behavior. It has become increasingly obvious over the last several years that this general area had less and less relevance to current clandestine operations. The reasons for this are many and complex, but two of them are perhaps worth mentioning briefly. On the scientific side, it has become very clear that these materials and techniques are too unpredictable in their effect on individual human beings, under specific circumstances, to be operationally useful. Our operations officers, particularly the emerging group of new senior operations officers, have shown a discerning and perhaps commendable distaste for utilizing these materials and techniques. They seem to realize that, in addition to moral and ethical considerations, the extreme sensitivity and security constraints of such operations effectively rule them out.


About the time Gottlieb wrote these words, the Watergate break-in occurred, setting in train forces that woul4 alter his life and that of Richard Helms. A few months later, Richard Nixon was re-elected. Soon after the election, Nixon, for reasons that have never been explained, decided to purge Helms. Before leaving to become Ambassador to Iran, Helms presided over a wholesale destruction of documents and tapes -- presumably to minimize information that might later be used against him. Sid Gottlieb decided to follow Helms into retirement, and the two men mutually agreed to get rid of all the documentary traces of MKULTRA. They had never kept files on the safehouse testing or similarly sensitive operations in the first place, but they were determined to erase the existing records of their search to control human behavior. Gottlieb later told a Senate committee that he wanted to get rid of the material because of a "burgeoning paper problem" within the Agency, because the files were of "no constructive use" and might be "misunderstood," and because he wanted to protect the reputations of the researchers with whom he had collaborated on the assurance of secrecy. Gottlieb got in touch with the men who had physical custody of the records, the Agency's archivists, who proceeded to destroy what he and Helms thought were the only traces of the program. They made a mistake, however -- or the archivists did. Seven boxes of substantive records and reports were incinerated, but seven more containing invoices and financial records survived -- apparently due to misfiling.

Nixon named James Schlesinger to be the new head of the Agency, a post in which he stayed only a few months before the increasingly beleaguered President moved him over to be Secretary of Defense at the height of Watergate. During his short stop at CIA, Schlesinger sent an order to all Agency employees asking them to let his office know about any instances where Agency officials might have carried out any improper or illegal actions. Somebody mentioned Frank Olson's suicide, and it was duly included in the many hundreds of pages of misdeeds reported which became known within the CIA as the "family jewels."

Schlesinger, an outsider to the career CIA operators, had opened a Pandora's box that the professionals never managed to shut again. Samples of the "family jewels" were slipped out to New York Times reporter Seymour Hersh, who created a national furor in December 1974 when he wrote about the CIA's illegal spying on domestic dissidents during the Johnson and Nixon years. President Gerald Ford appointed a commission headed by Vice-President Nelson Rockefeller to investigate the past CIA abuses-and to limit the damage. Included in the final Rockefeller report was a section on how an unnamed Department of the Army employee had jumped out of a New York hotel window after Agency men had slipped him LSD. That revelation made headlines around the country. The press seized upon the sensational details and virtually ignored two even more revealing sentences buried in the Rockefeller text: "The drug program was part of a much larger CIA program to study possible means for controlling human behavior. Other studies explored the effects of radiation, electric-shock, psychology, psychiatry, sociology, and harassment substances."

At this point, I entered the story. I was intrigued by those two sentences, and I filed a Freedom of Information request with the CIA to obtain all the documents the Agency had furnished the Rockefeller Commission on behavior control. Although the law requires a government agency to respond within 10 days, it took the Agency more than a year to send me the first 50 documents on the subject, which turned out to be heavily censored.

In the meantime, the committee headed by' Senator Frank Church was looking into the CIA, and it called in Sid Gottlieb, who was then spending his retirement working as a volunteer in a hospital in India. Gottlieb secretly testified about CIA assassination programs. (In describing his role in its final report, the Church Committee used a false name, "Victor Scheider.") Asked about the behavioral-control programs, Gottlieb apparently could not -- or would not -- remember most of the details. The committee had almost no documents to work with, since the main records had been destroyed in 1973 and the financial files had not yet been found.

The issue lay dormant until 1977, when, about June 1, CIA officials notified my lawyers that they had found the 7 boxes of MKULTRA financial records and that they would send me the releasable portions over the following months. As I waited, CIA Director Stansfield Turner notified President Carter and then the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence that an Agency official had located the 7 boxes. Admiral Turner publicly described MKULTRA as only a program of drug experimentation and not one aimed at behavior control. On July 20 I held a press conference at which I criticized Admiral Turner for his several distortions in describing the MKULTRA program. To prove my various points, I released to the reporters a score of the CIA documents that had already come to me and that gave the flavor of the behavioral efforts. Perhaps it was a slow news day, or perhaps people simply were interested in government attempts to tamper with the mind. In any event, the documents set off a media bandwagon that had the story reported on all three network television news shows and practically everywhere else.

The Senate Select Committee on Intelligence and Senator Edward Kennedy's Subcommittee on Health and Scientific Research soon announced they would hold public hearings on the subject. Both panels had looked into the secret research in 1975 but had been hampered by the lack of documents and forthcoming witnesses. At first the two committees agreed to work together, and they held one joint hearing. Then, Senator Barry Goldwater brought behind-the-scenes pressure to get the Intelligence panel, of which he was vice-chairman, to drop out of the proceedings. He claimed, among other things, that the committee was just rehashing old programs and that the time had come to stop dumping on the CIA. Senator Kennedy plowed ahead anyway. He was limited, however, by the small size of the staff he assigned to the investigation, and his people were literally buried in paper by CIA officials, who released 8,000 pages of documents in the weeks before the hearings. As the hearings started, the staff still had not read everything -- let alone put it all in context.

As Kennedy's staff prepared for the public sessions, the former men from MKULTRA also got ready. According to one of them, they agreed among themselves to "keep the inquiry within bounds that would satisfy the committee." Specifically, he says that meant volunteering no more information than the Kennedy panel already had. Charles Siragusa, the narcotics agent who ran the New York safehouse, reports he got a telephone call during this period from Ray Treichler, the Stanford Ph.D. who specialized in chemical warfare for the MKULTRA program. "He wanted me to deny knowing about the safehouse," says Siragusa. "He didn't want me to admit that he was the guy.... I said there was no way I could do that." Whether any other ex-TSS men also suborned perjury cannot be said, but several of them appear to have committed perjury at the hearings. [viii] As previously noted, Robert Lashbrook denied firsthand knowledge of the safehouse operation when, in fact, he had supervised one of the "pads" and been present, according to George White's diary, at the time of an "LSD surprise" experiment. Dr. Charles Geschickter testified he had not tested stress-producing drugs on human subjects while both his own 1960 proposal to the Agency and the CIA's documents indicate the opposite.

Despite the presence of a key aide who constantly cued him during the hearings, Senator Kennedy was not prepared to deal with these and other inconsistencies. He took no action to follow up obviously perjured testimony, and he seemed content to win headlines with reports of "The Gang That Couldn't Spray Straight." Although that particular testimony had been set up in advance by a Kennedy staffer, the Senator still managed to act surprised when ex-MKULTRA official David Rhodes told of the ill-fated LSD experiment at the Marin County safehouse.

The Kennedy hearings added little to the general state of knowledge on the CIA's behavior-control programs. CIA officials, both past and present, took the position that basically nothing of substance was learned during the 25-odd years of research, the bulk of which had ended in 1963, and they were not challenged. That proposition is, on its face, ridiculous, but neither Senator Kennedy nor any other investigator has yet put any real pressure on the Agency to reveal the content of the research -- what was actually learned -- as opposed to the experimental means of carrying it out. In this book, I have tried to get at some of the substantive questions, but I have had access to neither the scientific records, which Gottlieb and Helms destroyed, nor the principal people involved. Gottlieb, for instance, who moved from India to Santa Cruz, California and then to parts unknown, turned down repeated requests to be interviewed. "I am interested in very different matters than the subject of your book these days," he wrote, "and do not have either the time or the inclination to reprocess matters that happened a long time ago."

Faced with these obstacles, I have tried to weave together a representative sample of what went on, but having dealt with a group of people who regularly incorporated lying into their daily work, I cannot be sure. I cannot be positive that they never found a technique to control people, despite my definite bias in favor of the idea that the human spirit defeated the manipulators. Only a congressional committee could compel truthful testimony from people who have so far refused to be forthcoming, and even Congress' record has not been good so far. A determined investigative committee at least could make sure that the people being probed do not determine the "bounds" of the inquiry.

A new investigation would probably not be worth the effort just to take another stab at MKULTRA and ARTICHOKE. Despite my belief that there are some skeletons hidden -- literally -- the public probably now knows the basic parameters of these programs. The fact is, however, that CIA officials actively experimented with behavior-control methods for another decade after Sid Gottlieb and company lost the research action. The Directorate of Science and Technology -- specifically its Office of Research and Development (ORD) -- did not remain idle after Director McCone transferred the behavioral research function in 1962.

In ORD, Dr. Stephen Aldrich, a graduate of Amherst and Northwestern Medical School, took over the role that Morse Allen and then Sid Gottlieb had played before him. Aldrich had been the medical director of the Office of Scientific Intelligence back in the days when that office was jockeying with Morse Allen for control of ARTICHOKE, so he was no stranger to the programs. Under his leadership, ORO officials kept probing for ways to control human behavior, and they were doing so with space-age technology that made the days of MKULTRA look like the horse-and-buggy era. If man could get to the moon by the end of the 1960s, certainly the well-financed scientists of ORO could make a good shot at conquering inner space.

They brought their technology to bear on subjects like the electric stimulation of the brain. John Lilly had done extensive work in this field a decade earlier, before concluding that to maintain his integrity he must find another field. CIA men had no such qualms, however. They actively experimented with placing electrodes in the brain of animals and -- probably -- men. Then they used electric and radio signals to move their subjects around. The field went far beyond giving monkeys orgasms, as Lilly had done. In the CIA itself, Sid Gottlieb and the MKULTRA crew had made some preliminary studies of it. They started in 1960 by having a contractor search all the available literature, and then they had mapped out the parts of animals' brains that produced reactions when stimulated. By April 1961 the head of TSS was able to report "we now have a 'production capability'" in brain stimulation and "we are close to having debugged a prototype system whereby dogs can be guided along specific courses." Six months later, a CIA document noted, "The feasibility of remote control of activities in several species of animals has been demonstrated. ... Special investigations and evaluations will be conducted toward the application of selected elements of these techniques to man." Another six months later, TSS officials had found a use for electric stimulation: this time putting electrodes in the brains of cold-blooded animals -- presumably reptiles. While much of the experimentation with dogs and cats was to find a way of wiring the animal and then directing it by remote control into, say, the office of the Soviet ambassador, this coldblooded project was designed instead for the delivery of chemical and biological agents or for "executive action-type operations," according to a document. "Executive action" was the CIA's euphemism for assassination.

With the brain electrode technology at this level, Steve Aldrich and ORD took over the research function from TSS. What the ORD men found cannot be said, but the open literature would indicate that the field progressed considerably during the 1960s. Can the human brain be wired and controlled by a big enough computer? Aldrich certainly tried to find out.

Creating amnesia remained a "big goal" for the ORD researcher, states an ex-CIA man. Advances in brain surgery, such as the development of three-dimensional, "stereotaxic" techniques, made psychosurgery a much simpler matter and created the possibility that a precisely placed electrode probe could be used to cut the link between past memory and present recall. As for subjects to be used in behavioral experiments of this sort, the ex-CIA man states that ORD had access to prisoners in at least one American penal institution. A former Army doctor stationed at the Edgewood chemical laboratory states that the lab worked with CIA men to develop a drug that could be used to help program in new memories into the mind of an amnesic subject. How far did the Agency take this research? I don't know.

The men from ORD tried to create their own latter-day version of the Society for the Investigation of Human Ecology. Located outside Boston, it was called the Scientific Engineering Institute, and Agency officials had set it up originally in 1956 as a proprietary company to do research on radar and other technical matters that had nothing to do with human behavior. Its president, who says he was a "figurehead," was Or. Edwin Land, the founder of Polaroid. In the early 1960s, ORD officials decided to bring it into the behavioral field and built a new wing to the Institute's modernistic building for the "life sciences." They hired a group of behavioral and medical scientists who were allowed to carryon their own independent research as long as it met Institute standards. These scientists were available to consult with frequent visitors from Washington, and they were encouraged to take long lunches in the Institute's dining room where they mixed with the physical scientists and brainstormed about virtually everything. One veteran recalls a colleague joking, "If you could find the natural radio frequency of a person's sphincter, you could make him run out of the room real fast." Turning serious, the veteran states the technique was "plausible," and he notes that many of the crazy ideas bandied about at lunch developed into concrete projects.

Some of these projects may have been worked on at the Institute's own several hundred-acre farm located in the Massachusetts countryside. But of the several dozen people contacted in an effort to find out what the Institute did, the most anyone would say about experiments at the farm was that one involved stimulating the pleasure centers of crows' brains in order to control their behavior. Presumably, ORD men did other things at their isolated rural lab.

Just as the MKULTRA program had been years ahead of the scientific community, ORO activities were similarly advanced. "We looked at the manipulation of genes," states one of the researchers. "We were interested in gene splintering. The rest of the world didn't ask until 1976 the type of questions we were facing in 1965.... Everybody was afraid of building the supersoldier who would take orders without questioning, like the kamikaze pilot. Creating a subservient society was not out of sight." Another Institute man describes the work of a colleague who bombarded bacteria with ultraviolet radiation in order to create deviant strains. ORO also sponsored work in parapsychology. Along with the military services, Agency officials wanted to know whether psychics could read minds or control them from afar (telepathy), if they could gain information about distant places or people (clairvoyance or remote viewing), if they could predict the future (precognition), or influence the movement of physical objects or even the human mind (photokinesis). The last could have incredibly destructive applications, if it worked. For instance, switches setting off nuclear bombs would have to be moved only a few inches to launch a holocaust. Or, enemy psychics, with minds honed to laser-beam sharpness, could launch attacks to bum out the brains of American nuclear scientists. Any or all of these techniques have numerous applications to the spy trade.

While ORD officials apparently left much of the drug work to Gottlieb, they could not keep their hands totally out of this field. In 1968 they set up a joint program, called Project OFTEN, with the Army Chemical Corps at Edgewood, Maryland to study the effects of various drugs on animals and humans. The Army helped the Agency put together a computerized data base for drug testing and supplied military volunteers for some of the experiments. In one case, with a particularly effective incapacitating agent, the Army arranged for inmate volunteers at the Holmesburg State Prison in Philadelphia. Project OFTEN had both offensive and defensive sides, according to an ORD man who described it in a memorandum. He cited as an example of what he and his coworkers hoped to find "a compound that could simulate a heart attack or a stroke in the targeted individual." In January 1973, just as Richard Helms was leaving the Agency and James Schlesinger was coming in, Project OFTEN was abruptly canceled.

What -- if any -- success the ORD men had in creating heart attacks or in any of their other behavioral experiments simply cannot be said. Like Sid Gottlieb, Steve Aldrich is not saying, and his colleagues seem even more closemouthed than Gottlieb's. In December 1977, having gotten wind of the ORD programs, I filed a Freedom of Information request for access to ORD files "on behavioral research, including but not limited to any research or operational activities related to bio-electrics, electric or radio stimulation of the brain, electronic destruction of memory, stereotaxic surgery, psychosurgery, hypnotism, parapsychology, radiation, microwaves, and ultrasonics." I also asked for documentation on behavioral testing in U.S. penal institutions, and I later added a request for all available files on amnesia. The Agency wrote back six months later that ORD had "identified 130 boxes (approximately 130 cubic feet) of material that are reasonably expected to contain behavioral research documents."

Considering that Admiral Turner and other CIA officials had tried to leave the impression with Congress and the public that behavioral research had almost all ended in 1963 with the phaseout of MKULTRA, this was an amazing admission. The sheer volume of material was staggering. This book is based on the 7 boxes of heavily censored MKULTRA financial records plus another 3 or so of ARTICHOKE documents, supplemented by interviews. It has taken me over a year, with significant research help, to digest this much smaller bulk. Clearly, greater resources than an individual writer can bring to bear will be needed to to get to the bottom of the ORD programs. [ix]

A free society's best defense against unethical behavior modification is public disclosure and awareness. The more people understand consciousness-altering technology, the more likely they are to recognize its application, and the less likely it will be used. When behavioral research is carried out in secret, it can be turned against the government's enemies, both foreign and domestic. No matter how pure or defense-oriented the motives of the researchers, once the technology exists, the decision to use it is out of their hands. Who can doubt that if the Nixon administration or J. Edgar Hoover had had some foolproof way to control people, they would not have used the technique against their political foes, just as the CIA for years tried to use similar tactics overseas?

As with the Agency's secrets, it is now too late to put behavioral technology back in the box. Researchers are bound to keep making advances. The technology has already spread to our schools, prisons, and mental hospitals, not to mention the advertising community, and it has also been picked up by police forces around the world. Placing hoods over the heads of political prisoners -- a modified form of sensory deprivation -- has become a standard tactic around the world, from Northern Ireland to Chile. The Soviet Union has consistently used psychiatric treatment as an instrument of repression. Such methods violate basic human rights just as much as physical abuse, even if they leave no marks on the body.

Totalitarian regimes will probably continue, as they have in the past, to search secretly for ways to manipulate the mind, no matter what the United States does. The prospect of being able to control people seems too enticing for most tyrants to give up. Yet, we as a country can defend ourselves without sending our own scientists -- mad or otherwise -- into a hidden war that violates our basic ethical and constitutional principles. After all, we created the Nuremberg Code to show there were limits on scientific research and its application. Admittedly, American intelligence officials have violated our own standard, but the U.S. Government has now officially declared violations will no longer be permitted. The time has come for the United States to lead by example in voluntarily renouncing secret government behavioral research. Other countries might even follow suit, particularly if we were to propose an international agreement which provides them with a framework to do so.

Tampering with the mind is much too dangerous to be left to the spies. Nor should it be the exclusive province of the behavioral scientists, who have given us cause for suspicion. Take this statement by their most famous member, B. F. Skinner: "My image in some places is of a monster of some kind who wants to pull a string and manipulate people. Nothing could be further from the truth. People are manipulated; I just want them to be manipulated more effectively." Such notions are much more acceptable in prestigious circles than people tend to think: D. Ewen Cameron read papers about "depatterning" with electroshock before meetings of his fellow psychiatrists, and they elected him their president. Human behavior is so important that it must concern us all. The more vigilant we and our representatives are, the less chance we will be unwitting victims.

_______________

Notes:

i. At 1977 Senate hearings, CIA Director Stansfield Turner summed up some of MKULTRA's accomplishments over its 11-year existence: The program contracted out work to 80 institutions, which included 44 colleges or universities, 15 research facilities or private companies, 12 hospitals or clinics, and 3 penal institutions. I estimate that MKULTRA cost the taxpayers somewhere in the neighborhood of $10 million.

ii. This economic sabotage program started in 1961, and the chain of command "ran up to the President," according to Kennedy adviser Richard Goodwin. On the CIA side, Agency Director John McCone "was very strong on it," says his former deputy Ray Cline. Cline notes that McCone had the standing orders to all CIA stations abroad rewritten to include "a sentence or two" authorizing a continuing program to disrupt the Cuban economy. Cuba's trade thus became a standing target for Agency operators, and with the authority on the books, CIA officials apparently never went back to the White House for renewed approval after Kennedy died, in Cline's opinion. Three former Assistant Secretaries of State in the Johnson and Nixon administrations say the sabotage, which included everything from driving down the price of Cuban sugar to tampering with cane-cutting equipment, was not brought to their attention. Former CIA Director William Colby states that the Agency finally stopped the economic sabotage program in the early 19705. Cuban government officials counter that CIA agents were still working to create epidemics among Cuban cattle in 1973 and that as of spring 1978, Agency men were committing acts of sabotage against cargo destined for Cuba.

iii. In 1967 a Senate committee chaired by Senator Edward Long was inquiring into wiretapping by government agencies, including the Narcotics Bureau. The Commissioner of Narcotics, then Harry Giordano told a senior TSS man -- almost certainly Gottlieb -- that if CIA officials were "concerned" about its dealings with the Bureau involving the safehouses coming out during the hearings, the most "helpful thing" they could do would be to "turn the Long committee off." How the CIA men reacted to this not very subtle blackmail attempt is unclear from the documents, but what does come out is that the TSS man and another top-level CIA officer misled and lied to the top echelon of the Treasury Department (the Narcotics Bureau's parent organization) about the safehouses and how they were used.

iv. James Moore of the University of Delaware. who also produced carbamates when he was not seeking the magic mushroom, served at times as an intermediary between the industrialist and the CIA.

v. During the late 19608 and early 1970s, it seemed that every radical on the West Coast was saying that the CIA was up to strange things in behavior modification at Vacaville. Like many of yesterday's conspiracy theories, this one turned out to be true.

vi. Geschickter was an extremely important TSS asset with connections in high places. In 1955 he convinced Agency officials to contribute $375,000 in secret funds toward the construction of a new research building at Georgetown University Hospital. (Since this money seemed to be coming from private sources, unwitting Federal bureaucrats doubled it under the matching grant program for hospital construction.) The Agency men had a clear understanding with Geschickter that in return for their contribution, he would make sure they received use of one-sixth of the beds and total space in the facility for their own "hospital safehouse." They then would have a ready source of "human patients and volunteers for experimental use," according to a CIA document, and the research program in the building would provide cover for up to three TSS staff members. Allen Dulles personally approved the contribution and then, to make sure, he took it to President Eisenhower's special committee to review covert operations. The committee also gave its assent, with the understanding that Geschickter could provide "a reasonable expectation" that the Agency would indeed have use of the space he promised. He obviously did, because the CIA money was forthcoming. (This, incidentally, was the only time in a whole quarter-century of Agency behavior-control activities when the documents show that CIA officials went to the White House for approval of anything. The Church committee found no evidence that either the executive branch or Congress was informed of the programs.)

vii. In 1967, after Ramparts magazine exposed secret CIA funding of the National Student Association and numerous nonprofit organizations, President Johnson forbade CIA support of foundations or educational institutions. Inside the Agency there was no notion that this order meant ending relationships, such as the one with Geschickter. In his case, the agile CIA men simply transferred the funding from the foundation to a private company, of which his son was the secretary-treasurer.

viii. Lying to Congress followed the pattern of lying to the press that some MKULTRA veterans adopted after the first revelations came out.. For example, former Human Ecology Society director James. Monroe told The New York Times on August 2, 1977 that "only about 25 to 30 percent" of the Society's budget came from the CIA-a statement he knew to be false since the actual figure was well over 90 percent. His untruth allowed some other grantees to claim that their particular project was funded out of the non-Agency part of the Society.

ix. At the time this book was first published in 1979, the CIA seemed prepared to release some part of the documents on the ORD programs. In fact, soon thereafter, the CIA decided that the game was over and that the Freedom of Information Act no longer applied. Thus, from 1979 through 1991, it has released no documents of substance.
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Re: The Search for the "Manchurian Candidate": The CIA and M

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NOTES

CHAPTER 1


The information on Albert Hofmann's first LSD trip and background on LSD came from an interview by the author with Hofmann, a paper by Hofmann called "The Discovery of LSD and Subsequent Investigations on Naturally Occurring Hallucinogens," another interview with Hofmann by Michael Horowitz printed in the June 1976 High Times magazine, and from a CIA document on LSD produced by the Office of Scientific Intelligence, August 30, 1955, titled "The Strategic Medical Significance of LSD-25."

Information on the German mescaline and hypnosis experiments at Dachau came from "Technical Report no. 331-45, German Aviation Research at the Dachau Concentration Camp," October, 1945, US Naval Technical Mission in Europe, found in the papers of Dr. Henry Beecher. Additional information came from Trials of War Criminals Before the Nuremberg Tribunal, the book Doctors of Infamy by Alexander Mitscherlich and Fred Mielke (New York: H. Schuman, 1949), interviews with prosecution team members Telford Taylor, Leo Alexander, and James McHaney, and an article by Dr. Leo Alexander, "Sociopsychologic Structure of the SS," Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry. May, 1948, Vol. 59, pp. 622-34.

The OSS experience in testing marijuana was described in interviews with several former Manhattan Project counterintelligence men, an OSS document dated June 21, 1943, Subject: Development of "truth drug," given the CIA identification number A/B, I, 12/1; from document A/B, I, 64/34, undated, Subject: Memorandum Relative to the use of truth drug in interrogation; document dated June 2, 1943, Subject: Memorandum on T. D. A "confidential memorandum," dated Apri14, 1954, found in the papers of George White, also was helpful.

The quote on US prisoners passing through Manchuria came from document 19, 18 June 1953, Subject: ARTICHOKE Conference.

The information on Stanley Lovell came from his book. Of Spies and Strategems (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1963), from interviews with his son Richard, a perusal of his remaining papers, interviews with George Kistiakowsky and several OSS veterans, and from "Science in World War II, the Office of Scientific Research and Development" in Chemistry: A History of the Chemistry Components of the National Defense Research Committee, edited by W. A. Noyes, Jr. (Boston: Little, Brown & Company, 1948).

Dr. Walter Langer provided information about his psychoanalytic portrait of Hitler, as did his book, The Mind of Adolf Hitler (New York: Basic Books, 1972). Dr. Henry Murray also gave an interview, as did several OSS men who had been through his assessment course. Murray's work is described at length in a book published after the war by the OSS Assessment staff, Assessment of Men (New York: Rinehart & Company, 1948).

Material on George Estabrooks came from his books, Hypnotism (New York: E. P. Dutton and Co., 1945) and Death in the Mind, coauthored with Richard Lockridge (New York: E. P. Dutton, 1945), and interviews with his daughter, Doreen Estabrooks Michl, former colleagues, and Dr. Milton Kline.

CHAPTER 2

The origins of the CIA's ARTICHOKE program and accounts of the early testing came from the following Agency Documents # 192, 15 January 1953; #3, 17 May 1949; A/B, I, 8/1, 24 February 1949; February 10, 1951 memo on Special Interrogations (no document #); A/B, II, 30/ 2, 28 September 1949; #5, 15 August 1949; #8,27 September 1949; #6, 23 August 1949; #13, 5 April 1950; #18, 9 May 1950; #142 (transmittal slip), 19 May 1952; #124, 25 January 1952; A/B, IV, 23/32, 3 March 1952; #23, 21 June 1950; #10, 27 February 1950; #37, 27 October 1950; A/B, I, 39/1, 12 December 1950; A/B, II, 212, 5 March 1952; A/ B, II, 2/1, 15 February 1952; A/B, V, 134/3, 3 December 1951; A/B, I, 38/5,1 June 1951; and #400, undated, "Specific Cases of Overseas Testing and Applications of Behavioral Drugs."

The documents were supplemented by interviews with Ray Cline, Harry Rositzke, Michael Burke, Hugh Cunningham, and several other ex-CIA men who asked to remain anonymous. The Final Report of the Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence (henceforth called the Church Committee Report) provided useful background.

Documents giving background on terminal experiments include #A/ B, II, 10/57; #A/B, II, 10/58, 31 August, 1954; #A/B, II, 10/17, 27 September 1954; and #A/B, I, 76/4, 21 March 1955.

CHAPTER 3

The primary sources for the material on Professor Wendt's trip to Frankfurt were Dr. Samuel V. Thompson then of the Navy, the CIA psychiatric consultant, several of Wendt's former associates, as well as three CIA documents that described the testing: Document # 168, 19 September 1952, Subject: "Project LGQ"; Document #168, 18 September 1952, Subject: Field Trip of ARTICHOKE team, 20 August-September 1952; and #A/B, II, 33/21, undated, Subject: Special Comments.

Information on the Navy's Project CHATTER came from the Church Committee Report, Book I, pp. 337-38. Declassified Navy Documents N- 23, February 13, 1951, Subject: Procurement of Certain Drugs; N-27, undated, Subject: Project CHATTER; N-29, undated, Subject: Status Report: Studies of Motion Sickness, Vestibular Function, and Effects of Drugs; N-35, October 27, 1951, Interim Report; N-38, 30 September, 1952, Memorandum for File; and N-39, 28 October, 1952, Memorandum for File.

The information on the heroin found in Wendt's safe comes from the Rochester Democrat and Chronicle. October 2, 1977 and considerable background on Wendt's Rochester testing program was found in the Rochester Times-Union, January 28, 1955. The CIA quote on heroin came from May 15, 1952 OSI Memorandum to the Deputy Director, CIA, Subject: Special Interrogation.

Information on the Agency's interest in amnesia came from 14 January 1952 memo, Subject: BLUEBIRD/ARTICHOKE, Proposed Research; 7 March 1951, Subject: Informal Discussion with Chief [deleted] Regarding "Disposal"; 1 May 1951, Subject: Recommendation for Disposal of Maximum Custody Defectors; and #A/B, I, 75/13, undated, Subject: Amnesia.

The quote from Homer on nepenthe was found in Sidney Cohen's The Beyond Within: The LSD Story (New York: Atheneum, 1972).

The section on control came from interviews with John Stockwell and several other former CIA men.

CHAPTER 4

The description of Robert Hyde's first trip came from interviews with Dr. Milton Greenblatt, Dr. J. Herbert DeShon, and a talk by Max Rinkel at the 2nd Macy Conference on Neuropharmacology, pp. 235-36, edited by Harold A. Abramson, 1955: Madison Printing Company.

The descriptions of TSS and Sidney Gottlieb came from interviews with Ray Cline, John Stockwell, about 10 other ex-CIA officers, and other friends of Gottlieb.

Memos quoted on the early MKULTRA program include Memorandum from ADDP Helms to DCI Dulles, 4/3/53, Tab A, pp. 1-2 (quoted in Church Committee Report, Book I); APF A-1, April 13, 1953,Memorandum for Deputy Director (Administration, Subject: Project MKULTRA -- Extremely Sensitive Research and Development Program; #A/ B, I, 64/6, 6 February 1952,Memorandum for the Record, Subject: Contract with [deleted] #A/B, I, 64/29, undated, Memorandum for Technical Services Staff, Subject: Alcohol Antagonists and Accelerators, Research and Development Project. The Gottlieb quote is from Hearing before the Subcommittee on Health and Scientific Research of the Senate Committee on Human Resources, September 21, 1977, p. 206.

The background data on LSD came particularly from The Beyond Within: The LSD Story by Sidney Cohen (New York: Atheneum, 1972). Other sources included Origins of Psychopharmacology: From CPZ to LSD by Anne E. Caldwell (Springfield, Ill.: Charles C. Thomas, 1970) and Document 352, "An OSI Study of the Strategic Medical Importance of LSD-25," 30 August 1955.

TSS's use of outside researchers came from interviews with four former TSSers. MKULTRA Subprojects 8, 10, 63, and 66 described Robert Hyde's work. Subprojects 7, 27, and 40 concerned Harold Abramson. Hodge's work was in subprojects 17 and 46. Carl Pfeiffer's Agency connection, along with Hyde's, Abramson's, and Isbell's, was laid out by Lyman B. Kirkpatrick, Memorandum for the Record, 1 December 1953, Subject: Conversation with Dr. Willis Gibbons of TSS re Olson Case (found at p. 1030, Kennedy Subcommittee 1975 Biomedical and Behavioral Research Hearings). Isbell's testing program was also described at those hearings, as it was in Document #14, 24 July, 1953, Memo For: Liaison & Security Officer/TSS, Subject #71 An Account of the Chemical Division's Contacts in the National Institute of Health; Document #37, 14 July 1954, subject [deleted]; and Document #41, 31 August, 1956, subject; trip to Lexington, Ky., 21-23 August 1956. Isbell's program was further described in a "Report on ADAMHA Involvement in LSD Research," found at p. 993 of 1975 Kennedy subcommittee hearings. The firsthand account of the actual testing came from an interview with Edward M. Flowers, Washington, D.C.

The section on TSS's noncontract informants came from interviews with TSS sources, reading the proceedings of the Macy Conferences on "Problems of Consciousness" and "Neuropharmacology," and interviews with several participants including Sidney Cohen, Humphrey Osmond, and Hudson Hoagland.

The material on CIA's relations with Sandoz and Eli Lilly came from Document #24, 16 November, 1953, Subject: ARTICHOKE Conference; Document #268, 23 October, 1953, Subject: Meeting in Director's Office at 1100 hours on 23 October with Mr. Wisner and [deleted]; Document #316, 6 January, 1954,Subject: Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD- 25); and Document # 338, 26 October 1954, Subject: Potential Large Scale Availability of LSD through newly discovered synthesis by [deleted]; interviews with Sandoz and Lilly former executives; interviews with TSS sources; and Sidney Gottlieb's testimony before Kennedy subcommittee, 1977, p. 203.

Henry Beecher's US government connections were detailed in his private papers, in a report on the Swiss-LSD death to the CIA at p. 396, Church Committee Report, Book I, and in interviews with two of his former associates.

The description of TSS's internal testing progression comes from interviews with former staff members. The short reference to Sid Gottlieb's arranging for LSD to be given a speaker at a political rally comes from Document #A/B, II, 26/8, 9 June 1954, Subject: MKULTRA. Henry Beecher's report to the CIA on the Swiss suicide is found at p. 396, Church Committee Report, Book I.

CHAPTER 5

The description of the CIA's relationship with SOD at Fort Detrick comes from interviews with several ex-Fort Detrick employees; Church Committee hearings on "Unauthorized Storage of Toxic Agents, Volume 1; Church Committee "Summary Report on CIA Investigation of MKNAOMI" found in Report, Book I, pp. 360-63; and/Kennedy subcommittee hearings on Biological Testing Involving Human Subjects by the Department of Defense, 1977. The details of Sid Gottlieb's involvement in the plot to kill Patrice Lumumba are found in the Church Committee's Interim Report on "Alleged Assassination Plots Involving Foreign Leaders," pp. 20-21. The Church committee allowed Gottlieb to be listed under the pseudonym Victor Scheider, but several sources confirm Gottlieb's true identity, as does the biographic data on him submitted to the Kennedy subcommittee by the CIA, which puts him in the same job attributed to "Scheider" at the same time. The plot to give botulinum to Fidel Castro is outlined in the Assassination report, pp. 79-83. The incident with the Iraqi colonel is on p. 181 of the same report.

The several inches of CIA documents on the Olson case were released by the Olson family in 1976 and can be found in the printed volume of the 1975 Kennedy subcommittee hearings on Biomedical and Behavioral Research, pp. 1005-1132. They form the base of much of the narrative, along with interviews with Alice Olson, Eric Olson, Benjamin Wilson, and several other ex-SOD men (who added next to nothing). Information also was gleaned from Vincent Ruwet's testimony before the Kennedy subcommittee in 1975, pp. 138-45 and the Church committee's summary of the affair, Book I, pp. 394-403. The quote on Harold Abramson's intention to give his patients unwitting doses of LSD is found in MKULTRA subproject 7, June 8, 1953, letter to Dr. [deleted). Magician John Mulholland's work for the Agency is described in MKULTRA subprojects 19 and 34.

CHAPTER 6

The CIA's reaction to Frank Olson's death is described in numerous memos released by the Agency to the Olson family, which can be found at pp. 1005-1132 of the Kennedy Subcommittee 1975 hearings on Biomedical and Behavioral Research. See particularly at p. 1077, 18 December 1953, Subject: The Suicide of Frank Olson and at p. 1027, I December 1953, Subject: Use of LSD.

Richard Helms' views on unwitting testing are found in Document #448, 17 December 1963, Subject: Testing of Psychochemicals and Related Materials and in a memorandum to the CIA Director, June 9, 1964, quoted from on page 402 of the Church Committee Report, Book I.

George White's diary and letters were donated by his widow to Foothills Junior College, Los Altos, California and are the source of a treasure chest of material on him, including his letter to a friend explaining his almost being "blackballed" from the CIA, the various diary entries cited, including references to folk-dancing with Gottlieb, the interview with Hal Lipset where he explains his philosophy on chasing criminals, and his letter to Sid Gottlieb dated November 21, (probably) 1972.

The New York and San Francisco safehouses run by George White are the subjects of MKULTRA Subprojects 3, 14, 16,42, and 149. White's tips to the landlord are described in 42-156, his liquor bills in 42-157, "dry-runs" in 42-91. The New York safehouse run by Charles Siragusa is Subproject 132. The "intermediate" tests are described in document 132- 59.

Paul Avery, a San Francisco freelance writer associated with the Center for Investigative Reporting in Oakland, California interviewed William Hawkins and provided assistance on the details of the San Francisco safehouse and George White's background. Additional information on White came from interviews with his widow, several former colleagues in the Narcotics Bureau, and other knowledgeable sources in various San Francisco law-enforcement agencies. An ex-Narcotics Bureau official told of Dr. James Hamilton's study of unusual sexual practices and the description of his unwitting drug testing comes from MKULTRA Subproject 2, which is his subproject.

Ray Treichler discussed some of his work with harassment substances in testimony before the Kennedy subcommittee on September 20, 1977, pp. 105-8. He delivered his testimony under the pseudonym "Philip Goldman."

"The Gang that Couldn't Spray Straight" article appeared in the September 20, 1977 Washington Post.

Richard Helms' decision not to tell John McCone about the CIA's connection to the Mafia in assassination attempts against Castro is described in the Church Committee's Assassination report, pp. 102-3.

The 1957 Inspector General's Report on TSS, Document #417 and the 1963 inspection of MKULTRA, 14 August 1963, Document #59 provided considerable detail throughout the entire chapter. The Church Committee Report on MKULTRA in Book I, pp. 385-22 also provided considerable information.

Sid Gottlieb's job as Assistant to the Clandestine Services chief for Scientific Matters is described in Document #74 (operational series), 20 October 1959, Subject: Application of Imaginative Research on the Behavioral and Physical Sciences to [deleted] Problems" and in the 1963 Inspector General's report.

Interviews with ex-CIA Inspector General Lyman Kirkpatrick, another former Inspector General's staff employee, and several ex-TSS staffers contributed significantly to this chapter.

Helms' letter to the Warren Commission on "Soviet Brainwashing Techniques," dated 19 June 1964, was obtained from the National Archives.

The material on the CIA's operational use of LSD came from the Church Committee Report, Book I, pp. 399-403 and from an affidavit filed in the Federal Court case of John D. Marks v. Central Intelligence Agency. et. al., Civil Action No. 76-2073 by Eloise R. Page, Chief. Policy and Coordination Staff of the CIA's Directorate of Operations. In listing all the reasons why the Agency should not provide the operational documents, Ms. Page gave some information on what was in the documents. The passages on TSS's and the Medical Office's positions on the use of LSD came from a memo written by James Angleton, Chief, Counterintelligence Staff on December 12,1951 quoted in part at p. 401 of the Church Committee Report, Book I.

CHAPTER 7

R. Gordon and Valentina Wasson's mammoth work, Mushrooms. Russia and History, (New York: Pantheon, 1951), was the source for the account of the Empress Agrippina's murderous use of mushrooms. Wasson told the story of his various journeys to Mexico in a series of interviews and in a May 21, 1951 Life magazine article, "Seeking the Magic Mushroom."

Morse Allen learned of piule in a sequence described in document #A/B, I, 33/7, 14 November 1952, Subject: Piule. The sending of the young CIA scientist to Mexico was outlined in #A/B, I, 33/3, 5 December 1952. Morse Allen commented on mushroom history and covert possibilities in #A/B; I, 34/4, 26 June 1953, Subject: Mushrooms -- Narcotic and Poisonous Varieties. His trip to the American mushroom-growing capital was described in Document [number illegible], 25 June 1953, Subject: Trip to Toughkenamon, Pennsylvania. The failure of TSS to tell Morse Allen about the results of the botanical lab work is outlined in #A/B, I, 39/5, 10 August 1954 Subject: Reports; Request for from TSS [deleted].

James Moore told much about himself in a long interview and in an exchange of correspondence. MKULTRA Subproject 51 dealt with Moore's consulting relationship with the Agency and Subproject 52 with his ties as a procurer of chemicals. See especially Document 51-46, 8 April 1963, Subject: MKULTRA Subproject 51; 51-24, 21 August 1956, Subject: MKULTRA Subproject 51-B; 52-94, 20 February 1963, Subject: (BB) Chemical and Physical Manipulants; 52-19, 20 December 1962; 52- 17, 1 March 1963; 52-23, 6 December 1962; 52-64, 24 August 1959.

The CIA's arrangements with the Department of Agriculture are detailed in #A/B, I, 34/4, 26 June, 1953, Subject: Mushrooms -- Narcotic and Poisonous varieties and Document [number illegible], 13 April 1953, Subject: Interview with Cleared Contacts.

Dr. Harris Isbell's work with psilocybin is detailed in Isbell document # 155, "Comparison of the Reaction Induced by Psilocybin and LSD-25 in Man."

Information on the counterculture and its interface with CIA drugtesting came from interviews with Timothy Leary, Allen Ginsburg, Humphrey Osmond, John Lilly, Sidney Cohen, Ralph Blum, Herbert Kelman, Leo Hollister, Herbert DeShon, and numerous others. Ken Kesey described his first trip in Garage Sale (New York: Viking Press, 1973). Timothy Leary's Kamasutra was actually a book hand-produced in four copies and called Psychedelic Theory: Working Papers from the Harvard IFIF Psychedelic Research Project, 1960-1963. Susan Berns Wolf Rothschild kindly made her copy available. The material about Harold Abramson's turning on Frank Fremont-Smith and Gregory Bateson came from the proceedings of a conference on LSD sponsored by the Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation on April 22, 23, and 24, 1959, pp. 8-22.

CHAPTER 8

Edward Hunter's article" 'Brain-Washing' Tactics Force Chinese into Ranks of Communist Party" appeared in the Miami News on September 24, 1950. His book was Brainwashing in Red China (New York: Vanguard Press, 1951). Other material came from several interviews with Hunter just before he died in June 1978.

The Air Force document cited on brainwashing was called "Air Force Headquarters Panel Convened to Record Air Force Position Regarding Conduct of Personnel in Event of Capture," December 14, 1953. Researcher Sam Zuckerman found it and showed it to me.

The figures on American prisoners in Korea and the quote from Edward Hunter came from hearings before the Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations, 84th Congress, June 19, 20, 26, and 27, 1956.

The material on the setting up of the Cornell-Hinkle-Wolff study came from interviews with Hinkle, Helen Goodell, and several CIA sources. Hinkle and Wolff's study on brainwashing appeared in classified form on 2 April 1956 as a Technical Services Division publication called Communist Control Techniques and in substantially the same form but unclassified as "Communist Interrogation and Indoctrination of 'Enemies of the State' -- An Analysis of Methods Used by the Communist State Police." AMA Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, August, 1956, Vol. 76.

Allen Dulles spoke on "Brain Warfare" before the Alumni Conference of Princeton University, Hot Springs, Virginia on April 10, 1953, and the quote on guinea pigs came from that speech.

The comments of Rockefeller Foundation officials about D. Ewen Cameron and the record of Rockefeller funding were found in Robert S. Morrison's diary, located in the Rockefeller Foundation Archives, Pocantico Hills, New York.

The key articles on Cameron's work on depatterning and psychic driving were "Production of Differential Amnesia as a Factor in the Treatment of Schizophrenia," Comprehensive Psychiatry, 1960, I, p. 26 and "Effects of Repetition of Verbal Signals upon the Behavior of Chronic Psychoneurotic Patients" by Cameron, Leonard Levy, and Leonard Rubenstein, Journal of Mental Science, 1960, 106, 742. The background on Page-Russell electroshocks came from "Intensified Electrical Convulsive Therapy in the Treatment of Mental Disorders" by L. G. M. Page and R. J. Russell, Lancet, Volume'254, Jan.-June, 1948. Dr. John Cavanagh of Washington, D.C. provided background on the use of electroshock and sedatives in psychiatry.

Cameron's MKULTRA Subproject was #68. See especially document 68-37, "Application for Grant to Study the Effects upon Human Behavior of the Repetition of Verbal Signals," January 21, 1957.

Part of Cameron's papers are in the archives of the American Psychiatric Association in Washington, and they provided considerable information on the treatment of Mary C., as well as a general look at his work. Interviews with at least a dozen of his former colleagues also provided considerable information.

Interviews with John Lilly and Donald Hebb provided background on sensory deprivation. Maitland Baldwin's work in the field was discussed in a whole series of ARTICHOKE documents including #AlB, I, 76/4, 21 March 1955, Subject: Total Isolation; #A/B, I, 76/12, 19 May 1955, Subject: Total Isolation -- Additional Comments; and #A/B, I, 76/17, 27 April 1955, Subject: Total Isolation, Supplemental Report #2. The quote from Aldous Huxley on sensory deprivation is taken from the book of his writings, Moksha: Writings on Psychedelics and the Visionary Experience (1931-1963), edited by Michael Horowitz and Cynthia Palmer (New York: Stonehill, 1978).

The material on Val Orlikow's experiences with Dr. Cameron came from interviews with her and her husband David and from portions of her hospital records, which she furnished.

Cameron's staff psychologist Barbara Winrib's comments on him were found in a letter to the Montreal Star, August 11, 1977.

The study of Cameron's electroshock work ordered by Dr. Cleghorn was published as "Intensive Electroconvulsive Therapy: A Follow-up' Study," by A. E. Schwartzman and P. E. Termansen, Canadian Psychiatric Association, Volume 12, 1967.

In addition to several interviews, much material on John Lilly came from his autobiography, The Scientist (Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Company, 1978).

The CIA's handling of Yuri Nosenko was discussed at length in hearings before the House Assassinations Committee on September 15, 1978. The best press account of this testimony was written by Jeremiah O'Leary of the Washington Star on September 16, 1978: "How CIA Tried to Break Defector in Oswald Case."

CHAPTER 9

MKULTRA Subprojects 48 and 60 provided the basic documents on the Society for the Investigation of Human Ecology. These were supplemented by the three biennial reports of the Society that could be found: 1957, 1961, and 1961-1963. Wolff's own research work is MKULTRA Subproject 61. Wolff's proposals to the Agency are in #A/B, II, 10/68, undated "Proposed Plan for Implementing [deleted]" in two documents included in 48-29, March 5, 1956, "General Principles Upon Which these Proposals Are Based." The Agency's plans for the Chinese Project are described in #A/B, II, 10/48, undated, Subject: Cryptonym [deleted] A/B, II 10/72, 9 December, 1954, Subject: Letter of Instructions, and #A/B, II, 10/110, undated, untitled.

Details of the logistics of renting the Human Ecology headquarters and bugging it are in #A/B, II, 10/23, 30 August, 1954, Subject: Meeting of Working Committee of [deleted], No. 5 and #A/B, II, 10/92, 8 December, 1954, Subject: Technical Installation.

The Hungarian project, as well as being described in the 1957 biennial report, was dealt with in MKULTRA Subprojects 65 and 82, especially 65-12, 28 June 1956, Subject: MKULTRA Subproject 65; 65-11, undated, Subject: Dr. [deleted]'s Project -- Plans for the Coming Year, July, 1957- June, 1958; and 82-15, 11 April 1958, Subject: Project MKULTRA, Subproject 82:

The Ionia State sexual psychopath research was MKULTRA Subproject 39, especially 39-4, 9 April 1958, Subject: Trip Report, Visit to [deleted], 7 April 1958. Paul Magnusson of the Detroit Free Press and David Pearl of the Detroit ACLU office both furnished information.

Carl Rogers' MKULTRA Subproject was #97. He also received funds under Subproject 74. See especially 74-256, 7 October 1958, Supplement to Individual Grant under MKULTRA, Subproject No. 74 and 97-21, 6 August 1959, Subject: MKULTRA Subproject 97.

H. J. Eysenck's MKULTRA subproject was # Ill. See especially 111- 3, 3 April 1961, Subject: Continuation of MKULTRA Subproject 111.

The American Psychological Association-sponsored trip to the Soviet Union was described in Subproject 107. The book that came out of the trip was called Some Views on Soviet Psychology, Raymond Bauer (editor), (Washington: American Psychological Association; 1962).

The Sherifs' research on teenage gangs was described in Subproject # 102 and the 1961 Human Ecology biennial report. Dr. Carolyn Sherif also wrote a letter to the American Psychological Association Monitor, February 1978. Dr. Sherif talked about her work when she and I appeared on an August 1978 panel at the American Psychological Association's convention in Toronto.

Martin Orne's work for the Agency was described in Subproject 84. He contributed a chapter to the Society-funded book, The Manipulation of Human Behavior, edited by Albert Bidennan and Herbert Zimmer (New York: John Wiley & Sons; 1961), pp. 169-215. Financial data on Orne's Institute for Experimental Psychiatry came from a filing with the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Attachment to Form 1023.

The quote from John Gittinger came from an interview with him conducted by Dr. Patricia Greenfield. Dr. Greenfield also interviewed Jay Schulman, Carl Rogers, and Charles Osgood for an article in the December 1977 issue of the American Psychological Association Monitor, from which my quotes of Schulman's comments are taken. She discussed Erving Goffman's role in a presentation to a panel of the American Psychological Association convention in Toronto in August 1978. The talk was titled "CIA Support of Basic Research in Psychology: Policy Implications."

CHAPTER 10

The material on the Gittinger Personality Assessment System (PAS) comes from "An Introduction to the Personality Assessment System" by John Winne and John Gittinger, Monograph Supplement No. 38, Clinical Psychology Publishing Co., Inc. 1973; an interview with John Winne; interviews with three other former CIA psychologists; 1974 interviews with John Gittinger by the author; and an extended interview with Gittinger by Dr. Patricia Greenfield, Associate Professor of Psychology at UCLA. Some of the material was used first in a Rolling Stone article, July 18, 1974, "The CIA Won't Quite Go Public." Robert Hyde's alcohol research at Butler Health Center was MKULTRA Subproject 66. See especially 66-17, 27 August, 1958. Subject: Proposed Alcohol Study -- 1958-1959 and 66-5. undated, Subject: Equipment -- Ecology Laboratory.

The 1963 Inspector General's report on TSS, as first released under the Freedom of Information Act, did not include the section on personality assessment quoted from in the chapter. An undated, untitled document, which was obviously this section, was made available in one of the CIA's last releases.

MKULTRA Subproject 83 dealt with graphology research, as did part of Subproject 60, which covered the whole Human Ecology Society. See especially 83-7, December 11, 1959, Subject: [deleted] Graphological Review and 60-28, undated, Subject [deleted] Activities Report, May, 1959- April, 1960.

Information on the psychological profile of Ferdinand Marcos came from a U.S. Government source who had read it. Information on the profile of the Shah of Iran came from a column by Jack Anderson and Les Whitten "CIA Study Finds Shah Insecure," Washington Post, July 11, 1975.

The quotes from James Keehner came from an article in New Times by Maureen Orth, "Memoirs of a CIA Psychologist," June 25, 1975.

For related reports on the CIA's role in training foreign police and its activities in Uruguay, see an article by Taylor Branch and John Marks, "Tracking the CIA," Harper's Weekly, January 25, 1975 and Philip Agee's book, Inside the Company: CIA Diary (London: Penguin; 1975). The quote from Martin Orne was taken from Patricia Greenfield's APA Monitor article cited in the last chapter's notes.

Gittinger's testimony before the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence and the Kennedy subcommittee on August 3, 1977 appeared on pages 50-63. David Rhodes' testimony on Gittinger's role in the abortive San Francisco LSD spraying appeared in hearings before the Kennedy subcommittee, September 20, 1977, pp. 100-110.

CHAPTER 11

Morse Allen's training in hypnosis was described in Document #A/B, V, 28/1, 9 July 1951, Subject [deleted]. His hypnosis experiments in the office are described in a long series of memos. See especially #A/B, III, 2/18, 10 February 1954, Hypnotic Experimentation and Research and #A/B, II, 10/71, 19 August 1954, Subject: Operational/Security [deleted] and unnumbered document, 5 May 1955, Subject: Hypnotism and Covert Operations.

The quote on U.S. prisoners passing through Manchuria came from document #19, 18 June 1953, ARTICHOKE Conference.

Alden Sears' hypnosis work was the subject of MKULTRA Subprojects 5, 25, 29, and 49. See especially 49-28, undated, Proposal for Research in Hypnosis at the [deleted], June I, 1956 to May 31, 1957, 49- 34, undated, Proposals for Research in Hypnosis at the [deleted], June I, 1956 to May 31, 1957; 5-11, 28 May 1953, Project MKULTRA, Subproject 5 and 5-13, 20 April 1954, Subject: [deleted]. See also Patrick Oster's article in the Chicago Sun-Times, September 4, 1977, "How CIA 'Hid' Hypnosis Research."

General background on hypnosis came from interviews with Alden Sears, Martin Orne, Milton Kline, Ernest Hilgard, Herbert Spiegel, William Kroger, Jack Tracktir, John Watkins, and Harold Crasilneck. See Orne's chapter on hypnosis in The Manipulation of Human Behavior, edited by Albert Biderman and Herbert Zimmer (New York: John Wiley & Sons; 1961), pp. 169-215.

The contemplated use of hypnosis in an operation involving a foreign intelligence service is referred to in the Affidavit by Eloise R. Page, in the case John D. Marks v. Central Intelligence Agency et al. Civil Action no. 76-2073.

The 1959 proposed use of hypnosis that was approved by 1'$8 is described in documents #433, 21 August 1959, Possible Use of Drugs and Hypnosis in [deleted] Operational Case; #434, 27 August 1959, Comments on [deleted]; and #435, 15 September 1959, Possible Use of Drugs and Hypnosis in [deleted] Operational Case.

MKULTRA Subproject 128 dealt with the rapid induction technique. See especially 128-1, undated, Subject: To test a method of rapid hypnotic induction in simulated and real operational settings (MKULTRA 128).

A long interview with John Gittinger added considerably to this chapter. Mr. Gittinger had refused earlier to be interviewed directly by me for this book. Our conversation was limited solely to hypnosis.

CHAPTER 12

The reorganization of TSS was described in document #59, 26 July 1963, Report of the Inspection of MKULTRA and in interviews with Ray Cline, Herbert Scoville, and several other former CIA officials.

Richard Helms' recommendations for a new MKULTRA charter were described in document #450, 9 June, 1964, Sensitive Research Programs (MKULTRA).

Admiral Stansfield Turner's statement on the MKULTRA program was made before a joint session of the Kennedy subcommittee and the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, August 3, 1977, pp. 4-8.

MKSEARCH programs and their origins in MKULTRA are described in documents #449, 8 April 1964, Revision of Project MKULTRA and #S-1-7, untitled, undated.

Dr. Edward Bennett's work is the subject of MKULTRA Subprojects 104 and 143. See especially 143-23, 11 December 1962, Subject: MKULTRA Subproject 143. Other information on the CIA's economic sabotage program against Cuba came from interviews with Major General Edward Lansdale, Ray Cline, William Colby, Lincoln Gordon, Covey Oliver, Charles Meyer, Richard Goodwin, Roger Morris, several former CIA and State Department officials, and Cuban government officials.

The continued safehouse operation is MKSEARCH Subproject 4. See especially S-12-1, bank statements and receipts of safehouse. The CIA's dealings with the Treasury Department over the Long committee's investigations of wiretaps are detailed in documents #451, 30 January 1967, A Report on a Series of Meetings with Department of the Treasury officials and ;#452, undated, Meeting with Department of Treasury Official.

The biological laboratory is the subject of MKULTRA Subprojects 78 and 110 and MKSEARCH 2. See especially Documents 78-28, September 28, 1962, Subject: PM Support and Biological [deleted) and S-5-6, 8 September 1965, Subject: Hiring by Chief TSD/BB of [deleted), Former Staff Employee in a Consultant Capacity on an Agency Contract. The costs of the Fort Detrick operations came from p. 18 and p. 204 of the Church committee hearings on Unauthorized Storage of Toxic Agents, September 16, 17, and 18, 1975. The description of TSS's procedures for dealing with biological weapons came from Document 78-28 (cited above) and document #509, undated (but clearly June 1975), Subject: Discussions of MKNAOMI with [deleted).

The chemical company subproject is MKULTRA Subproject 116 and MKSEARCH 5. See especially 116-57, 30 January 1961, Subject: MKULTRA, Subproject 116; 116-62, October 28, 1960, shipping invoice; and 116-61, 4 November 1960, Subject: MKULTRA Subproject 116. Also see James Moore's Subproject, MKULTRA 52; especially 52-53, invoice #3, 1125-009-1902, April 27, 1960.

James Hamilton's work is the subject of MKULTRA Subprojects 124 and 140 and MKSEARCH Subproject 3. See especially 140-57, 6 May 1965, Subject: Behavioral Control and 140-83, 29 May 1963, Subject: MKULTRA Subproject 140.

Carl Pfeiffer's Subprojects are MKULTRA 9,26,28, and 47 and MKSEARCH 7. See especially S-7-4, undated, Subject: Approval of Project [deleted].

Maitland Baldwin's Subprojects are MKULTRA 62 and MKSEARCH 1. See especially 62-2, undated [deleted] Special Budget and 62-3, undated, 1956, Subject: Re: Trip to [deleted], October 10-14, 1956.

Charles Geschickter's Subprojects are MKULTRA 23, 35, and 45 and MKSEARCH 6. See especially 35-10, May 16, 1955, Subject: To provide for Agency-Sponsored Research Involving Covert Biological and Chemical Warfare; 45-78, undated, Research Proposal: 1960; 45-104, undated, Subject: Research Proposal: 1958-1959; 45-95, 26 January 1959, Continuation of MKULTRA, Subproject No. 45; 45-104, 21 January 1958, Continuation of MKULTRA, Subproject No. 45; 45-52, 8 February 1962, Continuation of MKULTRA, Subproject No. 45; S-l3-7, 13 August Subject, Approval of [deleted]; and S-13-9, 13 September 1967, Subject: Approval of [deleted]. See also Geschickter's testimony before the Kennedy subcommittee, September 20, 1977, pp. 44-49.

The lack of congressional or executive branch knowledge of CIA behavioral activities was mentioned on p. 386, Church Committee Report, Book I.

Amazon Natural Drug's CIA connection was described by an ex-CIA official and confirmed by the mother of another former Agency man. Several former employees described its activities in interviews.

Gottlieb's termination of MKSEARCH came from Document S-14-3, 10 July 1972, Termination of MKSEARCH.

The destruction of MKULTRA documents was described in Document #419, 3 October 1975, Subject: Destruction of Drug and Toxin Related Files and 460, 31 January 1973, Subject: Project Files: (1951- 1967).

The MKULTRA Subprojects on electric stimulation of the brain are 106 and 142. See especially 106-1, undated, Subject: Proposal; 142-14, 22 May 1962, Subject: Project MKULTRA, Subproject No. 142; and document #76 (MKDELTA release), 21 April 1961, Subject: "Guided Animal" Studies.

The list of parapsychology goals was taken from an excellent article by John Wilhelm in the August 2, 1977Washington Post: "Psychic Spying?"

Project OFTEN information was taken from document #455, 6 May 1974, Subject: Project OFTEN and Memorandum for the Secretary of Defense from Deanne P. Siemer, September 20, 1977, Subject: Experimentation Programs Conducted by the Department of Defense That Had CIA Sponsorship or Participation and That Involved the Administration to Human Subjects of Drugs Intended for Mind-control or Behavior-modification Purposes.

The quote from B. F. Skinner was taken from Peter Schrag's book, Mind Control (New York: Pantheon, 1978) p. 10.
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INDEX

A-bomb, 38
"A" treatment, 43-44, 47, 198
Abramson, Harold, 63-66
LSD psychosis victim, 66n., 69,
73, 127, 129, 181
treats Dr. Frank Olson for
accidental LSD dose, 8&-
89
Abramson, Mrs. Harold, 66n.
Acupuncture, 139
Addiction Research Center, 63
Agency for International
Development (AID)
Public Safety Mission, 190-191
Agrippina, 114
Albania, 48
Alcohol, 38, 75, 99
"Extender, " 63
Aldrich, Dr. Stephen, 224, 225,
227
Alexander, Dr. Leo, 11n.
Allan Memorial Institute, 140,
144, 148
Allen, Morse, 25-28, 34-35, 41,
45n., 46, 114-16; 119-122,
142, 147, 152, 168, 194-
205, 216, 224
Allende, Salvador, 211
Amanita caesarea, 114
Amanita phalloides. 114
Amazon Natural Drug Company,
218
American Journal of Psychiatry,
150
American Medical Association,
Archives of Neurology and
Psychiatry, 158
American Neurological
Association, 158
American Psychiatric Assoc.,
141, 144
archives, 148
American Psychological
Association, 168, 172
American Society for Clinical and
Experimental Hypnosis,
199
American Telephone and
Telegraph, (AT&T, 19
Amherst College, 224
Amnesia, 18, 52, 225, 227
"complete, " 142
"differential, " 142
induction by drugs, 44
induction by hypnosis, 45, 195,
197, 200-202
produced by electroshock, 25,
142, 149
Amphetamines, 38
Angleton, James, 202, 205
Angola, 49
Anslinger, Harry, 96
Anson, Robert Sam, 204n.
Anthrax, 82, 85
Anthropology, 15, 157
Army Biological Laboratory.
See U.S. Army
Army Chemical Corps.
See U.S. Army
Army Intelligence.
See U.S. Army
ARTICHOKE, 31-36, 40-47, 59,
114-116, 142, 146, 152-
153, 19~198, 216, 224,
228
difficulty recruiting psychiatrist,
33
ethical and moral
considerations, 35
women excluded as
experimenters, 46
work with Chinese refugees,
160-161, 163
use of college students in tests,
34
Atomic Energy Commission, 209
"Aunt Jemima, " 15
Azores, 37
Aztecs, 115

Baldwin, Dr. Maitland, 147, 152,
216
Barbiturates, 6, 39
Basel, Switzerland, 3
Bateson, Gregory, 129
Baylor University, 72n.
Bay of Pigs, 209, 218
Beecher, Henry, 72n., 77n.
Behavior
"behaviorism, " 173
-control, 31-33
modification, unethical, 228
See also mind-control
manipulation, 157
research, 32-33
sciences, 157
Bennett, Dr. Edward, 212
Benzedrine, 44, 87
Berle, Adolf A., 167
Berlin airlift, 62
Biderman, Albert, I36n.
Bio-electrics, 227
Blackmail, 50-51
Blauer, Harold, 72n.
Blowback, 52
BLUEBIRD, 24-29, 30-31
renamed ARTICHOKE, 31
Blum, Ralph, 127-128, 130
Bordentown, N.J., reformatory,
216
Bortner, Henry, 93, 116-118,
123-124
Boston Psychopathic Hospital,
57, 58, 63, 127, 180
Botanicals, 117
Botulinum, 80-81
Botulinus toxin, 17
Brainwashing, 31
Chinese credited with, 133-134
CIA investigations, 135-156
methods, 136-139
tested by Dr. D. E. Cameron,
148-151
Brandt, Dr. Karl, 11
Braun, Wernher von, 9
Brothel, 101-104
Brown University, 167n.
Brucellosis, 81n.
Bufontenine, 68
Burch, Neil, 72n.
Bureau of Narcotics and
Dangerous Drugs. See
Federal Bureau of
Narcotics
Bureau of Prisons. See U.S.
Bureau of Prisons
Burke, Michael, 30
30
Burroughs, William, 218
Butler Health Center
(Providence), 180
BZ (psychochemical), 111, 119

California Medical Facility
(Vacaville), 215
Cal Tech (California Institute of
Technology), 59
Cameras, in tobacco pouches, 59
Cameron, Dr. D. Ewen, 140-148,
154, 158, 166, 170, 229
LSD testing, 148-150
Cam Ranh Bay, 153n.
Cannabis indica, 6
See also Marijuana
Carbamate poison, 119, 214
Carbon-dioxide inhalation, 215
Carmichael, Leonard, 167n.
Carter, Pres. Jimmy, 221
Cassidy, John, 190, 191
CASTIGATE, 4O
Castro, Fidel, 18, 80-82, 106,
203, 209, 211, 212
Cattell, James, 72n.
Central Mongoloid skull, 169
Central Intelligence Agency
(CIA)
abuses investigated, 117, 220-
223
Army Chemical Corps
Special Operations Division
(SOD) work for, 79-93
ARTICHOKE, 32, 35-36, 59,
95
auditors, 107
behavioral research, 175, 221-
225
BLUEBIRD, 24-29, 30-31
brainwashing studies, 133-156
funding of, 141, 144, 145,
146, 147
carnal operations, 102-103
CASTIGATE, 40
CHATTER, 38-42, 46--47
Clandestine Services division
(Directorate of
Operations), also "dirty
tricks department, " 60-62,
79-81, 109, 112, 175, 188,
201, 209, 214, 219
Assistant for Scientific
Matters, 112
Health Alteration
Committee, 81n.
cooperation with British and
Canadian governments,
32-33
Counterintelligence, 155, 202-
203
D-lysergic acid diethylamide
(LSD), use of
experiments, 66-78, 128-130,
181, 192
accidental, 76-78
drugs, use of, 23-47
experiments with Mexican
mushrooms, 114-126
use of prison inmates in, 126
Frankfurt base, 38-42
funding of botanical poison
research, 117
funding of research, 63, 119
funding of Society for the
Central Intelligence Agency
(CIA) (cont.)
Investigation of Human
Ecology, 159
General Counsel, 90
human behavior manipulation,
157-174, 175-193
hypnosis experiments, 194-205
informants, 69
Inspector General, 106, 109,
111n., 188, 210
liaison with Army, Navy, and
Air Force Intelligence, 32
Mafia operations, 24, 108
material deleted from OSS
documents, 7
Medical Office, 110n.
medical staff, 32
methods after World War D,
21-22
military services interest, 63-64
National Institute of Mental
Health interest, 63
testing, 79-93, 94-104, 107-
112, 113, 165-166, 175
mind-control work, 9-13, 18,
19-20, 23-47
MKDELTA, 61, 112
MKNAOMI, 61-62, 79-80
MKSEARCH, 211-215
MKULTRA, 61, et at.
Office of Scientific Intelligence,
23-25, 28, 31, 224
Office of Security, 24-26, 31-
32, 33, 41, 59, 86, 89, 116,
161-168
Office of Technical Services,
32n.
"Operation Midnight Climax, "
107
Research Chairman, 90
responsibility in Dr. Frank
Olson's death, 91-94
Science and Technology
Directorate, 153n., 210,
224
Office of Research and
Development (ORD), 224,
228
Security Memorandum, 1949,
23
Soviet Division, 31
"Special" interrogation, 24
Technical Services Division,
32n.
Technical Services Staff (TSS),
32, 39, 62, 67, 69-70, 72,
75-78, et at.
assessment staff, 184-187,
191
Chemical Division, 59
perjury questioned, 222-223
tests with dolphins, 153
use of college students in tests,
34
Western Hemisphere Division,
218
with respect to Freedom of
Information Act, 227-228
work with Navy, 1952, 37-47
"Charisma, " 178
CHATTER, 38-42, 46-47
CIA psychiatric consultants'
report on, 47
Chemical and biological warfare
(CBW), 17-18, 59, 61,
80n.
Chestnut Lodge, 88-91
Chile, 211, 228
China
credited with brainwashing,
133-134, 139, 161
use of drugs in, 138
political re-education programs
in, 136-139
Chondodendron toxicoferum, 218
Church, Sen. Frank, 221
Committee. See U.S. Senate
Circumcision, effect on Turkish
boys, 169
City College (College of the City
of New York, CCNY), 60
Civil Service Commission, 26
Clandestine Services, 81-82
Health Alteration Committee,
82n.
Clark, Lincoln, 128n.
Claudius, 114
Cleghorn, Dr. Robert, 149
Cline, Ray, 30, 61, 188, 212n.
Cocaine, 61n.
Cohen, Sidney, 128n.
Cointreau, 83
Colby, William, 82, 188, 212n.
Cold War, 9, 12, 133, 158
hysteria, 29
influence on mind-control
experiments, 29, 62
use of hypnotism in, 194
Colgate University, 20
College Board exams, 179
Columbia College, 13
Law School, 13
University, 63
Commissioner of Narcotics, 39
Conant, James, 14
Condon, Richard, 9n-10n., 204
Congo, 18, 81
Cook, William Boyd, 124n.
Cooper, Gary, 37
Cornell University, 14, 135
Medical School, 35, 135-136,
157-163, 165-167
patients used in experiments,
159
Cortez, 115
Corynanthine, 65
Counterintelligence, 52
"Cover grants, " 168-169
Cuba, 211, 212
missile crisis, 175
Cunningham, Hugh, 30
Curandera (shaman), 121, 124n.,
126
Curare, 117, 148

Dachau, 5-6, 9-11
Day of the Dolphin, The, 153
"Dead drops, " 200
Death in the Mind, 21
Deep Creek Lodge, Md., 79-80,
86
deFlorez, Adm. Luis, 90
Del Gracio, August, 7-8, 95, 100
Democrat and Chronicle
(Rochester, N.Y.), 39n.
Department of the Army, 220
"Depatterning, " 141-145, 229
DeShon, H. Jackson, 58, 64
Destruction of memory, 227
Dewey, Gov. Thomas, 7n., 97,
100
Dexamyl, 41
Dexedrine, 41, 43, 45
Diarrhea inducers, 107
"Differential amnesia, " 142
Dille, James, 72n.
Dishwashers, 176-177
D-lysergic acid diethylamide
(LSD)
CIA experiments with, 66-78,
128-130, 181, 192
accidental, 76-78
CIA funding of research, 63
CIA interest peak, 59-63
CIA testing, 79-93, 94-105,
107-112, 113, 165, 175
Corynanthine as possible
antidote, 65
discovery of, 3-4, 9-10
effects on Siamese fighting fish
and snails documented, 66
fear of Russian possession, 70
importation to U.S., 58
Kauders' lecture on in Boston,
57-58
Lilly manufacture of, 71-72
Military services' interest, 63
National Institute of Mental
Health interest, 63
paranoia from, 58
Pfeiffer's test with, 215-216
practical joke with, 83-84, 93
dose to Dr. Frank Olson
called "therapeutic, " 89
radioactive marker for, 127
reaction of schizophrenics to,
65
scientists' reports published, 66
studies at Lexington Federal
drug hospital, 66-69
use in covert operations, 65-66
DMT, 119
Dolphins, 153
Donovan, Gen. William "Wild
Bill, " 13-19, 29, 182
Doors of Perception, The, 126
Drugs
CIA use of, 23-47
memory destroying, 44
testing, 192
Drum, James "Trapper, " 90
Dulles, Allen, 29, 52, 60-61, 70-
72, 77, 89, 90, 94, 135,
139, 157-158, 167, 198,
209, 217n.

Eagleton, Thomas, 111
Earman, John, 105-106, 108-109
Edgewood Arsenal (Md.), 80n.
chemical laboratory, 225
Educational Testing Service, 179
EEG tests, 28, 179
Ehrlichman, John, 184
Einstein, Albert, 9, 10
Eisenhower, Pres. Dwight D., 15,
217n.
Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, The,
130
Electric stimulation, 227
Electrodes
experiments with, 151-152, 225
"Electro-sleep" machine
danger of temporary brain
damage, 28
Electroshock, 142, 149, 155, 216-
217, 229
amnesia from, 27-28
battery driven, 28
continued treatments, 28
EEG tests to determine effects,
28
"excruciating pain, " 28
Electroshock (cont.)
in CIA behavioral research,
175
"Page-Russell" method, 143
Reiter machine, 28
sleep-, 143-144
Ellsberg, Daniel, 184
Emory University, 215-216
Epidemics, 83
Ergot, 4, 71, 113
Estabrooks, George "Esty, " 20-
21
"Executive action, " 225
Explorations of Personality. 18
EXPLOSIVE, 45
Explosive seashells, 59
"Externalizer" (E), 177-179, 18(}-
181, 183, 187
Eysenck, H. J., 170-171

False papers, 59
Faust. 191
Federal Bureau of Investigation
(FBI), 8, 32
Federal Bureau of Narcotics, 7,
39, 95, 96-98, 99-100, 213
and Dangerous Drugs, 129
Feldman, Ira "Ike," 102, 106
Flagrante delicto, 100
"Flexible" (F), 178
Flowers, Eddie, 68-69
Food and Drug Administration,
72-73, 216
Foothills College, 7n.
Ford, Pres. Gerald, 92, 220
Forest Hills, Queens, N.Y., 166
Fort Detrick, Md., 61, 79-85, 92,
214
Frankenstein, Dr., 9, 130
Freedom and Dignity. 171
Freedom of Information Act, 7n.,
200n., 215, 227
Fremont-Smith, Frank, 129
"Gang that Couldn't Spray
Straight, " 108n., 192, 223
Gardner, John, 19
Gaynor, Paul, 27, 41
Georgetown University Hospital,
217
Germ warfare, 133-134
Geschickter, Dr. Charles, 63,
166n., 217, 222-223
Geschickter Fund for Medical
Research, 63, 118, 122,
166n., 199n., 217-218
Gestapo, 4-5, 20
Gibbons, Willis, 61, 90-91
Ginsberg, Allen, 129-130
Giordano, Harry, 213n.
Gittinger, John, 19-20, 21, 101,
108, 138, 168, 171, 198,
200-201, 202, 203
Personality Assessment System
(PAS), 175-193, 211
"God's Flesh, " 115-119, 120,
122, 124
See also Teonanactl
Goethe, Johann von, 191
Goffman, Erwin, 171
Goldwater, Sen. Barry, 222
Goodwin, Richard, 212n.
"Goofball." See Dexamyl
Goring, Hermann, 10, 18, 21, 59-
77, 79-81, 105, 106, 108-
112, 116, 118, 124, 161-
173, 178, 198-205, 209-
221, 223, 224, 227
Gottlieb, Dr. Sidney, 18, 21, 59-
77, 79-81, 105, 106, 108-
112, 116, 118, 124, 161-
173, 178, 198-205, 209-
221, 223, 224, 227
Graphology (handwriting
analysis), 18, 182n.-183n.
Great Britain, 13
Greenblatt, Milton, 57
Greiner, Hans, 191
Gulag Archipelago, The, 136
Gypsies, 5, 10

Hair, 58
Hallucinogens, 126
Hamilton, Dr. James, 98n.. 105,
215
Hammerstein, Oscar II, 87
Handwriting analysis, 18, 182n.-
183n.
"Harassment substances, " 107,
211
Harvard, 15, 113, 127, 128, 171,
172, 173, 181, 218
Medical School, 57, 77n.
Harvey, Laurence, 9n.
Hashish, 62
Hawkins, William, 101
Hayward, Lisa Olson, 91
Hebb, Dr. Donald, 146-147,
153n.
Heim, Roger, 123
Helms, Richard, 13-14, 18, 21,
47-48, 52, 61, 77, 94, 105.
108-109, 155, 201, 210,
211, 213, 219-220, 223,
227
Heroin, 39, 67, 68, 98, 102
Hersh, Seymour, 220
Hidden microphones, 42
High Noon. 37
Hillenkoetter, Roscoe, 24-25
Hilton, James. 14
Himmler, Heinrich, 5
Hinkle, Laurence, 135-138, 157,
159-160. 161, I64n.. 167
Hinsey, Dr. Joseph, 167
Hite Report, The, 101
Hitler, Adolf, 11, 13, 16-17, 18,
20, 29. 57, 119, 182, 184,
214
Hoch, Paul, 72n.
Hodge, Harold, 63, 127
Hofmann, Dr. Albert, 3-4, 5, 9-
10, 57-58. 62, 113, 124
Holliday, Billie, 98n.
Hollister, Dr. Leo, 129-130
Holmesburg State Prison (Pa.),
227
Homer, 44n.
Homosexuals, 182, 187n.
entrapment of, 104, 185
Hoover, Pres. Herbert. 30
Hoover, J. Edgar, 32, 97. 228
Hsi-nao, 133
Huautla de Jimenez. 120, 123,
12411.
"Human ecology," 157-174
defined. 157
"special methods," 159
Human Ecology Fund. 159n.
Human Ecology Society. See
Society For the
Investigation of Human
Ecology
Hungarian revolt. 1956, 163-104
Hunt, Howard. 59
Hunter, Edward, 133-134, 136
Huxley, Aldous, 126, 153n.
Hyde, Robert, 58, 63-66, 69, 74,
128, 180, 181
Hypnosis, 6, 11, 20, 23, 26, 44-
45, 173, 194-205, 227
methods, 59
"terminal experiment, " 198-
199

Iguitos, Peru, 218
Institute for Experimental
Psychiatry, 173n.
"Internalizer (I), " 177-178, 180-
181, 183
Interrogation techniques, 32-33
Invisible inks, 59
Ionia State Hospital (Michigan),
165-166, 182
Isabell, Dr. Harris, 63, 66-69,
125, 182
Istanbul University, 169
Itching powder, 107
Ivy Leaguer, 98

Jamaica dogwood, 117
Jews, 5, 10
"Johnny Evans, " 21
Johns Hopkins University, 167
Johnson, Pres. Lyndon, 212n.,
218n., 220
Jones, Janet, 102
Justice Department, 100n.

Kamasutra, 127
Kauders, Otto, 57-58
Keehner, James, 185-186
Keeney, Barnaby, 167n.
Kelly, George A., 167n.
Kennedy, Sen. Edward, 100n.,
108n., 192, 221-223
Kennedy, Pres. John F., 15, 108,
154, 209, 212n.
Kesey, Ken, 130
KGB, 104, 137, 154-155
Khrushchev, Nikita, 172, 175
King, J. c., 218
Kirkpatrick, Gen. Lyman, 89, 90,
92, 108n., 110n.
Kistiakowsky, Dr. George, 15
Klee, Gerald, 72n.
Kline, Milton, 199, 204n., 209
Knockout drops, 96, 100
Korean Central Intelligence
Agency (KCIA), 190, 192
Korean War, 25, 29, 31, 37, 47,
61, 133-135
Kubie, Dr. Lawrence, 20

Land, Dr. Edwin, 226
Langer, Walter, 16, 16n.-17n., 20,
182-183
Langer, William, 16
Lashbrook, Robert, 80, 86-89,
92-93, 100, 222
Latham, Aaron, 202
Lauren G., 140-144
Leary, Timothy, 113, 126-127
Lenzner, Terry, 67n.
Le Rosey, 13
Lesbians, 182
Levittown, L.I., N.Y., 169
Lexington, Kentucky, Federal
drug hospital, 66-69, 96,
125, 182
Life magazine, 125-126
Lifton, Robert Jay, 136n.
Lilly, Eli & Company, 71-73
Lilly, Dr. John, 66n., 151-154,
224
"Lisetin, " 117
Long, Sen. Edward, 213n.
Lovell, Stanley, 14-18, 59, 81, 95,
214
LSD. See D-1ysergic acid
diethylamide
Luciano, Charles "Lucky, " 7n.,
95, 100
Lumumba, Patrice, 18, 81
Luther, 85

McCarthy, Sen. Joseph, 29, 74
McCone, John, 108-109, 209-
210, 212n., 224
McGill University, 141, 146, 170
psychology department, 146
Macy, Josiah J., Foundation, 63,
69, 127, 129-130
Madeleine, 145
Mafia, 7, 24, 80
CIA-Mafia assassination plots,
108, 204
Malott, Deane W., 135
Manchuria, Japanese use of
biological warfare in, 82n.
Manchurian Candidate
defined, 9, 9n.-lOn.
hypnosis to create, 195, 199,
202, 203
Mandala, Tibetan, 130
Manhattan Project, 118, 139
involvement with OSS drug
experiments, 6-8, 95
Mao Tse-tung, 138
Marchetti, Victor, 202
Marcos, Ferdinand, 184n.
Maria Sabina, 121-122, 124n.
Marijuana, 6-8, 41, 43, 45, 95, 99
"Mexican grown" in Project
CHATTER, 39
Marin County, 107, 223
Marines, 26
Marrazzi, Amedeo, 72n.
Marx, Karl, 138
Mary C., 147-148
Massachusetts General Hospital,
72n., 128n.
Massachusetts Mental Health
Center, 57n.
Mata Hari, 104
Me and Juliet. 87
Mead, Margaret, 69, 129, 170
Medicine, 157
Menninger, Karl, 20
Menninger, William, 20
Menopause, 148
Mescaline, 5-6, II, 62, 114
forced injections of derivatives,
72n.
Miami News. 133
Microphones, 99, WI
Microwaves, 227
Migraine headaches, 135, 158
Mind-control
BLUEBIRD program, 24-29,
30-31
bureaucratic squabbling and
conflict over, 32-33
defense against, 25
"gap, " 31
rationalizations for, 33-34
research, 14
Mindszenty, Josef Cardinal, 23-
24, 31, 133, 155
Missouri Institute of Psychiatry,
72n.
Mitrione, Dan, 190
Mitty, Walter, 51
MKDELTA, 61, 112
MKNAOMI, 61-62, 79-80
MKSEARCH, 211-215
Subproject ;ns2, 213-214
Subproject ;ns3, 215
MKULTRA, 61-66, 72-74, 76-
77, et al.
safehouses, 185
subproject ;ns3 (George White),
99-102, 106-112
subproject ;ns58, 122, 124-125
subproject ;nsI43, 212
"Model psychosis, " 57
Monroe, Dr. James, 136n., 166-
168, 171n., 222n.
Montana State University, 124n.
Mont Royal, 140
Montreal, Quebec, 140-141, 150,
166
Moore, Dr. James, 117, 120, 124-
125, 214n.
"Morgan Hall," 99
Morgan, J. P., & Company, 119
Morphine, 67
Morrison, Robert, 141
Moscow purge trials of 1937 and
1938, 23
Mount Holyoke College, 19n.
Mt. Sinai Hospital, 63, 181
Mulholland, John, 87
Murray, Henry "Harry, " 18-19
Mushrooms
CIA experiments with, 113-130
"magic, " 113-115, 12~121,
125-127, 214n.
Mushrooms, Russia and History,
114, 119
Mycology, 120

Naked Lunch, 90n.
Narcohypnosis, 25n.
Narcotherapy, 25n., 44
National Institute of Mental
Health (NIMH), 63, 68,
168, 169
Addiction Research Center, 63
National Institutes of Health, 66,
72, 146-147, 151-153, 216
National Security Act of 1947, 29
National Security Council, 29
National Student Association,
218n.
National Velvet, 140
Naval intelligence, 26, 37-47
Naval Medical Research Institute,
38, 72".
Nazis
"aviation medicine, " 5, 10
experiments with drugs, 5-6,
9-11
war criminals, 11
Neff, Walter, 5-6
Nembutal, 87, 143
Nepenthe, 44n.
"Neurosurgical techniques"
(lobotomy-related), 28
New York Hospital-Cornell
Medical Center, 167
New York Liberal Party, 167
New York Neurological
Association, 158
New York State Psychiatric
Institute, 72n.
New York Times, 220, 222n.
Nicotine, 61n.
1984, 100n.
Nixon, Pres. Richard, 93, 212n.,
219, 220, 228
"Nondiscernible
microbioinoculator" (dart
gun), 82, 117
Norman, Okla., state hospital,
176
Northern Ireland, 228
Northwestern University Medical
School, 224
Nosenko, Yuri, 154-156
Nti sheeto, 120
See also Mushrooms
Nuremburg trial, 11
code, 11, 229
Tribunal records, 24

Oaxaca, Mexico, 120
Of Spies and Strategems, 17n.
Office of Strategic Services (OSS)
agent network, 17
creation of, 13-14
drug experiments, 6-8, 12, 59,
96
during World War II, 13-21,
43, 96-97
mind-control research, 14, 17
National Defense Research
Committee, 14
Research and Analysis, 16
Research, Development, 14, 59
Division 19, 14
testing programs, 18-19
methods used in
corporations, 19
"truth drug" committee, 7
use of carbamate poison in
Hitler assassination
attempt, 119
Ohio State University, 167n.
"Old boys, " 13
Ololiuqui seeds, I24n.
Olson, Alice (Mrs. Frank), 83-86.
88-92, 93
Olson, Eric, 88-92
Olson, Dr. Frank, 79-93, 100,
105, 108n., 220
"Operation Midnight Climax, "
107
Opium, 98n.
Orchids for Mother, 202
Orlikow, David, 148
Orlikow, Val, 148-149
Orne, Martin, 172-173, 181, 189
Orth, Maureen, 185
Orwell, George, l04n.
Osgood. Charles, 168-169, 174,
179
Oswald, Lee Harvey, 154
Overholser, Dr. Winfred, 6

"Page-Russell" method, 143
Paraguay, 200
Parapsychology, 226, 227
Park, Tongsun, 190
Parke, Davis & Company, 117
Pasternak, Walter, 107
Pavlov, Ivan Petrovich, 136
Pecks' Bad Boy, 14, 59
Peyote cactus, 113, 129
Pfeiffer, Carl, 63, 215-216
Pharmaceutical companies, 70
Phenergan, 143
Philby, Harold "Kim, " 48n.
Piaget, Jean, 69
Picrotoxin, 25
Piule, 114-116
Placebos, 40
Plotner, Dr. Kurt, 5
Plowman, Dr. Timothy, 218
Poison gas, 17
Polaroid, 226
Political warfare, 32
Polygraph (lie detector), 24, 26,
155, 173n.
in detection of homosexuality,
27n.
in detection of theft of cash,
27n.
"super," 27
Powers, Francis Gary, 80
Princeton, 97
Inn, 69
Project OFTEN, 227
Prostitutes, 98, 101-104, 101n,
106, 192, 213
Psilocybin, 113, 124
Psychedelic drugs, 113, 117
Psychiatry, 15
"Psychic driving," 145, 149
Psychological Assessment
Associates, 179, 192
Psychology, 15, 157
Psychosurgery, 227

Radar waves, 218
Radiation, 227
Radio stimulation of the brain,
227
Ramparts magazine, 218
"Regulated" (R), 178
Research in Mental Health
Newsletter. 170
Rhodes, David, 107-108, 192,
223
Richardson, Allan, 120-121
Rinkel, Max, 57, 58, 127
Rivea seeds, 68
Rockefeller Commission, 91, 221
Vice-President Nelson, head of,
220
Rockefeller Foundation, 141, 146,
168
Rodgers, Richard, 87
Rogers, Carl, 167, 168, 174, 179
"Role Adaptive" (R), 178
"Role Uniform" (U), 178
Rolling Stone magazine, 192
Roosevelt, Pres. Franklin D., 13
Roosevelt Hotel (New Orleans), 8
Rope Dancer. The. 202
Rositzke, Harry, 30
Rubenstein, Leonard, 145-147
Russell, Seymour, 210
Russians, 5
Rutgers University, 164, 165
Ruwet, Lt. Cot. Vincent, 80, 85-
86, 87, 88, 90-92, 93

Sadism, 105
"Safehouses, " 42, 45, 74, 100-
102, 110, 213-215, 217
St. Anthony's Fire, 4
St. Elizabeth's Hospital, 6
San Francisco safehouse, 100-
107, 109, 110, 182, 185,
213
Sandoz drug and chemical
empire, 3. 58. 62-63, 70-
71, 73, 124, I24n.. 153
"Saucepan chemist." 14
Saunders, David, 179
Savage, Charles, 72n.
Schacht, Hjalmar, 81
"Scheider, Victor, " 221
Schein, Edgar, 136n.
Schizophrenia, 57, 141, 149
induced by hallucinogenic
mushrooms, 123
Schizophrenics
behavior of, 142n.
electroshock in treatment of,
143-144
reaction to LSD, 65
symptoms, 142n., 144
Schlesinger, James, 192, 220, 227
Schulman, Jay, 164-165
Schwab, Dr. John, 80
Scientific Engineering Institute,
172n., 225-226
Scopolamine, 6, 68
Scott, George C, 153
Sears, Alden, 199
Seconal, 41, 43, 45, 143
Secretary of Defense, 39
"Seeking the Magic Mushroom, "
125
See-through mirrors, 99
"Semantic differential." 169
"Senora sin mancha," 121
Sensory deprivation, 136, 147,
150, 153, 158, 216
"Serunim, " 77
Sex, 51-52, 101-104
kinky, 215
Sexual entrapment, 185
Shah of Iran, 13, 184n.
Shelley, Mary, 9
Shellfish toxin, 80
Sherif, Carolyn Wood, 170
Sherif, Muzafer, 170
Short-order cooks, 176-177
Sinatra, Frank, 9n.
Siragusa, Charles, 107n., 222
Skinner, B. F., 171, 174, 229
"Sleep cocktail, " 143
"Sleep room, " 143-144
"Sleep therapy, " 143
Slezak, Walter, 175
Smithsonian Institution, 167n.
Sneezing powder, 107, 211
Society for the Investigation of
Human Ecology, 141n..
146, 147n., 159, 174, 179,
182, 182n.-183n., 210,
222n., 225
Sociology, 15, 157
Sodium amytal, 25
Sodium pentothal, 43
Solzhenitzyn, Alexander, 136
Sorbonne, 123
South Korea, 190, 192
Soviet Union (Russia), 29-31, 80-
83, 109, 137-139, 168,
172, 228
behavioral research, 33, 110n.
use of drugs in, 138
behavior-control programs,
31n.
political re-education programs,
136
"Space-time image, " 144
Spanish Inquisition, 138
Speer, Albert, 10
Sputnik, 126
Spy tradecraft
alternatives to physical torture
in obtaining information,
48-53
blackmail, 5~51
entrapment, 50
limited usefulness of physical
torture in obtaining
information, 48
Spy tradecraft (cont.)
sex, 52
uselessness against well-intentioned
agent, 53
S. S. (Schutzstaffel), 4-6
Stalin, Josef, 29, 74, 137-138, 158
Stanford University, 107, 129,
222
Medical School, 105
Staph. enterotoxin, 81
State Department, 26
Statler Hotel, 87-89
Stein, Gertrude, 129
Stephenson, Richard, 164
Stereotaxic surgery, 225, 227
Stink bombs, 107, 211
Stockwell, John, 49-52
Stress creation, 18, 186
Struik, Dr. A. H. M., 164n.
Suicide pills, 59, 80
Svengali, 194
"Swimmer nullification, " 153n.

Tabula rasa, 142
Taiwan, 200
Taylor, Elizabeth, 140
Technical Services Staff (TSS), 32
Teonanactl, 115
Tetrahydrocannabinol, 41
THIRD CHANCE, 67n.
Thompson, Hunter S., 67-68
Thompson, Dr. Samuel, 37-38,
40-42, 46
Thorazine, 143
Thornwell, James, 67n.
Toughkenamon, Pa., 116
Toulouse-Lautrec, Henri, 101
Transmitters
in false teeth, 59
Treichler, Ray, 70, 93, 107, 222
"Trickle-down phenomenon, " 129
Truth drugs, 32, 39, 52, 59, 165,
213
serum, 155
Tupamaro urban guerrillas, 190-
191
Turner, Stansfield, 21In., 221,
228
Two-way mirrors, 40, 42

ULTRA program, 61n.
Ultrasonics, 227
Ultraviolet radiation, 226
U.S. Air Force, 72, 136
Psychological Warfare Div.,
13611.
study of Korean War prisoners,
166
U.S. Army
Biological Laboratory, 214
Chemical Corps, 62, 70, 72, 80,
117, 227
Special Operations Division
(SOD) of biological
research center, 61-62, 80,
89
clandestine services, 80
Intelligence, 47
studies of brainwashing, 136
THIRD CHANCE, 67n.
U.S. Bureau of Prisons, 96
U.S. Rubber, 61
U.S. Senate, 47-48, 192
Church committee, 82n., 108n.,
111, 221
Select Committee on
Intelligence, 221
U.S. Senate (cont.)
Subcommittee on Health and
Scientific Research, 221-
222
University of Basel, 117
University of California at
Berkley, 19
University of Delaware, 118, 123,
214n.
University of Denver, 199
University of Houston, 211
University of Illinois Medical
School, 63
Pharmacology Dept., 215
University of London, 170
University of Maryland Medical
School, 72n.
University of Minnesota, 72n.•
199
University of Nijmegen, 164n.
University of Oklahoma, 63, 170
University of Pennsylvania, 171
University of Rochester, 38, 63
University of Washington, 72n.
University of Wisconsin, 83, 167
Uruguay, 190-191

Venezuelan equine
encephalomyelitis. 81-82
Verne, Jules, 9
Veronal, 143
Veterans Administration Hospital,
Palo Alto, Ca., 129-130
Vietnam War, 130

Wagner, Richard, 129
Warren Commission, 100n.
Washington Post. 83, 91, 108n.
Wasson, R. Gordon, 114, 119-
126
Wasson, Valentina, 114, 119-120
Watergate, 219-220
Wechsler, David, 176n.
Adult Intelligence Scale, I76n.
battery, 182, 185, 1~193
-Bellevue-G., 176n.
digit-span test, 181
intelligence scale, 176
psychological tests, 127
subtests, 178-180, 183, 187
Wendt, G. Richard, 38-46
presumed addiction to heroin.
39n.
Wendt, Mrs. G. Richard, 46
West, Louis Jolyon, 63
Wheelon, Albert "Bud, " 209
White, George, 6-8. 12, 22, 95,
105-107, 109, 182, 213-
214, 222
Whitehorn, John, 167
"Who? Me?, " 15
Whores. -See Prostitutes
Williams College, 13
Williams, Dr. Fred, I 36n.
Wilson, Benjamin, 84
Winkle, Owen, 100
Winne, John, 190, 192
Wiretapping, 59, 213n.
Wolff, Harold, 35, 135-138, 157
Wolff·Hinkle report, 136
study, 155
Wolfe, Tom, 130
World Psychiatric Assoc., 141

Yage, 218
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