The Search for the "Manchurian Candidate": The CIA and Mind

"Science," the Greek word for knowledge, when appended to the word "political," creates what seems like an oxymoron. For who could claim to know politics? More complicated than any game, most people who play it become addicts and die without understanding what they were addicted to. The rest of us suffer under their malpractice as our "leaders." A truer case of the blind leading the blind could not be found. Plumb the depths of confusion here.

Re: The Search for the "Manchurian Candidate": The CIA and M

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NOTES

CHAPTER 1


The information on Albert Hofmann's first LSD trip and background on LSD came from an interview by the author with Hofmann, a paper by Hofmann called "The Discovery of LSD and Subsequent Investigations on Naturally Occurring Hallucinogens," another interview with Hofmann by Michael Horowitz printed in the June 1976 High Times magazine, and from a CIA document on LSD produced by the Office of Scientific Intelligence, August 30, 1955, titled "The Strategic Medical Significance of LSD-25."

Information on the German mescaline and hypnosis experiments at Dachau came from "Technical Report no. 331-45, German Aviation Research at the Dachau Concentration Camp," October, 1945, US Naval Technical Mission in Europe, found in the papers of Dr. Henry Beecher. Additional information came from Trials of War Criminals Before the Nuremberg Tribunal, the book Doctors of Infamy by Alexander Mitscherlich and Fred Mielke (New York: H. Schuman, 1949), interviews with prosecution team members Telford Taylor, Leo Alexander, and James McHaney, and an article by Dr. Leo Alexander, "Sociopsychologic Structure of the SS," Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry. May, 1948, Vol. 59, pp. 622-34.

The OSS experience in testing marijuana was described in interviews with several former Manhattan Project counterintelligence men, an OSS document dated June 21, 1943, Subject: Development of "truth drug," given the CIA identification number A/B, I, 12/1; from document A/B, I, 64/34, undated, Subject: Memorandum Relative to the use of truth drug in interrogation; document dated June 2, 1943, Subject: Memorandum on T. D. A "confidential memorandum," dated Apri14, 1954, found in the papers of George White, also was helpful.

The quote on US prisoners passing through Manchuria came from document 19, 18 June 1953, Subject: ARTICHOKE Conference.

The information on Stanley Lovell came from his book. Of Spies and Strategems (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1963), from interviews with his son Richard, a perusal of his remaining papers, interviews with George Kistiakowsky and several OSS veterans, and from "Science in World War II, the Office of Scientific Research and Development" in Chemistry: A History of the Chemistry Components of the National Defense Research Committee, edited by W. A. Noyes, Jr. (Boston: Little, Brown & Company, 1948).

Dr. Walter Langer provided information about his psychoanalytic portrait of Hitler, as did his book, The Mind of Adolf Hitler (New York: Basic Books, 1972). Dr. Henry Murray also gave an interview, as did several OSS men who had been through his assessment course. Murray's work is described at length in a book published after the war by the OSS Assessment staff, Assessment of Men (New York: Rinehart & Company, 1948).

Material on George Estabrooks came from his books, Hypnotism (New York: E. P. Dutton and Co., 1945) and Death in the Mind, coauthored with Richard Lockridge (New York: E. P. Dutton, 1945), and interviews with his daughter, Doreen Estabrooks Michl, former colleagues, and Dr. Milton Kline.

CHAPTER 2

The origins of the CIA's ARTICHOKE program and accounts of the early testing came from the following Agency Documents # 192, 15 January 1953; #3, 17 May 1949; A/B, I, 8/1, 24 February 1949; February 10, 1951 memo on Special Interrogations (no document #); A/B, II, 30/ 2, 28 September 1949; #5, 15 August 1949; #8,27 September 1949; #6, 23 August 1949; #13, 5 April 1950; #18, 9 May 1950; #142 (transmittal slip), 19 May 1952; #124, 25 January 1952; A/B, IV, 23/32, 3 March 1952; #23, 21 June 1950; #10, 27 February 1950; #37, 27 October 1950; A/B, I, 39/1, 12 December 1950; A/B, II, 212, 5 March 1952; A/ B, II, 2/1, 15 February 1952; A/B, V, 134/3, 3 December 1951; A/B, I, 38/5,1 June 1951; and #400, undated, "Specific Cases of Overseas Testing and Applications of Behavioral Drugs."

The documents were supplemented by interviews with Ray Cline, Harry Rositzke, Michael Burke, Hugh Cunningham, and several other ex-CIA men who asked to remain anonymous. The Final Report of the Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence (henceforth called the Church Committee Report) provided useful background.

Documents giving background on terminal experiments include #A/ B, II, 10/57; #A/B, II, 10/58, 31 August, 1954; #A/B, II, 10/17, 27 September 1954; and #A/B, I, 76/4, 21 March 1955.

CHAPTER 3

The primary sources for the material on Professor Wendt's trip to Frankfurt were Dr. Samuel V. Thompson then of the Navy, the CIA psychiatric consultant, several of Wendt's former associates, as well as three CIA documents that described the testing: Document # 168, 19 September 1952, Subject: "Project LGQ"; Document #168, 18 September 1952, Subject: Field Trip of ARTICHOKE team, 20 August-September 1952; and #A/B, II, 33/21, undated, Subject: Special Comments.

Information on the Navy's Project CHATTER came from the Church Committee Report, Book I, pp. 337-38. Declassified Navy Documents N- 23, February 13, 1951, Subject: Procurement of Certain Drugs; N-27, undated, Subject: Project CHATTER; N-29, undated, Subject: Status Report: Studies of Motion Sickness, Vestibular Function, and Effects of Drugs; N-35, October 27, 1951, Interim Report; N-38, 30 September, 1952, Memorandum for File; and N-39, 28 October, 1952, Memorandum for File.

The information on the heroin found in Wendt's safe comes from the Rochester Democrat and Chronicle. October 2, 1977 and considerable background on Wendt's Rochester testing program was found in the Rochester Times-Union, January 28, 1955. The CIA quote on heroin came from May 15, 1952 OSI Memorandum to the Deputy Director, CIA, Subject: Special Interrogation.

Information on the Agency's interest in amnesia came from 14 January 1952 memo, Subject: BLUEBIRD/ARTICHOKE, Proposed Research; 7 March 1951, Subject: Informal Discussion with Chief [deleted] Regarding "Disposal"; 1 May 1951, Subject: Recommendation for Disposal of Maximum Custody Defectors; and #A/B, I, 75/13, undated, Subject: Amnesia.

The quote from Homer on nepenthe was found in Sidney Cohen's The Beyond Within: The LSD Story (New York: Atheneum, 1972).

The section on control came from interviews with John Stockwell and several other former CIA men.

CHAPTER 4

The description of Robert Hyde's first trip came from interviews with Dr. Milton Greenblatt, Dr. J. Herbert DeShon, and a talk by Max Rinkel at the 2nd Macy Conference on Neuropharmacology, pp. 235-36, edited by Harold A. Abramson, 1955: Madison Printing Company.

The descriptions of TSS and Sidney Gottlieb came from interviews with Ray Cline, John Stockwell, about 10 other ex-CIA officers, and other friends of Gottlieb.

Memos quoted on the early MKULTRA program include Memorandum from ADDP Helms to DCI Dulles, 4/3/53, Tab A, pp. 1-2 (quoted in Church Committee Report, Book I); APF A-1, April 13, 1953,Memorandum for Deputy Director (Administration, Subject: Project MKULTRA -- Extremely Sensitive Research and Development Program; #A/ B, I, 64/6, 6 February 1952,Memorandum for the Record, Subject: Contract with [deleted] #A/B, I, 64/29, undated, Memorandum for Technical Services Staff, Subject: Alcohol Antagonists and Accelerators, Research and Development Project. The Gottlieb quote is from Hearing before the Subcommittee on Health and Scientific Research of the Senate Committee on Human Resources, September 21, 1977, p. 206.

The background data on LSD came particularly from The Beyond Within: The LSD Story by Sidney Cohen (New York: Atheneum, 1972). Other sources included Origins of Psychopharmacology: From CPZ to LSD by Anne E. Caldwell (Springfield, Ill.: Charles C. Thomas, 1970) and Document 352, "An OSI Study of the Strategic Medical Importance of LSD-25," 30 August 1955.

TSS's use of outside researchers came from interviews with four former TSSers. MKULTRA Subprojects 8, 10, 63, and 66 described Robert Hyde's work. Subprojects 7, 27, and 40 concerned Harold Abramson. Hodge's work was in subprojects 17 and 46. Carl Pfeiffer's Agency connection, along with Hyde's, Abramson's, and Isbell's, was laid out by Lyman B. Kirkpatrick, Memorandum for the Record, 1 December 1953, Subject: Conversation with Dr. Willis Gibbons of TSS re Olson Case (found at p. 1030, Kennedy Subcommittee 1975 Biomedical and Behavioral Research Hearings). Isbell's testing program was also described at those hearings, as it was in Document #14, 24 July, 1953, Memo For: Liaison & Security Officer/TSS, Subject #71 An Account of the Chemical Division's Contacts in the National Institute of Health; Document #37, 14 July 1954, subject [deleted]; and Document #41, 31 August, 1956, subject; trip to Lexington, Ky., 21-23 August 1956. Isbell's program was further described in a "Report on ADAMHA Involvement in LSD Research," found at p. 993 of 1975 Kennedy subcommittee hearings. The firsthand account of the actual testing came from an interview with Edward M. Flowers, Washington, D.C.

The section on TSS's noncontract informants came from interviews with TSS sources, reading the proceedings of the Macy Conferences on "Problems of Consciousness" and "Neuropharmacology," and interviews with several participants including Sidney Cohen, Humphrey Osmond, and Hudson Hoagland.

The material on CIA's relations with Sandoz and Eli Lilly came from Document #24, 16 November, 1953, Subject: ARTICHOKE Conference; Document #268, 23 October, 1953, Subject: Meeting in Director's Office at 1100 hours on 23 October with Mr. Wisner and [deleted]; Document #316, 6 January, 1954,Subject: Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD- 25); and Document # 338, 26 October 1954, Subject: Potential Large Scale Availability of LSD through newly discovered synthesis by [deleted]; interviews with Sandoz and Lilly former executives; interviews with TSS sources; and Sidney Gottlieb's testimony before Kennedy subcommittee, 1977, p. 203.

Henry Beecher's US government connections were detailed in his private papers, in a report on the Swiss-LSD death to the CIA at p. 396, Church Committee Report, Book I, and in interviews with two of his former associates.

The description of TSS's internal testing progression comes from interviews with former staff members. The short reference to Sid Gottlieb's arranging for LSD to be given a speaker at a political rally comes from Document #A/B, II, 26/8, 9 June 1954, Subject: MKULTRA. Henry Beecher's report to the CIA on the Swiss suicide is found at p. 396, Church Committee Report, Book I.

CHAPTER 5

The description of the CIA's relationship with SOD at Fort Detrick comes from interviews with several ex-Fort Detrick employees; Church Committee hearings on "Unauthorized Storage of Toxic Agents, Volume 1; Church Committee "Summary Report on CIA Investigation of MKNAOMI" found in Report, Book I, pp. 360-63; and/Kennedy subcommittee hearings on Biological Testing Involving Human Subjects by the Department of Defense, 1977. The details of Sid Gottlieb's involvement in the plot to kill Patrice Lumumba are found in the Church Committee's Interim Report on "Alleged Assassination Plots Involving Foreign Leaders," pp. 20-21. The Church committee allowed Gottlieb to be listed under the pseudonym Victor Scheider, but several sources confirm Gottlieb's true identity, as does the biographic data on him submitted to the Kennedy subcommittee by the CIA, which puts him in the same job attributed to "Scheider" at the same time. The plot to give botulinum to Fidel Castro is outlined in the Assassination report, pp. 79-83. The incident with the Iraqi colonel is on p. 181 of the same report.

The several inches of CIA documents on the Olson case were released by the Olson family in 1976 and can be found in the printed volume of the 1975 Kennedy subcommittee hearings on Biomedical and Behavioral Research, pp. 1005-1132. They form the base of much of the narrative, along with interviews with Alice Olson, Eric Olson, Benjamin Wilson, and several other ex-SOD men (who added next to nothing). Information also was gleaned from Vincent Ruwet's testimony before the Kennedy subcommittee in 1975, pp. 138-45 and the Church committee's summary of the affair, Book I, pp. 394-403. The quote on Harold Abramson's intention to give his patients unwitting doses of LSD is found in MKULTRA subproject 7, June 8, 1953, letter to Dr. [deleted). Magician John Mulholland's work for the Agency is described in MKULTRA subprojects 19 and 34.

CHAPTER 6

The CIA's reaction to Frank Olson's death is described in numerous memos released by the Agency to the Olson family, which can be found at pp. 1005-1132 of the Kennedy Subcommittee 1975 hearings on Biomedical and Behavioral Research. See particularly at p. 1077, 18 December 1953, Subject: The Suicide of Frank Olson and at p. 1027, I December 1953, Subject: Use of LSD.

Richard Helms' views on unwitting testing are found in Document #448, 17 December 1963, Subject: Testing of Psychochemicals and Related Materials and in a memorandum to the CIA Director, June 9, 1964, quoted from on page 402 of the Church Committee Report, Book I.

George White's diary and letters were donated by his widow to Foothills Junior College, Los Altos, California and are the source of a treasure chest of material on him, including his letter to a friend explaining his almost being "blackballed" from the CIA, the various diary entries cited, including references to folk-dancing with Gottlieb, the interview with Hal Lipset where he explains his philosophy on chasing criminals, and his letter to Sid Gottlieb dated November 21, (probably) 1972.

The New York and San Francisco safehouses run by George White are the subjects of MKULTRA Subprojects 3, 14, 16,42, and 149. White's tips to the landlord are described in 42-156, his liquor bills in 42-157, "dry-runs" in 42-91. The New York safehouse run by Charles Siragusa is Subproject 132. The "intermediate" tests are described in document 132- 59.

Paul Avery, a San Francisco freelance writer associated with the Center for Investigative Reporting in Oakland, California interviewed William Hawkins and provided assistance on the details of the San Francisco safehouse and George White's background. Additional information on White came from interviews with his widow, several former colleagues in the Narcotics Bureau, and other knowledgeable sources in various San Francisco law-enforcement agencies. An ex-Narcotics Bureau official told of Dr. James Hamilton's study of unusual sexual practices and the description of his unwitting drug testing comes from MKULTRA Subproject 2, which is his subproject.

Ray Treichler discussed some of his work with harassment substances in testimony before the Kennedy subcommittee on September 20, 1977, pp. 105-8. He delivered his testimony under the pseudonym "Philip Goldman."

"The Gang that Couldn't Spray Straight" article appeared in the September 20, 1977 Washington Post.

Richard Helms' decision not to tell John McCone about the CIA's connection to the Mafia in assassination attempts against Castro is described in the Church Committee's Assassination report, pp. 102-3.

The 1957 Inspector General's Report on TSS, Document #417 and the 1963 inspection of MKULTRA, 14 August 1963, Document #59 provided considerable detail throughout the entire chapter. The Church Committee Report on MKULTRA in Book I, pp. 385-22 also provided considerable information.

Sid Gottlieb's job as Assistant to the Clandestine Services chief for Scientific Matters is described in Document #74 (operational series), 20 October 1959, Subject: Application of Imaginative Research on the Behavioral and Physical Sciences to [deleted] Problems" and in the 1963 Inspector General's report.

Interviews with ex-CIA Inspector General Lyman Kirkpatrick, another former Inspector General's staff employee, and several ex-TSS staffers contributed significantly to this chapter.

Helms' letter to the Warren Commission on "Soviet Brainwashing Techniques," dated 19 June 1964, was obtained from the National Archives.

The material on the CIA's operational use of LSD came from the Church Committee Report, Book I, pp. 399-403 and from an affidavit filed in the Federal Court case of John D. Marks v. Central Intelligence Agency. et. al., Civil Action No. 76-2073 by Eloise R. Page, Chief. Policy and Coordination Staff of the CIA's Directorate of Operations. In listing all the reasons why the Agency should not provide the operational documents, Ms. Page gave some information on what was in the documents. The passages on TSS's and the Medical Office's positions on the use of LSD came from a memo written by James Angleton, Chief, Counterintelligence Staff on December 12,1951 quoted in part at p. 401 of the Church Committee Report, Book I.

CHAPTER 7

R. Gordon and Valentina Wasson's mammoth work, Mushrooms. Russia and History, (New York: Pantheon, 1951), was the source for the account of the Empress Agrippina's murderous use of mushrooms. Wasson told the story of his various journeys to Mexico in a series of interviews and in a May 21, 1951 Life magazine article, "Seeking the Magic Mushroom."

Morse Allen learned of piule in a sequence described in document #A/B, I, 33/7, 14 November 1952, Subject: Piule. The sending of the young CIA scientist to Mexico was outlined in #A/B, I, 33/3, 5 December 1952. Morse Allen commented on mushroom history and covert possibilities in #A/B; I, 34/4, 26 June 1953, Subject: Mushrooms -- Narcotic and Poisonous Varieties. His trip to the American mushroom-growing capital was described in Document [number illegible], 25 June 1953, Subject: Trip to Toughkenamon, Pennsylvania. The failure of TSS to tell Morse Allen about the results of the botanical lab work is outlined in #A/B, I, 39/5, 10 August 1954 Subject: Reports; Request for from TSS [deleted].

James Moore told much about himself in a long interview and in an exchange of correspondence. MKULTRA Subproject 51 dealt with Moore's consulting relationship with the Agency and Subproject 52 with his ties as a procurer of chemicals. See especially Document 51-46, 8 April 1963, Subject: MKULTRA Subproject 51; 51-24, 21 August 1956, Subject: MKULTRA Subproject 51-B; 52-94, 20 February 1963, Subject: (BB) Chemical and Physical Manipulants; 52-19, 20 December 1962; 52- 17, 1 March 1963; 52-23, 6 December 1962; 52-64, 24 August 1959.

The CIA's arrangements with the Department of Agriculture are detailed in #A/B, I, 34/4, 26 June, 1953, Subject: Mushrooms -- Narcotic and Poisonous varieties and Document [number illegible], 13 April 1953, Subject: Interview with Cleared Contacts.

Dr. Harris Isbell's work with psilocybin is detailed in Isbell document # 155, "Comparison of the Reaction Induced by Psilocybin and LSD-25 in Man."

Information on the counterculture and its interface with CIA drugtesting came from interviews with Timothy Leary, Allen Ginsburg, Humphrey Osmond, John Lilly, Sidney Cohen, Ralph Blum, Herbert Kelman, Leo Hollister, Herbert DeShon, and numerous others. Ken Kesey described his first trip in Garage Sale (New York: Viking Press, 1973). Timothy Leary's Kamasutra was actually a book hand-produced in four copies and called Psychedelic Theory: Working Papers from the Harvard IFIF Psychedelic Research Project, 1960-1963. Susan Berns Wolf Rothschild kindly made her copy available. The material about Harold Abramson's turning on Frank Fremont-Smith and Gregory Bateson came from the proceedings of a conference on LSD sponsored by the Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation on April 22, 23, and 24, 1959, pp. 8-22.

CHAPTER 8

Edward Hunter's article" 'Brain-Washing' Tactics Force Chinese into Ranks of Communist Party" appeared in the Miami News on September 24, 1950. His book was Brainwashing in Red China (New York: Vanguard Press, 1951). Other material came from several interviews with Hunter just before he died in June 1978.

The Air Force document cited on brainwashing was called "Air Force Headquarters Panel Convened to Record Air Force Position Regarding Conduct of Personnel in Event of Capture," December 14, 1953. Researcher Sam Zuckerman found it and showed it to me.

The figures on American prisoners in Korea and the quote from Edward Hunter came from hearings before the Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations, 84th Congress, June 19, 20, 26, and 27, 1956.

The material on the setting up of the Cornell-Hinkle-Wolff study came from interviews with Hinkle, Helen Goodell, and several CIA sources. Hinkle and Wolff's study on brainwashing appeared in classified form on 2 April 1956 as a Technical Services Division publication called Communist Control Techniques and in substantially the same form but unclassified as "Communist Interrogation and Indoctrination of 'Enemies of the State' -- An Analysis of Methods Used by the Communist State Police." AMA Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, August, 1956, Vol. 76.

Allen Dulles spoke on "Brain Warfare" before the Alumni Conference of Princeton University, Hot Springs, Virginia on April 10, 1953, and the quote on guinea pigs came from that speech.

The comments of Rockefeller Foundation officials about D. Ewen Cameron and the record of Rockefeller funding were found in Robert S. Morrison's diary, located in the Rockefeller Foundation Archives, Pocantico Hills, New York.

The key articles on Cameron's work on depatterning and psychic driving were "Production of Differential Amnesia as a Factor in the Treatment of Schizophrenia," Comprehensive Psychiatry, 1960, I, p. 26 and "Effects of Repetition of Verbal Signals upon the Behavior of Chronic Psychoneurotic Patients" by Cameron, Leonard Levy, and Leonard Rubenstein, Journal of Mental Science, 1960, 106, 742. The background on Page-Russell electroshocks came from "Intensified Electrical Convulsive Therapy in the Treatment of Mental Disorders" by L. G. M. Page and R. J. Russell, Lancet, Volume'254, Jan.-June, 1948. Dr. John Cavanagh of Washington, D.C. provided background on the use of electroshock and sedatives in psychiatry.

Cameron's MKULTRA Subproject was #68. See especially document 68-37, "Application for Grant to Study the Effects upon Human Behavior of the Repetition of Verbal Signals," January 21, 1957.

Part of Cameron's papers are in the archives of the American Psychiatric Association in Washington, and they provided considerable information on the treatment of Mary C., as well as a general look at his work. Interviews with at least a dozen of his former colleagues also provided considerable information.

Interviews with John Lilly and Donald Hebb provided background on sensory deprivation. Maitland Baldwin's work in the field was discussed in a whole series of ARTICHOKE documents including #AlB, I, 76/4, 21 March 1955, Subject: Total Isolation; #A/B, I, 76/12, 19 May 1955, Subject: Total Isolation -- Additional Comments; and #A/B, I, 76/17, 27 April 1955, Subject: Total Isolation, Supplemental Report #2. The quote from Aldous Huxley on sensory deprivation is taken from the book of his writings, Moksha: Writings on Psychedelics and the Visionary Experience (1931-1963), edited by Michael Horowitz and Cynthia Palmer (New York: Stonehill, 1978).

The material on Val Orlikow's experiences with Dr. Cameron came from interviews with her and her husband David and from portions of her hospital records, which she furnished.

Cameron's staff psychologist Barbara Winrib's comments on him were found in a letter to the Montreal Star, August 11, 1977.

The study of Cameron's electroshock work ordered by Dr. Cleghorn was published as "Intensive Electroconvulsive Therapy: A Follow-up' Study," by A. E. Schwartzman and P. E. Termansen, Canadian Psychiatric Association, Volume 12, 1967.

In addition to several interviews, much material on John Lilly came from his autobiography, The Scientist (Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Company, 1978).

The CIA's handling of Yuri Nosenko was discussed at length in hearings before the House Assassinations Committee on September 15, 1978. The best press account of this testimony was written by Jeremiah O'Leary of the Washington Star on September 16, 1978: "How CIA Tried to Break Defector in Oswald Case."

CHAPTER 9

MKULTRA Subprojects 48 and 60 provided the basic documents on the Society for the Investigation of Human Ecology. These were supplemented by the three biennial reports of the Society that could be found: 1957, 1961, and 1961-1963. Wolff's own research work is MKULTRA Subproject 61. Wolff's proposals to the Agency are in #A/B, II, 10/68, undated "Proposed Plan for Implementing [deleted]" in two documents included in 48-29, March 5, 1956, "General Principles Upon Which these Proposals Are Based." The Agency's plans for the Chinese Project are described in #A/B, II, 10/48, undated, Subject: Cryptonym [deleted] A/B, II 10/72, 9 December, 1954, Subject: Letter of Instructions, and #A/B, II, 10/110, undated, untitled.

Details of the logistics of renting the Human Ecology headquarters and bugging it are in #A/B, II, 10/23, 30 August, 1954, Subject: Meeting of Working Committee of [deleted], No. 5 and #A/B, II, 10/92, 8 December, 1954, Subject: Technical Installation.

The Hungarian project, as well as being described in the 1957 biennial report, was dealt with in MKULTRA Subprojects 65 and 82, especially 65-12, 28 June 1956, Subject: MKULTRA Subproject 65; 65-11, undated, Subject: Dr. [deleted]'s Project -- Plans for the Coming Year, July, 1957- June, 1958; and 82-15, 11 April 1958, Subject: Project MKULTRA, Subproject 82:

The Ionia State sexual psychopath research was MKULTRA Subproject 39, especially 39-4, 9 April 1958, Subject: Trip Report, Visit to [deleted], 7 April 1958. Paul Magnusson of the Detroit Free Press and David Pearl of the Detroit ACLU office both furnished information.

Carl Rogers' MKULTRA Subproject was #97. He also received funds under Subproject 74. See especially 74-256, 7 October 1958, Supplement to Individual Grant under MKULTRA, Subproject No. 74 and 97-21, 6 August 1959, Subject: MKULTRA Subproject 97.

H. J. Eysenck's MKULTRA subproject was # Ill. See especially 111- 3, 3 April 1961, Subject: Continuation of MKULTRA Subproject 111.

The American Psychological Association-sponsored trip to the Soviet Union was described in Subproject 107. The book that came out of the trip was called Some Views on Soviet Psychology, Raymond Bauer (editor), (Washington: American Psychological Association; 1962).

The Sherifs' research on teenage gangs was described in Subproject # 102 and the 1961 Human Ecology biennial report. Dr. Carolyn Sherif also wrote a letter to the American Psychological Association Monitor, February 1978. Dr. Sherif talked about her work when she and I appeared on an August 1978 panel at the American Psychological Association's convention in Toronto.

Martin Orne's work for the Agency was described in Subproject 84. He contributed a chapter to the Society-funded book, The Manipulation of Human Behavior, edited by Albert Bidennan and Herbert Zimmer (New York: John Wiley & Sons; 1961), pp. 169-215. Financial data on Orne's Institute for Experimental Psychiatry came from a filing with the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Attachment to Form 1023.

The quote from John Gittinger came from an interview with him conducted by Dr. Patricia Greenfield. Dr. Greenfield also interviewed Jay Schulman, Carl Rogers, and Charles Osgood for an article in the December 1977 issue of the American Psychological Association Monitor, from which my quotes of Schulman's comments are taken. She discussed Erving Goffman's role in a presentation to a panel of the American Psychological Association convention in Toronto in August 1978. The talk was titled "CIA Support of Basic Research in Psychology: Policy Implications."

CHAPTER 10

The material on the Gittinger Personality Assessment System (PAS) comes from "An Introduction to the Personality Assessment System" by John Winne and John Gittinger, Monograph Supplement No. 38, Clinical Psychology Publishing Co., Inc. 1973; an interview with John Winne; interviews with three other former CIA psychologists; 1974 interviews with John Gittinger by the author; and an extended interview with Gittinger by Dr. Patricia Greenfield, Associate Professor of Psychology at UCLA. Some of the material was used first in a Rolling Stone article, July 18, 1974, "The CIA Won't Quite Go Public." Robert Hyde's alcohol research at Butler Health Center was MKULTRA Subproject 66. See especially 66-17, 27 August, 1958. Subject: Proposed Alcohol Study -- 1958-1959 and 66-5. undated, Subject: Equipment -- Ecology Laboratory.

The 1963 Inspector General's report on TSS, as first released under the Freedom of Information Act, did not include the section on personality assessment quoted from in the chapter. An undated, untitled document, which was obviously this section, was made available in one of the CIA's last releases.

MKULTRA Subproject 83 dealt with graphology research, as did part of Subproject 60, which covered the whole Human Ecology Society. See especially 83-7, December 11, 1959, Subject: [deleted] Graphological Review and 60-28, undated, Subject [deleted] Activities Report, May, 1959- April, 1960.

Information on the psychological profile of Ferdinand Marcos came from a U.S. Government source who had read it. Information on the profile of the Shah of Iran came from a column by Jack Anderson and Les Whitten "CIA Study Finds Shah Insecure," Washington Post, July 11, 1975.

The quotes from James Keehner came from an article in New Times by Maureen Orth, "Memoirs of a CIA Psychologist," June 25, 1975.

For related reports on the CIA's role in training foreign police and its activities in Uruguay, see an article by Taylor Branch and John Marks, "Tracking the CIA," Harper's Weekly, January 25, 1975 and Philip Agee's book, Inside the Company: CIA Diary (London: Penguin; 1975). The quote from Martin Orne was taken from Patricia Greenfield's APA Monitor article cited in the last chapter's notes.

Gittinger's testimony before the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence and the Kennedy subcommittee on August 3, 1977 appeared on pages 50-63. David Rhodes' testimony on Gittinger's role in the abortive San Francisco LSD spraying appeared in hearings before the Kennedy subcommittee, September 20, 1977, pp. 100-110.

CHAPTER 11

Morse Allen's training in hypnosis was described in Document #A/B, V, 28/1, 9 July 1951, Subject [deleted]. His hypnosis experiments in the office are described in a long series of memos. See especially #A/B, III, 2/18, 10 February 1954, Hypnotic Experimentation and Research and #A/B, II, 10/71, 19 August 1954, Subject: Operational/Security [deleted] and unnumbered document, 5 May 1955, Subject: Hypnotism and Covert Operations.

The quote on U.S. prisoners passing through Manchuria came from document #19, 18 June 1953, ARTICHOKE Conference.

Alden Sears' hypnosis work was the subject of MKULTRA Subprojects 5, 25, 29, and 49. See especially 49-28, undated, Proposal for Research in Hypnosis at the [deleted], June I, 1956 to May 31, 1957, 49- 34, undated, Proposals for Research in Hypnosis at the [deleted], June I, 1956 to May 31, 1957; 5-11, 28 May 1953, Project MKULTRA, Subproject 5 and 5-13, 20 April 1954, Subject: [deleted]. See also Patrick Oster's article in the Chicago Sun-Times, September 4, 1977, "How CIA 'Hid' Hypnosis Research."

General background on hypnosis came from interviews with Alden Sears, Martin Orne, Milton Kline, Ernest Hilgard, Herbert Spiegel, William Kroger, Jack Tracktir, John Watkins, and Harold Crasilneck. See Orne's chapter on hypnosis in The Manipulation of Human Behavior, edited by Albert Biderman and Herbert Zimmer (New York: John Wiley & Sons; 1961), pp. 169-215.

The contemplated use of hypnosis in an operation involving a foreign intelligence service is referred to in the Affidavit by Eloise R. Page, in the case John D. Marks v. Central Intelligence Agency et al. Civil Action no. 76-2073.

The 1959 proposed use of hypnosis that was approved by 1'$8 is described in documents #433, 21 August 1959, Possible Use of Drugs and Hypnosis in [deleted] Operational Case; #434, 27 August 1959, Comments on [deleted]; and #435, 15 September 1959, Possible Use of Drugs and Hypnosis in [deleted] Operational Case.

MKULTRA Subproject 128 dealt with the rapid induction technique. See especially 128-1, undated, Subject: To test a method of rapid hypnotic induction in simulated and real operational settings (MKULTRA 128).

A long interview with John Gittinger added considerably to this chapter. Mr. Gittinger had refused earlier to be interviewed directly by me for this book. Our conversation was limited solely to hypnosis.

CHAPTER 12

The reorganization of TSS was described in document #59, 26 July 1963, Report of the Inspection of MKULTRA and in interviews with Ray Cline, Herbert Scoville, and several other former CIA officials.

Richard Helms' recommendations for a new MKULTRA charter were described in document #450, 9 June, 1964, Sensitive Research Programs (MKULTRA).

Admiral Stansfield Turner's statement on the MKULTRA program was made before a joint session of the Kennedy subcommittee and the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, August 3, 1977, pp. 4-8.

MKSEARCH programs and their origins in MKULTRA are described in documents #449, 8 April 1964, Revision of Project MKULTRA and #S-1-7, untitled, undated.

Dr. Edward Bennett's work is the subject of MKULTRA Subprojects 104 and 143. See especially 143-23, 11 December 1962, Subject: MKULTRA Subproject 143. Other information on the CIA's economic sabotage program against Cuba came from interviews with Major General Edward Lansdale, Ray Cline, William Colby, Lincoln Gordon, Covey Oliver, Charles Meyer, Richard Goodwin, Roger Morris, several former CIA and State Department officials, and Cuban government officials.

The continued safehouse operation is MKSEARCH Subproject 4. See especially S-12-1, bank statements and receipts of safehouse. The CIA's dealings with the Treasury Department over the Long committee's investigations of wiretaps are detailed in documents #451, 30 January 1967, A Report on a Series of Meetings with Department of the Treasury officials and ;#452, undated, Meeting with Department of Treasury Official.

The biological laboratory is the subject of MKULTRA Subprojects 78 and 110 and MKSEARCH 2. See especially Documents 78-28, September 28, 1962, Subject: PM Support and Biological [deleted) and S-5-6, 8 September 1965, Subject: Hiring by Chief TSD/BB of [deleted), Former Staff Employee in a Consultant Capacity on an Agency Contract. The costs of the Fort Detrick operations came from p. 18 and p. 204 of the Church committee hearings on Unauthorized Storage of Toxic Agents, September 16, 17, and 18, 1975. The description of TSS's procedures for dealing with biological weapons came from Document 78-28 (cited above) and document #509, undated (but clearly June 1975), Subject: Discussions of MKNAOMI with [deleted).

The chemical company subproject is MKULTRA Subproject 116 and MKSEARCH 5. See especially 116-57, 30 January 1961, Subject: MKULTRA, Subproject 116; 116-62, October 28, 1960, shipping invoice; and 116-61, 4 November 1960, Subject: MKULTRA Subproject 116. Also see James Moore's Subproject, MKULTRA 52; especially 52-53, invoice #3, 1125-009-1902, April 27, 1960.

James Hamilton's work is the subject of MKULTRA Subprojects 124 and 140 and MKSEARCH Subproject 3. See especially 140-57, 6 May 1965, Subject: Behavioral Control and 140-83, 29 May 1963, Subject: MKULTRA Subproject 140.

Carl Pfeiffer's Subprojects are MKULTRA 9,26,28, and 47 and MKSEARCH 7. See especially S-7-4, undated, Subject: Approval of Project [deleted].

Maitland Baldwin's Subprojects are MKULTRA 62 and MKSEARCH 1. See especially 62-2, undated [deleted] Special Budget and 62-3, undated, 1956, Subject: Re: Trip to [deleted], October 10-14, 1956.

Charles Geschickter's Subprojects are MKULTRA 23, 35, and 45 and MKSEARCH 6. See especially 35-10, May 16, 1955, Subject: To provide for Agency-Sponsored Research Involving Covert Biological and Chemical Warfare; 45-78, undated, Research Proposal: 1960; 45-104, undated, Subject: Research Proposal: 1958-1959; 45-95, 26 January 1959, Continuation of MKULTRA, Subproject No. 45; 45-104, 21 January 1958, Continuation of MKULTRA, Subproject No. 45; 45-52, 8 February 1962, Continuation of MKULTRA, Subproject No. 45; S-l3-7, 13 August Subject, Approval of [deleted]; and S-13-9, 13 September 1967, Subject: Approval of [deleted]. See also Geschickter's testimony before the Kennedy subcommittee, September 20, 1977, pp. 44-49.

The lack of congressional or executive branch knowledge of CIA behavioral activities was mentioned on p. 386, Church Committee Report, Book I.

Amazon Natural Drug's CIA connection was described by an ex-CIA official and confirmed by the mother of another former Agency man. Several former employees described its activities in interviews.

Gottlieb's termination of MKSEARCH came from Document S-14-3, 10 July 1972, Termination of MKSEARCH.

The destruction of MKULTRA documents was described in Document #419, 3 October 1975, Subject: Destruction of Drug and Toxin Related Files and 460, 31 January 1973, Subject: Project Files: (1951- 1967).

The MKULTRA Subprojects on electric stimulation of the brain are 106 and 142. See especially 106-1, undated, Subject: Proposal; 142-14, 22 May 1962, Subject: Project MKULTRA, Subproject No. 142; and document #76 (MKDELTA release), 21 April 1961, Subject: "Guided Animal" Studies.

The list of parapsychology goals was taken from an excellent article by John Wilhelm in the August 2, 1977Washington Post: "Psychic Spying?"

Project OFTEN information was taken from document #455, 6 May 1974, Subject: Project OFTEN and Memorandum for the Secretary of Defense from Deanne P. Siemer, September 20, 1977, Subject: Experimentation Programs Conducted by the Department of Defense That Had CIA Sponsorship or Participation and That Involved the Administration to Human Subjects of Drugs Intended for Mind-control or Behavior-modification Purposes.

The quote from B. F. Skinner was taken from Peter Schrag's book, Mind Control (New York: Pantheon, 1978) p. 10.
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Re: The Search for the "Manchurian Candidate": The CIA and M

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INDEX

A-bomb, 38
"A" treatment, 43-44, 47, 198
Abramson, Harold, 63-66
LSD psychosis victim, 66n., 69,
73, 127, 129, 181
treats Dr. Frank Olson for
accidental LSD dose, 8&-
89
Abramson, Mrs. Harold, 66n.
Acupuncture, 139
Addiction Research Center, 63
Agency for International
Development (AID)
Public Safety Mission, 190-191
Agrippina, 114
Albania, 48
Alcohol, 38, 75, 99
"Extender, " 63
Aldrich, Dr. Stephen, 224, 225,
227
Alexander, Dr. Leo, 11n.
Allan Memorial Institute, 140,
144, 148
Allen, Morse, 25-28, 34-35, 41,
45n., 46, 114-16; 119-122,
142, 147, 152, 168, 194-
205, 216, 224
Allende, Salvador, 211
Amanita caesarea, 114
Amanita phalloides. 114
Amazon Natural Drug Company,
218
American Journal of Psychiatry,
150
American Medical Association,
Archives of Neurology and
Psychiatry, 158
American Neurological
Association, 158
American Psychiatric Assoc.,
141, 144
archives, 148
American Psychological
Association, 168, 172
American Society for Clinical and
Experimental Hypnosis,
199
American Telephone and
Telegraph, (AT&T, 19
Amherst College, 224
Amnesia, 18, 52, 225, 227
"complete, " 142
"differential, " 142
induction by drugs, 44
induction by hypnosis, 45, 195,
197, 200-202
produced by electroshock, 25,
142, 149
Amphetamines, 38
Angleton, James, 202, 205
Angola, 49
Anslinger, Harry, 96
Anson, Robert Sam, 204n.
Anthrax, 82, 85
Anthropology, 15, 157
Army Biological Laboratory.
See U.S. Army
Army Chemical Corps.
See U.S. Army
Army Intelligence.
See U.S. Army
ARTICHOKE, 31-36, 40-47, 59,
114-116, 142, 146, 152-
153, 19~198, 216, 224,
228
difficulty recruiting psychiatrist,
33
ethical and moral
considerations, 35
women excluded as
experimenters, 46
work with Chinese refugees,
160-161, 163
use of college students in tests,
34
Atomic Energy Commission, 209
"Aunt Jemima, " 15
Azores, 37
Aztecs, 115

Baldwin, Dr. Maitland, 147, 152,
216
Barbiturates, 6, 39
Basel, Switzerland, 3
Bateson, Gregory, 129
Baylor University, 72n.
Bay of Pigs, 209, 218
Beecher, Henry, 72n., 77n.
Behavior
"behaviorism, " 173
-control, 31-33
modification, unethical, 228
See also mind-control
manipulation, 157
research, 32-33
sciences, 157
Bennett, Dr. Edward, 212
Benzedrine, 44, 87
Berle, Adolf A., 167
Berlin airlift, 62
Biderman, Albert, I36n.
Bio-electrics, 227
Blackmail, 50-51
Blauer, Harold, 72n.
Blowback, 52
BLUEBIRD, 24-29, 30-31
renamed ARTICHOKE, 31
Blum, Ralph, 127-128, 130
Bordentown, N.J., reformatory,
216
Bortner, Henry, 93, 116-118,
123-124
Boston Psychopathic Hospital,
57, 58, 63, 127, 180
Botanicals, 117
Botulinum, 80-81
Botulinus toxin, 17
Brainwashing, 31
Chinese credited with, 133-134
CIA investigations, 135-156
methods, 136-139
tested by Dr. D. E. Cameron,
148-151
Brandt, Dr. Karl, 11
Braun, Wernher von, 9
Brothel, 101-104
Brown University, 167n.
Brucellosis, 81n.
Bufontenine, 68
Burch, Neil, 72n.
Bureau of Narcotics and
Dangerous Drugs. See
Federal Bureau of
Narcotics
Bureau of Prisons. See U.S.
Bureau of Prisons
Burke, Michael, 30
30
Burroughs, William, 218
Butler Health Center
(Providence), 180
BZ (psychochemical), 111, 119

California Medical Facility
(Vacaville), 215
Cal Tech (California Institute of
Technology), 59
Cameras, in tobacco pouches, 59
Cameron, Dr. D. Ewen, 140-148,
154, 158, 166, 170, 229
LSD testing, 148-150
Cam Ranh Bay, 153n.
Cannabis indica, 6
See also Marijuana
Carbamate poison, 119, 214
Carbon-dioxide inhalation, 215
Carmichael, Leonard, 167n.
Carter, Pres. Jimmy, 221
Cassidy, John, 190, 191
CASTIGATE, 4O
Castro, Fidel, 18, 80-82, 106,
203, 209, 211, 212
Cattell, James, 72n.
Central Mongoloid skull, 169
Central Intelligence Agency
(CIA)
abuses investigated, 117, 220-
223
Army Chemical Corps
Special Operations Division
(SOD) work for, 79-93
ARTICHOKE, 32, 35-36, 59,
95
auditors, 107
behavioral research, 175, 221-
225
BLUEBIRD, 24-29, 30-31
brainwashing studies, 133-156
funding of, 141, 144, 145,
146, 147
carnal operations, 102-103
CASTIGATE, 40
CHATTER, 38-42, 46--47
Clandestine Services division
(Directorate of
Operations), also "dirty
tricks department, " 60-62,
79-81, 109, 112, 175, 188,
201, 209, 214, 219
Assistant for Scientific
Matters, 112
Health Alteration
Committee, 81n.
cooperation with British and
Canadian governments,
32-33
Counterintelligence, 155, 202-
203
D-lysergic acid diethylamide
(LSD), use of
experiments, 66-78, 128-130,
181, 192
accidental, 76-78
drugs, use of, 23-47
experiments with Mexican
mushrooms, 114-126
use of prison inmates in, 126
Frankfurt base, 38-42
funding of botanical poison
research, 117
funding of research, 63, 119
funding of Society for the
Central Intelligence Agency
(CIA) (cont.)
Investigation of Human
Ecology, 159
General Counsel, 90
human behavior manipulation,
157-174, 175-193
hypnosis experiments, 194-205
informants, 69
Inspector General, 106, 109,
111n., 188, 210
liaison with Army, Navy, and
Air Force Intelligence, 32
Mafia operations, 24, 108
material deleted from OSS
documents, 7
Medical Office, 110n.
medical staff, 32
methods after World War D,
21-22
military services interest, 63-64
National Institute of Mental
Health interest, 63
testing, 79-93, 94-104, 107-
112, 113, 165-166, 175
mind-control work, 9-13, 18,
19-20, 23-47
MKDELTA, 61, 112
MKNAOMI, 61-62, 79-80
MKSEARCH, 211-215
MKULTRA, 61, et at.
Office of Scientific Intelligence,
23-25, 28, 31, 224
Office of Security, 24-26, 31-
32, 33, 41, 59, 86, 89, 116,
161-168
Office of Technical Services,
32n.
"Operation Midnight Climax, "
107
Research Chairman, 90
responsibility in Dr. Frank
Olson's death, 91-94
Science and Technology
Directorate, 153n., 210,
224
Office of Research and
Development (ORD), 224,
228
Security Memorandum, 1949,
23
Soviet Division, 31
"Special" interrogation, 24
Technical Services Division,
32n.
Technical Services Staff (TSS),
32, 39, 62, 67, 69-70, 72,
75-78, et at.
assessment staff, 184-187,
191
Chemical Division, 59
perjury questioned, 222-223
tests with dolphins, 153
use of college students in tests,
34
Western Hemisphere Division,
218
with respect to Freedom of
Information Act, 227-228
work with Navy, 1952, 37-47
"Charisma, " 178
CHATTER, 38-42, 46-47
CIA psychiatric consultants'
report on, 47
Chemical and biological warfare
(CBW), 17-18, 59, 61,
80n.
Chestnut Lodge, 88-91
Chile, 211, 228
China
credited with brainwashing,
133-134, 139, 161
use of drugs in, 138
political re-education programs
in, 136-139
Chondodendron toxicoferum, 218
Church, Sen. Frank, 221
Committee. See U.S. Senate
Circumcision, effect on Turkish
boys, 169
City College (College of the City
of New York, CCNY), 60
Civil Service Commission, 26
Clandestine Services, 81-82
Health Alteration Committee,
82n.
Clark, Lincoln, 128n.
Claudius, 114
Cleghorn, Dr. Robert, 149
Cline, Ray, 30, 61, 188, 212n.
Cocaine, 61n.
Cohen, Sidney, 128n.
Cointreau, 83
Colby, William, 82, 188, 212n.
Cold War, 9, 12, 133, 158
hysteria, 29
influence on mind-control
experiments, 29, 62
use of hypnotism in, 194
Colgate University, 20
College Board exams, 179
Columbia College, 13
Law School, 13
University, 63
Commissioner of Narcotics, 39
Conant, James, 14
Condon, Richard, 9n-10n., 204
Congo, 18, 81
Cook, William Boyd, 124n.
Cooper, Gary, 37
Cornell University, 14, 135
Medical School, 35, 135-136,
157-163, 165-167
patients used in experiments,
159
Cortez, 115
Corynanthine, 65
Counterintelligence, 52
"Cover grants, " 168-169
Cuba, 211, 212
missile crisis, 175
Cunningham, Hugh, 30
Curandera (shaman), 121, 124n.,
126
Curare, 117, 148

Dachau, 5-6, 9-11
Day of the Dolphin, The, 153
"Dead drops, " 200
Death in the Mind, 21
Deep Creek Lodge, Md., 79-80,
86
deFlorez, Adm. Luis, 90
Del Gracio, August, 7-8, 95, 100
Democrat and Chronicle
(Rochester, N.Y.), 39n.
Department of the Army, 220
"Depatterning, " 141-145, 229
DeShon, H. Jackson, 58, 64
Destruction of memory, 227
Dewey, Gov. Thomas, 7n., 97,
100
Dexamyl, 41
Dexedrine, 41, 43, 45
Diarrhea inducers, 107
"Differential amnesia, " 142
Dille, James, 72n.
Dishwashers, 176-177
D-lysergic acid diethylamide
(LSD)
CIA experiments with, 66-78,
128-130, 181, 192
accidental, 76-78
CIA funding of research, 63
CIA interest peak, 59-63
CIA testing, 79-93, 94-105,
107-112, 113, 165, 175
Corynanthine as possible
antidote, 65
discovery of, 3-4, 9-10
effects on Siamese fighting fish
and snails documented, 66
fear of Russian possession, 70
importation to U.S., 58
Kauders' lecture on in Boston,
57-58
Lilly manufacture of, 71-72
Military services' interest, 63
National Institute of Mental
Health interest, 63
paranoia from, 58
Pfeiffer's test with, 215-216
practical joke with, 83-84, 93
dose to Dr. Frank Olson
called "therapeutic, " 89
radioactive marker for, 127
reaction of schizophrenics to,
65
scientists' reports published, 66
studies at Lexington Federal
drug hospital, 66-69
use in covert operations, 65-66
DMT, 119
Dolphins, 153
Donovan, Gen. William "Wild
Bill, " 13-19, 29, 182
Doors of Perception, The, 126
Drugs
CIA use of, 23-47
memory destroying, 44
testing, 192
Drum, James "Trapper, " 90
Dulles, Allen, 29, 52, 60-61, 70-
72, 77, 89, 90, 94, 135,
139, 157-158, 167, 198,
209, 217n.

Eagleton, Thomas, 111
Earman, John, 105-106, 108-109
Edgewood Arsenal (Md.), 80n.
chemical laboratory, 225
Educational Testing Service, 179
EEG tests, 28, 179
Ehrlichman, John, 184
Einstein, Albert, 9, 10
Eisenhower, Pres. Dwight D., 15,
217n.
Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, The,
130
Electric stimulation, 227
Electrodes
experiments with, 151-152, 225
"Electro-sleep" machine
danger of temporary brain
damage, 28
Electroshock, 142, 149, 155, 216-
217, 229
amnesia from, 27-28
battery driven, 28
continued treatments, 28
EEG tests to determine effects,
28
"excruciating pain, " 28
Electroshock (cont.)
in CIA behavioral research,
175
"Page-Russell" method, 143
Reiter machine, 28
sleep-, 143-144
Ellsberg, Daniel, 184
Emory University, 215-216
Epidemics, 83
Ergot, 4, 71, 113
Estabrooks, George "Esty, " 20-
21
"Executive action, " 225
Explorations of Personality. 18
EXPLOSIVE, 45
Explosive seashells, 59
"Externalizer" (E), 177-179, 18(}-
181, 183, 187
Eysenck, H. J., 170-171

False papers, 59
Faust. 191
Federal Bureau of Investigation
(FBI), 8, 32
Federal Bureau of Narcotics, 7,
39, 95, 96-98, 99-100, 213
and Dangerous Drugs, 129
Feldman, Ira "Ike," 102, 106
Flagrante delicto, 100
"Flexible" (F), 178
Flowers, Eddie, 68-69
Food and Drug Administration,
72-73, 216
Foothills College, 7n.
Ford, Pres. Gerald, 92, 220
Forest Hills, Queens, N.Y., 166
Fort Detrick, Md., 61, 79-85, 92,
214
Frankenstein, Dr., 9, 130
Freedom and Dignity. 171
Freedom of Information Act, 7n.,
200n., 215, 227
Fremont-Smith, Frank, 129
"Gang that Couldn't Spray
Straight, " 108n., 192, 223
Gardner, John, 19
Gaynor, Paul, 27, 41
Georgetown University Hospital,
217
Germ warfare, 133-134
Geschickter, Dr. Charles, 63,
166n., 217, 222-223
Geschickter Fund for Medical
Research, 63, 118, 122,
166n., 199n., 217-218
Gestapo, 4-5, 20
Gibbons, Willis, 61, 90-91
Ginsberg, Allen, 129-130
Giordano, Harry, 213n.
Gittinger, John, 19-20, 21, 101,
108, 138, 168, 171, 198,
200-201, 202, 203
Personality Assessment System
(PAS), 175-193, 211
"God's Flesh, " 115-119, 120,
122, 124
See also Teonanactl
Goethe, Johann von, 191
Goffman, Erwin, 171
Goldwater, Sen. Barry, 222
Goodwin, Richard, 212n.
"Goofball." See Dexamyl
Goring, Hermann, 10, 18, 21, 59-
77, 79-81, 105, 106, 108-
112, 116, 118, 124, 161-
173, 178, 198-205, 209-
221, 223, 224, 227
Gottlieb, Dr. Sidney, 18, 21, 59-
77, 79-81, 105, 106, 108-
112, 116, 118, 124, 161-
173, 178, 198-205, 209-
221, 223, 224, 227
Graphology (handwriting
analysis), 18, 182n.-183n.
Great Britain, 13
Greenblatt, Milton, 57
Greiner, Hans, 191
Gulag Archipelago, The, 136
Gypsies, 5, 10

Hair, 58
Hallucinogens, 126
Hamilton, Dr. James, 98n.. 105,
215
Hammerstein, Oscar II, 87
Handwriting analysis, 18, 182n.-
183n.
"Harassment substances, " 107,
211
Harvard, 15, 113, 127, 128, 171,
172, 173, 181, 218
Medical School, 57, 77n.
Harvey, Laurence, 9n.
Hashish, 62
Hawkins, William, 101
Hayward, Lisa Olson, 91
Hebb, Dr. Donald, 146-147,
153n.
Heim, Roger, 123
Helms, Richard, 13-14, 18, 21,
47-48, 52, 61, 77, 94, 105.
108-109, 155, 201, 210,
211, 213, 219-220, 223,
227
Heroin, 39, 67, 68, 98, 102
Hersh, Seymour, 220
Hidden microphones, 42
High Noon. 37
Hillenkoetter, Roscoe, 24-25
Hilton, James. 14
Himmler, Heinrich, 5
Hinkle, Laurence, 135-138, 157,
159-160. 161, I64n.. 167
Hinsey, Dr. Joseph, 167
Hite Report, The, 101
Hitler, Adolf, 11, 13, 16-17, 18,
20, 29. 57, 119, 182, 184,
214
Hoch, Paul, 72n.
Hodge, Harold, 63, 127
Hofmann, Dr. Albert, 3-4, 5, 9-
10, 57-58. 62, 113, 124
Holliday, Billie, 98n.
Hollister, Dr. Leo, 129-130
Holmesburg State Prison (Pa.),
227
Homer, 44n.
Homosexuals, 182, 187n.
entrapment of, 104, 185
Hoover, Pres. Herbert. 30
Hoover, J. Edgar, 32, 97. 228
Hsi-nao, 133
Huautla de Jimenez. 120, 123,
12411.
"Human ecology," 157-174
defined. 157
"special methods," 159
Human Ecology Fund. 159n.
Human Ecology Society. See
Society For the
Investigation of Human
Ecology
Hungarian revolt. 1956, 163-104
Hunt, Howard. 59
Hunter, Edward, 133-134, 136
Huxley, Aldous, 126, 153n.
Hyde, Robert, 58, 63-66, 69, 74,
128, 180, 181
Hypnosis, 6, 11, 20, 23, 26, 44-
45, 173, 194-205, 227
methods, 59
"terminal experiment, " 198-
199

Iguitos, Peru, 218
Institute for Experimental
Psychiatry, 173n.
"Internalizer (I), " 177-178, 180-
181, 183
Interrogation techniques, 32-33
Invisible inks, 59
Ionia State Hospital (Michigan),
165-166, 182
Isabell, Dr. Harris, 63, 66-69,
125, 182
Istanbul University, 169
Itching powder, 107
Ivy Leaguer, 98

Jamaica dogwood, 117
Jews, 5, 10
"Johnny Evans, " 21
Johns Hopkins University, 167
Johnson, Pres. Lyndon, 212n.,
218n., 220
Jones, Janet, 102
Justice Department, 100n.

Kamasutra, 127
Kauders, Otto, 57-58
Keehner, James, 185-186
Keeney, Barnaby, 167n.
Kelly, George A., 167n.
Kennedy, Sen. Edward, 100n.,
108n., 192, 221-223
Kennedy, Pres. John F., 15, 108,
154, 209, 212n.
Kesey, Ken, 130
KGB, 104, 137, 154-155
Khrushchev, Nikita, 172, 175
King, J. c., 218
Kirkpatrick, Gen. Lyman, 89, 90,
92, 108n., 110n.
Kistiakowsky, Dr. George, 15
Klee, Gerald, 72n.
Kline, Milton, 199, 204n., 209
Knockout drops, 96, 100
Korean Central Intelligence
Agency (KCIA), 190, 192
Korean War, 25, 29, 31, 37, 47,
61, 133-135
Kubie, Dr. Lawrence, 20

Land, Dr. Edwin, 226
Langer, Walter, 16, 16n.-17n., 20,
182-183
Langer, William, 16
Lashbrook, Robert, 80, 86-89,
92-93, 100, 222
Latham, Aaron, 202
Lauren G., 140-144
Leary, Timothy, 113, 126-127
Lenzner, Terry, 67n.
Le Rosey, 13
Lesbians, 182
Levittown, L.I., N.Y., 169
Lexington, Kentucky, Federal
drug hospital, 66-69, 96,
125, 182
Life magazine, 125-126
Lifton, Robert Jay, 136n.
Lilly, Eli & Company, 71-73
Lilly, Dr. John, 66n., 151-154,
224
"Lisetin, " 117
Long, Sen. Edward, 213n.
Lovell, Stanley, 14-18, 59, 81, 95,
214
LSD. See D-1ysergic acid
diethylamide
Luciano, Charles "Lucky, " 7n.,
95, 100
Lumumba, Patrice, 18, 81
Luther, 85

McCarthy, Sen. Joseph, 29, 74
McCone, John, 108-109, 209-
210, 212n., 224
McGill University, 141, 146, 170
psychology department, 146
Macy, Josiah J., Foundation, 63,
69, 127, 129-130
Madeleine, 145
Mafia, 7, 24, 80
CIA-Mafia assassination plots,
108, 204
Malott, Deane W., 135
Manchuria, Japanese use of
biological warfare in, 82n.
Manchurian Candidate
defined, 9, 9n.-lOn.
hypnosis to create, 195, 199,
202, 203
Mandala, Tibetan, 130
Manhattan Project, 118, 139
involvement with OSS drug
experiments, 6-8, 95
Mao Tse-tung, 138
Marchetti, Victor, 202
Marcos, Ferdinand, 184n.
Maria Sabina, 121-122, 124n.
Marijuana, 6-8, 41, 43, 45, 95, 99
"Mexican grown" in Project
CHATTER, 39
Marin County, 107, 223
Marines, 26
Marrazzi, Amedeo, 72n.
Marx, Karl, 138
Mary C., 147-148
Massachusetts General Hospital,
72n., 128n.
Massachusetts Mental Health
Center, 57n.
Mata Hari, 104
Me and Juliet. 87
Mead, Margaret, 69, 129, 170
Medicine, 157
Menninger, Karl, 20
Menninger, William, 20
Menopause, 148
Mescaline, 5-6, II, 62, 114
forced injections of derivatives,
72n.
Miami News. 133
Microphones, 99, WI
Microwaves, 227
Migraine headaches, 135, 158
Mind-control
BLUEBIRD program, 24-29,
30-31
bureaucratic squabbling and
conflict over, 32-33
defense against, 25
"gap, " 31
rationalizations for, 33-34
research, 14
Mindszenty, Josef Cardinal, 23-
24, 31, 133, 155
Missouri Institute of Psychiatry,
72n.
Mitrione, Dan, 190
Mitty, Walter, 51
MKDELTA, 61, 112
MKNAOMI, 61-62, 79-80
MKSEARCH, 211-215
Subproject ;ns2, 213-214
Subproject ;ns3, 215
MKULTRA, 61-66, 72-74, 76-
77, et al.
safehouses, 185
subproject ;ns3 (George White),
99-102, 106-112
subproject ;ns58, 122, 124-125
subproject ;nsI43, 212
"Model psychosis, " 57
Monroe, Dr. James, 136n., 166-
168, 171n., 222n.
Montana State University, 124n.
Mont Royal, 140
Montreal, Quebec, 140-141, 150,
166
Moore, Dr. James, 117, 120, 124-
125, 214n.
"Morgan Hall," 99
Morgan, J. P., & Company, 119
Morphine, 67
Morrison, Robert, 141
Moscow purge trials of 1937 and
1938, 23
Mount Holyoke College, 19n.
Mt. Sinai Hospital, 63, 181
Mulholland, John, 87
Murray, Henry "Harry, " 18-19
Mushrooms
CIA experiments with, 113-130
"magic, " 113-115, 12~121,
125-127, 214n.
Mushrooms, Russia and History,
114, 119
Mycology, 120

Naked Lunch, 90n.
Narcohypnosis, 25n.
Narcotherapy, 25n., 44
National Institute of Mental
Health (NIMH), 63, 68,
168, 169
Addiction Research Center, 63
National Institutes of Health, 66,
72, 146-147, 151-153, 216
National Security Act of 1947, 29
National Security Council, 29
National Student Association,
218n.
National Velvet, 140
Naval intelligence, 26, 37-47
Naval Medical Research Institute,
38, 72".
Nazis
"aviation medicine, " 5, 10
experiments with drugs, 5-6,
9-11
war criminals, 11
Neff, Walter, 5-6
Nembutal, 87, 143
Nepenthe, 44n.
"Neurosurgical techniques"
(lobotomy-related), 28
New York Hospital-Cornell
Medical Center, 167
New York Liberal Party, 167
New York Neurological
Association, 158
New York State Psychiatric
Institute, 72n.
New York Times, 220, 222n.
Nicotine, 61n.
1984, 100n.
Nixon, Pres. Richard, 93, 212n.,
219, 220, 228
"Nondiscernible
microbioinoculator" (dart
gun), 82, 117
Norman, Okla., state hospital,
176
Northern Ireland, 228
Northwestern University Medical
School, 224
Nosenko, Yuri, 154-156
Nti sheeto, 120
See also Mushrooms
Nuremburg trial, 11
code, 11, 229
Tribunal records, 24

Oaxaca, Mexico, 120
Of Spies and Strategems, 17n.
Office of Strategic Services (OSS)
agent network, 17
creation of, 13-14
drug experiments, 6-8, 12, 59,
96
during World War II, 13-21,
43, 96-97
mind-control research, 14, 17
National Defense Research
Committee, 14
Research and Analysis, 16
Research, Development, 14, 59
Division 19, 14
testing programs, 18-19
methods used in
corporations, 19
"truth drug" committee, 7
use of carbamate poison in
Hitler assassination
attempt, 119
Ohio State University, 167n.
"Old boys, " 13
Ololiuqui seeds, I24n.
Olson, Alice (Mrs. Frank), 83-86.
88-92, 93
Olson, Eric, 88-92
Olson, Dr. Frank, 79-93, 100,
105, 108n., 220
"Operation Midnight Climax, "
107
Opium, 98n.
Orchids for Mother, 202
Orlikow, David, 148
Orlikow, Val, 148-149
Orne, Martin, 172-173, 181, 189
Orth, Maureen, 185
Orwell, George, l04n.
Osgood. Charles, 168-169, 174,
179
Oswald, Lee Harvey, 154
Overholser, Dr. Winfred, 6

"Page-Russell" method, 143
Paraguay, 200
Parapsychology, 226, 227
Park, Tongsun, 190
Parke, Davis & Company, 117
Pasternak, Walter, 107
Pavlov, Ivan Petrovich, 136
Pecks' Bad Boy, 14, 59
Peyote cactus, 113, 129
Pfeiffer, Carl, 63, 215-216
Pharmaceutical companies, 70
Phenergan, 143
Philby, Harold "Kim, " 48n.
Piaget, Jean, 69
Picrotoxin, 25
Piule, 114-116
Placebos, 40
Plotner, Dr. Kurt, 5
Plowman, Dr. Timothy, 218
Poison gas, 17
Polaroid, 226
Political warfare, 32
Polygraph (lie detector), 24, 26,
155, 173n.
in detection of homosexuality,
27n.
in detection of theft of cash,
27n.
"super," 27
Powers, Francis Gary, 80
Princeton, 97
Inn, 69
Project OFTEN, 227
Prostitutes, 98, 101-104, 101n,
106, 192, 213
Psilocybin, 113, 124
Psychedelic drugs, 113, 117
Psychiatry, 15
"Psychic driving," 145, 149
Psychological Assessment
Associates, 179, 192
Psychology, 15, 157
Psychosurgery, 227

Radar waves, 218
Radiation, 227
Radio stimulation of the brain,
227
Ramparts magazine, 218
"Regulated" (R), 178
Research in Mental Health
Newsletter. 170
Rhodes, David, 107-108, 192,
223
Richardson, Allan, 120-121
Rinkel, Max, 57, 58, 127
Rivea seeds, 68
Rockefeller Commission, 91, 221
Vice-President Nelson, head of,
220
Rockefeller Foundation, 141, 146,
168
Rodgers, Richard, 87
Rogers, Carl, 167, 168, 174, 179
"Role Adaptive" (R), 178
"Role Uniform" (U), 178
Rolling Stone magazine, 192
Roosevelt, Pres. Franklin D., 13
Roosevelt Hotel (New Orleans), 8
Rope Dancer. The. 202
Rositzke, Harry, 30
Rubenstein, Leonard, 145-147
Russell, Seymour, 210
Russians, 5
Rutgers University, 164, 165
Ruwet, Lt. Cot. Vincent, 80, 85-
86, 87, 88, 90-92, 93

Sadism, 105
"Safehouses, " 42, 45, 74, 100-
102, 110, 213-215, 217
St. Anthony's Fire, 4
St. Elizabeth's Hospital, 6
San Francisco safehouse, 100-
107, 109, 110, 182, 185,
213
Sandoz drug and chemical
empire, 3. 58. 62-63, 70-
71, 73, 124, I24n.. 153
"Saucepan chemist." 14
Saunders, David, 179
Savage, Charles, 72n.
Schacht, Hjalmar, 81
"Scheider, Victor, " 221
Schein, Edgar, 136n.
Schizophrenia, 57, 141, 149
induced by hallucinogenic
mushrooms, 123
Schizophrenics
behavior of, 142n.
electroshock in treatment of,
143-144
reaction to LSD, 65
symptoms, 142n., 144
Schlesinger, James, 192, 220, 227
Schulman, Jay, 164-165
Schwab, Dr. John, 80
Scientific Engineering Institute,
172n., 225-226
Scopolamine, 6, 68
Scott, George C, 153
Sears, Alden, 199
Seconal, 41, 43, 45, 143
Secretary of Defense, 39
"Seeking the Magic Mushroom, "
125
See-through mirrors, 99
"Semantic differential." 169
"Senora sin mancha," 121
Sensory deprivation, 136, 147,
150, 153, 158, 216
"Serunim, " 77
Sex, 51-52, 101-104
kinky, 215
Sexual entrapment, 185
Shah of Iran, 13, 184n.
Shelley, Mary, 9
Shellfish toxin, 80
Sherif, Carolyn Wood, 170
Sherif, Muzafer, 170
Short-order cooks, 176-177
Sinatra, Frank, 9n.
Siragusa, Charles, 107n., 222
Skinner, B. F., 171, 174, 229
"Sleep cocktail, " 143
"Sleep room, " 143-144
"Sleep therapy, " 143
Slezak, Walter, 175
Smithsonian Institution, 167n.
Sneezing powder, 107, 211
Society for the Investigation of
Human Ecology, 141n..
146, 147n., 159, 174, 179,
182, 182n.-183n., 210,
222n., 225
Sociology, 15, 157
Sodium amytal, 25
Sodium pentothal, 43
Solzhenitzyn, Alexander, 136
Sorbonne, 123
South Korea, 190, 192
Soviet Union (Russia), 29-31, 80-
83, 109, 137-139, 168,
172, 228
behavioral research, 33, 110n.
use of drugs in, 138
behavior-control programs,
31n.
political re-education programs,
136
"Space-time image, " 144
Spanish Inquisition, 138
Speer, Albert, 10
Sputnik, 126
Spy tradecraft
alternatives to physical torture
in obtaining information,
48-53
blackmail, 5~51
entrapment, 50
limited usefulness of physical
torture in obtaining
information, 48
Spy tradecraft (cont.)
sex, 52
uselessness against well-intentioned
agent, 53
S. S. (Schutzstaffel), 4-6
Stalin, Josef, 29, 74, 137-138, 158
Stanford University, 107, 129,
222
Medical School, 105
Staph. enterotoxin, 81
State Department, 26
Statler Hotel, 87-89
Stein, Gertrude, 129
Stephenson, Richard, 164
Stereotaxic surgery, 225, 227
Stink bombs, 107, 211
Stockwell, John, 49-52
Stress creation, 18, 186
Struik, Dr. A. H. M., 164n.
Suicide pills, 59, 80
Svengali, 194
"Swimmer nullification, " 153n.

Tabula rasa, 142
Taiwan, 200
Taylor, Elizabeth, 140
Technical Services Staff (TSS), 32
Teonanactl, 115
Tetrahydrocannabinol, 41
THIRD CHANCE, 67n.
Thompson, Hunter S., 67-68
Thompson, Dr. Samuel, 37-38,
40-42, 46
Thorazine, 143
Thornwell, James, 67n.
Toughkenamon, Pa., 116
Toulouse-Lautrec, Henri, 101
Transmitters
in false teeth, 59
Treichler, Ray, 70, 93, 107, 222
"Trickle-down phenomenon, " 129
Truth drugs, 32, 39, 52, 59, 165,
213
serum, 155
Tupamaro urban guerrillas, 190-
191
Turner, Stansfield, 21In., 221,
228
Two-way mirrors, 40, 42

ULTRA program, 61n.
Ultrasonics, 227
Ultraviolet radiation, 226
U.S. Air Force, 72, 136
Psychological Warfare Div.,
13611.
study of Korean War prisoners,
166
U.S. Army
Biological Laboratory, 214
Chemical Corps, 62, 70, 72, 80,
117, 227
Special Operations Division
(SOD) of biological
research center, 61-62, 80,
89
clandestine services, 80
Intelligence, 47
studies of brainwashing, 136
THIRD CHANCE, 67n.
U.S. Bureau of Prisons, 96
U.S. Rubber, 61
U.S. Senate, 47-48, 192
Church committee, 82n., 108n.,
111, 221
Select Committee on
Intelligence, 221
U.S. Senate (cont.)
Subcommittee on Health and
Scientific Research, 221-
222
University of Basel, 117
University of California at
Berkley, 19
University of Delaware, 118, 123,
214n.
University of Denver, 199
University of Houston, 211
University of Illinois Medical
School, 63
Pharmacology Dept., 215
University of London, 170
University of Maryland Medical
School, 72n.
University of Minnesota, 72n.•
199
University of Nijmegen, 164n.
University of Oklahoma, 63, 170
University of Pennsylvania, 171
University of Rochester, 38, 63
University of Washington, 72n.
University of Wisconsin, 83, 167
Uruguay, 190-191

Venezuelan equine
encephalomyelitis. 81-82
Verne, Jules, 9
Veronal, 143
Veterans Administration Hospital,
Palo Alto, Ca., 129-130
Vietnam War, 130

Wagner, Richard, 129
Warren Commission, 100n.
Washington Post. 83, 91, 108n.
Wasson, R. Gordon, 114, 119-
126
Wasson, Valentina, 114, 119-120
Watergate, 219-220
Wechsler, David, 176n.
Adult Intelligence Scale, I76n.
battery, 182, 185, 1~193
-Bellevue-G., 176n.
digit-span test, 181
intelligence scale, 176
psychological tests, 127
subtests, 178-180, 183, 187
Wendt, G. Richard, 38-46
presumed addiction to heroin.
39n.
Wendt, Mrs. G. Richard, 46
West, Louis Jolyon, 63
Wheelon, Albert "Bud, " 209
White, George, 6-8. 12, 22, 95,
105-107, 109, 182, 213-
214, 222
Whitehorn, John, 167
"Who? Me?, " 15
Whores. -See Prostitutes
Williams College, 13
Williams, Dr. Fred, I 36n.
Wilson, Benjamin, 84
Winkle, Owen, 100
Winne, John, 190, 192
Wiretapping, 59, 213n.
Wolff, Harold, 35, 135-138, 157
Wolff·Hinkle report, 136
study, 155
Wolfe, Tom, 130
World Psychiatric Assoc., 141

Yage, 218
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