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Matsya
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 7/26/21

Image
Matsya
Member of Dashavatara
Anthropomorphic depiction of Matsya as half-human, half-fish
Devanagari मत्स्य
Affiliation Vishnu (first avatar)
Weapon Sudarshan Chakra, Kaumodaki
Festivals Matsya Jayanti

Matsya (Sanskrit: मत्स्य, lit. fish) is the fish avatar of the Hindu god Vishnu. Often described as the first of Vishnu's ten primary avatars, Matsya is described to have rescued the first man Manu from a great deluge. Matsya may be depicted as a giant fish, often golden in color, or anthropomorphically with the torso of Vishnu connected to the rear half of a fish.

The earliest accounts of Matsya is mentioned in the Shatapatha Brahmana where Matsya is not associated with any particular deity. The fish-savior later merges with the identity of Brahma in post-Vedic era and still later transferred to Vishnu. The legends associated with Matsya expand, evolve and vary in Hindu texts. These legends have embedded symbolism, where a small fish with Manu's protection grows to become a big fish, and the fish saves earthly existence. In later versions, Matsya slays a demon who steals the sacred scriptures - the Vedas and thus lauded as the saviour of the scriptures.

The tale is in the tradition of the family of flood myths, common across cultures.

Matsya

As related in the main article, Matsya, the fish avatar of Vishnu, appears to Manu to warn him of an impending deluge. After being reared by and growing to an enormous size, Matsya then guides Manu's ship to safety at the peak of a mountain, where Manu re-establishes life through the performance of Vedic sacrificial rites (yajna). In Puranic accounts, Matsya also rescues the Vedas taken under the water, after they were stolen from Brahma by the Asura called Hayagriva (not to be confused with Hayagriva, the horse-headed avatar of Vishnu). From the Shatapatha Brahmana:

manave ha vai prātaḥ | avanegyamudakamājahruryathedam pāṇibhyāmavanejanāyāharantyevaṃ tasyāvanenijānasya matsyaḥ pāṇī āpede

sa hāsmai vācamuvāda | bibhṛhi mā pārayiṣyāmi tveti kasmānmā pārayiṣyasītyaugha imāḥ sarvāḥ prajā nirvoḍhā tatastvā pārayitāsmīti kathaṃ te bhṛtiriti

sa hovāca | yāvadvai kṣullakā bhavāmo bahvī vai nastāvannāṣṭrā bhavatyuta matsya eva matsyaṃ gilati kumbhyām māgre bibharāsi sa yadā tāmativardhā atha karṣūṃ khātvā tasyām mā bibharāsi sa yadā tāmativardhā atha mā samudramabhyavaharāsi tarhi vā atināṣṭro bhavitāsmīti

śaśvaddha kaṣa āsa | sa hi jyeṣṭhaṃ vardhate 'thetithīṃ samāṃ tadaugha āgantā tanmā nāvamupakalpyopāsāsai sa augha utthite nāvamāpadyāsai tatastvā pārayitāsmīti

—Satapatha Brahmnana, transliteration of Kanda I, Adhyaya VIII, Brahmana I ('The Ida'), Verses 1-4[14]

In the morning they brought to Manu water for washing, just as now also they (are wont to) bring (water) for washing the hands. When he was washing himself, a fish came into his hands.

It spake to him the word, 'Rear me, I will save thee!' 'Wherefrom wilt thou save me?' 'A flood will carry away all these creatures: from that I will save thee!' 'How am I to rear thee?'

It said, 'As long as we are small, there is great destruction for us: fish devours fish. Thou wilt first keep me in a jar. When I outgrow that, thou wilt dig a pit and keep me in it. When I outgrow that, thou wilt take me down to the sea, for then I shall be beyond destruction.'

It soon became a ghasha (a large fish); for that grows largest (of all fish). Thereupon it said, 'In such and such a year that flood will come. Thou shalt then attend to me (i.e. to my advice) by preparing a ship; and when the flood has risen thou shalt enter into the ship, and I will save thee from it.'


—Satapatha Brahmana, translation by Julius Eggeling (1900), Kanda I, Adhyaya VIII, Brahmana I ('The Ida'), Verses 1-4[47]


Heinrich Julius Eggeling (1842–1918) was Professor of Sanskrit at the University of Edinburgh from 1875 to 1914, second holder of its Regius Chair of Sanskrit, and Secretary of the Royal Asiatic Society, London.

Eggeling was translator and editor of the Satapatha Brahmana in 5 volumes of the monumental Sacred Books of the East series edited by Max Müller
, author of the main article on Sanskrit in the Encyclopædia Britannica, and curator of the University Library from 1900 to 1913.

-- Julius Eggeling, by Wikipedia


Aiyangar explains that, in relation to the RigVeda, 'Sacrifice is metaphorically called [a] Ship and as Manu means man, the thinker, [so] the story seems to be a parable of the Ship of Sacrifice being the means for man's crossing the seas of his duritas, [meaning his] sins, and troubles'. SB 13.4.3.12 also mentions King Matsya Sammada, whose 'people are the water-dwellers... both fish and fishermen... it is these he instructs; - 'the Itihasa is the Veda'.'

-- Shatapatha Brahmana, by Wikipedia


The kala pani (lit. black water) represents the proscription of the over reaching seas in Hinduism. According to this prohibition, crossing the seas to foreign lands causes the loss of one's social respectability, as well as the putrefaction of one’s cultural character and posterity.

The offense of crossing the sea is also known as "Samudrolanghana" or "Sagarollanghana". The Dharma Sutra of Baudhayana (II.1.2.2) lists sea voyages as first of the offenses that cause the loss of varna. The Dharma Sutra suggests a person can wipe away this offense in three years by eating little at every fourth meal time; bathing at dawn, noon and dusk; standing during the day; and seated during the night.

The reasons behind the proscription include the inability to carry out the daily rituals of traditional Hindu life and the sin of contact with the characterless, uncivilized mleccha creatures of the foreign lands. An associated notion was that crossing the ocean entailed the end of the reincarnation cycle, as the traveler was cut off from the regenerating waters of the Ganges. Such voyages also meant breaking family and social ties. In another respect, the inhabitants of the land beyond the "black water" were houglis, bad-spirited and monstrous swines who could sometimes mask their true ugliness by presenting an illusion of physical beauty or superiority. The mleccha people were spawned by immoral reprobates and blasphemously held religious belief in nāstika, albeit in different forms. They are understood to have rejected the Vedas and have ceased to worship Bhagavan, the divine Vedic God, in favor of concocted false religions and irreligions with contemptible manners of reverence. Their societies are immoral and built on deceit, subjugation, and corruption. Therefore, it was thought that true Hindus should not come under their influence or embrace their beliefs, as they will be just as deserving of contempt as a mleccha.

During the Portuguese Age of exploration, Portuguese sailors noted that Hindus were reluctant to engage in maritime trade due to the kala pani proscription.
In the eighteenth century, the banias of North India even considered the crossing of the Indus River at Attock to be prohibited, and underwent purification rituals upon their return.

-- Kala pani (taboo), by Wikipedia


Etymology

The deity Matsya derives his name from the word matsya (Sanskrit: मत्स्य), meaning "fish". Monier-Williams and R. Franco suggest that the words matsa and matsya, both meaning fish, derive from the root √mad, meaning "to rejoice, be glad, exult, delight or revel in". Thus, matsya meaning the "joyous one".[1][2][3] The Sanskrit grammarian and etymologist Yaska (circa 600 BCE) also refers to the same stating that fish are known as matsya as "they revel eating each other". Yaska also offers an alternate etymology of matsya as "floating in water" derived from the roots √syand (to float) and madhu (water).[4] The Sanskrit word matsya is cognate with Prakrit maccha ("fish").[5]

Legends and scriptural references

Vedic origins


Image
Matsya, Central India, 9th - 10th century. British Museum.[6]

The section 1.8.1 of the Shatapatha Brahmana (Yajur veda) is the earliest extant text to mention Matsya and the flood myth in Hinduism. It does not associate the fish Matsya with any other deity in particular.[7] [Roy 2002, p. 79; Roy, J. (2002). Theory of Avatāra and Divinity of Chaitanya. Atlantic. ISBN 978-81-269-0169-2.] [8][9]

Chapter 3: The Avataras: Legends and Allegories
Excerpt from Theory of Avatara and Divinity of Chaitanya
by Janmajit Roy
© Janmajit Roy 2002

Chapter 3: The Avataras: Legends and Allegories

Allegorical elements [a story, poem, or picture that can be interpreted to reveal a hidden meaning, typically a moral or political one.] abound in the puranic accounts of the Avataras. In many cases, these elements are seen to have cropped up from the bottom to the surface, effecting thereby the original form, colour and meaning of the episodes and accounts relating to the Avataras. In the list of Visnu's ten major incarnations, that gradually became stereotyped in the midst of variations regarding the name and number of incarnations, the first five are conspicuously allegorical, while the other five appear to be mythohistorical. The first four zoomorphic Avataras betray distinct marks of allegory, while anthropomorphic Vamana, the fifth incarnation of this list, is an enlargement of the idea of Visnu's three strides, alluded to in the Rigveda. Even in the episodes of the mythohistorical Avataras, allegorical elements are sometimes very prominent and play a significant part in mystifying facts and events of nature and human existence. In the stories of many other incarnations, enumerated in the epico-puranic literature, allegories are markedly visible. Here, our principal purpose will be to follow the growth and development of the legends of the allegorical Avataras and to search for the allegorical elements in them and in so doing, we are mainly concerned with the nature and interpretation of these allegories.

An allegory is a description of a subject under the guise of another subject of suggestive resemblance.1 It is "a figurative representation conveying a meaning other than and in addition to the literal."2 The fable or parable is also treated as a short allegory with a definite moral.3 The Indian epics and puranas contain various kinds of allegories. In some of them, natural phenomena are allegorized, that is, represented under the guise of human episode or otherwise. In some cases, human heroes are allegorically portrayed as gods or demons with superhuman physical features, strength and mental power. There are also zoomorphic allegories, where natural objects or human beings are represented as animals. Then, there are astronomical allegories, in which some stars or astronomical phenomena are zoomorphically or anthropomorphically represented, forming an episode. Sometimes an abstract idea is translated in a language of word-pictures, which is also found in astronomical allegories. It is worthwhile to note that in India the inclination towards allegory is at least as old as the Rigveda. In a Rigvedic hymn, the rising of the moon in the sky is allegorically represented as a thousand-horned bull, rising from an ocean.4 The thousand horns probably stand for the countless stars, which are visible over the head of the moon. The ocean evidently symbolizes the sky.

Among the ten principal incarnations of Visnu, the Matsya or Fish incarnation happens to be first one. The earliest reference to the legend of the Fish occurs in the Satapatha Brahmana, though not as an incarnation of any particular deity. The legend, as contained in the Satapatha Brahmana, the Mahabharata, the Matsya and the Bhagavata Puranas, seems to have undergone certain changes in course of time. The original legend, believed to be of Babylonian origin by many scholars,5 seems to have been a secular legend, to which a religious meaning was subsequently accorded carefully to make it the vehicle of Bramanical thought and philosophy. It was only then that it began to acquire a new allegorical form. Wilkins points out that in the story of a wonderful fish, as told in the Satapatha Brahmana, the fish is not said to be an incarnation of any god.6 Holding the same view, Hopkins further remarks that in the story of the Satapatha Brahmana, "a grateful fish not alluded to as ancestor but explained as a fish that had once been saved from death by Manu, in turn saved Manu from death."7 It is evident that the original form of this legend is preserved in the Satapatha Brahmana, and has a secular character. The legend of the Fish incarnation is inseparably associated with the story of deluge or flood and, therefore, seems to have grown, in all probability, in a region where life was always threatened by flood. As a result of recurrence of flood, a fish-god as the only saviour during flood probably began to command respect of the common people, who used to take refuge in the deity. Flood was a common feature in ancient Egypt, the land of the Nile, and Babylon, the land of the Tigris and Euphrates. B.K. Kakati observes that the cult of fish-gods was widely diffused in the ancient civilizations of Babylon and Egypt.8 Hopkins rejects the view of Pischel that the fish-symbol is a relic of Hindu fish worship and further believes that it is likely to have come from Egypt.9 The Babylonian fish-god is Ea, who is said to have lived in the Persian gulf and to have come everyday ashore to instruct the people of the port of Eridu how to make canals and grow crops. The fish-god taught them the use of alphabet and mathematics and gave them their code of laws. The Babylonian civilization thus owes a great deal to the Ea worship.10 In ancient Egypt, fish was regarded as sacred and a phallic symbol.11 There can be no denying the close resemblance between the stories of deluge of Babylon and India, both being associated with fish-god. In the Babylonian story of flood, Ea, the fish-god, addressed his message to Pir-napishtim in a dream and warned him of the approaching flood. Ea instructed him how to save himself by building a ship wherein to take shelter. The tempest raged over the waters for six days and six nights. Then, on the seventh day, the waters receded and the storm ended. Pir-napishtim and his wife were saved.12 Another point of resemblance between the Babylonian and the Indian legends is the reference to ark or vessel. It inevitably leads to the supposition that the people, among whom the legend originated, were accustomed to navigation or sea voyage. The midland Aryans were not possibly sea-faring people, but the Yadus, an Aryan tribe, who are said to have lived in the coastal regions, probably were. It is said in the Rigveda that Indra brought Turvasa and Yadu over the sea.13 On the authority of the epico-puranic tradition, R.P. Chanda argues that the Yadavas were originally settled in Saurastra or the Kathiwar peninsula, wherefrom they spread to Mathura.14 The sea, which lies nearest to the land of the Yadavas, is the Arabian Sea. It is, therefore, a credible hypothesis that the Yadus and the Turvasas came across the Arabian Sea.15 They obviously represent a later group of immigrants and a separate religio-cultural community among the Vedic Aryans, who were not a homogeneous body. They seem to have lived in the midst of, and intermixed with, various language groups or races of Mesopotamia and other regions before or during the period of their settlement in the coastal area of south-western India. It is reasonable to assume that they could not but assimilate some foreign elements in their language and culture. As a result of this, they were not accorded a high position of esteem in the society of the orthodox Aryans of midland. This clearly accounts for the fact why Yadu and Turvasa are dubbed Dasas or barbarians and the Purus, another allied tribe, are called mrdhravaca or speakers of corrupt speech in the Rigveda.16 Citing the evidence of the Mahabharata, K. P. Chattopadhyaya remarks that "matrilineal descent and succession were prevalent among social groups, with whom the descendants of Puru and Yadu intermarried."17 He further points out that the mother of Puru was an Asura Princess and Puru has been called an Asura in the Satapatha Brahmana.18 It is evident that the tribes like Yadu and Turvasa were unorthodox and a mixed folk with Asura traits of culture. That the legend of the fish-god or deluge never occurs in a Rigveda may be treated as an evidence in favour of its un-Vedic or foreign origin. On the other hand, fish as an emblem is associated with the name of Kamadeva, who is called Makaradhvaja. Pradyumna, the Yadava hero, who is the incarnation of Kamadeva, is said to have had a second birth from the belly of a fish.19 It is also noteworthy that Pradyumna, the son of Krsna Vasudeva, has been emblematically represented as Makaradhvaja in the pillar capital discovered at Besnagar.20 Makara denotes a mythical crocodile or a horned fish. The discovery of cuneiform tablets from Boghaz-Kuei bears testimony to the existence of people of Aryan speech -- the Kings of Mitanni, worshipping the Vedic deities Mitra, Varuna, Indra and the Nasatyas in Mesopotamia in the 15th century B.C.21 It is not relevant here to know whether there was any westward movement of the Aryans from India to Mesopotamia or vice versa in the 15th century B.C. The Boghaz-Kuei tablets at least throw light on the possibility of intercourse between India and Mesopotamia in that remote antiquity.

Image

Similar is the case with another reference to Vedic gods discovered by Hugo Winkler in Asia Minor in the beginning of the last century.

It is in the form of an inscription engraved in the 14th century BC in Asia Minor by way of consolidating a treaty between two kings belonging to Hittites and Mitannis. Suppiluliuma I of the Hittites entered into a treaty with the Mitannis. The Mittanis of the Amarna Tablets fame were linked to the significant power in the region -- Egypt. The Mittanis were the closely associated with the Egyptian Pharaohs by marriage and they were also Indo-Aryans.

What is special about this treaty is that Vedic Gods like Indra, Varuna and are referred to as In-da-ra, Mi-ta-ra, U-ru-van and Na-sa-ti-ya. The Ashwini twins were invoked to bless and witness the treaty. The names are obviously Vedic, with of course slight phonetic variations.

The problem is whether the gods were entered into the inscription by a pre-Vedic clan of the Aryans left in Asia Minor while the rest travelled over to Iran and India or they travelled along with their believers to the land of the inscription from India herself. Generally the scholars have gone in favour of the first alternative.

But strong points in favour of the second alternative are that the names entered into the inscription are exactly in the same order in which hymns relating to these deities are arranged in the Rigveda, particularly in its older part and that the form in which the names have been spelled in the inscription seem to be a phonetic corruption over the Vedic one.

Whatever the sequence of events, only further acquisition of evidence would decide. But what we cannot refuse to admit is that as early as in the 14th Century BC the gods have been invoked as superhuman beings capable of acting as mediators for ages to come between two warring princely families.

The Hittites who had become past masters at treaties did not invoke these Gods with any other kingdom -- except the Mitannis. Hittites and Mitannis were Indo-Aryan kingdoms -- in full presence, with their Vedic Gods and culture.

But besides being controversial as regards their sequence in relation to the Veda, neither the Harappan tablet nor the Boghaz Kol inscription is helpful in understanding the history of the gods. They are just solitary remains left by the stream of history coming down from a much earlier period for which, however, we have no other evidence in this regard except certain verbal affinities among the different branches of the Indo-European language.

A comparative study of these languages shows affinity between Dyaus and Zeus or Jupiter, Ushas and Eos, Surya and Hellos, Bhaga and Baga, Varuna and Uranus, Marut and Mars, etc. Just like the Boghaz Koi inscription, these affinities also may have a twofold implication. It is possible that they are due to a common Indo-European language spoken by the Aryans including the Indian branch before their separation.

But it may also possibly be due to the Aryans travelling abroad from India herself and taking along with them the entire culture including the language and the deities. While the second alternative partly implies the possibility of the Vedic gods travelling over to Iran, Greece and other European countries and assuming the form of these deities, both alternatives show a greater possibility of the presence of these gods and the pre-Vedic era.

This is also confirmed by certain of Rigvedic seers referring to their forefathers as worshippers of the same gods. But, whatever the chronological order, from this source also what we get regarding the gods is that they were worshipped as extraterrestrial superhuman beings leading a blessed life far away from man and having some inclination to do good to man if, of course, duly appeased. Very little, however, can be gathered from them regarding their origin and other related problems.

Hence, ultimately one has to come back to the Veda itself as the last resort to understand the phenomenology of gods and goddesses. To offer prayers to the divine by admitting him as a superhuman agency, is quite easy and can be found anywhere in the world, irrespective of the age. But to the dive deep into the mystery of his being is something else which has been the conclusive privilege of India.


The Vedas form the Inexhaustible fountainhead of the stream of this enquiry.

-- History of Gods and Goddesses of Ancient India: The Boghaz Koi Inscription, by sanskritmagazine.com


R.P. Chanda further points out that India had coastal trade links with the port of Eridu.22 We have already seen that Eridu is said to be protected by the Babylonian fish-god Ea. The deluge of the Babylonian legend was a historical reality. The excavations, carried out by Leonard Woolley, have revealed that there was a devastating flood which occurred as early as 3200 B.C. in the lower valley of the Tigris and Euphrates, affecting an area four hundred miles long and one hundred miles wide. Woolley identifies the flood to be the Flood of Sumerian history and legend, which is the basis of the story of Noah.23 In the remote antiquity, when there was no written literature, myths and legends could freely travel from one place to another like winged birds. It is easy to surmise that a section of the Vedic Aryans may have collected the legend of flood and the fish-god from Eridu or some other place of Mesopotamia during their intercourse with other races. The people of the Indus Valley are believed to have maintained trade contacts with Sumerian Ur, Kish and Egypt.24

The probability of the Harappan or Dravidian source of the legend may also be considered. In this regard, the view of N.K. Dutt is worthy of notice. He observes that the two words, mina or fish and nira or water, which are the two principal elements in the legend, are words of Dravidian origin.25 In the seals of the Indus Valley, fish as a sign has been repeatedly used with slight variations in forms.26 The view of Heras that most of the people of the Indus Valley belonged to the community of Meina, denoting fish, seems far-fetched.27 With the Indus Valley people, fish is believed to have been a common cereal and fishing, a regular occupation.28 Reference to Satyavrata Manu as the lord of Dravida in the Bhagavata and other puranas and mention of the river Nerbudda and the mountain Malaya in the extreme south point to the legend's Dravidian connection.29 It is, therefore, not improbable that the Vedic people borrowed some legends indirectly from the people of the Indus Valley through their supposed cultural successors, the Dravidians and later made them the vehicle of their own religious ideas. The Fish incarnation of the puranic legend is described as possessing a horn. The Boar incarnation is similarly described as one-horned. On account of this horn, the Fish and the Boar incarnations transcend the reality of actual animals and turn out to be mythical creatures as well as allegorical representations. In this regard, they bear close affinity with unicorn, the mythical animal of the Indus Valley.

The legend of the Matsya incarnation, as preserved in the Mahabharata and other puranas, has some variations. The legend of the Satapatha Brahmana, is, no doubt, the earliest version of this event. The most noteworthy aspect of it is that the fish is not represented here as an incarnatory form of Visnu. The legend seems to have been adopted by the Brahmanical hierarchy because it was found allegorically representing some of their own religious thoughts and ideas. One such idea represents water as the first principle of creation. This is found in the Rigvedic hymns. It is said in a hymn addressed to Visvakarman that the sky and waters contained the primordial germ of the universe, placed at the navel of the unborn creator.30 Another hymn says that Hiranyagarbha, the first-born monotheistic deity, arose out of great waters pervading the universe.31 The well-known Nasadiya hymn also narrates that in the beginning of creation, there existed all-pervading waters.32 As a probable source of the Vedic cosmogonic or creational myths, the case of the pre-Aryan Austric people of India has been suggested.33 But whatever be the source, the Vedic cosmogonic idea representing water as the first principle of creation persists even in the epics and puranas. Thus, the story of deluge and the fish-god, even though of foreign origin, finds a parallel in the Vedic and puranic cosmogonic myth, representing the universe emerging out of waters.

In the beginning when God created the heavens and the earth, the earth was a formless void and darkness covered the face of the deep, while a wind from God swept over the face of the waters.

Then God said, “Let there be light”; and there was light. And God saw that the light was good; and God separated the light from the darkness. God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night. And there was evening and there was morning, the first day.

And God said, “Let there be a dome in the midst of the waters, and let it separate the waters from the waters.” So God made the dome and separated the waters that were under the dome from the waters that were above the dome. And it was so. God called the dome Sky. And there was evening and there was morning, the second day.

And God said, “Let the waters under the sky be gathered together into one place, and let the dry land appear.” And it was so. God called the dry land Earth, and the waters that were gathered together he called Seas. And God saw that it was good. Then God said, “Let the earth put forth vegetation: plants yielding seed, and fruit trees of every kind on earth that bear fruit with the seed in it.” And it was so. The earth brought forth vegetation: plants yielding seed of every kind, and trees of every kind bearing fruit with the seed in it. And God saw that it was good. And there was evening and there was morning, the third day.

And God said, “Let there be lights in the dome of the sky to separate the day from the night; and let them be for signs and for seasons and for days and years, and let them be lights in the dome of the sky to give light upon the earth.” And it was so. God made the two great lights—the greater light to rule the day and the lesser light to rule the night—and the stars. God set them in the dome of the sky to give light upon the earth, to rule over the day and over the night, and to separate the light from the darkness. And God saw that it was good. And there was evening and there was morning, the fourth day.

And God said, “Let the waters bring forth swarms of living creatures, and let birds fly above the earth across the dome of the sky.” So God created the great sea monsters and every living creature that moves, of every kind, with which the waters swarm, and every winged bird of every kind. And God saw that it was good. God blessed them, saying, “Be fruitful and multiply and fill the waters in the seas, and let birds multiply on the earth.” And there was evening and there was morning, the fifth day.

And God said, “Let the earth bring forth living creatures of every kind: cattle and creeping things and wild animals of the earth of every kind.” And it was so. God made the wild animals of the earth of every kind, and the cattle of every kind, and everything that creeps upon the ground of every kind. And God saw that it was good.

Then God said, “Let us make humankind in our image, according to our likeness; and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the birds of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the wild animals of the earth, and over every creeping thing that creeps upon the earth.” So God created humankind in his image, in the image of God he created them; male and female he created them. God blessed them, and God said to them, “Be fruitful and multiply, and fill the earth and subdue it; and have dominion over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the air and over every living thing that moves upon the earth.”

God said, “See, I have given you every plant yielding seed that is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree with seed in its fruit; you shall have them for food. And to every beast of the earth, and to every bird of the air, and to everything that creeps on the earth, everything that has the breath of life, I have given every green plant for food.” And it was so.

God saw everything that he had made, and indeed, it was very good. And there was evening and there was morning, the sixth day.

-- Genesis 1:1


The cosmogonic idea, as developed and stereotyped in the puranas states that creation and dissolution of the universe go in a cyclic order. According to the Visnu Purana, Narayana, in the person of Brahma, created all existent things.34 Krta, Treta, Dvapara and Kali are the four ages and they jointly constitute a great age. A thousand such great ages constitute a day of Brahma, also known as Kalpa, accommodating fourteen Manus within the period.35 At the end of a day of Brahma or Kalpa, which is said to be of 4,320,000,000 years,36 a dissolution of the universe takes place and then elapses a night of Brahma of equal duration, at the end of which he creates the universe anew.37 A Kalpa, thus, comprising fourteen Manvantaras or one thousand great ages is succeeded by a night of similar duration, during which Janardana sleeps upon the serpent Sesa in the midst of an ocean.38 It is noteworthy that in the Mahabharata as also the puranas, the legend of deluge and the fish-god has been transformed into a cosmogonic myth. In the Vedic cosmogonic myth, the great waters allegorize an abstract notion. In the epic and puranic versions of the legend of deluge, the great flood allegorizes dissolution of the world. The Fish incarnation is thus rightly enumerated as the first incarnation, allegorizing Brahma or Narayana, who creates the world anew after dissolution. Thus, it is reasonable to lend support to Hopkins' view that in the Hindu story of flood "religion has utilized an old historic myth."39 Association of Manu with the legend hints at the reign of a new Manu at the end of a Manvantara.

The account of the Matsya incarnation as given in the Mahabharata states that Brahma assumed the form of fish. But all the puranas agree in declaring the Fish to be an incarnation of Visnu, and not of Brahma.
Wilson believes that the account of the Fish incarnation in the Matsya Purana is prior to that of the Mahabharata, though greater portions of the epic are much older than the extant puranas.40 In the legend of the Mahabharata, Manu Vaivasvata practised austerities at the Badarikasrama for ten thousand years. One day, a small fish, scared of the bigger fishes, appeared to him and asked for his protection, for which the fish promised return of favour. Manu placed the fish in an earthen jar. Soon, the fish became so big that the jar could not accommodate it. Manu put the fish in a lake, which also became unspacious for it very soon. Manu then, threw the fish in the river Ganga. After some time, the fish requested Manu to give it a more spacious asylum as it had grown vast in size. Manu dropped it in the sea. The fish then predicted to Manu of the impending deluge and destruction of the world and advised him to build a ship, wherein to take refuge with the seven Sages and various kinds of seeds. The flood occurred and Manu fastened his ship to the horn of the fish with a rope as directed. The fish propelled the vessel across the raging waters for many years and finally the ship arrived at the peak of the Himavan [Himalayan Mountains]. The Fish at last revealed his identity as Brahma.41

A comparison of the Mahabharata account with those of the Matsya and the Bhagavata Puranas brings to light certain points of disagreement. It also becomes clear that new elements were gradually brought into the legend and slight changes occasioned so as to allegorize the Brahmanical ideas. Both the Mahabharata and the Matsya Purana agree in ascribing a horn to the fish.42 The Bhagavata Purana also is in agreement with them.43 The horn, as a distinguishing auspicious mark, adds religious sacredness to the fish. In the Mahabharata, Manu fastened his vessel with a rope. But in the puranas, a serpent is mentioned as cord, wherewith to tie the ark to the horn of the fish.44 The Bhagavata Purana goes a step further in calling the serpent the great snake Vasuki.45 In the Mahabharata, it is simply said that Manu collected the seeds of existing things in the vessel. But in the Matsya Purana, Manu collected the seeds by the power of yoga.46 The puranic account is explicitly allegorical. Thus the Matsya account declares the ship of Manu to be the ship of the Vedas.47 Obviously, Manu's boat has been intended to allegorize the rites and ceremonies of the Vedas. The Bhagavata Purana introduced a new element by declaring that the Fish incarnation recovered the Vedas from the demon Hayagriva, who had stolen the Vedas from Brahma and had been finally killed by the Fish.48 The Rigveda refers to the celestial ship or daiva nava, which is described as a ship with a good rudder, worthy of offering safety.49 The hymn also mentions Manu, the son of Vivasvan.50 In the Vedic mythology, the celestial ship may be taken as an astronomical allegory. It has been suggested that the boat of Manu and the Fish in the epico-puranic legend allegorically represent the constellations of Ursa Major and Ursa Minor respectively. The legend is construed as pointing to a remote period of antiquity when Alpha Draconis was the Pole Star.51 The term simsumara, which occurs in the Rigveda in the sense of an aquatic creature like crocodile, may be an allegorical representation of the Ursa Minor.52

The legend of the Tortoise of Kurma incarnation, as told in the Mahabharata and the puranas, cannot conceal its allegorical character. The roots of the this legend can be traced to the later Vedic as well as the Brahmanical literature. But, by and large, it does not appear to be of Indo-Aryan origin. The Satapatha Brahmana contains the germs of this legend. There it is cryptically represented as a cosmogonic myth with Prajapati as the main character.53 The account represents Prajapati as desirous of generating the earth from waters. A similar idea has been already observed in the Rigvedic hymn revealing cosmogonic myths. The Satapatha Brahmana (vii. 5.1.5.) further states that Kurma, whose form is assumed by Prajapati, is the same as Kasyapa and hence all creatures are said to be descended from Kasyapa.54 At another place (vii .5.1.6), it declares that tortoise is the same as the Sun.55 Then, again, Kurma or tortoise is identified with breath, which makes all the creatures.56 Here, it is not difficult to discover a blend of certain ideas, indicative of both Aryan and non-Aryan sources. Prajapati is commonly declared as the god of creation or generation.57 What the text of the Satapatha Brahmana highlights is a careful blend of different creational myths, in which Prajapati, Kurma or tortoise and Kasyapa, denoting a mythical progenitor, the sun, and lastly, the breath are described as the primordial objects or causes, from which the origin of the world as well as the descent of all creatures is traced. It is again a curious fact that Kurma has been portrayed as allegorizing the sun. Solar allegory is a peculiar feature of the Indo-Aryan mind. Identification of Kurma with the sun may be taken as an attempt to synthesize a pre-Aryan cosmogonic idea with the Vedic solar allegory. The idea underlying such identification may be that the sky is an ocean and the sun is a tortoise of that ocean. Kurma as breath may be construed as indicating some yogic technique of holding the breath or pranayama, which is best symbolized by a tortoise. As a tortoise conceals periodically its head and feet within its shell, so does Prajapati, the creator, at the time of dissolution of the universe. Like a tortoise, revealing its head and feet from within its shell, Prajapati also manifests the universe from within his body. This cosmogonic idea may be at the root of Prajapati's zoomorphic representation as a tortoise. Deeds ascribed to Prajapati have been later transferred to Visnu, who replaced the former in course of time. Jacobi suggests that the reason of Prajapati's assuming the form of a tortoise or a boar "may have been that his primitive worship had been of a zoomorphic character at least with some classes of the people."58

Pargiter analyses the epico-puranic genealogy of Kasyapas and remarks that there are two genealogies of the Kasyapas, one of which is wholly mythical and the other deals with historical members of that family of priests.59 The mythical sage Kasyapa is said to be descended from Brahma's son Marici and is alleged to be the progenitor of all beings including the family of Kasyapas.60 On the evidence of the Vamsa Brahmana of the Samaveda and the Satapatha Brahmana, S.N. Pradhan, on the other hand, develops a chronological list of the Kasyapas.61 It is a curious fact that many of this list are connected with the legends of the Avataras growing in the Eastern India. Rsyasringa Kasyapa is said to have officiated at the putresti sacrifice instituted by Dasaratha and, as a result of this, Rama and his brothers were born.62 Rsyasringa also performed a sacrifice for Lomapada Anga to remove a long drought. He lived in the territory of Anga, an eastern kingdom and his father Vibhandaka had his hermitage on the river Kausiki or modern Kusi in Bihar.63 Both Narada and Sandilya, who figure prominently in the legends of the Avataras and are connected traditionally with the cult of bhakti or devotion, are also Kasyapas.64 Krsna Vasudeva's teacher Sandipani is also said to be a Kasyapa in the Bhagavata Purana.65 Both Uddalaka Aruni and Yajnavalkya, representing the fourteenth and the fifteenth steps in the chronological order of discipleship from Vibhandaka Kasyapa66 are connected with the eastern kingdom of Videha.67 It is said in the epic that Parasurama gave the earth as fee to Kasyapa, who was the officiating priest at a sacrifice of the former after his extermination of the Ksatriyas.68 Visnu is said to have incarnated himself as the son of Kasyapa and Aditi in the form of Vamana.69

We have, therefore, a good number of evidences in the recorded tradition to support this surmise that the legend of the Kurma incarnation, some cosmogonic ideas and some other legends and elements in the stories of the incarnations were current among the Kasyapas, who possibly borrowed and absorbed various indigenous pre-Aryan myths and legends of the people of Anga, Videha and other eastern kingdoms. Many of these indigenous myths and legends, as found in the epics and the puranas, seem to have been changed and Brahmanized to a greater or lesser extent. The view of S.K. Chatterji in this context merits serious attention. He observes, "In the domain of myth and legend, a number of Austric notions and tales appear to have survived in the myths of the Puranas and of the popular Hinduism. The legends of the creation of the world from an egg or eggs, of the Avataras or incarnations of Visnu, e.g. that of the tortoise incarnation, of the princess smelling of fish (matsya-gandha), of the Nagas as serpent spirits of the waters and the underworld, and many more, which do not form part of the Aryan or Indo-European inheritance in Hinduism, and do not seem to have come from the Dravidian world either, can reasonably be expected to have been derived from the Austric or Proto-Australoid world."70 It is also reasonable to infer that in some puranic myths and legends, there is an amalgamation of Austro-Dravidian materials.

Austric languages, hypothetical language superfamily that includes the Austroasiatic and Austronesian (Malayo-Polynesian) language families. The languages of these two families are spoken in an area extending from the island of Madagascar in the west to Easter Island in the east and as far northward as the Himalayas. This classification scheme, proposed in 1906 by the German priest and anthropologist Wilhelm Schmidt, is not generally accepted.

-- Austric languages, by Britannica


The legend of the Kurma incarnation is associated with the story of the churning of ocean, which is manifestly an allegory in its present form. The legend may be summarised here.

In a war with the Danavas or demons, the gods being vanquished fled for refuge to Brahma, who advised the deities to repair for protection to the immortal and unconquerable Visnu. Visnu instructed the gods to churn the ocean of milk for ambrosia in collaboration with the Asuras. As advised, the Devas made an alliance with the Asuras and began to churn jointly the sea of milk by using the mountain Mandara as the churning stick and the great serpent Vasuki as the cord. The divinities took the tail of Vasuki and the demons took the head and neck of the serpent during the act of churning. As a consequence, the Asuras became scorched by the poisonous flames emitted from the mouth of Vasuki, and the Devas, on the other hand, were invigorated. In the midst of the ocean of milk, Visnu assumed the form of a tortoise and supported the mountain Mandara on his back. As the churning continued, fourteen precious articles appeared on the surface. But no sooner had Dhanvantari appeared with the bowl of nectar than the gods and the demons rushed towards him. The Asuras forcibly seized the cup of ambrosia. Then Visnu assumed the form of a beautiful damsel and deluded them. He recovered the bowl of ambrosia and delivered it to the gods. Rahu, a wicked demon, disguised himself as a god and got a share of the drink. But as soon as the drink entered his throat, the sun and the moon detected the fraud and disclosed it to Visnu, who cut the head of the demon. Brahma, however, transformed the demon into a planet. There ensued after this a severe fight between the Devas and the Asuras. The Devas, invigorated by the ambrosial draught, defeated their enemies, who were forced to plunge into the subterraneous sphere of Patala.

The above is but a general account of the narrative as given in the Mahabharata, the Visnu and the Bhagavata Puranas.71 There can be found many variations and novelties in the different versions of the narratives, to which Wilson draws our attention.72 The Visnu Purana mentions elaborately and the Bhagavata Purana refers but cursorily to the anger and curse of sage Durvasa, to whom is attributed the loss of property of the gods and their defeat at the hands of the demons. No mention of Durvasa's curse occurs in the Ramayana, the Mahabharata, the Harivamsa or the Matsya Purana. The epic and the puranas generally agree in ascribing the occurrence of the churning of ocean to the desire of the Devas and the Asuras for gaining immortality. There is also some variety as to the order and number of articles produced from the ocean. Dhanvantari, who is said to have appeared with his bowl of ambrosia during the churning, is called an incarnation in the Bhagavata Purana. More striking is the reference as incarnation to the form of a beautiful maiden, assumed by Visnu for alluring the demons during the churning of milky sea.73 It is further said of Visnu that not only did he enter the ocean and serve as a pivot for the mountain Mandara in the form of a tortoise, but sustained Vasuki, the serpent king and the mountain Mandara and infused vigour into the gods and the demons with his portions of energy.74 The Matsya Purana mentions Sesa, the serpent as a variant for Vasuki and regards both the tortoise and the serpent as born in the portions of Visnu.75 All these references prove that attempts were made to make an old indigenous legend conform to the new Brahmanical ideas, which were also not very steady. Due to this lack of fixation of the central idea, it is said that not only the tortoise, but Dhanvantari and the beautiful maiden were also Visnu's incarnatory forms and Vasuki, mountain Mandara and the Devas and the Asuras were pervaded by the portions of Visnu's energy. However, the idea of the Tortoise as the major incarnatory form of Visnu outlustered other contending ideas and became ultimately stereotyped in the enumeration of the ten principal incarnations.

It is curious to notice in the Mahabharata another legend in which tortoise is represented not as an incarnation but as fighting ceaselessly with an elephant. The great bird Garuda, the vehicle of Visnu and the Son of Kasyapa by Vinata is projected into the epic as the capturer of elephant and tortoise and saviour of the Balakhilyas, the pigmy sages.76 Influence of some indigenous myth on the legend may be assumed on account of its connection with bird, elephant and tortoise. In its present epic form, however, the elephant and the tortoise may be construed as typifying cloud and the earth respectively, thus bringing into focus some cosmogonic idea, rooted in the Rigveda. In another similar puranic legend, mention is made of a crocodile, in place of tortoise engaged in fighting with an elephant, alleged to have been in the previous birth the Pandya king Indradyumna, the best of the Davidas and a devotee of Visnu.77 The Matsya, the Agni and the Naradiya Puranas unanimously state that Janardana or Hari narrated the Kurma Purana in the form of Tortoise through the story of Indradymna.78 Tortoise is thus connected with Indradyumna, whom the Bhagavata Purana describes as a king of the Pandyas and as a Dravida. This obviously points to the Dravidian or Austro-Dravidian origin of such legends as refer to tortoise as a mythical or sacred animal.

Fanciful etymologization [The origin and historical development of a word; the derivation.] occurs very often in the epics and the puranas to account for the root of certain words and is employed as a tool for Sanskritization and propagation of Brahmanical ideas. The word kasyapa occurs in the Atharvaveda and the later Vedic and Brahmanical literature in the sense of tortoise.79 But still fanciful etymologization can be found in the puranas to explain the formation of this word.80 Similar is the case with the word kurma, formation of which is explained artificially in the Brahmanical text.81 The use of the word kurma-vibhaga by Varahamihira in his treatment of the topography of India is possibly due to the belief that "the shape of the globe corresponds to that of a tortoise lying outspread with his face towards the east."82 Kern, however, suggests that the word kurma is of Indo-European origin. He says, "The word kurma is the specific Sanskrit form of a word once common to all Indo-European tongues, viz., Kurma, Lat. culmus, Teuton. holm, etc. It does not originally denote the tortoise itself, but its back, for the proper meaning is 'mound, buckle, half-globe, holm.' Even in Sanskrit in such compounds as kurmonnata, the word signifies the form of the back of a tortoise."83 On the strength of Kern's line of interpretation, it may be conjectured that the idea behind Visnu's assuming the form of a tortoise at the bottom of the milky sea during churning was that the earth emerged out of waters like the back of a tortoise. A primitive geological concept and a cosmogonic myth seem to be blended in the legend.

Varaha is regarded as one of the principal incarnations of Visnu. The central idea, which the legend of this incarnation highlights, is similar in many respects to that of the legend of Kurma. In the Ramayana, for example, the Boar incarnation is mentioned in the backdrop of a cosmogonic myth. It is said that in the beginning everything was full of waters, out of which the earth was made. Then, along with the deities was born Brahma, who assumed the form of a boar and rescued the earth from waters.84 The puranas also express the same idea.85 But, at the same time, the legend is associated there with the story of the killing of a demon called Hiranyaksa. Hiranyaksa is a mythical demon, possibly incorporated into the legend to give expression to the Vedic solar allegory. The roots of the Varaha incarnation, however, can be traced to the Vedic and the Brahmanical literature.86

In a Rigvedic hymn, Rudra is called the boar of the sky or heaven.88 This is obviously an allegory, to which we may turn later. We have already said in our foregoing discussion in Chapter I that boar cannot be taken as a representative of the Rudra-Siva cult, because the animal finds mention in hymns, addressed to Indra.88 in the famous Vrsakapi hymn, it is said that the dog, eager to chase a boar, has bitten Vrsakapi at his ear.89 The nexus between Vrsakapi and boar in the hymn is prima facie not intelligible, but still the idea in an altered form persists in the puranic text, where Vrsakapi is said to have rescued the earth in the form of a boar.90 In a hymn, Trita, endowed with the spirit of Indra, is said to have slain the boar.91 In another hymn, Visnu is described as having pierced the boar.92 None of these references points in any way to the myth of Visnu's rescuing the earth from waters in the shape of a boar. The origin of the idea of rescuing or raising the earth from waters, attributed variously to Prajapati Brahma or Visnu, can be found for the first time in the Taittiriya Samhita.93

The Taittiriya Samhita states that the earth was formerly water or fluid and on it Prajapati moved in the form of wind. Seeing the earth submerged, Prajapati became a boar and raised it:


apo va idamagre salilamasittasmin prajapatirvayurbhutva, carat sa imamapasyattam varaho bhuttva harattam..."94

In the beginning when God created the heavens and the earth, the earth was a formless void and darkness covered the face of the deep, while a wind from God swept over the face of the waters...

And God said, “Let there be a dome in the midst of the waters, and let it separate the waters from the waters.” So God made the dome and separated the waters that were under the dome from the waters that were above the dome. And it was so. God called the dome Sky....

And God said, “Let the waters under the sky be gathered together into one place, and let the dry land appear.” And it was so. God called the dry land Earth, and the waters that were gathered together he called Seas. And God saw that it was good.


-- Genesis 1:1

This may be treated as the nucleus, around which the legend of Varatha began to grow in course of time. The Rigvedic passages, as referred to above, show no cardinal point in the nebulous myth of Varaha, that was just in the process of crystallization. In harmony with the Taittiriya Samhita, a stage of gradual development of the legend can be observed in the Taittriya Brahmana.95 The Satapatha Brahmana also contains a similar legend, where the boar is called Emusa.

The idea of assumption of the form of a boar by Prajapati or Brahma or Visnu with a view to upraising the earth turned out to be the central idea in the legend of the Boar incarnation in the puranas. It is nonetheless true that gradually new elements began to be piled up around the legend and certain variations were thus occasioned. The Visnu Purana describes the Boar incarnation as the lotus-eyed Great Boar or Mahavarsha, who rose from beneath the lowest region like the great Nila mountain and uplifted the earth on his tusk.96 The account of the Visnu Purana may be given here in a nutshell.

Being desirous of raising up the earth which lay within waters, Narayana took the figure of a boar as he had assumed the form of a fish or a tortoise in the previous Kalpas. Assuming a form composed of the sacrifices of the Vedas, for the preservation of the whole earth, Narayana plunged into the ocean. The earth bowed in devout adoration to the deity. Hymned and eulogized by the earth, the god raised it quickly and placed it on the summit of the ocean, where it floats like a mighty vessel. The eternal deity levelled the earth, divided it into seven great portions and accomplished the creation.97
Thus the heavens and the earth were completed in all their vast array. By the seventh day God had finished the work he had been doing; so on the seventh day he rested from all his work. Then God blessed the seventh day and made it holy, because on it he rested from all the work of creating that he had done.

-- Genesis 1:2

It is curious to notice that the Bhagavata Purana provides a more explicit allegorical description of the Varaha incarnation as emerging out of the nostrils of Brahma, as tiny in size as a thumb, but soon expanding like an elephant in the sky. Beholding the form of Varaha, Brahma, Marici, Sanaka, Manu and the rest began to argue in great amazement who the divine creature was and whether this was Visnu. When Brahma was thus engaged in argument with his sons, the divinity, the soul of sacrifice, with his mountainous body, burst out roaring. The fact that the roar of the illusory Boar was exactly like that of an actual boar robbed Brahma and the sages of their suspicion. The Boar was hymned by the sages.98

The account of the Harivamsa is also in most respects similar to those of the Visnu, the Matsya and the Bhagavata Puranas. The legend of the killing of Hiranyaksa is not, however, unknown to the other puranas. But a detailed account is given only in the Bhagavata Purana,99 while the Vayu Purana contains but a cryptic and cursory reference, adducing proof for the legend's antiquity.100 The legend of Hiranyaksa appears to be a subsequent insertion and is put in a historical garb. Even if some allowance is given for a historical nucleus in the legend, the allegorical elements are so prominent in it that it can be best construed as typifying a fight between the cloud and the scorching heat of the summer.

The legend was further developed to absurd proportions in the Kalika Purana. There it is said that Visnu assumed the form of a boar and delivered the sunken earth by driving a tusk through her. Then he took the form of the seven-headed serpent Ananta and supported the earth on one hood.
The Kalika Purana does not narrate the legend of Hiranyaksa, but introduces a new legend of Visnu's amorous sport with the goddess Earth in the form of a boar. Consequent upon Visnu's continued amorous sport and union with the goddess Earth as Varaha and Varahi respectively, three sons named Suvrtta, Kanaka and Ghora were born. These sons as well as the Boar created troubles to the whole creation. Siva and the gods prayed to Visnu to give up the Boar form. Visnu instructed Siva to kill the Boar by assuming the shape of a Sarabha, a mythical eight-footed animal. There ensued a fight between the Sarabha and the Boar and during the conflict, not the Boar but the Narasimha was killed by Sarabba after Visnu had infused his energy into it. Nara and Narayana, the two sages, originated from the two parts of the Narasimha's body. The Boar requested Sarabha to construct implements of sacrifice with his limbs and to kill him when he would become a burden to the earth. Ultimately the Boar was killed by the Sarabha.101

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It is curious to note that in the Mahabharata, the legend of Siva's killing the Boar has taken a new shape. In the account of Arjuna's fight with Siva, disguised as a Kirata, it is said that a demon in the form of a mountainous boar was about to kill Arjuna, but was ultimately killed jointly by Kirata and Arjuna.102 Kirata and Arjuna in this narrative are the representatives of Rudra and Indra.

That the legend of the Boar incarnation was originally conceived of as a natural allegory becomes clear from the descriptions of the Boar, as found in the puranas. Both the Matsya and the Vayu Puranas provide picturesque descriptions of the figure of the boar in almost the same words. Apart from being manifestly an allegorical representation of natural phenomena, the puranic description may be treated as an excellent piece of poetic work.103 Here we get a picture of the Cosmic Boar, which does not represent a tradition of primitive animal worship or totemism. Boar, of course, figures variously in the religion and mythology of different countries and people. Thus, in Zoroastrianism, Verethraghna, the god of victory, is said to have assumed the form of the boar and, again, in Germanic mythology, "the pig is associated especially with storms, and, as a fertility animal, with the harvest time."104 If the Cosmic Boar is supposed to reflect the germs of the ideas, originally connected with the Boar incarnation, it is partly similar to the pig of the Germanic mythology in that the pig is connected with storms and the boar here typifies also cloud, thunder and storm. The roots of this allegory may go back to the remote past marking the beginning of agriculture. As the hunters as well as the pastoral nomads, dependent on the cattle in ancient India, began to resort to agriculture more and more, the allegory originated in popular belief and tradition and the god was imagined to have appeared in the form of cloud, so essential for an agricultural community. That the boar kills hot summer or drought, represented by Hiranyaksa, may also be an ancient relic of a popular tradition, which owes its origin to a settled agrarian society. The legend of Hiranyaksa may be supposed to have gained currency long before its insertion in the puranas. The Rigveda, as pointed out earlier, is not wholly devoid of traces, however scanty or cursory, of currency of such belief and tradition, in which Varaha allegorizes cloud of the sky. Only it has not taken there the form of a supreme cloud-god or the shape of a legend. The legend of the Boar incarnation assimilated many Vedic ideas, associated with the concept of boar in the Rigveda and the later Vedic literature, but not synthesized into a consistent fabric. This accounts for the variations in the legend as told in the puranas.

It is also worthwhile to consider in this context the etymology as well as connotation of the word varaha. Explaining the formation of the word, B.K. Kakati remarks, "The Sanskrit word for boar is varaha, which means also the cloud. The etymology of varaha is said to be obscure. It may, however, be connected with some earlier formation like varabha: cf. kakuha, kakubh, barjaha (udder), with suffix bha .... "105 He is also inclined to consider the word balahaka or valahaka denoting cloud in this connection.106

In the Matsya Purana immediately after the allegorical representation of the Cosmic Boar, there occurs a description of the Sacrificial Boar. Wilson suggests that this is nothing more than the development of the idea that the Boar incarnation allegorizes the ritual of the Vedas and is repeated in most of the puranas in a similar way.107 It is said that the feet of the Varaha are the Vedas, his teeth are the stake to which a sacrificial victim is tied, his tusks are the offerings, his mouth is the altar, his tongue is the fire, the hairs of his body are the sacrificial grass, his head is the seat of Brahma. Day and night are his eyes, Vedanga, his earrings, sacrificial ghee, his nose, the ladle of oblation, his snout and the chanting of the Sama Veda, his deep voice. In this manner, the Boar is portrayed as typifying the Vedic sacrifice.108 It is finally declared that the Sacrificial Boar, the benefactor of all beings, upheld the goddess Earth, submerged in the waters of sea in the days of old:
evam yajnavarahena bhutva bhutahitarthina/
uddhrta prthivi devi sagarambugata pura//109

Wilson is inclined to believe that the elevation of the earth from beneath the ocean by Varaha was at first "an allegorical representation of the extrication of the world from a deluge of iniquity by the rites of religion."110 It is possible that the idea or experience of a deluge, which was later universalized and formed the core of the legend of the Matsya incarnation, was generally accepted as a cosmogonic myth and hence was later incorporated into the legend of the Boar.

Marks of allegorization of the legend in pursuance of the original Vedic idea are noticed in the text of the Visnu Purana. Thus, it declares at one place that the Boar occupies the space between heaven and earth:
dyavaprthivyoratulaprabhava yadantaram tat vapusa tavaiva/111

So it is quite probable that the Boar occupying the space between heaven and earth as referred to in the Visnu Purana or the boar of the sky by which Rudra is known in the Rigveda may be treated inter alia [among other things] as an astronomical allegory, to which Jogesh Chandra Ray draws our attention. He suggests that the Orion should be understood to have been represented variously by the Varaha, Kurma or sage Kasyapa in the puranas.112

In this context, it is interesting to notice that a concept almost similar to that of the Sacrificial Boar occurs in the Vedic literature. Tilak points out that the Taittiriya Brahmana contains a reference to the asterismal Prajapati, where the asterism of Citra is said to be the head of Prajapati, Svati, his heart, Hasta, his hand and so on.113 Tilak believes that Citra is said to be the head of Prajapati because the Citra full-moon commenced the year in those days.114 It has been suggested that the tradition points to the oldest period or the pre-Orion Aditi period of the Aryan civilization, roughly assignable to 6000-400O B.C., when the sacrifice or the year first commenced with Aditi at the vernal equinox near the asterism Punarvasu and later when, with the rearrangement of the sacrificial calendar, making use of the lunar months and tithis, the year was made to commence from the winter solstice in the Citra full-moon.115 Many Vedic allegories, as found in the Vrsakapi and other hymns, have been incorporated into the Legend of the Varaha. Amara regards Vrsakapi as a name of Visnu or Siva and the Brhatdevata takes the word to denote the setting sun.116 Giving an astronomical interpretation of the Vedic references where Visnu is said to have slain varaha or boar and a dog is represented as chasing varaha. Tilak suggests that the dog is Canis Major following the constellation of Orion, which is varaha.117 It is thus not difficult to interpret the legend of the Boar incarnation. When the sun became united with the Orion at the vernal equinox, the fact was allegorized as Prajapati's or Visnu's assuming the form of a boar and the Orion was represented as the Sacrificial Boar or Yajnavaraha, because the equinox at Orion commenced the yearly sacrifice, which was the instrument for time reconing. In the legend, the Boar is said to have uplifted the earth from beneath the ocean or Rasatala, which means the region below the horizon as well as the southern hemisphere. Visnu or Prajapati, typifying the sun, entered Rasatala or the southern hemisphere during the Daksinayana and re-appeared on the equinoctial day near the Orion in the form of the Boar.

The Nrsimha or Narasimha incarnation is unlike the purely zoomorphic incarnations, as seen above, but is partly zoomorphic and partly anthropomorphic. The Matsya-Kurma-Varaha incarnations are like a triad, betraying many points of similarities. Each one of them is connected with a cosmogonic or creational myth. The legend of the Man-lion, however, seems to be a departure from the above tradition.

In the legend of the Nrsimha, Visnu is said to have assumed the form of a being, half-man and half-lion, to slay the demon Hiranyakasipu.118 The legend, as told in the purana, states that in the days of old, Hiranyakasipu, the son of Diti, brought the three worlds under his authority. Hiranyakasipu had practised assiduous austerities for a long period and had propitiated Brahma, who bestowed upon him a boon that he could not be killed by the gods, men or beasts and that he could not die either by day or at night. The boon assured him further that no weapons, trees or hills could take his life, nor his life would be terminable on account of curses by the sages. He usurped the sovereignty of Indra and identified himself with Kubera, the god of wealth. He conquered the three worlds and was inflated with pride. His son Prahlada was a devout worshipper of Visnu. When Hiranyakasipu came to know of his son's devotion for Visnu, he became angry with him and tried to dissuade him by various means. Prahlada could not be persuaded by threats and cruel tortures to abandon the worship of Visnu. All attempts, resorted to by Hiranyakasipu for killing his son by drowning, mixing poison with food, hurling down from the top of the palace, tying him to a cage of poisonous snakes and burning him alive ultimately proved abortive. Prahada remained unscathed as Visnu, the immortal guardian against all dangers, was present in his mind. He kept on hymning the praises of Visnu and told his father in reply to a query that Visnu was everywhere. Hiranyakasipu struck the pillar of his palace and asked his son whether Visnu was in the column also. Prahada's answer in the affirmative enraged his father, who kicked the pillar. Then the miracle occurred. Visnu came forth from the pillar in the form of Nrsimha, half-man and half-lion, and tore Hiranyakasipu up by placing him on the thighs.119

A largely inflated account of this legend can be found in the Bhagavata Purana, while other puranas contain versions, which are more or less of similar length inspite of varieties. To the startled eyes of Hiranyakasipu, the incarnatory figure of Visnu appeared like a mountain of gold.120 Hiranyakasipu, on the other hand, is described as of the colour, sound and speed of cloud.121 It is also curious to note that the Vayu Purana describes the Man-lion as having appeared from the bottom of the ocean.122 The Matsya Purana further states that after incarnating himself as the Nrsimha, Visnu saw Hiranyakasipu's court or sabha, described as celestial, white, beautiful and one hundred yojanas in breadth.123 The court is further said to be situated on the surface of heaven.124 The Man-lion is said to have broken the court of Hiranyakasipu.125 All these references and many more of the same type, if gleaned and analysed carefully, will suffice to convince us of the allegorical character of the Man-lion's legend. In all probability, it was first conceived of as an astronomical allegory upholding the idea that the starry sky of the southern hemisphere or Hiranyakasipu's court is destroyed when the sun approaches the vernal equinoctial point, marked by the asterismal figure named Nrsimha. Later it also turned out to be a natural allegory and finally, the legend became wrapped up in a mytho-historic garb hinting at a religious conflict. It is possible at least to take Prahlada to be a historical figure since the name of his son Virocana is fabled in the Upanisad,126 and his grandson Anga Vairocana is referred to as the king, anointed by Udamaya Atreya in the Aitareya Brahmana.127 If we are ready to accept Prahlada as an Aryanized devotee of Visnu, belonging to a community opposed to the spread of the Vedic religion, the legend may also be construed as a relic of a religious conflict during the early days of the spread of Vaisnavism. The origin of the idea of Visnu's Nrsimha incarnation may be found rooted in the Vajasaneyi Samhita, where Visnu is said to have assumed the form of a mighty lion atop a hill.128 Mention of the Nrsimha in the Taittiriya Aranyaka definitely speaks of the pre-Christian origin of the incarnation.129 Nrsimha is represented in the puranic literature as a being with the head of a lion and the body of a man. This term, denoting a lion-headed man, may be just another synonym for the constellation Mrgasiras. It is important to know in this context the actual meaning of the term mrga. Tilak points out that the word mrga in the Rigveda means both a lion and a deer according to Sayana.130 In view of this, it is not difficult to understand how the word, denoting a lion-headed man, originated and what it actually stood for. In the Vedic Vrsakapi, we get an idea almost analogous to that of the Nrsimha. It has been suggested that the black day alluded to in the Rigveda was the original name for Pitryana or Daksinayana, since night appeared to increase at the expense of day during the period.131 The Devayana or Uttarayana and the Pitryana or Daksinayana representing the northern and the southern hemispheres were conceived of as the regions of the gods and the demons respectively. The court of Hiranyakasipu, as described in the puranas, can be nothing else but the southern hemisphere. The legend perhaps preserves a memory of the ancient period when the sun at the vernal equinox synchronized with the heliacal rising of the constellation Orion, allegorically represented as Vrsakapi in the Rigveda and as Nrsimha in the puranas. The imaginary line joining the two equinoxes was later allegorized as a pillar, from which the Nrsimha appeared according to the Bhagavata Purana.132 It has been suggested that in the Atharvaveda, the supreme Deity appears under the appellation of Skambha or support.133 The Skambha hymn of the Atharvaveda134 may be precursor of the idea of setting up sacred pillar as a part of a religious tradition. The epic records the fact that Uparicara Vasu, the king of the Cedi country, erected an Indradhvaja in honour of the deity Indra.135 Even in the historical period, the continuation of the tradition may be observed in the erection of a Garudadhvaja by Heliodorus, assigned to the second century B.C.136 The Asokan pillars and capitals that have survived the onslaught of time are decorated with figures of lion, elephant, bull and horse, which are said to be the guardians of the four quarters and symbols of the Buddha.137 Of all these animals, however, lion occupies the most prominent place as attested by the figures of four lions seated back to back on the inscribed Asokan pillars of Sarnath and Sanchi.138 The pillars of Asoka bear testimony to the continuation of a sacred tradition, corroborated also by the literary sources.

In pursuance of the Vedic myth of Visnu's piercing the boar or Trita's slaying the same animal, it occurs in the puranic literature that Siva in the form of a Sarabha or elk approached the Nrsimha and killed him.139 Though this is a Saivite version of the legend, the origin of it can be traced to the early Vedic literature. It is further said that Prahlada also was defeated in war by Indra during the churning of ocean and Prahlada's son Virocana was slain by him during a war.140

We have previously discussed (Chapter I) the formation of the word vrsakapi, described as a golden antelope in the Rigveda and have shown how the word nrsirmha may also be accepted like vrsakapi as a poetic expression, denoting a monkey instead of a hybrid creature. Horse-headed Dadhyanc, Atharvana or Dadhici, Vrsakapi, Nrsimha and the Ramayanic Hanuman seem to belong to the same group and are ideologically inter-connected. Their puranic counterparts are the goat-headed Daksa and the horse-headed Hayagriva.

While Hiranyakasipu and Hiranyaksa are represented as the twin sons of Kasyapa by Diti, Vamana, the Dwarf incarnation of Visnu, is said to have been born to Kasyapa by his wife Aditi.141 Once upon a time, Hiranyakasipu was the overlord of the three worlds. When his great grandson Bali ultimately became the sovereign of the three worlds, Visnu assumed the form of the Dwarf. The legend has been variously told in the puranas. Inflated accounts of the legend can be found in the Bhagavata Purana and the Ramayana. According to the Bhagavata Purana, Bali was the disciple of the great sage Sukra of the line of the Bhrgus. Bali performed the Visvajit sacrifice with the help of the Bhrgus for conquering the heaven. As he gave his oblations to the sacrificial fire, there appeared from it a wonderful chariot, horses of golden colour, a banner displaying the figure of a lion, celestial bow, arrows and armour, Prahlada gave him floral garland and Sukra presented him with conch-shell. Armed in this manner and accompanied by a large army of Asuras, Bali marched to siege Indra's capital and finally established his authority in the three worlds. With the help of the Bhrgus, he performed one hundred horse-sacrifices. Visnu, who had incarnated himself as the Dwarf, the son of Kasyapa by Aditi, went to Bali and asked for space equal to his three steps only. When his prayer was granted, he grew vast in size and covered the earth and the heaven by his two strides. There being left no space for his third step, he placed his foot on the head of the Asura King. He thus sent Bali to the nether regions and acquired the heaven for Indra. This is, in brief, the account of the legend as told in the Bhagavata Purana.142

In the Ramayana, Visvamitra tells Rama the legend of the Dwarf incarnation, in which Kasyapa is represented as having asked Visnu of favouring him with a boon that Visnu would be born as a son of Aditi and himself.143 The kernel of the legend, which is the conquest of the three worlds and the siege of Bali by Visnu with his three steps in the form of the Dwarf, can be found in all the epics and the puranas. The Vayu Puraana thus sums up the legend:

trailokyam vijitam sarvam vamanena trivikramaih/
balirvaddho hato jambho nihatasca virocanah//144


In spite of the mytho-historic garb, the allegorical character of the legend is clear.

The Rigvedic passages referring to Visnu's three strides are obviously the nucleus, out of which the legend of the Dwarf was created. But the Rigveda, however, does not describe Visnu as dwarf or vamana. In the Satarudriya hymn of the Yajurveda, Rudra is referred to as vamana.145 Rudra is said to preside over the asterism of Ardra and may, therefore, be understood to denote the star.146 Visnu's three strides alluded to in the Rigveda have been variously interpreted as meaning the three different positions of the sun at his rising, culmination and setting.
It is interesting to note in this connection the etymological explanation of the terms, Vamana and Visnu as given in the puranas. Visnu is so called from the verbal root vis, meaning 'to enter' or 'to pervade' because he, in his dwarf form, has pervaded or penetrated everything.147 A similar idea is also found in the Upanisad, where the soul is described as of the size of a thumb, always seated in everyone's heart.148

The Satapatha Brahmana version of the legend may be taken as an intermediary stage in the development of the legend towards its final form as found in some of the puranas. The puranic legend of the Vamana incarnation thus seems to have undergone various phases of development beginning with the original concept in the Rigveda.

As seen above, the first five Avataras out of the ten principal incarnations of Visnu are allegorical in character. It is explicitly stated in the puranas that there occurred three divine incarnations of Visnu except his seven human manifestations.149 The first divine incarnation is said to have been Narayana,150 by which term obviously the Cosmic Deity of the Purusa Sukta of the Rigveda is hinted at. The other two divine incarnations are the Nrsimha and the Vamana.151 The Matsya-Kurma-Varaha triad, however, is not included in this list and may be reasonably supposed to have been a later insertion.

The Vedic poets were star-gazers and in preparing their sacrificial calendar, they started weaving legends out of astronomical and natural phenomena, many of which were enlarged in the subsequent period and supplied the germs for the legends of the Avataras. It is somewhat inconsistent that in some cases Brahma and Visnu are almost interchangeably mentioned as the deity, assuming a particular incarnatory form. But this no longer remains an enigma if we lend support to the view of Tilak, who explains the origin of the Hindu concept of Trinity by identifying the three Stars in the head of Orion as the personified Trinity.152 When the sacrificial year began with the vernal equinox in Orion and the Devayana or the northern hemisphere comprised the three seasons of Vasanta, Grisma and Varsa, Visnu, representative of the happiness of Vasanta or Spring, Rudra, presiding over storms and Prajapati, the god of sacrifice, were all located in the constellation of Orion.153

The ancient Hindu mind personified and deified not only the powers of external nature, but also the internal feelings as well as moral and intellectual qualities.154 These are represented as the incarnatory forms of the Godhead. Hence, the greater portions of the episodes of the human Avataras are also not free from these allegorical elements.

REFERENCES

1. The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary. Vol. I. Calcutta. 1961, p. 45.
2. Encylopaedia Britannica, Vol. I, London, 1956, p. 645.
3. Ibid.
4. Rigveda. VII. 55.1.
5. H.G. Rawlinson. Intercourse between India and the Western World, Cambridge. 191 6, p. 15: N.K. Dutt, The Aryanisation of India, Calcutta. 1970, pp. 74-75.
6. W.J. Wilkins, Hindu Mythology. Calcutta. 1982, p. 134.
7. E.W. Hopkins, Origin and Evolution of Religion, Delhi, p. 14.
8. B.K. Kakati, Visnuite Myths and Legends, Gauhati, 1952, p. 107.
9. E.W. Hopkins, op. cit., p. 45. n.
10. B.K. Kakati, op. cit. p. 106.
11. Ibid.
12. Ibid., p. 107.
13. Rigveda, VI. 20. 12.
14. R.P. Chanda, The Indo-Aryan Races, Rajshahi, 1916, pp. 28-29.
15. Ibid., p. 26.
16. Rigveda, III.18.3; X. 62. 10.
17. K.P. Chattopadhyaya, Ancient Indian Culture Contacts and Migrations, Calcutta, 1970, pp. 10ff.
18. Ibid., p. 8.
19. B.K. Kakati, op. cit., p. 109.
20. J.N. Banerjea, Pauranic and Tantric Religion, Calcutta, 1966, pp. 26-21.
21. R.P. Chanda. op. cit., p. 31.
22. Ibid.
23. Leonard Woolley, Ur of the Chaldees, Middlesex, 1938, pp. 23-24.
24. R.C. Majumdar ed., The Vedic Age. Bombay, 1965, p. 182.
25. Op. cit,. p. 74.
26. Kunjagovinda Gosvami, Pragaitihasika Mohenjo-daro, Calcutta, 1961, p. 51.
27. ibid. p. 132.
28. Ibid., p. 70.
29. N.K. Dutt, op. cit. p. 75.
30. Rigveda, X. 82. 1,6.
31. Ibid. X. 121.7.
32. ibid., X. 129.3.
33. The Vedic Age, p. 153.
34. Visnu Purana, I. 2. 57-58.
35. ibid., I. 3. 14-15.
36. H.H. Wilson, The Vishnu Purana, Calcutta, 1961, p. 23 n. 6.
37. Ibid., p. 23.
38. Visnu Purana, III. 2.48-49.
39. E.W. Hopkns, op. cit., p. 237.
40. Op. cit., Preface, pp. xlix-1.
41. Mahabharata, III. 187.
42. Ibid., Matsya Purana, 2.11: 2. 17.
43. Bhagavata Purana, VIII. 24.35-38.
44. Matsya Purana, 2.17-19.
45. Loc. cit.
46. Matsya Purana, 2.18.
47. Ibid., 2.10.
48. Bhagavata Purana, VIII. 24.56-61.
49. Rigveda, X. 63.10.
50. Ibid.,X. 63.1.
51. Jogesh Changra Ray Vidyanidhi holds this view which he tries to substantiate in a number of essays and particularly in his Pauranika Upakhyana.
52. A.A. Macdonell and A.B. Keith, Vedic Index of Names and Subjects, Vol. II, Delhi, 1982, p. 377.
53. F. Max Muller ed Julius Eggeling trans. Satapatha Brahmana, Part III. Oxford, 1894, p. 147.
54. Ibid., p. 390.
55. Ibid.
56. Ibid., p. 391: cf. Bhagavadgita, II.58.
57. Taittiriya Samhita, II.2. 1.1: II.4.4.1: III.1.4.1.
58. James Hastings ed. Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, Vol. VII, Edinburgh, 1959. pp. 193-194.
59. F.E. Pargiter, Ancient Indian Historical Tradition, Delhi, 1972, p. 231. Pargiter is inclined to take Kasyapa as non-Aryan (Ibid., p. 307).
60. Ibid., pp. 188-189.
61. S.N. Pradhan, Chronology of Ancient India, Calcutta, 1927, pp, 156-160.
62. Ibid., p. 157.
63. F.E. Pargiter, op. cit., pp. 232-233.
64. Ibid., pp. 189, 233-234.
65. Bhagavata Purana, X.45.30-37.
66. S.N. Pradhan, op. cit., pp. 159-160.
67. F.E. Pargiter, op. cit., pp. 322-323. 327-329.
68. Ibid., p. 200.
69. Visnu Purana, III.1.3 : Vayu Purana, 66. 131.
70. The Vedic Age, p. 154.
71. Mahabharata, I. 18-19; Visnu Purana, 1.9; Bhagavata Purana, VIII. 6-12.
72. Op. cit., pp. 66-67 n. 8.
73. Bhagavata Purana, I.3, 16-17.
74. Ibid., VIII.7. 10-12; Visnu Purana, 1.9. 87-90.
75. Matsya Purana, 249. 26-27.
76. Mahabharata, 1.29.
77. Bhagavata Purana, VIII.4. 1-10.
78. R.C. Hazra, Studies in the Puranic Records on Hindu Rites and Customs, Dacca, 1940, p. 59.
79. Vedic Index, Vol. I. p. 144.
80. kasyam madyam smrtam vipraih kasyapanattu kasyapah// Vayu Purana, 65.115.
81. Satapatha Brahmana, VII. 5.1.5; 5.1.7.
82. A. Mitra Shastri, India as seen in the Brhatsamhita of Varahamihira, Delhi, 1969, p. 42.
83. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1871, p. 81. n. 1, quoted in ibid.
84. Ramayana, II. 110.3.
85. Matsya Purana, 249. 62-66; Visnu Purana, 1.4.26.
86. Vedic Indiex, Vol. II, p. 245.
87. Rigveda, 1.114.5.
88. Supra.
89. Rigveda, X. 86.4.
90. Matsya Purana, 249. 79.
91. Rigveda, X. 99.6.
92. Ibid., I. 61.7.
93. Taittiriya Samhita, VI. 2.4.2: VII. 1.5.1.
94. Ibid., VII. 1.5.1.
95. W.J. Wilkins, op. cit., pp. 144-145.
96. Visnu Purana, 1.4.26.
97. H.H. Wilson, op. cit., pp. 25-29.
98. Bhagavata Purana, III. 13.18-25.
99. Ibid., III. 14, 17, 18, 19.
100. Vaya Purana, 49.11.
101. R.C. Hazra, Studies in the Upapuranas, Vol. II, Calcutta, 1979. pp. 251-252. The Kalika Purana is believed to have been composed in Assam or in the bordering area of Bengal in the 10th or in the first half of the 11th century A.D. The original Kalika Purana, probably a work of the 7th century A.D., is now lost. (Ibid., pp. 285, 297, 302).
102. Mahabharata, III. 39.
103. Matsya Purana, 248.63-66.
104. Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, Vol. I., 1959. p. 525.
105. Op. cit., pp. 130-131.
106. Ibid., p. 131.
107. Op. cit., p. 28 n. 7.
108. Matsya Purana, 248. 67-73: Visnu Purana, 1.4.32-34.
109. Matsya Purana, 248.77.
110. Op. cit., p. 26 n. 3.
111. Visnu Purana, I. 4. 27.
112. Op. cit., pp. 24ff.
113. B.G. Tilak, Orion, Bombay, 1893, p. 204.
114. Ibid.
115. Ibid., pp. 205-206.
116. Ibid., p. 171.
117. Ibid., pp. 181-182.
118. Vayu Purana, 97.17; Matsya Purana, 47.46; 161.37.
119. Visnu Purana, 1.17-20: Matsya Purana, 161, 162, 163.
120. Matsya Purana, 162.3.
121. Ibid., 163.92.
122. Vayu Purana, 98.73.
123. Matsya Purana, 161.38-39.
124. Ibid., 161.46.
125. Ibid., 162.17-18.
126. Chandogya Upanisad, VIII. 7.2.
127. A.B. Keith, The Rigveda Brahmanas, Delhi, 1981, p. 337.
128. pratatvisnuh stavate viryena mrgo na bhimah kucaro giristhah/ Vajasaneyi Samhita, V. 20.
129. H.C. Raychaudhuri, Materials for the Study of the Early History of the Vaisnava Sect., Calcutta, 1920, p. 105.
130. Op. cit., p. 151.
131. Ibid., p. 105.
132. Bhagavata Purana, VII.8. 14-19.
133. B.K. Kakato, op. cit., p. 133.
134. Atharvaveda, X.7.
135. Mahabharata, I. 63.
136. Supra.
137. A.C. Sen, Asoka's Edicts. Calcutta, 1956, pp. 41-42.
138. Ibid., p. 41.
139. Siva Purana, 61. 54 et. seq.; S.M. Gupta. Vishnu and His Incarnations, Bombay, 1974, p. 19.
140. Vayu Purana, 97. 79-80; Matsya Purana, 47. 48-49.
141. Visnu Purana, III. 1.43: Vayu Purana, 66.131.
142. Bhagavata Purana, VIII. 15-23.
143. Ramayana, I. 29. 16-17.
144. Vayu Purana, 97.103.
145. Vajasaneyi Samhita, XVI. 30.
146. B.G. Tilak, op. cit., p. 126.
147. Vayu Purana, 66. 135: Visnu Purana, III. 1.46.
148. Kathopanisad, II. 3.17.
149. Vayu Purana, 98.88; Matsya Purana, 47.241.
150. Vayu Purana, 98.71: Matsya Purana, 47.237.
151. Vayu Purana, 98.73-74: Matsya Purana, 47.239-240.
152. Op. cit., p. 128.
153. Ibid.
154. Monier Monier Williams. Indian Wisdom, Varanasi, 1963, p. 322.


The central characters of this legend are the fish (Matsya) and Manu. The character Manu is presented as the legislator and the ancestor king. One day, water is brought to Manu for his ablutions. In the water is a tiny fish. The fish states it fears being swallowed by a larger fish and appeals to Manu to protect him.[9] In return, the fish promises to rescue Manu from an impending flood. Manu accepts the request. He puts the fish in a pot of water where he grows. Then he prepares a ditch filled with water, and transfers him there where it can grow freely. Once the fish grows further to be big enough to be free from danger, Manu transfers him into the ocean.[9][10] The fish thanks him, tells him the date of the great flood, and asks Manu to build a ship by that day, one he can attach to its horn. On the predicted day, Manu visits the fish with his boat. The devastating floods come, and Manu ties the boat to the horn. The fish carries the boat with Manu to the high grounds of the northern mountains (interpreted as the Himalayas). The lone survivor Manu then re-establishes life by performing austerities and yajna (sacrifices). The goddess Ida appears from the sacrifice and both together initiate the race of Manu, the humans.[9][11][12][13]

According to Bonnefoy, the Vedic story is symbolic. The little fish alludes to the Indian "law of the fishes", an equivalent to the "law of the jungle".[9] The small and weak would be devoured by the big and strong, and needs the dharmic protection of the legislator and king Manu to enable it to attain its potential and be able to help later. Manu provides the protection, the little fish grows to become big and ultimately saves all existence. The boat that Manu builds to get help from the savior fish, states Bonnefoy, is symbolism of the means to avert complete destruction and for human salvation. The mountains are symbolism for the doorway for ultimate refuge and liberation.[9] Edward Washburn Hopkins suggests that the favour of Manu rescuing the fish from death reciprocated by the fish.[7]

Though Matsya does not appear in older scriptures,[14][15] the seeds of the legend may be traced to the oldest Hindu scripture, the Rigveda. Manu (lit. "man"), the first man and progenitor of humanity, appears in the Rigveda. Manu is said to have performed the first sacrifice by kindling the sacrificial fire (Agni) with seven priests; Manu's sacrifice becomes the archetypal sacrifice.[15] [15. Dhavamony, Mariasusai (1982). Classical Hinduism. Gregorian Biblical BookShop. pp. 112–113. ISBN 978-88-7652-482-0.]
Although Manu is a doublet of Yama as ancestor of the human race, he is regarded as the first of men living on earth whereas Yama as first of men who died became king of the dead in the other world.7 [Satapatha Brahmana 13.4.3.3-5.]

The Satapath Brahmana8 [1.8.1.1-11.] narrates a legend of the Deluge9 [For a complete treatment of the Flood Legend in Indian mythology, see Suryakanta Shastri, The Flood Legend in Sanskrit Literature, Delhi, 1950.] which makes Manu play the part of a Noah in the history of human descent. The legend tells the story as follows:

In the morning they brought to Manu water for washing, just as now also they are wont to bring water for washing the hands. When he was washing himself, a fish came into his hands.

It spake to him the word, 'Rear me, I will save thee!' 'Wherefrom wilt thou save me?' 'A flood will carry away all these creatures: from that I will save thee!' 'How am I to rear thee?'

I said, 'As long as we are small, there is great destruction for us: fish devours fish. Thou wilt first keep me in a jar. When I outgrow that, thou wilt dig a pit and keep me in it. When I outgrow that, thou wilt take me down the sea, for then I shall be beyond destruction.'

It soon became a large fish. Thereupon it said, 'In such and such a year that flood will come. Thou shalt then attend to my advice by preparing a ship; and when the flood has risen thou shalt enter into the ship, and I shall save thee from it.'

After he had reared it in this way, he took it down to the sea. And in the same year which the fish had indicated to him, he attended to the advice of the fish by preparing a ship; and when the flood had risen, he entered into the ship. The fish then swam up to him, and to its horn he tied the rope of the ship, and by that means he passed swiftly up to yonder northern mountain.

It then said, 'I have saved thee. Fasten the ship to a tree; but let not the water cut thee off, whilst thou art on the mountain. As the water subsides, thou mayest gradually descend!' Accordingly he gradually descended, and hence that slope of the northern mountain is called 'Manu's descent'! The flood then swept away all these creatures, and Manu alone remained here."


Thus Manu was saved in a ship from a deluge, which swept away all other creatures, by a fish (Post-Vedic mythology calls the fish an 'incarnation' of Vishnu). Manu subsequently became the progenitor of mankind through his daughter Ida, who was produced from his offerings.

More generally the human race is regarded as of divine origin, descending from deities, Heaven and Earth, the great parents of all that exists. Sometimes Agni is said to have begotten the offspring of men. (At Ayu's ancient call he (Agni) by his wisdom gave all this progeny of men their being."10 [Rig Veda 1.96.2.] Ayu, according to Sayana, is another name for Manu, the progenitor of mankind, as we have seen. In another place it is said, "That Matarisvan (Agni) ... finds a pathway for his offspring (men)".11 [Rig Veda 1.96.4.]

-- Dhavamony, Mariasusai (1982). Classical Hinduism, by Mariasusai Dhavamony, 1982.

HYMN XCVI. Agni.

1. HE in the ancient way by strength engendered, lo! straight hath taken to himself all wisdom.
The waters and the bowl have made him friendly. The Gods possessed the wealth bestowing Agni.
2 At Āyu's ancient call he by his wisdom gave all this progeny of men their being,
And, by refulgent light, heaven and the waters. The Gods possessed the wealth. bestowing Agni.

3 Praise him, ye Āryan folk, as chief performer of sacrifice adored and ever toiling,
Well-tended, Son of Strength, the Constant Giver. The Gods possessed the wealth bestowing Agni.
4 That Mātariśvan rich in wealth and treasure, light-winner, finds a pathway for his offspring.
Guard of our folk, Father of earth and heaven. The Gods possessed the wealth bestowing Agni.

5 Night and Dawn, changing each the other's colour, meeting together suckle one same Infant:
Golden between the heaven and earth he shineth. The Gods possessed the wealth bestowing Agni.
6 Root of wealth, gathering-place of treasures, banner of sacrifice, who grants the suppliant's wishes:
Preserving him as their own life immortal, the Gods possessed the wealth-bestowing Agni.
7 Now and of old the home of wealth, the mansion of what is born and what was born aforetime,
Guard of what is and what will be hereafter,—the Gods possessed the wealth bestowing Agni.
8 May the Wealth-Giver grant us conquering riches; may the Wealth-Giver grant us wealth with heroes.
May the Wealth-Giver grant us food with offspring, and length of days may the Wealth-Giver send us.
9 Fed with our fuel, purifying Agni, so blaze to us auspiciously for glory.
This prayer of ours may Varuṇa grant, and Mitra, and Aditi and Sindhu, Earth and Heaven.

-- The Rig Veda, translated by Ralph T. H. Griffith


Sayana (IAST: Sāyaṇa, also called Sāyaṇācārya; died 1387) was a Sanskrit Mimamsa scholar from the Vijayanagara Empire of South India, near modern day Bellary. An influential commentator on the Vedas, he flourished under King Bukka Raya I and his successor Harihara II. More than a hundred works are attributed to him, among which are commentaries on nearly all parts of the Vedas.

Early life

Sāyaṇācārya was born to Mayana and Shrimati in a Brahmin family that lived in Hampi. He had an elder brother named Madhava (sometimes identified as Vidyaranya) and a younger brother named Bhoganatha (or Somanatha). The family belonged to Bharadvaja gotra, and followed the Taittiriya Shakha (school) of the Krishna Yajurveda.

He was the pupil of Vishnu Sarvajna and of Samkarananda. Both Madhavacārya and Sāyaṇācārya said to have studied under Vidyatirtha of Sringeri, and held offices in the Vijayanagara Empire. Sāyaṇācārya was a minister, and subsequently prime minister in Bukka Raya's court, and wrote much of his commentary, with his brother and other Brahmins during his ministership.

Works

Sāyaṇa was a Sanskrit-language writer and commentator, and more than a hundred works are attributed to him, among which are commentaries on nearly all parts of the Vedas. Some of these works were actually written by his pupils, and some were written in conjunction with his brother, Vidyāraṇya or Mādhavacārya.

His major work is his commentary on the Vedas, Vedartha Prakasha, literally "the meaning of the Vedas made manifest," written at the request of King Bukka of the Vijayanagar empire "to invest the young kingdom with the prestige it needed." He was probably aided by other scholars, using the interpretations of several authors. The core portion of the commentary was likely written by Sāyaṇācārya himself, but it also includes contributions of his brother Mādhavācārya, and additions by his students and later authors who wrote under Sāyaṇācārya's name. "Sāyaṇa" (or also Sāyaṇamādhava) by convention refers to the collective authorship of the commentary as a whole without separating such layers...

His commentary on the Rigveda was translated from Sanskrit to English by Max Müller, 1823-1900....


Influence

According to Dalal, "his work influenced all later scholars, including many European commentators and translators." Sayana's commentary preserved traditional Indian understandings and explanations of the Rigveda, though it also contains mistakes and contradictions. While some 19th century Indologists were quite dismissive of Sayana's commentary, others were more appreciative. His commentary was used as a reference-guide by Ralph T. H. Griffith (1826-1906), John Muir (1810-1882), Horace Hayman Wilson (1786-1860) and other 19th century European Indologists. According to Wilson, Sayana's interpretation was sometimes questionable, but had "a knowledge of his text far beyond the pretension of any European scholar," reflecting the possession "of all the interpretations which had been perpetuated by traditional teaching from the earliest times." Macdonnell (1854-1930) was critical of Sayana's commentary, noting that many difficult words weren't properly understood by Yasana. While Rudolf Roth (1821-1895) aimed at reading the Vedas as "lyrics" without the "theological" background of the interpretations of Yaska and Sayana, Max Müller (1823-1900) published a translation of the Rigvedic Samhitas together with Sayana's commentary. His contemporaries Pischel and Geldner were outspoken about the value of Sayana's commentary...

Modern scholarship is ambivalent. According to Jan Gonda, the translations of the Rigveda published by Griffith and Wilson were "defective," suffering from their reliance on Sayana. Ram Gopal notes that Sayana's commentary contains irreconcilable contradictions and "half-baked" tentative interpretations which are not further investigated, but also states that Sayana's commentary is the "most exhaustive and comprehensive" of all available commentaries, embodying "the gist of a substantial portion of the Vedic interpretations of his predecessors." Swami Dayananda, the founder of Arya Samaj, did not give much significance to his vedic commentaries but considered them to be just and acceptable.

-- Sayana, by Wikipedia


Narayan Aiyangar suggests that the ship from the Matsya legend alludes to the ship of Sacrifice referred in the Rigveda and the Aitareya Brahmana. In this context, the fish denotes Agni - God as well as sacrifice flames. The legend thus signifies how man (Manu) can sail the sea of sins and troubles with the ship of sacrifice and the fish-Agni as his guide.[16]

Aiyangar explains that, in relation to the RigVeda, 'Sacrifice is metaphorically called [a] Ship and as Manu means man, the thinker, [so] the story seems to be a parable of the Ship of Sacrifice being the means for man's crossing the seas of his duritas, [meaning his] sins, and troubles'. SB 13.4.3.12 also mentions King Matsya Sammada, whose 'people are the water-dwellers... both fish and fishermen... it is these he instructs; - 'the Itihasa is the Veda'.'

-- Shatapatha Brahmana, by Wikipedia


In a prayer to kushta plant in the Atharvaveda, a golden ship is said to rest at a Himalayan peak, where the herb grows.

"Ship": 8 references in the Atharvaveda

No. 1: Mount up, embark on Bhaga's ship, the full, the inexhaustible,
Thereon bring hitherward to us the lover whom thou fain wouldst wed.

No. 2: As in a ship across the flood, transport us to felicity.
His lustre flash our pain away

No. 3: In the third heaven above us stands the Asvattha tree, the seat of Gods.
There the Gods sought the Kushtha Plant, embodiment of endless life.
There moved through heaven a golden ship, a ship with cordage wrought of Gold.
There the Gods won the Kushtha Plant, the blossom of eternal life.
They sailed on pathways paved with gold, the oars they piled were wrought of gold:
All golden were the ships wherein they carried Kushtha down to earth.

No. 4: As water swamps a leaky ship so ruin overflows that realm.
Misfortune smites the realm wherein a Brāhman suffers scath and harm.

No. 5: In the third heaven above us stands the Asvattha tree, the seat of Gods.
There the Gods gained the Kushtha plant, embodiment of endless life.
There moved through heaven a golden ship, a ship with cordage wrought of gold.
There Gods obtained the Kushtha plant, the flower of immortality.
Thou art the infant of the plants, the infant of the Snowy Hills:
The germ of every thing that is: free this my friend from his disease.


No. 6: Seize with firm hold the Ox who boundeth forward: he will uplift you from disgrace and trouble.
Enter this ship of Savitar; let us flee from poverty over all the six expenses.

No. 7: Thou for our weal, Āditya, hast mounted thy ship with hundred oars.
Thou hast transported me to day: so bear me evermore to night.
Thou for our weal, O Sūrya, hast mounted thy ship with hundred oars.
Thou hast transported me to night: so bear me evermore to day.

No. 8: Him who advances men to wealth, sends light to lead them in their wars,
And quells their foemen in the fray:
May he, the saviour much-invoked, may Indra bear us in a ship
Safely beyond all enemies.

"Boat": 4 references in the Atharvaveda

No. 1: As thou, Asvastha!, mountest on the trees and overthrowest them,
So do thou break my foeman's head asunder and o'erpower him.
Let them drift downward like a boat torn from the rope that fastened it.
There is no turning back for those whom He who Cleaves hath driven away.
With mental power I drive them forth, drive them with intellect and charm.
We banish and expel them with the branch of an Asvattha tree.

No. 2: Let them drift downward like a boat torn from the rope that held it fast.
There is no turning back for those whom our keen arrows have repelled.

No. 3: By Kāma's might, King Varuna's and Indra's, by Vishnu's strength, and Savitar's instigation,
I chase my foes with sacrifice to Agni, as a deft steersman drives his boat through waters.

No. 4: Uninjured in our bodies may we pass through each succeeding night,
And let malignities fail to pass, as men without a boat the depth.
As millet hurried through the air before us is beheld no more.
So cause the man to vanish, Night, who plans to do us injury.

-- The Hymns of the Atharvaveda, translated by Ralph T.H. Griffith


Maurice Bloomfield suggests that this may be an allusion to Manu's ship.[17]

Hymns of the Atharva-Veda, Together With Extracts From the Ritual Books and the Commentaries
Translated by Maurice Bloomfield
UNESCO Collection of Representative Works -- Indian Series. This book has been accepted in the Indian Translation Series of the UNESCO collection of the Representative Works, jointly sponsored by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), and the Government of India


Saviour of Manu from the Deluge

Image
Matsya as a horned fish pulling the boat with Manu and the seven sages, scene from the Mahabharata

The tale of Matsya appears in chapter 12.187 of the Book 3, the Vana Parva, in the epic Mahabharata.[18][9]

Vishnu Sukthankar, editor of the first great critical edition of the Mahābhārata, commented: "It is useless to think of reconstructing a fluid text in an original shape, based on an archetype and a stemma codicum. What then is possible? Our objective can only be to reconstruct the oldest form of the text which it is possible to reach based on the manuscript material available." That manuscript evidence is somewhat late, given its material composition and the climate of India.

-- Mahabharata, by Wikipedia


I have a larger vision or fantasy of original Indian Buddhism as an ocean with many icebergs, each representing the local textual traditions...of the different parts of the Indian world. Those icebergs are mostly gone...We have the Pali canon...the partial Sanskrit canon...They had a common core but they had many different texts in and around that basic commonality... and... there's no hope of finding them mainly for a simple physical reason, the climate of...India proper is such that organic materials...never last for more than a few hundred years. There are really no really old manuscripts in India proper. You only get the ancient manuscripts from the borderlands of India, in this case Gandhara which has a more moderate climate.

-- One Buddha, 15 Buddhas, 1,000 Buddhas, by Richard Salomon


The legend begins with Manu (specifically Vaivasvata Manu, the present Manu. Manu is envisioned as a title, rather than an individual) performing religious rituals on the banks of the Cherivi River in the Badri forest.[19] A little fish comes to him and asks for his protection, promising to save him from a deluge in the future.[8] The legend moves in the same vein as the Vedic version. Manu places him in the jar. Once it outgrows it, the fish asks to be put into a tank which Manu helps with. Then the fish outgrows the tank, and with Manu's help reaches the Ganges River, finally to the ocean. Manu is asked by the fish, in the Shatapatha Brahmana version, to build a ship and be in it with Saptarishi (seven sages) and all sorts of seeds, on the day of the expected deluge.[8][9] Manu accepts the fish's advice. The deluge begins, and the fish arrives to Manu's aid. He ties the ship with a rope to the horn of the fish, who then steers the ship to the Himalayas, carrying Manu through a turbulent storm. The danger passes. The fish then reveals himself as Brahma and gives the power of creation to Manu.[8][20][21]

The key difference between the Vedic version and the Mahabharata version of the allegorical legend are the latter's identification of Matsya with Brahma, more explicit discussion of the "laws of the Man" where the weak needs the protection from the strong, and the fish asking Manu to bring along sages and grains.[9][10][22]

The Matsya Purana evolves the legend further, by identifying the fish-savior (Matsya) with Vishnu instead of Brahma.[23] The Purana derives its name from Matsya and begins with the tale of Manu.[note 1] King Manu renounces the world. Pleased with his austerities on Malaya mountains (interpreted as Kerala in Southern India[19]), Brahma grants his wish to rescue the world at the time of the pralaya (dissolution at end of a kalpa).[note 2] As in other versions, Manu encounters a little fish that miraculously increases in size over time. Manu recognizes Vishnu in the fish. The fish tells him about the impending fiery end of kalpa accompanied with the pralaya as a deluge. The fish once again has a horn, but the gods gift a ship to Manu. Manu carries all types of living creatures and plant seeds to produce food for everyone after the deluge is over. When the great flood begins, Manu ties the cosmic serpent Shesha to the fish's horn. In the journey towards the mountains, Manu asks questions to Matsya and their dialogue constitutes the rest of the Purana.[23][26][27]


In ancient times (Vaivasvata) Manu, the Merciful, the first king of the Solar dynasty, after making over his kingdom to his son, devoted himself to rigid asceticism. On a summit of the Malaya mountain, the devout austerities of that resolute hero, who was a adorned with spiritual knowledge, and whose equilibrium of mind was just the same in adversity as in prosperity, were crowned with the attainment of transcendent yoga (that is, union with the Deity.' — 10-11

After a period of a million of years of continued asceticism, Lord Brahma became pleased towards him, and told him to ask for a boon. — 12.

Having been thus addressed (by Brahma), the king, after saluting Him, said: Lord! I have only one boon to beg of you, which is above all other boons. May I have power sufficient for the protection of the whole creation, moveable and immoveable, when the hour of Pralaya will come." — 13-14.

Lord Brahma, the Soul of the Univense, after granting the prayer of the king (in the following words, “Be it so“), disappeared then and there, and the Devas profusely showered a rain of flowers from the ethereal regions. — 15.

One day, in his hermitage, when the king was making a libation of water to the manes of his deceased ancestors, a carp (a small fish) fell into his hands along with the water. -- 16.

On seeing that tiny fish, the merciful king, out of compassion, wanted to preserve it and put it into his water jar. That tiny fish, in course of a day and night, grew into the form of a large fish, measuring sixteen fingers in length, and (feeling uncomfortable inside the water jar where it was placed by the king), cried for deliverance.— 17-18.

The king took it out of the water jar and put it in a large pitcher but there also, in course of a night, it grew three hands in length. “I am at your mercy, come to my succour.” The king, again hearing these cries of the fish, took it out of the pitcher and deposited it in a well. Later on, the well also proved insufficient. The king then accommodated it in a tank.— 19-20.

In the tank, again, the fish grew a yojana (eight miles) in length, and again appealed to the king, in a plaintive tone, to help it out of the tank. Then the king put the fish in the Ganges and, finding that it increased there too, he placed it in the ocean. The fish went on increasing and increasing in bulk, until it very nearly filled the vast expanse of the great ocean. The king, seeing this, was awe-stricken and said, “Are you the chief of the Asuras? Or are you Vasudeva; who else has such an extraordinary power to assume such a tremendously big form extending to sixteen hundred miles?”-- 22-25.

I have come to know you, O, Kesava! You are puzzling me in the form of a fish. I bow down to You, O, Hrisikesa, Jagannatha, Jagaddhama." [These are all different names of God.]— 26.

Being thus addressed, Bhagavana Janardana, in the form of a fish, complimented him, and said: “O Spotless One, I have been truly known by you. In a few days time, O King, the Universe shall be deluged with water, along with the mountains and forests. The Devas have made this boat to rescue the creation from such a calamity, placing in it svedajas [Svedaja (स्वेदज) refers to “generated by warm vapour or sweat”, eg. insects], andajas [Aṇḍaja (अण्डज, “born from the eggs”)], udbhijas [Udbhija (उद्भिज, “plants, etc.”)] and jarayujas [Jarāyujā (जरायुजा, “men, etc.”)], O, King! you take charge of this boat and help the distressed at the time of the impending danger. When you find the boat in danger of being blown away by the strong gusts of wind, tie it to my horn. By rescuing the afflicted from such an awful misfortune, you will be rendering a great paternal service to the creation. And, O, blessed sovereign! You shall reign for one Manvantava, from the beginning of the Kritayuja, and shall be venerated by the Devas." -- 27-33.

Suta, continuing his narration, said that on hearing such words of the Lord, the king begged Him to reveal to him in how many years the time of destruction was likely to come. The king also entreated the Lord to point out to him the means of saving the creation from such a distress, and to let him know when he would again be fortunate enough to meet Him face to face. — 1-2.

The fish replied that from that day there would be no rain for a hundred years, and the universe would be overtaken by a dire famine. After that, all the inferior beings of the universe would be scorched to death by the seven ordinary rays of the sun which shall become seven times more powerful.— 3-4.

In addition to all that, the subterranean fire would shoot out, Sesa, from his abode in the lower regions, would send forth venomous flames from his thousand mouths, and a furious fire would emerge from the third eye of Siva. — 5

Thus the three worlds would be crumbled to ashes by the combined fury of all those various fires. The sky, with all the stars and planets, would also be destroyed by the heat thus originated. -- 6-7.

Then the seven destructive clouds viz. — Samvarta, Bhimananda, Drona, Chanda, Balahaka, Vidyut pataka and Sona, would spring up from the vapours arising out of such a heat, and would rain in torrents till all the seas become united into one great mass. In fact the whole earth would be covered with one vast expanse of water. Then get hold of that yonder boat and put the seed of creation and the sacred Vedas in it. After that, fasten the boat to my horn by means of this rope that I give you, and then the contents of the barge will be saved by my glory.” O, Pious One! when everything will be destroyed, your good-self, the moon, the sun, myself, Brahma, the sacred river Narmada, the great sage Markandeya, the sacred Vedas, the Puranas, the God Siva, the various sciences, will alone be saved, and the reign of king Chaksusa Manu shall terminate with the coming partial dissolution. — 8-14.

At the beginning of the re-creation of the Universe which would follow the period of destruction, I shall propagate the Vedic knowledge.” So saying, he suddenly vanished away. — 15.

The king, till the time of dissolution, of which intimation was given to him by Lord Vasudeva, engaged himself in the practice of Yoga. — 16.

At the commencement of dissolution, the Lord appeared again in the form of horned fish. At the same time, Sesa, the Serpent King, appeared before the King Vaivasvata Manu in the shape of a rope, and the king, through his Yogic power, collected together all living beings and put them in the boat. And, after fastening the boat to the horn of the fish, by means of the rope, the king saluted the Lord and got into it. — 17-19.

-- The Matsya Puranam, translated by A Taluqdar of Oudh, edited by Major B.D. Basu, I.M.S.


The Matsya Puranic story is also symbolic. The fish is divine to begin with, and needs no protection, only recognition and devotion. It also ties the story to its cosmology, connecting two kalpas through the cosmic symbolic residue in the form of Shesha.[23] In this account, the ship of Manu is called the ship of the Vedas, thus signifying the rites and rituals of the Vedas. Roy further suggests that this may be an allusion to the gold ship of Manu in the Rigveda.[28] H.H. Wilson suggests that though the Mahabharata is largely an older text than the Puranas, however the Matsya Purana tale may be older tale that finds its way later in the epic.[29]

In the Garuda Purana, Matysa is said to rescued the seventh Manu Vaivasvata Manu by placing him in a boat from the great Deluge.[30] The Linga Purana praises Vishnu as the one who saved various beings as a fish by tying a boat to his tail.[31]
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Part 3 of 4

Saviour of the Vedas

Image
Manu with the seven sages in a boat tied by a serpent to Matsya (left bottom); Indra and Brahma pay their respects to Vishnu as Matsya, who slaying the demon - who hides in a conch. Mewar, circa 1840

The Bhagavata Purana adds another reason for the Matsya avatar. At the end of Kalpa, a demon Hayagriva ("horse-necked") steals the Vedas, which escape from the yawn of a sleepy Brahma. Vishnu discovers the theft. He descends to earth in the form of a little saphari fish, or the Matsya avatar. One day, the king of Dravida country (South India) named Satyavrata cups water in his hand for libation in the Kritamala river (identified with Vaigai River in Tamil Nadu, South India[32]). There he finds a little fish. The fish asks him to save him from predators and let him grow. Satyavrata is filled with compassion for the little fish. He puts the fish in a pot, from there to a well, then a tank, and when it outgrows the tank, he transfers the fish finally to sea. The fish rapidly outgrows the sea. Satyavrata asks the supernatural fish to reveal its true identity, but soon realizes it to be Vishnu. Matsya-Vishnu informs the king of the impending flood coming in seven days. The king is asked to collect every species of animal, plant and seeds as well as the seven sages in a boat. The fish asks the king to tie the boat to his horn with the help of the Vasuki serpent. The deluge comes. While carrying them to safety, the fish avatar teaches the highest knowledge to the sages and Satyavrata to prepare them for the next cycle of existence. The Bhagavata Purana states that this knowledge was compiled as a Purana, interpreted as an allusion to the Matsya Purana.[33] After the deluge, Matsya slays the demon and rescues the Vedas, restoring them to Brahma, who has woken from his sleep to restart creation afresh. Satyavrata becomes Vaivasvata Manu and is installed as the Manu of the current kalpa.[34][35][36]

Skandha Eighth, Chapter Twenty-Four: The Fish Incarnation of Lord Visnu

[The deluge is a part of race-memory in different parts of the world. It testifies to the sub-mergence of some parts of the world under water, at some distant period in the past, and the memory persisted among Hebrews, Assyrians, Hindus etc. The different periods of such deluges in different parts of the world (for example the Nohaic Flood which lasted for about 371 to 376 days was in West Asia round Mt. Ararat (The Old Testament - Genesis Chs. 6, 7, 8.) Also vide T. A. Bryant's The New Compact Bible Dictionary, pp. 176-178; 403-4 Special Crusade Edition), while the Indian deluge was in the Himalayan region and it lasted throughout one Kalpa, shows that there was really no universal flood, though it appeared to be so to the people in the affected area which was their ‘‘world" in ancient times. In India the deluge is described in the Satapatha Br. 1.8.6 the MBH Vana 187, Agni P. 2, Matsya P. 1 & 2. The Satapatha tradition seems to be the earliest and is followed by MBH where Manu, the saviour of the fish, was at Badari and the locale of the flood was the Himalayan region, but with the Bh. P., King Satyavrata, the saviour of the fish (and a future Manu) was a Dravida King who got the fish in the river Krta-mala in Tamil Nadu. The brief statement in the Agni P. makes Manu perform penance on the bank of Krta-mala, while in the Matsya P. 1, 17-18 Manu went to Malaya (Kerala) where in his own hermitage the small fish fell from above. The symbolism of the fish is explained by V.S. Agrawala [illegible] -- a study, pp. 4-8 with which one may not agree, as it presumes an advanced knowledge in Embryology in that Puranic era (Gupta Period).]

The King said:

1. Venerable Sir! I now desire to hear from you the story of the first incarnation of Lord Hari of miraculous exploits, wherein he assumed the form of a fish, through his deluding potency (Maya).

2. Why did the Supreme Lord, like one subject to (laws of) Karma, assume the form of a fish which is disgustible to the world, as being of tamasic nature and unbearable.

3. It behoves you, Oh worshipful Sir, to tell us everything in details (as it took place), as the actions of the Lord of hallowing renown, are conducive to the happiness of all people.

Suta said:

4. When requested thus by Pariksit (One protected by Visnu i.e. Krsna [Vide Supra 1. 12.7-11.]), the venerable Suka, the son of Badarayana, began to narrate the history of Lord Visnu as he acted in the form of a fish.

Sri Suka said:

5. (The object of incarnations in general:) When the Almighty Lord desires to protect cows, Brahmanas, gods, righteous persons, the Vedas and the laws of Dharma (righteousness) and Artha and other Purusarthas, he assumes a body.

6. (This incarnation is not disgustible.) The Supreme Lord moves like vital airs through higher and lower beings. But Himself being transcendental to gupas (attributes), he is not affected by the guyas of Prakrti and hence by the highness or lowness of status.

7. At the close of the last Kalpa (known as Brahma), there was a periodic deluge caused by (the sleep that overcame) Brahma.
[While commenting on verse No. 46, SR raises there a pertinent point as to the nature of this Deluge. He states that as the world was submerged within seven days without the usual draught of 100 years, and having fire from above (the sun) and from below (Sesa’s poison), this must be an illusory deluge shown to Satyavrata by the Lord. This has been echoed by GS. on this verse and by VD elsewhere.] At that time, Oh King, the worlds known as Bhu (this earth) and other (higher) worlds were submerged under the sea.

8. A mighty demon called Haya-griva (one with the neck and head of a horse) who was in the vicinity of Brahma, carried away the Vedas which (unconsciously) escaped from the mouth of Brahma who was overcome with sleep under the influence of Time, and desired to go to bed.

9. Noticing that (clandestine) act of Hayagriva the king of Danavas, the glorious Supreme Lord Hari, assumed the form of a small glittering fish.


10. In that Kalpa, a great royal sage, by name Satyavrata who was absolutely devoted to Narayana, was practising austerities, subsisting on water only.

11. That very person (who was then called King Satyavrata) is well known as Sraddha-deva, the son of Vivasvat and was installed as Manu by Lord Hari, in this great Kalpa.

12. One day while he was offering libations of water (to sages and manes) in the river Krtamala [The river Vaiga in Tamil Nadu. It rises in the Malaya fountain and the holy city of Madura is situated on it — GDAMI, p. 104.], a certain tiny fish was noticed in the water in the hollow of his folded palms.

13. Satyavrata, the King of Dravida land, was about to drop the small fish along with the water in the cavity of his folded palms.

14. To that extremely compassionate king, the fish piteously implored, “Oh king, kind unto the afflicted! How is it that you are throwing a poor helpless creature like me, into the waters of river when I am afraid of acquatic animals who kill their own species.

15. Not knowing that it was Lord Visnu who, out of affection, assumed the form of a fish to confer Grace on him, he made up his mind to Protect the tiny fish.

16. Hearing the piteous appeal of the fish, the merciful king placed it in his water-jar (Kamandalu) and carried it to his hermitage.

17. Growing there in that jar of water (Kamandalu) in one night, and finding the space therein insufficient, she said to the king.

18. “I am not able to accommodate myself in this jar (Kamandalu) with difficulty. Be pleased to provide for me sufficiently spacious abode, wherein I can live comfortably."

19. He took the fish out of that jar (Kamandalu) and placed it in a big earthen pot for waterstorage (or a well). When thrown therein it grew to the dimensions of three cubits within a muhurta (48 minutes).

20. (The fish requested:) “This reservoir is not sufficient to accommodate me comfortably. As I have adapted you as my protector, please provide me with a more spacious place.

21. Bringing that fish from the reservoir, the king threw it into a lake. Occupying the whole (expanse of the) lake with its body, it grew into a monstrous fish.

22. (The fish requested) “I am an acquatic animal, Oh king! The waters of this lake are not sufficient for my comfortable stay. Be pleased to place me in a pool of inexhaustible storage of water, making arrangement of my safe transit to it."

23. Thus requested, the king carried the fish to various pools of inexhaustible stores of water (each bigger and deeper than the former). When the fish went on growing coextensive with the expanse of the lake, he threw it at last, into the sea.

24. While he was being thus deposited into the sea, he spoke to the king as follows: “Oh heroic king! It is not proper that you throw me here, as extremely powerful alligators and other acquatic animals will eat me.”

25. Being deluded by the fish with the expression of charming words, Satyavrata enquired, “Who are you who beguile us in the form of a fish?”

26. Never such acquatic animal possessing such (miraculous) power and capacity has been seen or heard by us, inasmuch as you fill a lake of one hundred yojanas (i.e. 800 miles) in extent, in a single day.

27. Certainly you must be the Imperishable, glorious Lord, Narayana or Hari Himself who assumed the form of an acquatic creature for showing Grace unto living beings.

28. Oh Supreme-most Person! I bow to you who are the Master of the creation, protection and the destruction of the Universe. Oh all-pervading Lord! You are the real self, the goal and the refuge to us, your votaries, who approach you for protection.

29. All your sportful incarnations are meant for the prosperity and well-being of created beings. I wish to know the main purpose for assuming this form by your worshipful self.

30. Oh Lotus-eyed Lord! Seeking resort to your feet — you who are the friend and dear soul of all — shall never be futile, as to those others who look upon the body as their soul. For you have manifested your miraculous form to us.


Sri Suka said:

31. To king Satyavrata who was addressing him in this way, the lord of the Universe who assumed the body of a fish as he desired to sport in the ocean of deluge at the end of Yuga (which was about to take place), but who, being fond of his exclusive, unflinching votaries, wished to accomplish the good of king and spoke as follows:

The Glorious Lord said:

32. Oh vanquisher of enemies! On the seventh day from today, all the three worlds, viz. the terrestrial world, the celestial region and space (aerial region) between the two, will be submerged in the ocean of deluge.

33. While the worlds will be sinking in the waters of the deluge, a spacious boat despatched by me will approach you.
[In the Bible story of the Flood or Deluge, God gave Noah exact instructions for building the Ark (Genesis 6.14-16). God led Noah and his family as well as pairs of animals into the Ark and shut the door of the Ark (Genesis 7.16). In MBH Vana.187.31 the king is asked to build a strong ship.

34-35. In the meanwhile, you take with you all herbs and plants and seeds of various types (both of inferior and superior qualities) and surrounded by seven sages and accompanied by all varieties of animals, you will board that spacious ship and shall fearlessly sail over the one undivided ocean [Ekarnava — The original ocean of infinite waters, the source of cosmic creation. In Bh. P. supra 3.6.23, it is called juganta-toya. In [illegible] terms Maharnava, Ekargava, Agadha, Stabdha Salila are (illegible.)] completely devoid of light but illuminated with the effulgence of sages (to guide you).

36. While the boat will toss hither and thither by strong gales, I shall be near you. You moor it fast to my horn with a big serpent (Vasuki, as a rope).

37. Oh King! While the night of god Brahma lasts, I shall move (through the ocean) dragging the ship with you and the sages on board.


38. In reply to your well-reasoned questions, you will find revealed in your heart, through my Grace, my real greatness, which is designated as Supreme Brahman”.

39. Having instructed the King in this way, Lord Hari disappeared. Satyavrata waited for the period about which Lord Visnu forewarned him.

40. Spreading the darbha grass with their points towards the east, the royal sage sat with his face to the North-East meditating over the feet of Lord Hari in the fish-form.

41. Then the ocean was seen overflowing its boundaries and inundating the earth on all sides, and seemed to be increasing in volume by the heavy downpour from great clouds.

42. While musing over the command of the Lord, he saw the arrival of a boat. Taking with him all the plants and herbs, he boarded the ship alongwith the prominent Brahmana sages.

43. Being pleased with him, the sages advised him: “Oh King! Meditate upon Lord Visnu (Kesava). He will be our saviour from this calamity, and bring about our happiness.”

44. Thereupon when the Lord was contemplated upon by the King (as per advice of the sages), there appeared in that vast ocean, a golden fish with one horn and body one hundred thousand yojanas in dimensions.

45. Having moored the ship to the horn of that fish with the serpent (-King Vasuki) as the rope, as per previous instructions of Lord Hari, the King felt highly delighted, and praised Lord Visnu
(The slayer of the demon Madhu) as follows:

The King said:

46. [SR. shows that this is not only not the Final Deluge (maha-Pralaya), but not even a periodic one. But just as sage Markandeya was shown the scene of Deluge in this very (Vaivasvata) Manvantara, King Satyavrata was shown the Deluge with a view to initiate him in the spiritual knowledge. BP. however, controverts this and basing himself on Laghu-Bhagavata subscribes to the theory of two fish-incarnations just as there had been two boar-incarnations. (matsyo’pi pradur abhavad dvih kalpe'smin varahavat / adau svayambhuviyasya daityam ghnanaharat srutih /). He further quotes Visnudharmottara for support. The main objection of SR i.e. the impossibility of a real Deluge within seven days, without any famine etc., is not met by the critics of SR.] Your Lordship is our highest preceptor [Paramo gurur bhavan: The seven sages were Satyavrata’s preceptors and the Lord was the preceptor of these sages. Hence the Lord is the “Grand-sire" (preceptor) of Satyavrata — VC.] Who confer on us Liberation from Samsara — we, whose [anadyavidya,...samvidah: whose knowledge about the supreme soul and soul as they are, is obscured by our date-less ignorance whereby we wrongly identify the body with the soul — VR. By ‘atma-samvit’ VJ, understands ‘the knowledge of the Supreme Soul' JG. interprets 'avidya' as the Lord’s Deluding Potency (Maya). ] knowledge about the soul is screened (and hence obscured) by Nescience (avidya) which is beginningless, are subjected to suffer the three types of afflictions in this Samsara rooted in that very Nescience. It is through your Grace that we take shelter in You [yadrcchayehopasrta: To whom people attain to after resorting to and through spiritual preceptors. — VR. VR. insists that it is through God's Grace that one comes in contact with spiritual preceptors. But VJ thinks that the very birth in the human species is due to His Grace secured by meritorious acts in the previous births.] and attain to realize You.

47. This category of beings (subject to the cycle of births and deaths) is ignorant (as he identified body with the soul) and is fettered with (and hence subject to the fruits of) his actions. With the desire of enjoying pleasures (derivable from objects of senses), he performs acts with great pains. By adoring you the wrong notion (consisting of the identity of the body and the soul or ‘in doing Karma’) is shaken off. May he, being our preceptor, cut off the knot of false notion (or attachment) in our heart.

48. May that Imperishable Supreme Ruler (of the Universe), our preceptor’s preceptor be our preceptor, by serving (adoring) whom, a person (desirous of Liberation from Samsara) purges the tamasic dirt from himself and regains its original (blissful) character just as a lump of gold or silver becomes purified of the dross, by being blown into the fire and recovers its original colour and nature.

49. I seek asylum in that Supreme Lord (whose Grace is so unlimited that) not even one out of ten thousand parts of his Grace, the gods, preceptors and all people combined together can, by themselves, show to a person (their devotee).

50. Just as a sightless person is called upon to lead the blind, a spiritually unenlightened person is made the preceptor of ignorant people. Like the light of the sun, you are self-illuminating and providing light to all our senses or are (capable of direct perception). Hence, we have sought you as a preceptor and guide, with the desire of knowing our way and destination.

51. A (spiritually ignorant) person imparts wrong instructions to another person (leading to wealth and gratification of lust) whereby the follower is sure to land in the insuperable darkness (in the form of Samsara). You, however, impart eternal unfailing knowledge (of the soul) in the light of which, a person can easily and definitely attain to his (spiritual) goal.

52. To all the people in the world, you (alone) are certainly a friendly well-wisher, the beloved Supreme Ruler, the very soul, the preceptor, the spiritual wisdom itself and the goal to be realized. But people of ‘blind' intellect and understanding, who are deeply rooted in worldly desires, cannot see you even though you exist in their very heart.

53. For the sake of spiritual awakening and guidance, I resort to you, the Almighty Ruler, adorable even to gods and worthy of being sought by all. Oh Lord! Cut asunder the knots (of egotism, ignorance etc.) in my heart, with your words shedding light on the (spiritual) truth and reveal unto me your own self.

Sri Suka said:

54. To the king who was praying thus, the glorious Lord, the ancient-most person who was sporting in the ocean in the form of a fish, imparted the highest truth.

55. He revealed to the royal sage Satyavrata the divine compilation of Purana [The Matsya p., in its preamble, (ch. 2.22-24) makes Manu ask the Fish all the topics covered in a purana e.g.: utpattim pralayan caiva vamsan manvantarani ca / vamsyanu-caritan caiva bhuvanasya ca vistaram //. But MBH Vana 187 is silent on this point. The word matsya purana etc. in 187.57 means ‘the episode of Fish incarnation’ narrated in MBH.] (known as the Matsya Purana) dealing with the Sankhya system of Philosophy, and the science and practice of Yoga, and also instructed him in the secret lore about the soul.

56. Seated on board the ship along with the sages, the king listened to the discourse on the real nature of the soul and the Eternal Brahman
so expounded to them by the glorious Lord as to leave no (shadow of) doubt about it.

57. To god Brahma who was awakened after the end of the Pralaya (Deluge), Lord Hari restored the Vedas after killing the demon Hayagriva.

58. That King Satyavrata who was thus blessed with discriminating knowledge and spiritual wisdom, has become Vaivasvata Manu in this Kalpa, through the Grace of Visnu.

59. He who listens to the great story consisting of the dialogue between the royal sage Satyavrata and Visnu who, through his Maya, assumed the form of a horned fish, stands absolved of all sins.

60. A person who, everyday, extols this incarnation of Lord Hari, finds that all his desires are accomplished here, and he attains to the Final Beatitude (hereafter).

61. I do bow unto the Lord who is the cause of everything and who disguised himself as a fish
[GS. on the authority of VC. states that this fish of a curved body is called adi in common parlance.] in the cosmic waters of the Deluge, and killing the demon (Hayagriva), restored to Brahma the corpus of the Sruti texts which were stolen away from his mouths (by Hayagriva) when his (Brahma’s) powers became dormant in sleep and who imparted the knowledge of Brahman to Satyavrata and the seven sages. [Curiously enough as a phala-sruti of this skandha, VD quotes a puranic story of a king Visnujit who was absolved of the sin of killing a Brahmana by listening to the VIII Skandha of the Bhagavata Purana.]  

-- Bhagavata Purana, Parts 1 through 5, J. L. Shastri / G. V. Tagare


The Agni Purana narrative is similar to the Bhagavata Purana version placed around Kritamala river and also records the rescue of Vedas from the demon Hayagriva. It mentions Vaivasvata Manu only collecting all seeds (not living beings) and assembling the seven sages similar to the Mahabharata version. It also adds the basis of the Matsya Purana, being the discourse of Matsya to Manu, similar to the Bhagavata Purana version.[37][38] While listing the Puranas, the Agni Purana states that the Matsya Purana was told by Matsya to Manu at the beginning of the kalpa.[39]

The Varaha Purana equates Narayana (identified with Vishnu) as the creator-god, instead of Brahma. Narayana creates the universe. At the start of a new kalpa, Narayana wakes from his slumber and thinks about the Vedas. He realizes that they are in the cosmic waters. He takes the form of a gigantic fish and rescues the Vedas and other scriptures.[40] In another instance, Narayana is said to retrieved the Vedas from the Rasatala (netherworld) and granted it to Brahma.[41] The Purana also extols Narayana as the primordial fish who also bore the earth.[42]

Image
Matsya pulls Manu's boat after defeating the horse-headed demon (circa 1870)

The Garuda Purana states that Matysa slew Hayagriva and rescued the Vedas as well as the Manu.[43] In another instance, it states that Vishnu as Matsya killed the demon Pralamba in the reign of the third Manu - Uttama.[44] The Narada Purana states that the demon Hayasiras ("horse-headed") seized the Vedas of the mouth of Brahma. Vishnu then takes the Matsya form and kills the demon, retrieving the Vedas. The incident is said to have happened in the Badari forest. The deluge and Manu are dropped in the narrative.[45]

46. The Asura named Hayasiras, a terror to Devas and others, snatched away Vedas coming out of the mouth of god Brahma.

47. Thereupon, prayed to by Brahma, Visnu manifested himself in the form of a divine Fish. The lord killed the demon and handed over the Vedas to Brahma.

48. That Tirtha is highly meritorious. It illuminates all lores. O blessed lady, it is called Taimingila Tirtha. By its mere vision it is destructive of sins.

49-50. Once again, the unchanging lord Visnu in the form of the horse-necked being, killed the arrogant Asuras, Madhu and Kaitabha who stole the Vedas from god Brahma. He handed the Vedas back to Brahma. O daughter of Brahma that Tirtha dispels sins by a mere holy dip.

51. In both Tirthas, Matsya (i.e. Taimingalla) [According to Kalyana 31. 1 P. 61, it is high up on the mountain behind the Badrinatha temple at a higher altitude than Urva-Kunda.] as well as Hayagriva, the Vedas exist in the liquid form of water perpetually. O gentle lady, that water is destructive of sins.


-- The Narada-Purana, Part 5, Motilal Banarsidas


The Shiva Purana praises Vishnu as Matsya who rescued the Vedas via king Satyavrata and swam through the ocean of pralaya.[46]

Chapter Sixteen (The Battle of the gods)

Sanatkumara said: --
1. On seeing the Asura coming again, the gods including Indra trembled with fear. They fled together.
2. With Brahma at the head they went to Vaikuntha. All of them including Prajapati eulogised Visnu after bowing down to him.
The gods said:-
3. O Hrsikesa of long arms, O lord, O slayer of Madhu, O lord of gods, Obeisance to you, O destroyer of all Asuras.
4. O Visnu, of the form of fish [The god's eulogy to Visnu enumerates the various forms of Visnu including his nine incarnations, viz Matsya, Kurma, Varaha, Vamana, Parasurama, Rama, Krsna, Buddha and Kalki. But it is not intelligible why it shall omit his Nrsimha incarnation. Most probably some lines seem to be missing here.] who redeemed the Vedas through king Satyavrata, obeisance to you who sport about in the ocean of Dissolution.
5. Obeisance to you of the form of Tortoise who bore the mountain Mandara of the gods who were attempting to churn the ocean.
6. Obeisance to you O holy lord, of the form of Boar. Obeisance to you who hold the earth, the support of people. Obeisance to Visnu.
7. Obeisance to you, the Dwarf. Obeisance to Visnu the younger brother of Indra, the lord who deceived the king of Asuras in the guise of a Brahmin.
8. Obeisance to Parasurama who exterminated the Ksattriyas, who rendered help to your mother. Obeisance to you who are angry and inimical to the evil beings.

-- The Siva-Purana, Part 2 of 4, English translation by J.L. Shastri, Motilal Banarsidass, 1950


The Padma Purana replaces Manu with the sage Kashyapa, who finds the little fish who expands miraculously. Another major divergence is absence of the deluge. Vishnu as Matsya slays the demon Shankha. Matsya-Vishnu then orders the sages to gather the Vedas from the waters and then present the same to Brahma in Prayag. This Purana does not reveal how the scriptures drowned in the waters. Vishnu then resides in the Badari forest with other deities.[47]

Chapter Ninety-One: The Greatness of Prayaga

Narada said:

1-4a. Saying so, Visnu taking up a form resembling a small glittering fish fell into the hollow of the hands of Kasyapa at his residence on the Vindhya (mountain). The sage kindly and quickly put him into (his) water-pot. When it could not contain itself there, he put it into a well. When it could not contain itself there, he put it into a lake. In this way it was (in the end) put into the sea. It grew there also. Then Visnu, having the form of the fish, killed Sankha. Then taking him in his hand he came to the Badari-forest. Calling all the sages there, he ordered them (like) this.

Srikrsna said:

4b-6. Remove the Vedas dropped into the water. Quickly bring them with the Upanisads from the interior of the water. Till then I, with the group of deities, shall live at Prayaga.

Narada said:

7-11. Then all the sages, endowed with the power of penance, lifted the Vedas with the six Vedangas and with sacrifices. Since then that sage who got a portion of them (i.e. the Vedas) became the seer of that (much portion), O king. Then all the sages together went to Prayaga. They presented the Vedas obtained by them to Visnu with the Creator. Brahma, obtaining the Vedas with the sacrifices was delighted; and with the group of deities and sages he performed the horse-sacrifice. At the end of the sacrifice lords of gods, siddhas, serpents, yaksas fell (i.e. prostrated themselves) like a staff, and requested (Visnu).

Gods said:

12-15. O god of gods, O lord of the world, O master, listen to our request. This is time for our joy. Therefore, be a giver of a boon. O Rama’s lord, the sages themselves have brought to this place the lost Vedas. Due to your favour we have received shares in the sacrifice. May this place always be, by your grace, the best one on the earth. It should increase religious merit and give pleasures and salvation. May this time also be highly meritorious, and may it purify the killers etc. of brahmanas. May it give inexhaustible (objects). Grant us this boon.

Srikrsna said:

16-28. O gods, I think in the same way as you have said. Let it be so. May this (place) be famous as Brahmaksetra. A king born in the solar dynasty will bring Ganga here. She will be here united with Yamuna, the daughter of the Sun.
All of you, Brahma and others, (should) live here with me. This holy place will be well-known as Tirtha-raja (‘king of holy places’). May acts like (giving) gifts, (practising) penance, (observing) vows, (offering) a sacrifice, muttering (hymns), and worship give inexhaustible fruits. May they always give proximity with me. May sins like the murder of a brahmana committed during many existences perish the very moment at the sight of this holy place. Similarly the wise cast their bodies in my vicinity. Those men enter my body only and not a new existence. May the groups of the dead ancestors of those who come here and offer a sraddha intended for the dead ancestors, have the same world as mine. May this very auspicious period also be always fruitful to men. The sin of those who bathe (here) when the Sun has entered Capricornus, perishes. Merely on seeing those who bathe (daily) in the morning in Magha when the Sun is in Capricornus, sins go away, as darkness on (the appearance of) the Sun. As a result of the (daily) bath in Magha when the Sun is in Capricornus, I grant men the triad, viz. the same world, the same form (as mine), and proximity (with me) in this order. O best sages, listen all of you. I am the giver of boons to you. I, the omniscient one, always live in Badarivana. That fruit which you get after ten years by (practising) penance at other place, is always got here by you within a day. Those best men who see that place, are liberated while alive. Then no sin resides in them.

Suta said:

29-30. Having spoken like this to the gods, the god of gods vanished there only with Brahma. All gods also lived there in portions. And those (gods), Indra and others, vanished. That best man of a pure heart who would listen to this religious verse or make others listen to it (i.e. tell it to others), would obtain the fruit which is obtained in the lord of holy places, Badarivana, and (would) also (obtain) me. [‘Me’ here standing for Suta obviously has no relevance.]  

-- The Padma-Purana, Part 8, Motilal Banarsidass, 1952


The Karttikamsa-Mahatmya in the Skanda Purana narrates that slaying of the asura (demon) Shankha by Matysa. Shankha (lit. "conch"), the son of Sagara (the ocean), snatched powers of various gods. Shankha, wishing to acquire more power, stole the Vedas from Brahma, while Vishnu was sleeping. The Vedas escaped from his clutches and hid in the ocean. Implored by the gods, Vishnu wakes on Prabodhini Ekadashi and takes the form of a saphari fish and annihilates the demon. Similar to the Padma Purana, the sages are re-compiled the scattered Vedas from the oceans. The Badari forest and Prayag also appear in this version, though the tale of growing fish and Manu is missing.[48]

Chapter Fourteen: The Greatness of the "Matsya" Festival

[This chapter is a pert of 'Dvadasi Kalpa' in which it it laid down that a fish of gold should be worshipped with due formalities (vv 23-38) and is to be given to one's preceptor (v 33). The 'fish' comes in this Kalpa as probably fish was the first incarnation of Visnu.]

Sri Bhagavan said:

1. Then in the morning on Dvidasi day, in the bright half of the month of Margasirsa, the Matsya festival is to be celebrated by the wise, with due offerings and services in accordance with the injunctions.

2-7. On the tenth day in the month of Margasirsa, with due self-control, the devotee should perform worship of the Lord. The intelligent devotee then should perform the sacred rites in the holy fire in accordance with the injunctions.

Clad in clean clothes, he should, with a delighted mind, cook the consecrated Havya rice and walk five steps. Then he should wash his feet. He should then take a twig eight Angulas long from a Ksiravrksa (a tree that exudes milky juice) and brush his teeth. Thereafter, he should perform the Acamana rite carefully.

He then surveys the entire sky and meditates on me, the Lord holding the iron club. He meditates on me as one who is clad in yellow robes, who wears a crown, who has the conch, the discus and the iron-club in his hands, whose lotus-like face is delighted and who is characterised with all distinctive features.

After meditating thus the man takes water in his hand, meditates on the Lord as one present in the middle of the Sun and offers the Arghya with the water in his hand. At that time, O Four-faced One, he should utter these words:

8. “O Pundarolalsa (Lotus-eyed One), I shall remain without food on the Ekadasi day and take food on the next day. Be my refuge, O Acyuta.”

9. After saying this, he should, on the night (of the same day) repeat the words “(obeisance) to Narayana" himself in accordance with the injunctions, in the presence of my idol.

10-11. Then in the morning he should go to a river that joins the sea or any other one, or a lake, or remain in the house itself and take the pure clay therefrom. The man should salute the Lord after taking the clay with the following Mantra and he shall become pure:

12-16. (The Mantra for taking the clay) “O Goddess (Earth), it is by you that all the living beings are always sustained and nourished. By that truth, O auspicious one, remove my sin.

All the Tirthas within the Cosmic Egg have been touched with their hands by Devas. Therefore, I handle this clay touched (by them) and taken from you.


O Varuna, all the Rasas (liquids, juices) are perpetually present in you. Therefore, flow on this clay and sanctify it. Do not delay.”

After propitiating the clay and water thus, he should apply the same on himself three times by means of the entire lump of clay. It is then washed off in the water. The man shall always take his bath only in this water. Away from the crocodiles and tortoises, he should take his bath, perform the necessary rites, and go to my abode then.

17-22. There, O great Yogin, he should propitiate Lord Narayana, Hari. "Obeisance to Kesava''—(he should worship) the feet. "Obeisance to Damodara"—the waist. "Obeisance to Nrsimha"—the pair of knees. "Obeisance to one having Srivatsa" —the chest. "Obeisance to one having Kaustubha in the navel" — the neck. "Obeisance to Sripati" — the bosom. "Obeisance to the conqueror of the three worlds"—the arm. "Obeisance to the soul of everyone"—the head. "Obeisance to the holder of the discus"— the face. "Obeisance to Sritkara"— (he should worship) the conchshell. "Obeisance to Gambhira"— the iron club. "Obeisance to Sintamurti"— the lotus.

After worshipping Lord Narayana, Lord of Devas, thus, the wise devotee should place four pots in front of the Lord. They should be filled with water and smeared with white unguents and sandalpaste. Flower-garlands should be put upon them. The tender leaves of a mango tree must be kept upon them. They should be wrapped in white cloth. Copper vessels with gold pieces in them and filled with gingelly seeds should be placed upon them.

23-24. The four pots are glorified as the four oceans. In the middle of those pots the devotee should keep a pedestal with a cloth in the centre. Upon it a vessel made of gold, silver, copper or wood shall be placed. If a vessel of the kind mentioned before is not available, a cup of the leaf of Palasa (Butea frondoza) is recommended.

25-28. The vessel should be filled with water. A replica of Lord Janardana in the form of a fish should be made in gold and put in that vessel. It should be fitted with all the ancillaries of the Lord of Devas.
It should be adorned with Vedas and Smrtis. There should be many kinds of foodstuffs, fruits and flowers enhancing the splendour thereof. The Lord should be duly worshipped with scents, incense and cloths: "Just as, O Lord in the form of fish, all the Vedas that had been taken to the nether worlds were lifted up by you, so also, O Kesava, redeem me up from the ocean of the worldly existence." After uttering this he should perform the rite of Jagarana in front of it.

29-32. (The festival shall be celebrated) in conformity with one's affluence.

When the day has dawned clear, the four pots should be given to four Brahmanas.

The vessel kept in the East shall be given to a Bahvrca (one who is conversant with Rgveda); that in the South shall be given to a Chandogya (Samavedin); the devotee should give the excellent vessel kept in the West to a person well-versed in Yajurveda. He should give the vessel in the North to anyone he pleases. This is the prescribed procedure.

While giving the vessels away, he should utter thus: "May Rgveda be pleased in the East. May Samaveda be pleased in the South. May Yajurveda be pleased in the West and may Atharvaveda be pleased in the North.’’

33. The golden replica of fish should be given to the preceptor after honouring him duly and in the proper order, with scents, incense etc. and cloths.

34. The Acarya should conduct everything including the secret (method of worship) by means of (the requisite) Mantras. After giving the gifts duly, the donor shall have a crore times the benefit.

35. A base man who, even after getting the preceptor, acts in contravention due to delusion, is cooked (i.e. tortured) in hell in a crore of births.

36. He who offers injunction is called Guru by the wise. After giving everything in accordance with the injunction on the Dvadasi day, he should worship me.

37-39a. He should feed the Brahmanas and present them with monetary gifts according to his capacity. There must be plenty of well-cooked, well-dressed food. Afterwards the man himself should take food along with Brahmanas. He should have full restraint upon his speech and sense-organs. O most excellent one among truthful persons, listen to the benefit and merit of that man who celebrates the Matsya festival in accordance with this procedure.

39b-41. If one has one million mouths and the longevity equal to that of Brahma, O performer of great holy rites, one can describe (adequately) the benefit of this pious activity.

He who devoutly expounds or listens to this excellent Dvadasikalpa shall be liberated from all sins.
 

-- The Skanda-Purana, Part 6, Motilal Banarsidass, 1951
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Part 4 of 4

Another account in the Padma Purana mentions that a demon son of Kashyapa called Makara steals the Vedas from Brahma and hides them in the cosmic ocean. Beseeched by Brahma and the gods, Vishnu takes the Matsya-form and enters the waters, then turns into a crocodile and destroys the demon. The sage Vyasa is credited with re-compilation of the Vedas in this version. The Vedas are then returned to Brahma.[49]

Chapter Two Hundred Thirty: The Fish Incarnation of Visnu

Parvati said:

1-2. O venerable one, please tell me duly taking what form the lord of gods, Visnu, killed the demons. O Siva, tell me in detail the grandeur of the forms (i.e. incarnations) of the Fish, the Tortoise of (i.e. taken by) the Greatest (lord).

Mahadeva said:

3-11. O goddess, listen with an alert mind. I shall tell (you) the grandeur of Visnu and the nature of his incarnations of the Fish, the Tortoise etc. As from one lamp another is produced (i.e. lighted), so would be the forms of the highest lord. The grand incarnations of the god are said to be auspicious and of various forms. There are also images of the highest lord that are worshipped. Brahma, due to his being the Creator, is the universal lord and a great joy. Bhrgu, Marici, Atri, Daksa, and Kardama, so also Pulastya, Pulaha, Girisa and Kratu are said to be the nine lords, in succession, of the created beings. Venerable Marici generated Kasyapa. O you of an auspicious appearance, Kasyapa had four wives: (They were:) Aditi, Diti, Kadru and Vinata also. Aditi gave birth to gods of shining appearance. Diti (gave birth) to demonic sons who were Tamasa by nature. Some very great demons were: Sambuka, Hayagriva, and the very mighty Hiranyaksa; so also Hiranyakasipu, Jambha, Maya and others. Makara, of a very severe penance, and very powerful, went to Brahma’s world.

12-14. The powerful one, having duped Brahma, seized the Vedas. Having seized the holy texts he entered the great ocean. Then the whole world became a void, and religious practices got mixed. There were no studies. There was no offering made to deities. The practices of the castes and the stages of human life were ignored. Then god Brahma, surrounded by hosts of ail gods, went to the Milky Ocean, and seeking refuge of god (Visnu), praised him.

Brahma said:

15-23a. Favour me, O god, O lord, O you seated on the serpent-couch, O lord of all gods, O soul of all gods, O you full of Vedas, O Acyuta. You are the first seed of the world-tree. In the middle (i.e. in its maintenance) you are superior to all. In the end (i.e. at the time of its destruction) you are Siva. You move according to your will. You alone sustain the ancient world of the form of sentience. You are the unmanifest, the origin of the elements, the Pradhana (i.e. the Primordial Matter) and the immutable Purusa. You, the Highest Lord, are the original, middle and the final form of the world. You, the Highest Being, are the refuge of all worlds. You are the origin of the beings. You are a great being. You are the cause of the group of the elements. You, possessing a soul and resorting to Ahamkara, are divided into three. You are the origin and the end. You are the great Vayu (air) that moves everywhere. You are, and you are not, the origin. You are fire, the treasure of lustres. You, the great lord, are the water, the life of all worlds. O you highly intelligent one, you are the earth, the support of the moving. You are the supporter of the earth. You are the rivers, the ocean, and you alone are the origin of everything. You are the divine sage; you are all the beings, O Highest Being. People urged by you only indulge in good or bad (acts).

23b-25. The Vedas, assaulted by the demon, have entered the great ocean. This entire world—immovable and movable— has the Vedas as its support. The Vedas alone are the limits on all sides of all (religious) practices. The gods are eternally satisfied with the Vedas. Therefore, O Kesava, please bring (back) the Vedas.

Sri Mahadeva said:

26-31. Visnu, the highest lord, thus addressed by Brahma, resorted to the Fish-form and entered the great ocean. Resorting to the form of a crocodile, he, honoured by the gods, killed that very fearful demon, after tearing him with the tip of his mouth. Having killed him, and taken all the Vedas, the Vedangas, the Upangas, he, of a great lustre, gave them to that Brahma. The Vedas seized by the demon, were mixed up with one another. The intelligent lord, of the form of Vyasa, made them distinct. By Vyasa, the noble one, the Vedas were separated. Thus, he, with his Fish incarnation, protected all deities. Oh! at that time Laksmi’s lord made the world free from affliction by giving (back) the Vedas. He, the venerable Vasudeva, Hari, full of all gods, being extolled by groups of gods and siddhas, and with his feet worshipped by the meditating sages, vanished.


-- The Padma-Purana, Part 9, Motilal Banarsidass, 1956


The Brahma Purana [link to Narada Purana???] states that Vishnu took the form of a rohita fish when the earth in the netherland to rescue the Vedas.[50][51]

Chapter Fifty-Six: The Greatness of Purusottama (Contd.)

Vasu said:

1-2. “O blessed lady, listen to another group of Tirtha in the holy centre of Purusottama. It is highly meritorious. By the mere sight, it destroys sins. By visiting Vasudeva termed Ananta with devotion and by bowing down to him, a man shall be liberated from all sins, he shall attain the greatest region (viz. Vaikuntha)

3. By taking bath in the Svetaganga [Sveta-Ganga pool is on the way to the sea (from Jagannatha Temple). The two Madhava shrines (Matsya and Sveta) are near it.] and by visiting Sveta-Madhava as well as Matsya-Madhava, the devotee goes to Sveta Dvipa (the abode of Narayana).

4-7a. Visnu’s devotees of great concentration and purity shall attain heaven by visiting the pure deity which resembles snow in complexion; who bears conch, discus and iron club; who is endowed with all auspicious characteristics; whose chest has the mark of Srivatsa, who is delighted, who has four arms, whose chest is covered with garlands of sylvan flowers; who wears coronet and armlets; whose garments are yellow in colour; whose shoulders are plum and who is bedecked in earrings. By touching the leading king, Svetagangeya (god Sveta-Madhava), even with the tip of a Kusa grass they go to heaven.  

7b-9a. He who sees this idol of lustre called Madhava, that resembles conch and cow’s milk and that destroys all sins, he who bows to that idol with eyes resembling lotuses even but once, with devotion and eschewing worldly desires is honoured in the world of Visnu.

9b-10. For many Manvantaras, he enjoys extensive pleasures as he pleases, along with the Devas, surrounded by Divine virgins, sung in praise by the Gandharvas and worshipped by Siddhas and Vidyadharas.

11. Falling off from these, becomes to the mortal world and is born as a Brahmana knowing the Vedas and the Vedangas. He will be intelligent, long-lived and enjoying worldly pleasures.

12. He will be richly endowed with elephants, horses, chariots and other vehicles. He will be pure and blessed with wealth and food-grains. He shall be handsome and very fortunate. He will have sons and grandsons.

13. He goes again unto Purusottama on the seashore at the root of the holy Banyan tree. After abandoning the body and remembering Hari he shall go to the region of calmness and peace. (Moksa)

14-16. By visiting Svetamadhava and Matsya-madhava near him and by bowing down to him with purity, the devotee should leave off all distressing features. When formerly the whole universe was vast sheet of water, the lord had at the outset assumed the form of a fish of the Rohita type. It was to redeem the Vedas (from the demon who had stolen them) that the lord thus stationed himself on the surface of Rasatala. Thinking about the earth, the fish established itself there. Then the Matsya (fish) assumed the form of a youth. That is Matsya Madhava.

17. He goes to that highly excellent place where lord Hari is present himself. In due course of time, he comes down here and shall be the king on the surface of the earth.

18. By resorting to Matsya-Madhava, a man will be invincible. He will be a liberal donor, enjoyer of pleasures, a warrior, a devotee of Visnu and true to his word.

19-20a. Afterwards, by being enlightened in the Yoga leading to Hari, he shall attain liberation. The greatness of Matsyamadhava has been recounted by me to you. On seeing him, O daughter of Brahma, the devotee shall attain all desires.


20b-22. I shall now describe the rite of Marjana in the sacred and auspicious pool of water called Markandeyahrada. The ablution in the Markandeyahrada at all times is praised.

It is an ancient rite to plunge into it with a singleminded devotion. Particularly on the Caturdasi day, the ablution is destructive of all sins. Similarly, the ablution in the ocean at all times is praised.

23-24a. Particularly, on the full moon day, (the ablution in the ocean) makes one attain the benefit of a horse-sacrifice. On the full Moon day in the month of Jyestha, when the constellation is also Jyestha, the devotee shall particularly visit that king of holy centres which is exceedingly splendid.

24b-25. He should have pure and holy Sattvaic feelings physically, verbally and mentally, and his mind should not be directed towards anything else. He should be liberated from all mutually clashing opposites. He should be devoid of passions and malicious rivalry. He should circumambulate the beautiful Kalpa-tree, the banyan tree, where Janardana himself abides.

26-27a. With great concentration, he should circumambulate it three times. On seeing it, the sin originating from seven births perishes. O Mohini, he attains an extensive merit and his desired goal.

27b-28. I shall mention to you its names in the different Yugas. The names of the banyan tree in the Krta and other Yugas have been glorified as follows: (They know them as) Vata, Vatesvara, Santa and Purana Purusa.

29. In the Krta and other Yugas, the girth of the banyan tree has been respectively one Yojana, three-fourths of a Yojana, half a Yojana and one-fourth of a Yojana.

30. After bowing down to the banyan tree, repeating the Mantra mentioned above, the devotee should go to the south at a distance of three hundred Dhanus (bows or twelve hundred hastas or cubits).

31. It is the place where the sign, the beautiful portals of heaven, become visible within the ocean, a log of wood equipped with all auspicious attributes has been drawn.

32. He should bow down to it, worship it and then stand by. He shall then be liberated from all the multitudes of sins, effects of evil planets and other inauspicious things.

33. Formerly, Ugrasena looked at the ocean through heavenly portals. He went there. With purity of word, mind and deed, he meditated on the supreme Narayana and performed the Acamana rite.

34. Thereafter, the devotee should fix the eight-syllabled Mantra on the hand as well as on the body. [VV. 34-54 disclose the powerful influence of the Pancaratra system on the NP.] The Mantra is what learned men utter viz. ‘Om namo Narayanaya'.  

35. What purpose is served by many Mantras causing the richness of the mind? The Mantra “Namo Narayanaya” is that which achieves all objects.

36. Apah (waters) are glorified as Nara since they are the offsprings of Nara (Man). They were the former abode of Visnu. Hence Visnu is remembered as Narayana.

-- The Narada-Purana, Part 5, by Motilal Banarsidas


The Krishna-centric Brahmavaivarta Purana states that Matsya is an avatar of Krishna (identified with Supreme Being) and in a hymn to Krishna praises Matsya as the protector of the Vedas and Brahmins (the sages), who imparted knowledge to the king.[52]

The Purusottama-Ksetra-Mahatmya of Skanda Purana in relationship of the origin of the herb Damanaka states that a daitya (demon) named Damanaka tormented people and wandered in the waters. On the request of Brahma, Vishnu took the Matsya form, pulled the demon from the waters and crushed him on land. The demon transformed a fragrant herb called Damanaka, which Vishnu in his flower garland.[53]


In avatar lists

Image
Matsya with four infants symbolizing the Vedas, Raja Ravi Varma Press

Matsya is generally enlisted as the first avatar of Vishnu, especially in Dashavatara (ten major avatars of Vishnu) lists.[54] However, that was not always the case. Some lists do not list Matsya as first, only later texts start the trend of Matsya as the first avatar.[26]

In the Garuda Purana listing of the Dashavatara, Matsya is the first.[55][56] The Linga Purana, the Narada Purana, the Shiva Purana, the Varaha Purana, the Padma Purana, the Skanda Purana also mention Matsya as the first of the ten classical avatars.[57][58][59][46][60][61]

The Bhagavata Purana and the Garuda Purana regard Matysa as the tenth of 22 avatars and described as the "support of the earth".[62][30]

The Ayidhya-Mahatmya of the Skanda Purana mentions 12 avatars of Vishnu, with Matsya as the 2nd avatar. Matsya is said to support the Manus, plants and others like a boat at the end of Brahma's day (pralaya).[63]

Other scriptural references

The Vishnu Purana narrative of Vishnu's boar avatar Varaha alludes to the Matysa and Kurma, saying that Brahma (identified with Narayana, an epithet transferred to Vishnu) took these forms in previous kalpas.[64]

The Agni Purana, the Brahma Purana and the Vishnu Purana suggests that Vishnu resides as Matsya in Kuru-varsha, one of the regions outside the mountains surrounding Mount Meru.[65][66][67]

Iconography

Image
Manu with the seven sages in the boat (top left). Matsya confronting the demon coming out of the conch. The four Vedic manuscripts are depicted near Vishnu's face, within Brahma is on Matsya's right.

Matsya is depicted in two forms: as a zoomorphic fish or in an anthropomorphic form. The Agni Purana prescribes Matsya be depicted zoomorphically.[68] The Vishnudharmottara Purana recommends that Matsya be depicted as horned fish.[69]

In the anthropomorphic form, the upper half is that of the four-armed man and the lower half is a fish. The upper half resembles Vishnu and wears the traditional ornaments and the kirita-makuta (tall conical crown) as worn by Vishnu. He holds in two of his hands the Sudarshana chakra (discus) and a shankha (conch), the usual weapons of Vishnu. The other two hands make the gestures of varadamudra, which grants boons to the devotee, and abhayamudra, which reassures the devotee of protection.[70] In another configuration, he might have all four attributes of Vishnu, namely the Sudarshana chakra, a shankha, a gada (mace) and a lotus.[26]

In some representations, Matsya is shown with four hands like Vishnu, one holding the chakra, another the shankha, while the front two hands hold a sword and a book signifying the Vedas he recovered from the demon. Over his elbows is an angavastra draped, while a dhoti like draping covers his hips.[71]

In rare representations, his lower half is human while the upper body (or just the face) is of a fish. The fish-face version is found in a relief at the Chennakesava Temple, Somanathapura.[72]


Matsya may be depicted alone or in a scene depicting his combat with a demon. A demon called Shankhasura emerging from a conch is sometimes depicted attacking Matsya with a sword as Matsya combats or kills him. Both of them may be depicted in the ocean, while the god Brahma and/or manuscripts or four men, symbolizing the Vedas, may be depicted in the background.[71] In some scenes, Matsya is depicted as a fish pulling the boat with Manu and the seven sages in it.

Evolution and symbolism

Main article: Flood myth

Image
Matsya as a golden horned fish pulling the boat with Manu and the seven sages. Matsya's horn is tied to boat with the serpent, who is also depicted behind Matsya as a symbolic support. c. 1890 Jaipur.

The story of a great deluge is found in many civilizations across the earth. It is often compared with the Genesis narrative of the flood and Noah's Ark.[26] The fish motif reminds readers of the Biblical 'Jonah and the Whale' narrative as well; this fish narrative, as well as the saving of the scriptures from a demon, are specifically Hindu traditions of this style of the flood narrative.[73] Similar flood myths also exist in tales from ancient Sumer and Babylonia, Greece, the Maya of Americas and the Yoruba of Africa.[26]

The flood was a recurring natural calamity in Ancient Egypt and Tigris–Euphrates river system in ancient Babylonia. A cult of fish-gods arose in these regions with the fish-saviour motif. While Richard Pischel believed that fish worship originated in ancient Hindu beliefs, Edward Washburn Hopkins rejected the same, suggesting its origin in Egypt. The creator, fish-god Ea in the Sumerian and Babylonian version warns the king in a dream of the flood and directs him to build a flood.[74] The idea may have reached the Indian subcontinent via the Indo-Aryan migrations or through trade routes to the Indus Valley Civilisation.[75] Another theory suggests the fish myth is home-grown in the Indus Valley or South India Dravidian peoples. The Puranic Manu is described to be in South India. As for Indus Valley theory, the fish is common in the seals; also horned beasts like the horned fish are common in depictions.[76]

Even if the idea of the flood myth and the fish-god may imported from another culture, it is cognate with the Vedic and Puranic cosmogonic tale of Creation through the waters. In the Mahabharata and the Puranas, the flood myth is in fact a cosmogonic myth. The deluge symbolizes dissolution of universe (pralaya); while Matsya "allegorizes" the Creator-god (Brahma or Vishnu), who recreates the universe after the great destruction. This link to Creation may be associated with Matsya regarded as Vishnu's first avatar.[77]

Matsya is believed to symbolise the aquatic life as the first beings on earth.[78][26] Another symbolic interpretation of the Matsya mythology is, states Bonnefoy, to consider Manu's boat to represent moksha (salvation), which helps one to cross over. The Himalayas are treated as a boundary between the earthly existence and land of salvation beyond. The protection of the fish and its horn represent the sacrifices that help guide Manu to salvation. Treated as a parable, the tale advises a good king should protect the weak from the mighty, reversing the "law of fishes" and uphold dharma, like Manu, who defines an ideal king.[9] In the tales where the demon hides the Vedas, dharma is threatened and Vishnu as the divine Saviour rescues dharma, aided by his earthly counterpart, Manu - the king.[23]

Another theory suggests that the boat of Manu and the fish represents the constellations of Ursa Major and Ursa Minor respectively, when the star Thuban was the Pole Star (4th to 2nd millennium BCE).[28]


Worship

Image
Matsya temples are relatively rare, but the iconography is found in Hindu temple reliefs. A fish-faced Matsya in Chennakesava Temple, Somanathapura.

Matsya is invoked as a form of Vishnu in various hymns in scriptures. In a prayer in the Bhagavata Purana, Matsya is invoked for protection from the aquatic animals and the waters.[79] The Agni Purana suggests that Matsya be installed in the Northern direction in temples or in water bodies.[80] The Vishnudharmottara Purana prescribes worship for Matsya for grain.[81] Matsya is invoked as a form of Vishnu in hymns in the Brahma Purana.[82] The Vishnu Sahasranama version of the Garuda Purana includes Matsya.[83] The Vishnu Sahasranama in the Skanda Purana includes Matsya, Maha-matsya ("Great fish") and Timingila ("a great aquatic creature").[84]

The third day in the bright fortnight of the Hindu month of Chaitra is celebrated as Matsya Jayanti, the birthday of Matsya, when his worship is recommended.[58] Vishnu devotees observe a fast from a day before the holy day; take a holy bath on Matsya Jayanti and worship Matsya or Vishnu in the evening, ending their fast. Vishnu temples organize a special Puja.[85] The Meena community claim a mythological descent from Matsya, who is called Meenesh ("Lord of the Meenas"/ "Fish-Lord").[86] Matsya Jayanti is celebrated as Meenesh Jayanti by the Meenas.[87][88]

The Varaha Purana and the Margashirsha-Mahatmya of the Padma Purana recommends a vrata (vow) with fasting and worshipping Matysa (as a golden fish) in a three lunar-day festival culminating on the twelfth lunar day of the month of Margashirsha.[89][90]

There are very few temples dedicated to Matsya. Prominent ones include the Shankhodara temple in Bet Dwarka and Vedanarayana Temple in Nagalapuram.[78] [78. Krishna p. 36. ???!!!] Matsya Narayana Temple, Bangalore also exists. The Brahma Purana describes that Matsya-madhava (Vishnu as Matsya) is worshipped with Shveta-madhava (King Shveta) in the Shveta-madhava temple of Vishnu near the sacred Shweta ganga pond in Puri.[50][91][51] A temple to Machhenarayan (Matsya) is found in Machhegaun, Nepal, where an annual fair is held in honour of the deity.[92] [92. Machhenarayan fair put off this year due to COVID-19". GorakhaPatra. 11 September 2020. ("It is widely believed that the Lord Vishnu took his first incarnation in the holy place as Machhenarayan."]

Its name came from Machhenarayan, an avatar of god Vishnu. It is said that during ancient time, Manu found a small fish about to die while he was having a bath in a river. He brought the fish to his home and put it into a small pot of water. Next day, the fish grew in its size amazingly and was no longer fit in the small pot. So he put the fish in a pond just to find next day that the fish had grown larger and no longer fit in the pond as well. Knowing that this fish is no ordinary fish, Manu bowed with respect and asked to show the fish who he was. Then god Vishnu emerged from the mouth of the fish. To remember this event, Manu established Machhenarayan temple in the center of the pond.[citation needed]

-- Machhegaun, by Wikipedia


The Koneswaram Matsyakeswaram temple in Trincomalee, Sri Lanka is now destroyed.

Notes

1. Manu is presented as the ancestor of two mythical royal dynasties (solar or son-based, lunar or daughter-based)[24][25]
2. As per Hindu time cycles, a kalpa is a period of 4.32 billion years, equivalent to a day in the life of Brahma. Each kalpa is divided into 14 manvantaras, each reigned by a Manu, who becomes progenitor of mankind. Brahma creates the worlds and life in his day - the kalpa and sleeps in his night - the pralaya, when Brahma's creation is destroyed. Brahma reawakens at the start of the new kalpa (day) and recreates.

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3. "mad". Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary. 1899. p. 777.
4. Yaska; Sarup, Lakshman (1967). The Nighantu and the Nirukta. Robarts - University of Toronto. Delhi Motilal Banarsidass. p. 108 (English section).
5. "maccha". Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary. 1899. p. 773.
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69. Shah 1990, p. 240.
70. Rao 1914, p. 127.
71. British Museum; Anna Libera Dallapiccola (2010). South Indian Paintings: A Catalogue of the British Museum Collection. Mapin Publishing Pvt Ltd. pp. 78, 117, 125. ISBN 978-0-7141-2424-7. Retrieved 13 January 2013.
72. Hindu Temple, Somnathpur
73. Krishna 2009, p. 35.
74. Roy 2002, pp. 79–80.
75. Roy 2002, pp. 80–2.
76. Roy 2002, p. 82.
77. Roy 2002, pp. 83–4.
78. Krishna p. 36
79. Shastri & Tagare 1999, p. 820.
80. Shastri, Bhatt & Gangadharan 1998, pp. 116, 172.
81. Shah 1990, p. 118.
82. Brahma Purana 1955, pp. 336, 395, 447, 763, 970.
83. Garuda Purana 2002, p. 59.
84. Skanda Purana 2003a, p. 253.
85. DelhiApril 15, India Today Web Desk New; April 15, 2021UPDATED; Ist, 2021 12:44. "Matsya Jayanti 2021: Date, time, significance, puja, fast". India Today. Retrieved 5 June 2021.
86. Kapur, Nandini Sinha (2000). "Reconstructing Identities and Situating Themselves in History : A Preliminary Note on the Meenas of Jaipur Locality". Indian Historical Review. 27 (1): 29–43. doi:10.1177/037698360002700103. S2CID 141602938. the entire community claims descent from the Matsya (fish) incarnation of Vishnu
87. "मीनेष जयंती:मीणा समाज ने मनाई भगवान मीनेष जयंती". Dainik Bhaskar. 15-April-2021.Check date values in: |date= (help)
88. "मिनेष जयंती पर मीणा समाज ने निकाली भव्य शोभायात्रा". Patrika News (in Hindi). Retrieved 5 June 2021.
89. Varaha Purana 1960, pp. 118–23.
90. Skanda Purana 1998a, pp. 253–6.
91. Starza, O. M. (1993). The Jagannatha Temple at Puri: Its Architecture, Art, and Cult. BRILL. p. 11. ISBN 978-90-04-09673-8.
92. "Machhenarayan fair put off this year due to COVID-19". GorakhaPatra. 11 September 2020. Retrieved 26 September 2020.

Further reading

• Aiyangar, Narayan (1901). Essays On Indo Aryan Mythology. Madras: Addison and Company.
• Bonnefoy, Yves (1993). Asian Mythologies. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-06456-7.
• Dikshitar, V. R. Ramachandra (1935). Matsya Purana a study.
• Roy, J. (2002). Theory of Avatāra and Divinity of Chaitanya. Atlantic. ISBN 978-81-269-0169-2.
• Krishna, Nanditha (2009). The Book of Vishnu. Penguin Books India. ISBN 978-0-14-306762-7.
• Rao, T.A. Gopinatha (1914). Elements of Hindu iconography. 1: Part I. Madras: Law Printing House.
• George M. Williams (2008). Handbook of Hindu Mythology. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-533261-2.
• Mani, Vettam (1975). Puranic Encyclopaedia: a Comprehensive Dictionary with Special Reference to the Epic and Puranic Literature. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. ISBN 978-0-8426-0822-0.
• Shah, Priyabala (1990). Shri Vishnudharmottara. The New Order Book Co.
• H H Wilson (1911). Puranas. p. 84.
• Shastri, J. L.; Tagare, G. V. (1999) [1950]. The Bhāgavata Purāṇa. Motilal Banarsidas.
• Shastri, J. L.; Bhatt, G. P.; Gangadharan, N. (1998) [1954]. Agni Purana. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Pvt. Ltd.
• Wilson, H. H. (Horace Hayman) (1862). The Vishnu Purána : a system of Hindu mythology and tradition. Works by the late Horace Hayman Wilson. VI. Princeton Theological Seminary Library. London : Trübner.
o Wilson, H. H. (Horace Hayman) (1862a). The Vishnu Purána : a system of Hindu mythology and tradition. Works by the late Horace Hayman Wilson. VII. Princeton Theological Seminary Library. London : Trübner.
• Brahma Purana. UNESCO collection of Representative Works - Indian Series. Motilal Banarsidass. 1955.
• Nagar, Shanti Lal (2005). Brahmavaivarta Purana. Parimal Publications.
• The Garuda Purana. 1. Motilal Banarsidas. 2002 [1957].
o The Garuda Purana. 3. Motilal Banarsidas. 2002 [1957].
• Shastri, J.L. (1990) [1951]. Linga Purana. 2. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Pvt. Ltd.
• The Narada Purana. 4. Motilal Banarsidas. 1997 [1952].
o The Narada Purana. 5. Motilal Banarsidas. 1952.
• The Varaha Purana. UNESCO collection of Representative Works - Indian Series. 1. Motilal Banarsidas. 1960.
• Shastri, J. L. (2000) [1950]. The Śiva Purāṇa. 2. Motilal Banarsidas.
• Padma Purana. 8. Motilal Banarsidas. 1956.
o Padma Purana. 9. Motilal Banarsidas. 1956.
• The Skanda Purana. 5. Motilal Banarsidas. 1998 [1951].
o The Skanda Purana. 6. Motilal Banarsidas. 1998 [1951].
o The Skanda Purana. 15. Motilal Banarsidas. 2003 [1957].
o The Skanda Purana. 12. Motilal Banarsidas. 2003 [1955].
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Re: Freda Bedi Cont'd (#3)

Postby admin » Sat Jul 31, 2021 3:44 am

Part 1 of 2

The John Law Family
by various sources

Vyasa too, the son of Parasara before mentioned, has decided, that 'the Veda with its Angas, or the six compositions deduced from it, the revealed system of medicine, the Puranas, or sacred histories, and the code of Menu were four works of supreme authority, which ought never to be shaken by arguments merely human.’

It is the general opinion of Pandits, that Brahma taught his laws to Menu in a hundred thousand verses, which Menu explained to the primitive world, in the very words of the book now translated, where he names himself, after the manner of ancient sages, in the third person, but in a short preface to the law tract of Nared, it is asserted, that 'Menu, having written the laws of Brahma in a hundred thousand slocas or couplets, arranged under twenty-four heads in a thousand chapters, delivered the work to Nared, the sage among gods, who abridged it, for the use of mankind, in twelve thousand verses, and gave them to a son of Bhrigu, named Sumati, who, for greater ease to the human race, reduced them to four thousand; that mortals read only the second abridgement by Sumati, while the gods of the lower heaven, and the band of celestial musicians, are engaged in studying the primary code, beginning with the fifth verse, a little varied, of the work now extant on earth; but that nothing remains of NARED’s abridgement, except an elegant epitome of the ninth original title on the administration of justice.' Now, since these institutes consist only of two thousand six hundred and eighty five verses, they cannot be the whole work ascribed to Sumati, which is probably distinguished by the name of the Vriddha, or ancient Manava, and cannot be found entire; though several passages from it, which have been preserved by tradition, are occasionally cited in the new digest.

A number of glosses or comments on Menu were composed by the Munis, or old philosophers, whose treatises, together with that before us, constitute the Dherma sastra, in a collective sense, or Body of Law; among the more modern commentaries, that called Medhatithi, that by Govindaraja, and that by Dharani-Dhera, were once in the greatest repute; but the first was reckoned prolix and unequal; the second concise but obscure; and the third often erroneous. At length appeared Culluca Bhatta; who, after a painful course of study and the collation of numerous manuscripts, produced a work, of which it may, perhaps, be said very truly, that it is the shortest, yet the most luminous, the least ostentatious, yet the most learned, the deepest, yet the most agreeable, commentary ever composed on any author ancient or modern, European or Asiatick. The Pandits care so little for genuine chronology, that none of them can tell me the age of Culluca, whom they always name with applause; but he informs us himself, that he was a Brahmen of the Varendra tribe, whose family had been long settled in Gaur or Bengal, but that he had chosen his residence among the learned, on the banks of the holy river at Casi. His text and interpretation I have almost implicitly followed, though I had myself collated many copies of Menu, and among them a manuscript of a very ancient date: his gloss is here printed in Italicks; and any reader, who may choose to pass it over as if unprinted, will have in Roman letters an exact version of the original, and may form some idea of its character and structure, as well as of the Sanscrit idiom which must necessarily be preserved in a verbal translation; and a translation, not scrupulously verbal, would have been highly improper in a work on so delicate and momentous a subject as private and criminal jurisprudence.

Should a series of Brahmens omit, for three generations, the reading of Menu, their sacerdotal class, as all the Pandits assure me, would in strictness be forfeited; but they must explain it only to their pupils of the three highest classes; and the Brahmen, who read it with me, requested most earnestly, that his name might be concealed; nor would he have read it for any consideration on a forbidden day of the moon, or without the ceremonies prescribed in the second and fourth chapters for a lecture on the Veda: so great, indeed, is the idea of sanctity annexed to this book, that, when the chief native magistrate at Banares endeavoured, at my request, to procure a Persian translation of it, before I had a hope of being at any time able to understand the original, the Pandits of his court unanimously and positively refused to assist in the work; nor should I have procured it at all, if a wealthy Hindu at Gaya had not caused the version to be made by some of his dependants, at the desire of my friend Mr. [Jacques Louis Law de Clapernon? or Baron Jean Law de Lauriston?] Law. [1776]

Institutes of Hindu Law: Or, The Ordinances of Menu, According to the Gloss of Culluca. Comprising the Indian System of Duties, Religious and Civil, Verbally translated from the original Sanscrit, With a Preface, by Sir William Jones

"In relation to his Translation, it was made by the orders of Mr. Barthelemi, First Counselor in Pondicherry. Having a great number of interpreters for him, he had them translate some Indian works with all possible accuracy: but the wars of India & the ruin of Pondicherry resulted in the loss of all that he had gathered on these objects: and only the last translation of Zozur, of which only one complete copy remains, between the hands of M. Teissier de la Tour nephew of M. leConsr. Barthelemy. It's certain the one that we made the copy that we have in the Library of His Majesty, and which no doubt had not had time to complete when M. de Modave embarked to return to Europe."

I have not been able to gather any information on Tessier -- or Teissier -- de la Tour.

That the crowning of the decorated pot symbolizes a "recapitulation" is also suggested by a smallpox healing rite witnessed in 1709 by the French missionary, Jean-Jacques Tessier de Queralay, in Pondichery. Apparently this ritual was performed to placate Mariamma, the smallpox goddess who, as we heard in chapter 7, had her head chopped off by her son and reconnected to the body of an Untouchable woman. This is what Tessier observed:

"Carrying on her head a vase filled with water and margosa leaves, and holding in her right hand some leaves of that tree and a rattan cane, a Paraiyan (Untouchable) woman, a servant of this goddess, proceeds through town -- accompanied of musicians and other persons in charge of receiving alms. Each time that she stops in front of a house, she dances, the vase on her head. (in [Sri] Dharmapal 1982: 130-31, translation mine)."

The procession documented by the priest reenacted the ambiguous corporal predicament of this goddess whose head, here symbolized by the karakam pot, was attached to the body of a female Untouchable specialist. Does this not suggest that in the context of our "invitatnoi" the crowning with the karakam represents the reconnection of the disembodied parents, "heads of the household" (talaikkattu) to the bodies of their "headless" children?

-- Religion Against the Self: An Ethnography of Tamil Rituals, by Isabelle Nabokov

The Actors

The Accused

Nayiniyappa: Chief commercial broker to the Compagnie des Indes in Pondichéry, 1708–1716

Nayiniyappa’s Family and Associates

Guruvappa: Nayiniyappa’s eldest son
The Widow Guruvappa: Guruvappa’s wife, Nayiniyappa’s daughter-in-law
Tiruvangadan: A merchant of Madras, and Nayiniyappa’s business associate and brother-in-law
Ramanada: Nayiniyappa’s business associate.
Ananda Ranga Pillai: Nayiniyappa’s nephew, Tiruvangadan’s son, and chief commercial broker to the Compagnie des Indes, 1748–1761.

French Trader-Administrators

Guillaume André Hébert: Governor of Pondichéry 1708–1713; Général de la nation, 1715–1718
Hébert fils: The governor’s son and a junior employee of the Compagnie des Indes
Pierre André Prévost de La Prévostière: Governor of Pondichéry, 1718–1721
Nicolas de La Morandière: Pondichéry councillor, author of several appeals filed by the accused Indians

The Missionaries

Guy Tachard: First superior of the Jesuit mission in Pondichéry
Jean-Venant Bouchet: Second superior of the Jesuit mission in Pondichéry
Père Esprit de Tours: Capuchin missionary and parish priest to Europeans in Pondichéry
Jean-Jacques Tessier de Queralay: Representative of the Missions étrangères de Paris.


The Interpreters

Manuel Geganis: A French-speaking Tamil Christian, son of the Jesuits’ chief catechist (religious interpreter)
Père Turpin: A Tamil-speaking Jesuit missionary
Cordier: A French man born in India to a company employee

-- A Colonial Affair: Commerce, Conversion, and Scandal in French India, by Danna Agmon

If Sylvia Murr’s claim that ‘at the beginning of the eighteenth century, all discourse on India was tributary to the ‘Relations’ supplied by the missionaries, Catholic and Protestant’,1 [‘au debut du 18e siecle, tout discours sur l’lnde etait tributaire des ‘Relations’ foumies paries missionaires, catholiques ou protestants’ Murr 1986: 303.] is somewhat overstated, it nevertheless serves to emphasise the importance of such missionary ‘relations’ prior to the arrival in India of Anquetil-Duperron, who appears to have been the first European to visit India for purely scholarly purposes. Among Protestants, Murr mentions Ziegenbalg and also Lord and Roger, although the latter were not missionaries, nor writing at the beginning of the eighteenth century.

Among Catholics, the main contributors to Indological discourse of the eighteenth century were French, in particular the Jesuits associated with the Carnatic mission, but also the Capuchins Jean-Jacques Tessier de Queralay and Thomas de Poitiers. At the end of the century another French priest, the Abbe Jean-Antoine Dubois, a secular priest of the Missions Etrangeres, was responsible for publishing as his own work one of the most significant works of the earlier generation of French missionaries.2 [Despite being ‘a respected member of the Missions Etrangeres, a body traditionally hostile to the Jesuits’, Dubois’s relations with the Jesuits were good, and he supported the return of the Jesuits to Madurai after the restoration of the Society (Ballhatchet 1998: 3).]

These writers produced a number of significant works on Indian religions, among them the Relation des erreurs qui se trouvent dans la religion des gentils malabars de la Coste Coromandelle3 [A substantial part of the text of the Relation des erreurs qui se trouvent dans la religion des gentils malabars de la Coste Coromandelle was printed in Picart’s Ceremonies et coutumes religieuses de tous les peuples du monde under the title: ‘Dissertation historique sur les Dieux des Indiens orientaux.’ (Picart 1723: 83-100). This is immediately followed by a ‘Lettre de P. Bouchet sur la Religion des Indiens Orientaux’ (Bouchet’s second letter to Huet, XIII: 95-225). A critical edition of the Relation des erreurs from three manuscripts, one of which attributes the work to Nobili was published by Caland (Caland 1923). Dharampal, who has used a fourth manuscript, discusses the origin of the work and its attribution to Bouchet (Dharampal 1982a: 233-239).] of Jean Venant Bouchet, the Traite de la Religion des Malabars4 [Extensive extracts from Tessier de Queralay’s manuscript were published in Bumouf and Jacquet 1835. The full text was published in Dharampal 1982a.] of Tessier de Queralay, Le Paganisme des Indiens nommes Tamouls of Thomas de Poitiers, the Moeurs et Coutumes des Indiens5 [Sylvia Murr identified a manuscript compiled in 1776-1777 by a French artillery officer Nicholas-Jacques Desvaulx as a version of Coeurdoux’s lost work, and has shown that Dubois’s celebrated work, Hindu Manners, Customs and Ceremonies (1816; Mceurs, Institutions et Ceremonies des Peuples de l’lnde, 1825) is based on Coeurdoux (Murr 1987). In his Prefatory note to Beauchamp’s 1906 edition, Friedrich Max Muller noticed that the author of the work ‘really belongs to a period previous to the revival of Sanskrit studies in India, as inaugurated by Wilkins, Sir William Jones and Colebrooke’, although he did not doubt that the author was Dubois.] of Gaston-Laurent Coeurdoux, and the infamous Ezourvedam.6 [Among those to whom the Ezourvedam has been attributed are, in addition to Nobili, five French Jesuits of the eighteenth century: Bouchet (1655-1732), Pierre Martin (1665- 1716), Jean Calmette (1693-1740), Antoine Mosac (1704-C.1784), and Jean de Villette (dates uncertain). Rocher reviews the long debate over the authorship of the Ezourvedam concluding that ‘the author of the [Ezourvedam] may be one of these, but he may also be one of their many more or less well known confreres. In the present state of our knowledge we cannot go any further than that.’ (Rocher 1984: 60). If nothing else, this demonstrates the sheer number of Jesuits who had significant knowledge of Indian languages and religions. The Ezourvedam was published in 1778 as L’Ezour-Vedam, ou Ancien Commentaire du Vedam contenant I’esposition des opinions religieuses & philosophiques des Indiens, but doubts about its authenticity immediately surfaced. Pierre Sonnerat showed it to ‘a learned but fanatic Brahman’ who convinced him that ‘[ i]t is definitely not one of the four Vedams, notwithstanding its name. It is a book of controversy, written by a missionary’ (Voyage aux Indes Orientates (1782) I: 215, cited in Rocher 1984: 13).] However, only the first and the last of these were published in the eighteenth century. Of more immediate impact were the letters of the French Jesuits, published in the Lettres edifiantes et curieuses, the Memoires de l'Academie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres and elsewhere.7 [The letters were widely read, both in the Lettres edifiantes and in other publications, for example in Picart’s collection in which Bouchet’s long, undated letter concerning transmigration (XIII: 95-226) was reprinted (Picart 1723: 100-106). A brief account of the origin, editions and influence of the Lettres edifiantes is given by Retif 1951.] The Jesuit letters from India had been contributing to European knowledge of Indian religions since the sixteenth century.8 [Zachariae goes so far as to say that if Europeans at the end of the 16th and the beginning of the 17th century ‘were tolerably acquainted with ‘Hinduism’, with the religion and mythology of India ... that knowledge was attained through the letters which the Jesuit missionaries labouring in India sent to the members of their Order in Europe.’ (Zachariae 1921: 151). For earlier Jesuit ethnographic contributions see Rubies 2000.] It will be argued, however, that for a number of reasons it was the letters of the eighteenth century which were particularly important in the establishment of the concept of a pan-Indian religion, which subsequently came to be called Hinduism. Although this analysis is based primarily on the letters published in the Lettres edifiantes et curieuses, the other letters, both published and unpublished also played a role, and reference will be made to these and to the other mentioned works on Indian religions by French writers in this period. Among the Jesuits who served in the Madurai, Carnatic and Bengal missions and contributed to the Lettres edifiantes were Jean Venant Bouchet (1655-1732, in India from 1688), Pierre Martin (1665-1716, in India from 1694), Pierre de la Lane (1669- 1746, in India from 1704), Etienne le Gac (1671-1738, in India by 1709), Gaston-Laurent Coeurdoux (1691-1779, in India from 1732), Jean Calmette (1693-1740, in India from 1725 or 1726), Jean Francois Pons (1698-C.1753, in India from 1726).

-- Hinduism in the Jesuit Lettres edifiantes et curieuses, Chapter 7 from "Mapping Hinduism 'Hinduism' and the Study of Indian Religions, 1600-1776," by Will Sweetman, 2003

Louis Barthelemy is much better known; although his career in India runs parallel to that of Porcher des Oulches, of the two he is the more prominent one and holds the highest offices. His name appears repeatedly in the official documents of the French Company. He was born at Montpellier, circa 1695, came to India in 1729, and stayed there until his death at Pondicherry, on 29 July 1760. He served at Mahe, was a member of the council at Chandernagore, and was called to Pondicherry in 1742. His duties at Pondicherry were twice interrupted in later years: in 1748 he was appointed governor of Madras, and in 1753-54 he preceded Porcher as commander of Karikal. He rose to the rank of "second du Conseil Superieur," and in the short period in 1755, between the departure of Godeheu and the arrival of de Leyrit, Barthelemy's name appears first on all official documents. It should perhaps be mentioned, first, that on 22 February 1751 Barthelemy represented the father of the bride at the wedding of Jacques Law -- Dupleix was the witness for the bridegroom --, and second, that on 8 August 1758 he was godfather of Jacques Louis Law. These two entries seem to suggest that he was indeed close to the Law family, whose interpreter has been given credit for the translation of the EzV (see p. 28). It should also be pointed out that Barthelemy died more than half a year after Maudave -- and the EzV -- reached Lorient on 2 February 1760.

-- The Ezourvedam Manuscripts, Excerpt from Ezourvedam: A French Veda of the Eighteenth Century, Edited with an Introduction by Ludo Rocher

The first Director General for the [French East India] Company was François de la Faye,...

La Faye was the owner of an extensive art collection, two hotels in Paris, and another in Versailles. When he acquired the ancient château de Condé in 1719, he commissioned the most fashionable artists of his time and the architect Giovanni Niccolò Servandoni for elaborate improvements....

The Marquis was a member of the French Academy, a director of the French India Company, and accordingly, was a very rich man. In his mansion in Paris, he often received such famous people as Voltaire and Crébillon...

At a later date, the castle belonged to the Count de la Tour du Pin Lachaux, through his marriage with the niece of the Marquis de la Faye...

In 1814, the Countess de Sade, the daughter-in-law of the famous Marquis de Sade, inherited Condé from her cousin, La Tour du Pin. Since this time and up to 1983, the castle remained the property of the Sade family, who restored it with much care after the two World Wars.


-- French East India Company, by Wikipedia


Jacques Alexandre Bernard Law, marquis de Lauriston
Jacques Alexandre Bernard LAW de LAURISTON
Marquis de Lauriston, Maréchal de France (1823)
• Born 1 February 1768 - Pondichéry (Inde)
• Deceased 11 June 1828, aged 60 years old
• Maréchal de France, Pair de France, Grand Croix Légion d'Honneur
Parents
• Jean LAW de LAURISTON, Chevalier de Saint-Louis 1719-1797 (Baron de Lauriston, Col d'infanterie, Gouverneur de Pondichéry)
• Jeanne de CARVALHO 1735-1805
Spouses, children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren
• Married in 1789 to Antoinette Claudine Julie Le DUC, Châtelain de Soisy-sur-Seine, born 29 September 1772 - La Fère (02), deceased 14 January 1873 - Paris VIII° (75) aged 100 years old (Parents : Claude Marie DUC dit Le DUC, sgr de Valenciennes-en-Dombes 1713-1807 & Marie Charlotte Françoise de RONTY, dame de Richecourt) with
 Auguste Jean Alexandre LAW de LAURISTON, voir légion d'honneur (Grand officier) 1790-1860 Married 21 April 1820 to Jeanne Louise Délie CARETTE †1854 with
 Valentine Marie LAW de LAURISTON 1820- Married 10 February 1841 to Ange-Bernard MERCIER de BOISSY 1801-1856 with :
o Arthur Ange Augustin MERCIER de BOISSY 1844-
o Paul Marie Joseph MERCIER de BOISSY 1850-1897/
 Alexandre Louis Joseph LAW de LAURISTON, voir légion d'honneur (Chevalier) 1821- Married in 1849 to Marie Pauline LANJUINAIS 1829-1887 with :
o Henri LAW de LAURISTON 1850-
 Jeanne Louise Marie Thérèse LAW de LAURISTON 1852-
 Charles Louis Alexandre LAW de LAURISTON, comte 1824- Married 15 April 1852 to Marie Félicie PASCAL 1831-1905 with :
 Jacques Louis Alexandre Henri LAW de LAURISTON 1853-
 Pierre Jules Louis Roger LAW de LAURISTON, comte 1857-
o Emile Paul Louis Hubert LAW de LAURISTON 1860-
 Jeanne LAW de LAURISTON 1862-1921
o Arthur Louis Firmin LAW de LAURISTON, Voir légion d'honneur (officier) 1829-1888
 Coralie LAW de LAURISTON 1800-1891 Married in 1822 to Edouard HOCQUART de TURTOT, comte 1792-1852 with
• Louis HOCQUART de TURTOT Married in July 1858 to Clémentine COSSIN de CHOURSES †1859
 Henri HOCQUART de TURTOT, Voir Légion d'Honneur (Chevalier) 1825-1901 Married 12 August 1864 to Marie Blanche Louise Sophie EUDES de CATTEVILLE de MIRVILLE 1838-1925 with :
 Etienne HOCQUART de TURTOT 1866-1918
 Jean HOCQUART de TURTOT, comte Hocquart de Turtot 1868-1940
o Louis HOCQUART de TURTOT
• Antoine HOCQUART de TURTOT, comte 1872-1954
o Napoléon Adolphe LAW de LAURISTON 1805-1867
Siblings
 Jeanne LAW de LAURISTON 1756-1830
o Anne LAW de LAURISTON 1761-1762
o Jean LAW de LAURISTON 1765-1765
o Jean Guillaume LAW de LAURISTON 1766-
 Jacques Alexandre Bernard LAW de LAURISTON, Marquis de Lauriston 1768-1828
o François Jean LAW de LAURISTON †1822
 Charles Louis LAW de LAURISTON, voir receveurs généraux 1769-1849
o Joseph Charles LAW de LAURISTON 1770-
 Louis Georges LAW de LAURISTON, voir receveurs généraux 1773-1834

Baron Jean Law de Lauriston
Jean LAW de LAURISTON
Chevalier de Saint-Louis (1780), Baron de Lauriston
• Born 5 October 1719
• Baptized 3 November 1719 - St-Roch, Paris I° (75)
• Deceased 16 July 1797, aged 77 years old
• Baron de Lauriston, Col d'infanterie, Gouverneur de Pondichéry
Parents
• Guillaume LAW de LAURISTON, baron de Lauriston †1752 (Directeur de la Compagnie des Indes et associé de son frère.)
o Rebecca DESVES de PERCY (De l'illustre maison de Percy, comtes et ducs de Northumberland)
Spouses, children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren
• Married in March 1755 to Jeanne de CARVALHO, born in 1735, deceased in 1805 aged 70 years old (Parents : Alexandre de CARVALHO †/1767 & Jeanne de SAINT-HILAIRE) with
 Jeanne LAW de LAURISTON 1756-1830 Married in 1777 to Charles Antoine de LOPEZ de la FARE with
 Anne Jeanne Marie Françoise de LOPEZ-LAFARE †1805 Married to Victor Louis Joseph de MARQUET with :
• Clémence de MARQUET, Comtesse de Marquet 1803-1885
o Anne LAW de LAURISTON 1761-1762
o Jean LAW de LAURISTON 1765-1765
o Jean Guillaume LAW de LAURISTON 1766-
 Jacques Alexandre Bernard LAW de LAURISTON, Marquis de Lauriston 1768-1828 Married in 1789 to Antoinette Claudine Julie Le DUC, Châtelain de Soisy-sur-Seine 1772-1873 with
 Auguste Jean Alexandre LAW de LAURISTON, voir légion d'honneur (Grand officier) 1790-1860 Married 21 April 1820 to Jeanne Louise Délie CARETTE †1854 with :
 Valentine Marie LAW de LAURISTON 1820-
 Alexandre Louis Joseph LAW de LAURISTON, voir légion d'honneur (Chevalier) 1821-
 Charles Louis Alexandre LAW de LAURISTON, comte 1824-
o Arthur Louis Firmin LAW de LAURISTON, Voir légion d'honneur (officier) 1829-1888
 Coralie LAW de LAURISTON 1800-1891 Married in 1822 to Edouard HOCQUART de TURTOT, comte 1792-1852 with :
• Louis HOCQUART de TURTOT
 Henri HOCQUART de TURTOT, Voir Légion d'Honneur (Chevalier) 1825-1901
o Napoléon Adolphe LAW de LAURISTON 1805-1867
o François Jean LAW de LAURISTON †1822
 Charles Louis LAW de LAURISTON, voir receveurs généraux 1769-1849 Married to Agnès de BOUBERS-ABBEVILLE 1785-1816 with
 Augusta Hyacinthe LAW de LAURISTON 1814-1897 Married in 1837 to Jean Joseph Amans PÉCOUL, baron 1795-1870 with :
 Auguste Louis PÉCOUL, baron 1837-1916
o Edgard PÉCOUL 1842-1859
o Joseph Charles LAW de LAURISTON 1770-
 Louis Georges LAW de LAURISTON, voir receveurs généraux 1773-1834 Married in 1806 to Agnès de VERNETY 1785-1871 with
 Gustave LAW de LAURISTON, Voir légion d'honneur (Commandeur) 1806-1882 Married in 1843 to Esther MASCARÈNE de RIVIÈRE with :
o Gustave LAW de LAURISTON, voir légion d'honneur (Chevalier) 1844-1872
o Georges LAW de LAURISTON 1808-
o Olivier LAW de LAURISTON, Voir légion d'honneur (Chevalier) 1809-1859
 Marie-Blanche (Malcy) LAW de LAURISTON 1811-1885 Married 12 June 1833, Nantes (44), to Jean MARION de BEAULIEU, baron 1783-1864 with :
 "Adrienne" Marie MARION de BEAULIEU 1840-1891
o Marguerite Georgette MARION de BEAULIEU
o Geneviève Marie MARION de BEAULIEU
 Hyacinthe LAW de LAURISTON, comte 1816- Married 28 February 1842, Nantes (44), to Aline NOURY 1817-1896 with :
o Georges LAW de LAURISTON 1844-1914
 Aline LAW de LAURISTON 1850-1884
o Edouard LAW de LAURISTON 1851-1867
• Valentine LAW de LAURISTON 1820- Married in 1842 to M de BOISSY
 Marguerite Amélie LAW de LAURISTON 1823-1894 Married 5 August 1846, Nantes (44), to Marie "Alfred" Ernest de CORNULIER-LUCINIÈRE, voir Légion d'Honneur (Chevalier) 1822-1855 with :
o Pierre Marie Alfred de CORNULIER-LUCINIÈRE 1847-
o Anne Marie Marguerite de CORNULIER-LUCINIÈRE 1850-1891
 Charles LAW de LAURISTON-BOUBERS, baron de Lauriston de Boubers 1825-1909 Married 9 April 1856 to Marie de BOUBERS-ABBEVILLE 1832-1904 with :
 Emmanuel LAW de LAURISTON-BOUBERS, marquis 1857-1922
• Elisabeth LAW de LAURISTON-BOUBERS 1861-1888
 Olivier LAW de LAURISTON-BOUBERS, baron 1865-1941
Siblings
 Jean LAW de LAURISTON, Chevalier de Saint-Louis 1719-1797
o Rebecca Louise LAW de LAURISTON 1720-
• Jeanne Marie LAW de LAURISTON 1722-
 Jacques François Le Chevalier Law LAW de LAURISTON, comte de Tancarville 1724-1767
 Elisabeth Jeanne LAW de LAURISTON 1725-1799
o Georges LAW de LAURISTON ca 1726

Jacques Louis Law de Clapernon
Baron de Clapernon
• Born 8 August 1758 - Pondichéry (Inde)
• Gouverneur de Mahé
Parents
• Jacques François Le Chevalier Law LAW de LAURISTON, comte de Tancarville 1724-1767 (Comte de Tancarville)
• Marie de CARVALHO
Spouses, children and grandchildren
o Married to Louise YVON with
 Joseph Amédée Geneviève Saint Caprais LAW de CLAPERNON 1805 Married 24 February 1829, Toulon (83), to Rose Françoise Suzanne DEINSA †1831 with
• Jacques Armand Edouard LAW de CLAPERNON 1831 Married to Eudoxie FALLOFIELD 1831
Joseph Amédée Geneviève Saint Caprais LAW de CLAPERNON 1805 Married 7 January 1832, Pondichéry (Inde), to Marie Françoise Emma MONNIER with
• Pauline LAW de CLAPERNON 1832 Married 5 July 1847, Pondichéry (Inde), to John HOLROYD-DOVETON 1823
Siblings
 Marie Joséphine LAW de LAURISTON 1752
 Jacques Louis LAW de CLAPERNON, Baron de Clapernon 1758

Jacques François Law
Jacques François LAW de LAURISTON Le Chevalier Law
comte de Tancarville
• Born 20 January 1724
• Deceased in 1767, aged 43 years old
• Comte de Tancarville
Parents
• Guillaume LAW de LAURISTON, baron de Lauriston †1752 (Directeur de la Compagnie des Indes et associé de son frère.)
o Rebecca DESVES de PERCY (De l'illustre maison de Percy, comtes et ducs de Northumberland)
Spouses, children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren
• Married 22 February 1751, Pondichéry (Inde), to Marie de CARVALHO (Parents : Alexandre de CARVALHO †/1767 & Jeanne de SAINT-HILAIRE) with
 Marie Joséphine LAW de LAURISTON 1752 Married 19 October 1767, Pondichéry (Inde), to Louis de BRUNO, maire de Saint-Germain-en-Laye †1814 with
 Général-baron Adrien de BRUNO, Baron Bruno 1771-1861 Married to Jacynthe Agnès Fernande de FOLARD 1775-1866 with :
 Edouard Hubert Joseph de BRUNO, baron Bruno 1802-1870
 Adrienne de BRUNO 1816
 Jacques Louis LAW de CLAPERNON, Baron de Clapernon 1758 Married to Louise YVON with
 Joseph Amédée Geneviève Saint Caprais LAW de CLAPERNON 1805 Married 24 February 1829, Toulon (83), to Rose Françoise Suzanne DEINSA †1831 with :
• Jacques Armand Edouard LAW de CLAPERNON 1831
Joseph Amédée Geneviève Saint Caprais LAW de CLAPERNON 1805 Married 7 January 1832, Pondichéry (Inde), to Marie Françoise Emma MONNIER with :
• Pauline LAW de CLAPERNON 1832
Siblings
Jean LAW de LAURISTON, Chevalier de Saint-Louis 1719-1797
o Rebecca Louise LAW de LAURISTON 1720-
• Jeanne Marie LAW de LAURISTON 1722-
 Jacques François Le Chevalier Law LAW de LAURISTON, comte de Tancarville 1724-1767
 Elisabeth Jeanne LAW de LAURISTON 1725-1799
o Georges LAW de LAURISTON ca 1726

William Law of Lauriston
Guillaume LAW de LAURISTON
(William LAW de LAURISTON)
baron de Lauriston
• Deceased in 1752
• Directeur de la Compagnie des Indes et associé de son frère.
Parents
• William LAW of BRUNTON, baron de Lauriston †1684 (Propriétaire de Lauriston Castle. banquier à Édimbourg.)
• Jeanne CAMPBELL (Fille du clan Campbell des ducs d'ARGYLL.)
Spouses, children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren
o Married 3 July 1716, Londres (Royaume-Uni), to Rebecca DESVES de PERCY,
De l'illustre maison de Percy, comtes et ducs de Northumberland
with
 Jean LAW de LAURISTON, Chevalier de Saint-Louis 1719-1797 Married in March 1755 to Jeanne de CARVALHO 1735-1805 with
 Jeanne LAW de LAURISTON 1756-1830 Married in 1777 to Charles Antoine de LOPEZ de la FARE with :
 Anne Jeanne Marie Françoise de LOPEZ-LAFARE †1805
o Anne LAW de LAURISTON 1761-1762
o Jean LAW de LAURISTON 1765-1765
o Jean Guillaume LAW de LAURISTON 1766-
 Jacques Alexandre Bernard LAW de LAURISTON, Marquis de Lauriston 1768-1828 Married in 1789 to Antoinette Claudine Julie Le DUC, Châtelain de Soisy-sur-Seine 1772-1873 with :
 Auguste Jean Alexandre LAW de LAURISTON, voir légion d'honneur (Grand officier) 1790-1860
 Coralie LAW de LAURISTON 1800-1891
o Napoléon Adolphe LAW de LAURISTON 1805-1867
o François Jean LAW de LAURISTON †1822
 Charles Louis LAW de LAURISTON, voir receveurs généraux 1769-1849 Married to Agnès de BOUBERS-ABBEVILLE 1785-1816 with :
 Augusta Hyacinthe LAW de LAURISTON 1814-1897
o Joseph Charles LAW de LAURISTON 1770-
 Louis Georges LAW de LAURISTON, voir receveurs généraux 1773-1834 Married in 1806 to Agnès de VERNETY 1785-1871 with :
 Gustave LAW de LAURISTON, Voir légion d'honneur (Commandeur) 1806-1882
o Georges LAW de LAURISTON 1808-
o Olivier LAW de LAURISTON, Voir légion d'honneur (Chevalier) 1809-1859
 Marie-Blanche (Malcy) LAW de LAURISTON 1811-1885
 Hyacinthe LAW de LAURISTON, comte 1816-
• Valentine LAW de LAURISTON 1820-
 Marguerite Amélie LAW de LAURISTON 1823-1894
 Charles LAW de LAURISTON-BOUBERS, baron de Lauriston de Boubers 1825-1909
o Rebecca Louise LAW de LAURISTON 1720-
• Jeanne Marie LAW de LAURISTON 1722- Married 6 February 1743 to Jean Jacques de La COUR, comte
 Jacques François Le Chevalier Law LAW de LAURISTON, comte de Tancarville 1724-1767 Married 22 February 1751, Pondichéry (Inde), to Marie de CARVALHO with
 Marie Joséphine LAW de LAURISTON 1752 Married 19 October 1767, Pondichéry (Inde), to Louis de BRUNO, maire de Saint-Germain-en-Laye †1814 with :
 Général-baron Adrien de BRUNO, Baron Bruno 1771-1861
 Jacques Louis LAW de CLAPERNON, Baron de Clapernon 1758 Married to Louise YVON with :
 Joseph Amédée Geneviève Saint Caprais LAW de CLAPERNON 1805
 Elisabeth Jeanne LAW de LAURISTON 1725-1799 Married in 1744 to François Xavier de BOISSEROLLE, sgr de Boisvilliers 1713-1793 with
o Jeanne de BOISSEROLLE
• Marie Anne de BOISSEROLLE 1739-1825 Married before 1789 to Louis Alexandre,baron d'Albignac d'Arre d'ALBIGNAC, Baron d'Albignac d'Arre 1739-1825
• Eulalie Catherine Jacques de BOISSEROLLE 1760-1833 Married in 1777 to Jean François Xavier de MÉNARD
 Jean Aurèle de BOISSEROLLE, voir Légion d'honneur (Officier) 1764-1829 Married in 1794 to Marguerite d'ASTANIÈRES 1775-1846 with :
 Aimée de BOISSEROLLE
• Joseph Aurèle de BOISSEROLLE 1801-1848
• Rosalie Rebecca Dorothée de BOISSEROLLE Married in 1791 to Jean David AIGOIN, sgr de L'Euzière 1753-1840
o Georges LAW de LAURISTON ca 1726
Siblings
 John LAW de LAURISTON, Comte de Valençay 1671-1729
 André LAW of LAURISTON
 Guillaume LAW de LAURISTON, baron de Lauriston †1752
o Robert LAW of LAURISTON
o Hugues LAW of LAURISTON
• Jeanne LAW of LAURISTON
o Janet LAW of LAURISTON
• Agnes LAW of LAURISTON
o Lilias LAW of LAURISTON

William Law of Brunton, Baron of Lauriston
William LAW of BRUNTON
D’hermines à la bande de gueules accompagnée de deux coqs d’azur
baron de Lauriston, Châtelain de Lauriston
• Deceased in 1684
• Propriétaire de Lauriston Castle. banquier à Édimbourg.
Parents
• James LAW of BRUNTON, baron de Brunton (Major d'un régiment.)
• Margareth PRESTON de PRESTONHALL
Spouses, children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren
• Married to Jeanne CAMPBELL,
Fille du clan Campbell des ducs d'ARGYLL.
(Parents : Dugald CAMPBELL & Annabella HAMILTON) with
 John LAW de LAURISTON, Comte de Valençay 1671-1729 Married in 1701 to Katherine KNOLLYS †1747 with
• Mary Katherine LAW of LAURISTON 1712-1790 Married to William, viscount Wallingford KNOLLYS, vicomte 1694-1740
o John LAW de LAURISTON
 André LAW of LAURISTON Married in 1695 to Bethia de MELVIL with
 Edmund, évêque de Carlisle, LAW of BRUNTON 1703-1787 Married to Mary CHRISTIAN 1722-1762 with :
• Mary LAW of BRUNTON 1744-1768
 Ewan LAW of BRUNTON 1747-1829
 Edward, 1er lord Ellenborough, LAW, baron Ellenborough 1750-1818
 Joanna LAW of BRUNTON 1753-1823
 George, évêque de Bath et Wells, LAW of BRUNTON 1761-1845
 Mungo of Pittilock LAW of BRUNTON Married to Isobel MAKGILL with :
 Mungo of Pittilock LAW of BRUNTON †1800
 Guillaume LAW de LAURISTON, baron de Lauriston †1752 Married 3 July 1716, Londres (Royaume-Uni), to Rebecca DESVES de PERCY with
 Jean LAW de LAURISTON, Chevalier de Saint-Louis 1719-1797 Married in March 1755 to Jeanne de CARVALHO 1735-1805 with :
 Jeanne LAW de LAURISTON 1756-1830
o Anne LAW de LAURISTON 1761-1762
o Jean LAW de LAURISTON 1765-1765
o Jean Guillaume LAW de LAURISTON 1766-
 Jacques Alexandre Bernard LAW de LAURISTON, Marquis de Lauriston 1768-1828
o François Jean LAW de LAURISTON †1822
 Charles Louis LAW de LAURISTON, voir receveurs généraux 1769-1849
o Joseph Charles LAW de LAURISTON 1770-
 Louis Georges LAW de LAURISTON, voir receveurs généraux 1773-1834
o Rebecca Louise LAW de LAURISTON 1720-
• Jeanne Marie LAW de LAURISTON 1722- Married 6 February 1743 to Jean Jacques de La COUR, comte
 Jacques François Le Chevalier Law LAW de LAURISTON, comte de Tancarville 1724-1767 Married 22 February 1751, Pondichéry (Inde), to Marie de CARVALHO with :
 Marie Joséphine LAW de LAURISTON 1752
 Jacques Louis LAW de CLAPERNON, Baron de Clapernon 1758
 Elisabeth Jeanne LAW de LAURISTON 1725-1799 Married in 1744 to François Xavier de BOISSEROLLE, sgr de Boisvilliers 1713-1793 with :
o Jeanne de BOISSEROLLE
• Marie Anne de BOISSEROLLE 1739-1825
• Eulalie Catherine Jacques de BOISSEROLLE 1760-1833
 Jean Aurèle de BOISSEROLLE, voir Légion d'honneur (Officier) 1764-1829
• Rosalie Rebecca Dorothée de BOISSEROLLE
o Georges LAW de LAURISTON ca 1726
o Robert LAW of LAURISTON
o Hugues LAW of LAURISTON
• Jeanne LAW of LAURISTON Married to John HAY of LATHAM
o Janet LAW of LAURISTON
• Agnes LAW of LAURISTON Married to J., Lord HAMILTON
o Lilias LAW of LAURISTON
Siblings
• James LAW of BRUNTON, sieur de Brunton
 William LAW of BRUNTON, baron de Lauriston †1684

-- by Geneanet, org


Jean Law de Lauriston
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 7/30/21

Baron Jean Law de Lauriston, was born on October 5, 1719 in Paris. He was twice Governor General of Pondicherry. Not much is known about his life, but his contributions to the French Colonial Empire are notable.

Law was a nephew of the financier John Law, who had founded the Banque Générale and in 1719 had helped re-finance the French Indies companies.[1] Jean Law was a contemporary of Alivardi Khan who says about him that, "He saw with equal indignation and surprise the progress of the French and the English on the Coromandel Coast as well as in the Deccan."

Jean Law’s son was soldier and diplomat Jacques Lauriston.

In 1765

When in 1765 the town of Pondicherry was returned to France after a peace treaty with England, Pondicherry was in ruins. Jean Law de Lauriston, then Governor General set to rebuild the town on the old foundations and after five months 200 European and 2000 Tamil houses had been erected.

Transfer of Yanaon

Another significant event in the life of Lauriston was the re-transfer of Yanam to the French. A document dated 15 May 1765 showed that the villages of Yanam and Kapulapalem, with certain other lands, had been ceded by John White Hill and George Dolben. These two were Englishmen acting as agents for Jean Pybus, the head of the English settlement in Masulipatam. They had negotiated a deal (for taking over the villages) with Jean-Jacques Panon, the French Commissioner, who was Jean Law de Lauriston's deputy when he was Governor General of Pondicherry. The 1765 document mentions that France entered into possession of Yanam and its dependent territories with exemption from all export and import duties.

Memoire of 1767

Image
Jean Law's Memoire: Mémoires sur quelques affaires de l’Empire Mogol 1756-1761 contains detailed information about the campaign of the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II and his French allies against the British East India Company.[2]

Jean Law de Lauriston wrote Mémoires sur quelques affaires de l’Empire Mogol 1756-1761 which can be found in "Libraires de la Société de l'histoire des colonies françaises" Paris.

He stated in his "Memoire of 1767" as “It is from Yanam that we get out best ‘guiness’ (fine cloth). It is possible to have a commerce here worth more than a million livres per year under circumstances more favorable than those in which we are placed now, but always by giving advances much earlier, which we have never been in a position to do. From this place we also procured teakwood, oils rice and other grains both for the men as well as for the animals. Apart from commerce, Yanam enjoyed another kind of importance. The advantages which may be derived in a time of war from the alliances that we the French may conclude with several Rajas who sooner or later cannot fail to be dissatisfied with the English. Although the English gained an effective control over the Circars, Yanam enabled the French to enter into secret relations with the local chieftains. Yanam had some commercial importance".

Death

He died in Paris on July 16, 1797. There is a village in his name in Puducherry which is still today called as "Lawspet".

His son, Jacques Lauriston, became a general in the French army during the Napoleonic Wars.

References

1. William Dalrymple The Anarchy: The Relentless Rise of The East India Company, Bloomsbury Publishing, 2019, p.48.
2. "YouTube". http://www.youtube.com.
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Re: Freda Bedi Cont'd (#3)

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Part 2 of 2

John Law (economist)
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 7/30/21

Image
John Law, by Casimir Balthazar
Born: 21 April 1671, Edinburgh, Kingdom of Scotland
Died: 21 March 1729 (aged 57), Venice, Republic of Venice
Occupation: Economist, banker, financier, author, controller-general of finances

John Law (pronounced [lɑs] in French in the traditional approximation of Laws, the colloquial Scottish form of the name;[1][2] baptised 21 April 1671 – 21 March 1729) was a Scottish economist who distinguished money, a means of exchange, from national wealth dependent on trade. He served as Controller General of Finances under the Duke of Orleans, who was regent for the juvenile Louis XV of France. In 1716, Law set up a private Banque Générale in France. A year later it was nationalised at his request and renamed as Banque Royale. The private bank had been funded mainly by John Law and Louis XV; three-quarters of its capital consisted of government bills and government-accepted notes, effectively making it the nation's first central bank. Backed only partially by silver, it was a fractional reserve bank. Law also set up and directed the Mississippi Company, funded by the Banque Royale. Its chaotic collapse has been compared to the 17th-century tulip mania in Holland.[3] The Mississippi bubble coincided with the South Sea bubble in England, which allegedly took ideas from it. Law as a gambler would win card games by mentally calculating odds. He originated ideas such as the scarcity theory of value[4] and the real bills doctrine.[5] He held that money creation stimulated an economy, paper money was preferable to metal, and dividend-paying shares a superior form of money.[6] The term "millionaire" was coined for beneficiaries of Law's scheme.[7][8]

Early years

Image
Money and trade considered, with a proposal for supplying the Nation with money, 1934 French translation of 1712 English edition

Law was born into a family of Lowland Scots bankers and goldsmiths from Fife; his father, William, had purchased Lauriston Castle, a landed estate at Cramond on the Firth of Forth and was known as Law of Lauriston. On leaving the High School of Edinburgh, Law joined the family business at the age of 14 and studied the banking business until his father died in 1688. He subsequently neglected the firm in favour of extravagant pursuits and travelled to London, where he lost large sums by gambling.[9]

On 9 April 1694, John Law fought a duel with another British dandy, Edward "Beau" Wilson, in Bloomsbury Square, London.[10] Wilson had challenged Law over the affections of Elizabeth Villiers. Law killed Wilson with a single pass and thrust of his sword.[10] He was arrested, charged with murder and stood trial at the Old Bailey.[10] He appeared before the infamously sadistic "hanging judge" Salathiel Lovell and was found guilty of murder and sentenced to death.[10] He was initially incarcerated in Newgate Prison to await execution.[10] His sentence was later commuted to a fine, on the grounds that the killing only amounted to manslaughter. Wilson's brother appealed and had Law imprisoned, but he managed to escape to Amsterdam.[9]

Career

Economic theory and practice


Image
Portrait of John Law by Alexis Simon Belle

Law urged the establishment of a national bank to create and increase instruments of credit and the issue of banknotes backed by land, gold, or silver. The first manifestation of Law's system came when he had returned to Scotland and contributed to the debates leading to the Treaty of Union 1707. He wrote a pamphlet entitled Two Overtures Humbly Offered to His Grace John Duke of Argyll, Her Majesties High Commissioner, and the Right Honourable the Estates of Parliament (1705)[11][12] which foreshadowed the ideas he would propose for establishing new systems of finance, paper money and refinancing the national debt in a subsequent tract entitled Money and Trade Considered: with a Proposal for Supplying the Nation with Money (1705).[13][14]:136 Law's propositions of creating a national bank in Scotland were ultimately rejected, and he left to pursue his ambitions abroad.[15]

He spent ten years moving between France and the Netherlands, dealing in financial speculations. Problems with the French economy presented the opportunity to put his system into practice.

He had the idea of abolishing minor monopolies and private farming of taxes. He would create a bank for national finance and a state company for commerce, ultimately to exclude all private revenue. This would create a huge monopoly of finance and trade run by the state, and its profits would pay off the national debt. The council called to consider Law's proposal, including financiers such as Samuel Bernard, rejected the proposition on 24 October 1715.[14]:141

Law made his home in Place Louis-le-Grand, a royal square where he hosted and entertained various Parisian nobles. Gaining the attention of such notable people as the Duke of Orleans, Law quickly found himself a regular in high-stakes gambling parties attended by only the most affluent of Paris. His tall stature and elegant dress allowed Law to charm his way across Europe's financial hubs, from Amsterdam to Venice. These travels heavily influenced Law's theories on monetary policy and the importance of paper money as credit. Law's idea of a centralised bank which would deal in a new form of paper money was years ahead of its time. Despite this forward concept, Law still championed mercantilist beliefs with the promotion of monopolistic companies through government charters.[16]

The wars waged by Louis XIV left the country completely wasted, both economically and financially. The resultant shortage of precious metals led to a shortage of coins in circulation, which in turn limited the production of new coins. With the death of Louis XIV seventeen months after Law's arrival, the Duke of Orleans finally presented Law with the opportunity to display his ingenuity. Since, following the devastating War of the Spanish Succession, France's economy was stagnant and her national debt was crippling, Law proposed to stimulate industry by replacing gold with paper credit and then increasing the supply of credit, and to reduce the national debt by replacing it with shares in economic ventures.[17] On 1 May 1716, Law presented a modified version of his centralised bank plan to the Banque Générale which approved a private bank that allowed investors to supply one-fourth of an investment in currency and the other parts in defunct government bonds. The second key feature of the proposal centred on the premise that this private bank was able to issue its own currency backed by Louis of gold. This enabled the currency to be redeemed by the weight of silver from the original deposit instead of the fluctuating value of the livre, which had been devaluing rapidly.[18]:277

In May 1716 Law set up the Banque Générale Privée ("General Private Bank"), which developed the use of paper money.[19] It was one of only six such banks to have issued paper money, joining Sweden, England, Holland, Venice, and Genoa.[3] The bank was nationalised in December 1718 at Law's request.[18]:277

From this new banking platform, Law was able to pursue the monopoly companies he envisioned by having France bankroll the endeavour with 100 million livres in the form of company stock. The founding of the Mississippi Company, later renamed the Occident Company and eventually part of the Company of the Indies, was financed in the same way as the bank.

In this context the regent, Philippe d'Orléans, appointed Law as Controller General of Finances in 1720, effectively giving him control over external and internal commerce. The rapid ascension of this new global monopoly led to massive speculation and stock prices ballooned to over sixty times their original value.

As Controller General, Law instituted many beneficial reforms, some of which had lasting effect, while others were soon abolished. He tried to break up large land-holdings to benefit the peasants; he abolished internal road and canal tolls; he encouraged the building of new roads, the starting of new industries (even importing artisans but mostly by offering low-interest loans), and the revival of overseas commerce — and indeed industry increased by 60 per cent in two years, and the number of French ships engaged in export went from 16 to 300.[20]

Law helped in 1719 to refinance the French Indies companies. His nephew, Jean Law de Lauriston, was later Governor-General of Pondicherry.[21]

Mississippi Company

Law became the architect of what would later be known as the Mississippi Bubble, an event that would begin with consolidating the trading companies of Louisiana into a single monopoly (The Mississippi Company), and ended with the collapse of the Banque Générale and subsequent devaluing of the Mississippi Company's shares.

In 1719, the French government allowed Law to issue 50,000 new shares in the Mississippi Company at 500 livres with just 75 livres down and the rest due in seventeen additional monthly payments of 25 livres each. The share price rose to 1,000 livres before the second instalment was even due, and ordinary citizens flocked to Paris to participate.[3]


In October 1719 Law's Company lent the French state 1.5 billion livres at 3 per cent to pay off the national debt, a transaction funded by issuing a further 300,000 shares in the company.[3][22]:919

Between May and December 1719 the market price of a share rose from 500 to 10,000 livres[18]:277 and continued rising into early 1720, supported by Law's 4 per cent dividend promise.[14]:143–4 Under rapidly emerging price inflation,[3] Law sought to hold the share price at 9,000 livres in March 1720, and then on 21 May 1720 to engineer a controlled reduction in the value of both notes and the shares, a measure that was itself reversed six days later.[14]:147[22]:920[23]

As the public rushed to convert banknotes to coin, Law was forced to close the Banque Générale for ten days, then limit the transaction size once the bank reopened. But the queues grew longer, the Mississippi Company stock price continued to fall, and food prices soared by as much as 60 per cent.[3]


The fractional reserve ratio was one fifth,[24] and a Royal edict to criminalise the sale of gold was decreed.[25] A later Royal edict decreed that gold coin was illegal,[26] which was soon reversed,[27] leading to 50 people being killed in a stampede.[28] The company's shares were ultimately rendered worthless, and initially inflated speculation about their worth led to widespread financial stress, which saw Law dismissed at the end of 1720 from his sinecure as Controller General[3] and his post as Chief Director of the Banque Générale.

Downfall

Speculation gave way to panic as people flooded the market with future shares trading as high as 15,000 livres per share, while the shares themselves remained at 10,000 livres each. By May 1720, prices fell to 4,000 livres per share, a 73 per cent decrease within a year. The rush to convert paper money to coins led to sporadic bank hours and riots. Squatters now occupied the square of Palace Louis-le-Grand and openly attacked the financiers that inhabited the area. It was under these circumstances and the cover of night that John Law left Paris some seven months later, leaving all of his substantial property assets in France, including the Place Vendome ...

Image
Place Vendôme, Paris

and at least 21 châteaux which he had purchased over his years in Paris, for the repayment of creditors.

The descent of a relatively unknown man came as fast as his rise, leaving an economic power vacuum. Law's theories live on 300 years later and "captured many key conceptual points which are very much a part of modern monetary theorizing."[29]

Image
Paper money endorsed by John Law, 1718.

Image
Contemporary political cartoon of Law from Het Groote Tafereel der Dwaasheid (1720); text reads "Law loquitur. The wind is my treasure, cushion, and foundation. Master of the wind, I am master of life, and my wind monopoly becomes straightway the object of idolatry".

Later years

Law moved to Brussels on 22 December 1720 in impoverished circumstances when his properties in France were voluntarily confiscated.[14]:148 He spent the next few years gambling in Rome, Copenhagen and Venice but never regained his former prosperity. Law realised he would never return to France when Orléans died suddenly in 1723 and Law was granted permission to return to London, having been pardoned in 1719. He lived in London for four years and then moved to Venice, where he contracted pneumonia and died poor in 1729.[14]:150

Cultural references

Sharon Condie and Richard Condie's 1978 National Film Board of Canada (NFB) animated short John Law and the Mississippi Bubble is a humorous interpretation. The film was produced by the NFB at its newly opened Winnipeg studio. It opened in Canadian cinemas starting in September 1979 and was sold to international broadcasters. The film received an award at the Tampere Film Festival.[30]

John Law is the focus of Rafael Sabatini's 1949 novel "The Gamester".[31]

John Law is referenced in Voltaire's 'Dictionnaire Philosophique', as part of the entry on reason.[32]

See also

• Early modern France
• Assignat, a bank note system of the French Revolution

References

1. Espinasse, Francis (1892). "Law, John (1671-1729)" . In Lee, Sidney (ed.). Dictionary of National Biography. 32. London: Smith, Elder & Co. pp. 230–234.
2. Estudes Romanes Dediees a Gaston Paris (in French). Slatkine. 1976. pp. 487 to 506, especially p. 501.
3. "Crisis Chronicles: The Mississippi Bubble of 1720 and the European Debt Crisis -Liberty Street Economics". libertystreeteconomics.newyorkfed.org.
4. Geman, Helyette (29 December 2014). Agricultural Finance: From Crops to Land, Water and Infrastructure. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9781118827369.
5. Humphrey, Thomas M. (1982). "The Real Bills Doctrine" (PDF). Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond Economic Review: 5. Retrieved 15 January 2019.
6. "Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, The Life and Times of Nicolas Dutot, November 2009"(PDF).
7. Murphy, Antoine (1997). John Law: Economic Theorist and Policy-maker. Clarendon Press. p. 3. ISBN 9780198286493.
8. Henriques, Diana (23 July 2000). "A Big Idea About Money". New York Times. Retrieved 30 January 2019.
9. Mackay, Charles (1848). "1.3". Memoirs of Extraordinary Popular Delusions and the Madness of Crowds. London: Office of the National Illustrated Library.
10. Adams, Gavin John (2012). Letters to John Law. Newton Page. pp. xiv, xxi, liii. ISBN 978-1934619087.
11. Law, John (1705). Two Overtures Humbly Offered to His Grace John Duke of Argyll, Her Majesties High Commissioner, and the Right Honourable the Estates of Parliament. Edinburgh.
12. Patterson, William (1750). The Writings of William Paterson ... Founder of the Bank of England, Volume 2. London: Effingham Wilson (published 1858). Retrieved 28 January 2021.
13. Law, John (1750). Money and Trade Consider'd with a Proposal for Supplying the Nation with Money, First Published in Edinburgh in 1705. Glasgow: A. Foulis. Retrieved 26 June 2015. via Internet Archive
14. Buchan, James (1997). Frozen Desire: An inquiry into the meaning of money. Picador. ISBN 0-330-35527-9.
15. Collier's Encyclopedia (Book 14): "Law, John", p. 384. P. F. Collier Inc., 1978.
16. Robert, Harms. The Diligent: A Voyage through the Worlds of the Slave Trade. pp. 43–54.
17. Antoin E Murphy (1997). John Law. Oxford U. Press. p. 105. ISBN 9780198286493.
18. Velde, François R. (May 2007). "John Law's System". American Economic Review. 97 (2): 276–279. doi:10.1257/aer.97.2.276. JSTOR 30034460.
19. Roger Backhouse, Economists and the economy: the evolution of economic ideas, Transaction Publishers, 1994, ISBN 978-1-56000-715-9, p. 118.
20. Will and Ariel Durant, The Age of Voltaire, Simon & Schuster, 1965, p. 13.
21. William Dalrymple The Anarchy: The Relentless Rise of The East India Company, Bloomsbury Publishing, 2019.
22. Lande, Lawrence; Congdon, Tim (January 1991). "John Law and the invention of paper money". RSA Journal. 139 (5414): 916–928. JSTOR 41375433.
23. Hayek, F A (1991). The Trend of Economic Thinking. Liberty Fund. p. 162. ISBN 9780865977426.
24. "John Law and the Mississippi Company" (5:55 of 9:44)
25. "John Law and the Mississippi Company" (6:45 of 9:44)
26. "John Law and the Mississippi Company" (7:35 of 9:44)
27. "John Law and the Mississippi Company" (7:55 of 9:44)
28. "John Law and the Mississippi Company" (8:00 of 9:44)
29. Antoin E Murphy (1997). John Law. Oxford U. Press. p. 1. ISBN 9780198286493.
30. Ohayon, Albert. "John Law and the Mississippi Bubble: The Madness of Crowds". NFB.ca Blog. National Film Board of Canada. Retrieved 22 June 2011.
31. Match, Richard (4 September 1949). "Economic Swordplay; THE GAMESTER. By Rafael Sabatini". New York Times. Retrieved 23 March 2021.
32. "The Project Gutenberg eBook of Voltaire's Philosophical Dictionary". http://www.gutenberg.org.

Further reading

Non-fiction


• Adams, Gavin John (2017). John Law: The Lauriston Lecture and Collected Writings. Newton Page. ISBN 9781934619155.. Includes the entire first lecture on the life of John Law to be delivered by the author at Law's ancestral home of Lauriston Castle, and other accounts of John Law's life and the Mississippi Scheme by some of the most popular writers of the last 250 years, including: Bram Stoker; Washington Irving, Charles Mackay; Adam Smith; and Voltaire.
• Adams, Gavin John (2012). Letters to John Law. Newton Page. ISBN 9781934619087.. A collection of early eighteenth-century political propagandist pamphlets documenting the hysteria surrounding John Law's return to Britain after the collapse of his Mississippi Scheme and expulsion from France. It also contains a very useful chronology and extensive biographical introduction to John Law and the Mississippi Scheme.
• Buchan, James (2018). John Law: A Scottish Adventurer of the Eighteenth Century. MacLehose Press. p. 528. ISBN 9781848666078.. A biography/memoir of John Law's life and how he built his way to becoming an "economist abroad" in France, yet oversaw a debilitating bank run/financial crisis in the early 18th century.[1]
• Defoe, Daniel (2013). John Law and the Mississippi Scheme: An Anthology. Newton Page. ISBN 978-1934619070.. Contains Defoe's contemporary accounts of the euphoria and excess of the first ever stock market boom unleashed by John Law and his Mississippi Scheme and his remarkable insight into the European economic crises of the 1720s. It includes: The Chimera (1720), The Case of Mr. Law Truly Stated (1721), and Selected Journalism (1719-1722).
• Gleeson, Janet (2001). Millionaire: The Philanderer, Gambler, and Duelist Who Invented Modern Finance. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0684872957.
• Hyde, H. Montgomery (1948). John Law: The History of an Honest Adventurer. Home & Van Thal.. A post-war account of John Law.
• Lanchester, John, "The Invention of Money: How the heresies of two bankers became the basis of our modern economy", The New Yorker, 5 & 12 August 2019, pp. 28–31.
• Mackay, Charles (1841). Extraordinary Popular Delusions and the Madness of Crowds. Richard Bentley.. A negative account of John Law.
• Minton, Robert (1975). John Law: The Father of Paper Money. Association Press. ISBN 978-0809619047.
• Murphy, Antoin E. (1997). John Law: Economic Theorist and Policy-Maker. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198286493.. The most extensive account of Law's writings. It is given credit for restoring the reputation of Law as an important economic theorist.
• Pollard, S. "John Law and the Mississippi Bubble." History Today (Sept 1953) 3#9 pp 622–630.
• Thiers, Adolphe (2011). The Mississippi Bubble: A Memoir of John Law. Newton Page Classics. ISBN 978-1934619056.. An account of the euphoria and wealth John Law created by engineering the first stock market boom, and the despair, poverty and destroyed lives that followed its crash.
• Velde, Francois R. (2003) Government Equity and Money: John Law's System in 1720 France. Available at SSRN: Government Equity and Money: John Law's System in 1720 France or Government Equity and Money: John Law's System in 1720 France

Fiction/satire

• Anonymous (1720). Het Groote Tafereel der Dwaasheid. Amsterdam. A contemporary satire on the financial crisis in 1720
• Ainsworth, William Harrison (1864). John Law: the Protector. London: Chapman and Hall. A fictionalised biography
• Sabatini, Rafael (1949). The Gamester. Houghton Mifflin.. A sympathetic fictionalised account of Law's career as financial adviser to the Duke of Orléans, Regent under Louis XV.
• Greig, David (1999). The Speculator. Methuen. ISBN 978-0413743107. A costume drama based on John Law's life

External links

• John Law
• Project Gutenberg Edition of Fiat Money Inflation in France: How ...
• John Law: Proto-Keynesian, by Murray Rothbard
• Texts on Wikisource:
o "Law, John". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911.
o "Law, John". The New Student's Reference Work. 1914.
• John Law collection at The Historic New Orleans Collection

1. "The rise and fall of an alchemical Scottish economist". 13 September 2018 – via The Economist.


Mississippi Company
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 7/30/21

Not to be confused with Compagnie de l'Occident.

Mississippi Company
Type: Public
Industry: International trade
Founded: 1684
Defunct: 1721
Headquarters: France

Image
View of the camp of John Law at Biloxi, December 1720

The Mississippi Company (French: Compagnie du Mississippi; founded 1684, named the Company of the West from 1717, and the Company of the Indies from 1719[1]) was a corporation holding a business monopoly in French colonies in North America and the West Indies. The rise and fall of the company is connected with the activities of the Scottish financier and economist John Law who was then the Controller General of Finances of France. When the speculation in French financial circles, and the land development in the region became frenzied and detached from economic reality, the Mississippi bubble became one of the earliest examples of an economic bubble.

History

Image
John Senex's map (1721), with a dedication to William Law, probably a relative of John Law (possibly his brother), who bore much of the blame for the financial panic known as the "Mississippi Bubble".

The Compagnie du Mississippi was originally chartered in 1684 by the request of Renee-Robert Cavelier (La Salle) who sailed in that year from France with a large expedition with the intention of founding a colony at the mouth of the Mississippi.[2] But the expedition wasn't successful. They actually founded a settlement in the vicinity of present-day Victoria, Texas, but it didn't last very long.[3]

In May 1716, the Scottish economist John Law, who had been appointed Controller General of Finances of France under the Duke of Orléans, created the Banque Générale Privée ("General Private Bank"). It was the first financial institution to develop the use of paper money.[4][5][6] It was a private bank, but three-quarters of the capital consisted of government bills and government-accepted notes. In August 1717, Law bought the Mississippi Company to help the French colony in Louisiana. In the same year Law conceived a joint-stock trading company called the Compagnie d'Occident (The Mississippi Company, or, literally, "Company of [the] West"). Law was named the Chief Director of this new company, which was granted a trade monopoly of the West Indies and North America by the French government.[7]

Banque Royale

The bank became the Banque Royale (Royal Bank) in 1718, meaning the notes were guaranteed by the king, Louis XV of France. The company absorbed the Compagnie des Indes Orientales ("Company of the East Indies"), the Compagnie de Chine ("Company of China"), and other rival trading companies and became the Compagnie Perpétuelle des Indes on 23 May 1719 with a monopoly of French commerce on all the seas. Simultaneously, the bank began issuing more notes than it could represent in coinage; this led to a currency devaluation, which was eventually followed by a bank run when the value of the new paper currency was halved.[8]

Image
Representation of the very famous island of Mad-head, lying in the sea of shares, discovered by Mr. Law-rens, and inhabited by a collection of all kinds of people, to whom are given the general name shareholders, 1720.

Mississippi Bubble

Louis XIV's long reign and wars had nearly bankrupted the French monarchy. Rather than reduce spending, the Duke of Orléans, Regent for Louis XV, endorsed the monetary theories of Scottish financier John Law. In 1716, Law was given a charter for the Banque Royale under which the national debt was assigned to the bank in return for extraordinary privileges. The key to the Banque Royale agreement was that the national debt would be paid from revenues derived from opening the Mississippi Valley. The Bank was tied to other ventures of Law – the Company of the West and the Companies of the Indies. All were known as the Mississippi Company. The Mississippi Company had a monopoly on trade and mineral wealth. The Company boomed on paper. Law was given the title Duc d'Arkansas.

Early French colony

In 1699 the French formed the first permanent European settlement in Louisiana (New France), at Fort Maurepas. They were under the direction of Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville.

The first capital of New France from 1702 until 1711 was La Mobile, after which the capital was relocated to the site of present-day Mobile, Alabama.

In 1718, there were only 700 Europeans in Louisiana. Bernard de la Harpe and his party left New Orleans in 1719 to explore the Red River. In 1721, he explored the Arkansas River. At the Yazoo settlements in Mississippi he was joined by Jean Benjamin who became the scientist for the expedition.

The Mississippi Company arranged ships to bring in 800 more settlers, who landed in Louisiana in 1718, doubling the European population. Law encouraged some German-speaking people, including Alsatians and Swiss, to emigrate. They gave their names to the German Coast and the Lac des Allemands in Louisiana.

Prisoners were set free in Paris from September 1719 onwards, and encouraged by Law to marry young women recruited in hospitals.[9] In May 1720, after complaints from the Mississippi Company and the concessioners about this class of French immigrants, the French government prohibited such deportations. However, there was a third shipment of prisoners in 1721.[10]

Speculation

Law exaggerated the wealth of Louisiana with an effective marketing scheme, which led to wild speculation on the shares of the company in 1719. The scheme promised success for the Mississippi Company by combining investor fervor and the wealth of its Louisiana prospects into a sustainable, joint-stock trading company. The popularity of company shares were such that they sparked a need for more paper bank notes, and when shares generated profits the investors were paid out in paper bank notes.[11] In 1720, the bank and company were merged and Law was appointed by Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, then Regent for Louis XV, to be Comptroller General of Finances[12] to attract capital.

Downfall

Law's pioneering note-issuing bank thrived until the French government was forced to admit that the number of paper notes being issued by the Banque Royale exceeded the value of the amount of metal coinage it held.[13]

The market price of company shares eventually reached the peak of 10,000 livres. As the shareholders were selling their shares, the money supply in France suddenly doubled, and the inflation took off. Inflation reached a monthly rate of 23 percent in January 1720.[14]

Opponents of the financier attempted to convert their notes into specie (gold and silver) en masse, forcing the bank to stop payment on its paper notes.[15]

The "bubble" burst at the end of 1720.[14] By September 1720 the price of shares in the company had fallen to 2,000 livres and to 1,000 by December. By September 1721 share prices had dropped to 500 livres, where they had been at the beginning.

By the end of 1720 Philippe d'Orléans had dismissed Law from his positions. Law then fled France for Brussels, eventually moving on to Venice, where he lived off his gambling. He was buried in the church San Moisè in Venice.[8]

See also

• Companies portal
• Richard Cantillon – banker who made an early profit from the company
• South Sea Bubble
• List of trading companies
• European chartered companies founded around the 17th century (in French)

References

1. "The French Period". Jewell's Crescent City Illustrated. Cultural Center of the Inter-American Development Bank. Archived from the original on 9 October 2012. Retrieved 1 July 2013.
2. Bryan Taylor, The Mississippi Bubble, or How the French Eliminated All Their Government Debt (So Why Can’t Bernanke?) globalfinancialdata.com -- October 9, 2013
3. Weddle, Robert S. (30 October 2011). "La Salle's Texas Settlement". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved 4 November 2015.
4. Nevin, Seamus (2013). "Richard cantillon – The Father of Economics". History Ireland. 21 (2): 20–23. JSTOR 41827152.
5. Backhosue, Roger. Economists and the economy: the evolution of economic ideas, Transaction Publishers, 1994, ISBN 978-1-56000-715-9, p. 118
6. http://libertystreeteconomics.newyorkfe ... risis.html NY Federal Reserve: Mississippi Bubble of 1720
7. Bammer, Stuart. Anglo-American Securities Regulation: Cultural and Political Roots, 1690–1860, Cambridge University Press, 2002, ISBN 978-0-521-52113-0, p. 42
8. Sheeran, Paul and Spain, Amber. The international political economy of investment bubbles, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2004, ISBN 978-0-7546-1997-0, p. 95
9. Hardy, Jr., James D. (1966). "The Transportation of Convicts to Colonial Louisiana". The Journal of the Louisiana Historical Association. 7 (3): 207–220. JSTOR 4230908.
10. [1] Cat Island: The History of a Mississippi Gulf Coast Barrier Island, by John Cuevas
11. Beattie, Andrew. "What burst the Mississippi Bubble?" on Investopedia.com (17 June 2009)
12. Mckay, Charles. Extraordinary Popular Delusions and the Madness of Crowds. New York: Noonday Press, 1932, p. 25. First edition published 1841, second edition 1852
13. "Mississippi Company".
14. Moen, Jon (October 2001). "John Law and the Mississippi Bubble: 1718–1720". Mississippi History Now. Archived from the original on 1 March 2016. Retrieved 26 April 2021. Law devalued shares in the company in several stages during 1720, and the value of bank notes was reduced to 50 percent of their face value. ... The fall in the price of stock allowed Law's enemies to take control of the company by confiscating the shares of investors who could not prove they had actually paid for their shares with real assets rather than credit. This reduced investor shares, or shares outstanding, by two-thirds.
15. Davies, Roy and Davies, Glyn. "A Comparative Chronology of Money: Monetary History from Ancient Times to the Present Day: 1700–1749" (1996 and 1999)

Further reading

• Pollard, S. "John Law and the Mississippi Bubble." History Today (Sept 1953) 3#9 pp 622–630.
• Gleeson, Janet (2001). Millionaire: The Philanderer, Gambler, and Duelist Who Invented Modern Finance. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0684872957.

External links

• "Learning from past investment manias" (AME Info FN).
• "Mississippi Scheme" . Collier's New Encyclopedia. 1921.
• "Mississippi Scheme" . New International Encyclopedia. 1905.
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Re: Freda Bedi Cont'd (#3)

Postby admin » Sat Jul 31, 2021 9:00 am

Part 1 of 2

The Teissier de la Tour Family
by Various Sources

"In relation to his Translation, it was made by the orders of Mr. Barthelemi, First Counselor in Pondicherry. Having a great number of interpreters for him, he had them translate some Indian works with all possible accuracy: but the wars of India & the ruin of Pondicherry resulted in the loss of all that he had gathered on these objects: and only the last translation of Zozur, of which only one complete copy remains, between the hands of M. Teissier de la Tour nephew of M. leConsr. Barthelemy. It's certain the one that we made the copy that we have in the Library of His Majesty, and which no doubt had not had time to complete when M. de Modave embarked to return to Europe."

I have not been able to gather any information on Tessier -- or Teissier -- de la Tour. Louis Barthelemy is much better known; although his career in India runs parallel to that of Porcher des Oulches, of the two he is the more prominent one and holds the highest offices. His name appears repeatedly in the official documents of the French Company. He was born at Montpellier, circa 1695, came to India in 1729, and stayed there until his death at Pondicherry, on 29 July 1760. He served at Mahe, was a member of the council at Chandernagore, and was called to Pondicherry in 1742. His duties at Pondicherry were twice interrupted in later years: in 1748 he was appointed governor of Madras, and in 1753-54 he preceded Porcher as commander of Karikal. He rose to the rank of "second du Conseil Superieur," and in the short period in 1755, between the departure of Godeheu and the arrival of de Leyrit, Barthelemy's name appears first on all official documents.
It should perhaps be mentioned, first, that on 22 February 1751 Barthelemy represented the father of the bride at the wedding of Jacques Law -- Dupleix was the witness for the bridegroom --, and second, that on 8 August 1758 he was godfather of Jacques Louis Law. These two entries seem to suggest that he was indeed close to the Law family, whose interpreter has been given credit for the translation of the EzV (see p. 28). It should also be pointed out that Barthelemy died more than half a year after Maudave -- and the EzV -- reached Lorient on 2 February 1760.

-- The Ezourvedam Manuscripts, Excerpt from Ezourvedam: A French Veda of the Eighteenth Century, Edited with an Introduction by Ludo Rocher


Monday, [28th July 1738, or] 16th Adi of Kalayukti.The St. Geran was got in readiness this evening, to proceed to Karikal. On board were M. Aubin, the captain of the vessel, M. de la Tour the commander of the troops, M. Roussel the Chief Major, Lieutenant Coquelin, and a party of 100 soldiers. M. Delarche and M. St. Gille — the latter being a half caste — also embarked to perform the duties of accountants at Karikal. A party of bricklayers, carpenters, and sawyers — sixty or seventy in number — was shipped in the evening, together with a supply of bricks, lime, and building tools of various kinds, such as spades and saws. The ship got under weigh, and the sails were set, but the breeze dying away, she was again brought to an anchor.

The Diary of Ananda Ranga Pillai, translated from the Tamil by Order of the Government of Madras, edited by Sir J. Frederick Price, KCSI., Late of the Indian Civil Service, Assisted by K. Rangachari, B.A., Superintendent of Records, Government Secretariat, Fort St. George, Volume 1, 1904


That the crowning of the decorated pot symbolizes a "recapitulation" is also suggested by a smallpox healing rite witnessed in 1709 by the French missionary, Jean-Jacques Tessier de Queralay, in Pondichery. Apparently this ritual was performed to placate Mariamma, the smallpox goddess who, as we heard in chapter 7, had her head chopped off by her son and reconnected to the body of an Untouchable woman. This is what Tessier observed:

"Carrying on her head a vase filled with water and margosa leaves, and holding in her right hand some leaves of that tree and a rattan cane, a
p. 205 next

-- Religion Against the Self: An Ethnography of Tamil Rituals, by Isabelle Nabokov


The Actors

The Accused

Nayiniyappa: Chief commercial broker to the Compagnie des Indes in Pondichéry, 1708–1716

Nayiniyappa’s Family and Associates

Guruvappa: Nayiniyappa’s eldest son
The Widow Guruvappa: Guruvappa’s wife, Nayiniyappa’s daughter-in-law
Tiruvangadan: A merchant of Madras, and Nayiniyappa’s business associate and brother-in-law
Ramanada: Nayiniyappa’s business associate.
Ananda Ranga Pillai: Nayiniyappa’s nephew, Tiruvangadan’s son, and chief commercial broker to the Compagnie des Indes, 1748–1761.

French Trader-Administrators

Guillaume André Hébert: Governor of Pondichéry 1708–1713; Général de la nation, 1715–1718
Hébert fils: The governor’s son and a junior employee of the Compagnie des Indes
Pierre André Prévost de La Prévostière: Governor of Pondichéry, 1718–1721
Nicolas de La Morandière: Pondichéry councillor, author of several appeals filed by the accused Indians

The Missionaries

Guy Tachard: First superior of the Jesuit mission in Pondichéry
Jean-Venant Bouchet: Second superior of the Jesuit mission in Pondichéry
Père Esprit de Tours: Capuchin missionary and parish priest to Europeans in Pondichéry
Jean-Jacques Tessier de Queralay: Representative of the Missions étrangères de Paris.


The Interpreters

Manuel Geganis: A French-speaking Tamil Christian, son of the Jesuits’ chief catechist (religious interpreter)
Père Turpin: A Tamil-speaking Jesuit missionary
Cordier: A French man born in India to a company employee

-- A Colonial Affair: Commerce, Conversion, and Scandal in French India, by Danna Agmon


If Sylvia Murr’s claim that ‘at the beginning of the eighteenth century, all discourse on India was tributary to the ‘Relations’ supplied by the missionaries, Catholic and Protestant’,1 [‘au debut du 18e siecle, tout discours sur l’lnde etait tributaire des ‘Relations’ foumies paries missionaires, catholiques ou protestants’ Murr 1986: 303.] is somewhat overstated, it nevertheless serves to emphasise the importance of such missionary ‘relations’ prior to the arrival in India of Anquetil-Duperron, who appears to have been the first European to visit India for purely scholarly purposes. Among Protestants, Murr mentions Ziegenbalg and also Lord and Roger, although the latter were not missionaries, nor writing at the beginning of the eighteenth century.

Among Catholics, the main contributors to Indological discourse of the eighteenth century were French, in particular the Jesuits associated with the Carnatic mission, but also the Capuchins Jean-Jacques Tessier de Queralay and Thomas de Poitiers. At the end of the century another French priest, the Abbe Jean-Antoine Dubois, a secular priest of the Missions Etrangeres, was responsible for publishing as his own work one of the most significant works of the earlier generation of French missionaries.2 [Despite being ‘a respected member of the Missions Etrangeres, a body traditionally hostile to the Jesuits’, Dubois’s relations with the Jesuits were good, and he supported the return of the Jesuits to Madurai after the restoration of the Society (Ballhatchet 1998: 3).]

These writers produced a number of significant works on Indian religions, among them the Relation des erreurs qui se trouvent dans la religion des gentils malabars de la Coste Coromandelle3 [A substantial part of the text of the Relation des erreurs qui se trouvent dans la religion des gentils malabars de la Coste Coromandelle was printed in Picart’s Ceremonies et coutumes religieuses de tous les peuples du monde under the title: ‘Dissertation historique sur les Dieux des Indiens orientaux.’ (Picart 1723: 83-100). This is immediately followed by a ‘Lettre de P. Bouchet sur la Religion des Indiens Orientaux’ (Bouchet’s second letter to Huet, XIII: 95-225). A critical edition of the Relation des erreurs from three manuscripts, one of which attributes the work to Nobili was published by Caland (Caland 1923). Dharampal, who has used a fourth manuscript, discusses the origin of the work and its attribution to Bouchet (Dharampal 1982a: 233-239).] of Jean Venant Bouchet, the Traite de la Religion des Malabars4 [Extensive extracts from Tessier de Queralay’s manuscript were published in Bumouf and Jacquet 1835. The full text was published in Dharampal 1982a.] of Tessier de Queralay, Le Paganisme des Indiens nommes Tamouls of Thomas de Poitiers, the Moeurs et Coutumes des Indiens5 [Sylvia Murr identified a manuscript compiled in 1776-1777 by a French artillery officer Nicholas-Jacques Desvaulx as a version of Coeurdoux’s lost work, and has shown that Dubois’s celebrated work, Hindu Manners, Customs and Ceremonies (1816; Mceurs, Institutions et Ceremonies des Peuples de l’lnde, 1825) is based on Coeurdoux (Murr 1987). In his Prefatory note to Beauchamp’s 1906 edition, Friedrich Max Muller noticed that the author of the work ‘really belongs to a period previous to the revival of Sanskrit studies in India, as inaugurated by Wilkins, Sir William Jones and Colebrooke’, although he did not doubt that the author was Dubois.] of Gaston-Laurent Coeurdoux, and the infamous Ezourvedam.6 [Among those to whom the Ezourvedam has been attributed are, in addition to Nobili, five French Jesuits of the eighteenth century: Bouchet (1655-1732), Pierre Martin (1665- 1716), Jean Calmette (1693-1740), Antoine Mosac (1704-C.1784), and Jean de Villette (dates uncertain). Rocher reviews the long debate over the authorship of the Ezourvedam concluding that ‘the author of the [Ezourvedam] may be one of these, but he may also be one of their many more or less well known confreres. In the present state of our knowledge we cannot go any further than that.’ (Rocher 1984: 60). If nothing else, this demonstrates the sheer number of Jesuits who had significant knowledge of Indian languages and religions. The Ezourvedam was published in 1778 as L’Ezour-Vedam, ou Ancien Commentaire du Vedam contenant I’esposition des opinions religieuses & philosophiques des Indiens, but doubts about its authenticity immediately surfaced. Pierre Sonnerat showed it to ‘a learned but fanatic Brahman’ who convinced him that ‘[ i]t is definitely not one of the four Vedams, notwithstanding its name. It is a book of controversy, written by a missionary’ (Voyage aux Indes Orientates (1782) I: 215, cited in Rocher 1984: 13).] However, only the first and the last of these were published in the eighteenth century. Of more immediate impact were the letters of the French Jesuits, published in the Lettres edifiantes et curieuses, the Memoires de l'Academie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres and elsewhere.7 [The letters were widely read, both in the Lettres edifiantes and in other publications, for example in Picart’s collection in which Bouchet’s long, undated letter concerning transmigration (XIII: 95-226) was reprinted (Picart 1723: 100-106). A brief account of the origin, editions and influence of the Lettres edifiantes is given by Retif 1951.] The Jesuit letters from India had been contributing to European knowledge of Indian religions since the sixteenth century.8 [Zachariae goes so far as to say that if Europeans at the end of the 16th and the beginning of the 17th century ‘were tolerably acquainted with ‘Hinduism’, with the religion and mythology of India ... that knowledge was attained through the letters which the Jesuit missionaries labouring in India sent to the members of their Order in Europe.’ (Zachariae 1921: 151). For earlier Jesuit ethnographic contributions see Rubies 2000.] It will be argued, however, that for a number of reasons it was the letters of the eighteenth century which were particularly important in the establishment of the concept of a pan-Indian religion, which subsequently came to be called Hinduism. Although this analysis is based primarily on the letters published in the Lettres edifiantes et curieuses, the other letters, both published and unpublished also played a role, and reference will be made to these and to the other mentioned works on Indian religions by French writers in this period. Among the Jesuits who served in the Madurai, Carnatic and Bengal missions and contributed to the Lettres edifiantes were Jean Venant Bouchet (1655-1732, in India from 1688), Pierre Martin (1665-1716, in India from 1694), Pierre de la Lane (1669- 1746, in India from 1704), Etienne le Gac (1671-1738, in India by 1709), Gaston-Laurent Coeurdoux (1691-1779, in India from 1732), Jean Calmette (1693-1740, in India from 1725 or 1726), Jean Francois Pons (1698-C.1753, in India from 1726).

-- Hinduism in the Jesuit Lettres edifiantes et curieuses, Chapter 7 from "Mapping Hinduism 'Hinduism' and the Study of Indian Religions, 1600-1776," by Will Sweetman, 2003

The first Director General for the [French East India] Company was François de la Faye,...

La Faye was the owner of an extensive art collection, two hotels in Paris, and another in Versailles. When he acquired the ancient château de Condé in 1719, he commissioned the most fashionable artists of his time and the architect Giovanni Niccolò Servandoni for elaborate improvements....

The Marquis was a member of the French Academy, a director of the French India Company, and accordingly, was a very rich man. In his mansion in Paris, he often received such famous people as Voltaire and Crébillon...

At a later date, the castle belonged to the Count de la Tour du Pin Lachaux, through his marriage with the niece of the Marquis de la Faye...

In 1814, the Countess de Sade, the daughter-in-law of the famous Marquis de Sade, inherited Condé from her cousin, La Tour du Pin. Since this time and up to 1983, the castle remained the property of the Sade family, who restored it with much care after the two World Wars.


-- French East India Company, by Wikipedia


Marguerittes (French pronunciation: ​[maʁɡəʁit]; Occitan: Margarida) is a commune in the Gard department in southern France. In 1717, Antoine de Teissier (b.1667) was created the 1st Baron de Marguerittes. One of his sons was a Huguenot who took refuge in Switzerland and his grandson, Jean Antoine de Teissier, 3rd Baron of Marguerittes, was guillotined 20 May 1794. The 3rd Baron's son settled in England at Woodcote Park and was created Baron de Teissier by Louis XVIII in recognition of his father's sacrifices to France.

-- Marguerittes, by Wikipedia


Jean Joseph Marie Augustin Christophe de TEISSIER
baron de Marguerittes, seigneur de Roquecombre, de La Gainé and de Coulons
• Secrétaire du roi, maire de Salles
Parents
• Antoine de TEISSIER, baron de Marguerittes
o Rosalie FARANDA
Spouses, children and grandchildren
o Married to Marie de SALLES with
 Jean Antoine Teissier de Marguerittes de TEISSIER, baron de Marguerittes 1744-1794 Married 20 April 1768 to Thérèse Gabrielle d'AMIELH with
• Esprit Eugène Louis de TEISSIER, baron de Marguerittes 1781- Married in 1806 to Sophronie de VILLARDI 1781-1842

Jean Antoine de TEISSIER Teissier de Marguerittes
(Jean Antoine de TEISSIER)
baron de Marguerittes, voir Guillotinés (25 May 1794)
• Born 30 June 1744 - Nîmes (30)
• Deceased 25 May 1794, aged 49 years old
• Ecrivain, premier maire de Nîmes
Parents
• Jean Joseph Marie Augustin Christophe de TEISSIER, baron de Marguerittes (Secrétaire du roi, maire de Salles)
o Marie de SALLES
Spouses and children
o Married 20 April 1768 to Thérèse Gabrielle d'AMIELH with
• Esprit Eugène Louis de TEISSIER, baron de Marguerittes 1781- Married in 1806 to Sophronie de VILLARDI 1781-1842

Jean Joseph Marie Augustin Christophe de TEISSIER
baron de Marguerittes, seigneur de Roquecombre, de La Gainé and de Coulons
• Secrétaire du roi, maire de Salles
Parents
• Antoine de TEISSIER, baron de Marguerittes
o Rosalie FARANDA
Spouses, children and grandchildren
o Married to Marie de SALLES with
 Jean Antoine Teissier de Marguerittes de TEISSIER, baron de Marguerittes 1744-1794 Married 20 April 1768 to Thérèse Gabrielle d'AMIELH with
• Esprit Eugène Louis de TEISSIER, baron de Marguerittes 1781- Married in 1806 to Sophronie de VILLARDI 1781-1842

Esprit Eugène Louis de TEISSIER
baron de Marguerittes
• Born 25 April 1781 - Nîmes (30)
• Deceased
• Lieutenant colonel d'Etat major
Parents
• Jean Antoine Teissier de Marguerittes de TEISSIER, baron de Marguerittes 1744-1794 (Ecrivain, premier maire de Nîmes)
o Thérèse Gabrielle d'AMIELH
Spouses
• Married in 1806 to Sophronie de VILLARDI, born 14 April 1781 - Nîmes (30), deceased in 1842 aged 61 years old (Parents : Gabriel de VILLARDI de MONTLAUR, marquis de Montlaur †1817 & Marie Marguerite de LOÜET de CALVISSON †1822)

-- by Geneanet.org


Jeanne-Élisabeth Teissier de la Tour (abt. 1742 - abt. 1828)
Jeanne-Élisabeth Teissier de la Tour
Born about 1742 in Switzerland
Daughter of [father unknown] and [mother unknown]
[sibling(s) unknown]
Wife of Barthélemy (Gugi) Gugy — married [date unknown] [location unknown]
DESCENDANTS
Mother of Jean-Georges Barthélemy-Guillaume-Louis Gugy
Died about 1828 in Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Biography:
Jeanne-Élisabeth Teissier de la Tour is the descendant of a Huguenot emigrant.
"Wikipedia: 'Louis Gugy: ...'Colonel Barthélemy Gugy (1737-1797), and his Swiss-French Huguenot wife, Jeanne Elizabeth Teissier de la Tour (who died at an advanced age in Montreal), the granddaughter of Antoine de Teissier (b.1667), 1st Baron of Marguerittes in the Languedoc...'" [1]

Barthélemy (Gugi) Gugy (1737 - 1787)
Col. Barthélemy Gugy formerly Gugi
Born 7 Feb 1737 [location unknown]
Son of Hans George Gugi and Johanna Thérèse Reis
Brother of Conrad (Gugi) Gugy
Husband of Jeanne-Élisabeth Teissier de la Tour — married [date unknown] [location unknown]
DESCENDANTS
Father of Jean-Georges Barthélemy-Guillaume-Louis Gugy
Died 19 Apr 1787 in Yamachiche, Quebec, Canada
Biography
"Wikipedia: 'Louis Gugy: ...'Colonel Barthélemy Gugy (1737-1797), and his Swiss-French Huguenot wife, Jeanne Elizabeth Teissier de la Tour (who died at an advanced age in Montreal), the granddaughter of Antoine de Teissier (b.1667), 1st Baron of Marguerittes in the Languedoc. Though Swiss and the son of an officer in the Dutch service, Louis's father had joined the armies of the King of France. He served with distinction, was knighted, and at the breaking out of the French Revolution, was Colonel commandant of the 2nd Regiment of Swiss Guards in the French Royal Service, that corps being the personal bodyguards of King Louis XVI during the revolution...

As a young man, Louis served in France as a Lieutenant under his father during the revolution. Following the overthrow of the King Louis XVI, both father and son were offered advancement in the French revolutionary army, and most brilliant prospects were held out to them. They declined these offers, and Louis' father had the honor of marching his regiment from Paris back to Switzerland without losing a man. Considering that the elder Gugy's men were disarmed, exposed to all manner of seductions, supplied by wine and allured by women, this feat certainly indicated the respect and regard in which he was held. On reaching the Swiss Frontier, the elder Gugy found himself penniless...'" [1]

"Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online, Volume VII (1836-1850); University of Toronto/Universite Laval: '...Louis’s rapid rise to prominence began with his appointment as sheriff of Trois-Rivières on 13 Aug. 1805. He had been a justice of the peace for the district since 1803, and his commission was renewed in 1805. Three years later he was made a commissioner for the relief of the insane and foundlings for the district of Trois-Rivières. He was commissioned in 1808 to administer the oath to those seeking land grants...'"[2]

"Find A Grave: 'Col Bartholemew Conrad Augustus Gugy... Son of The Honourable Jean Georges Barthélemy Guillaume LOUIS GUGY and Julianna O'Connor, his wife...'"[3]

Barholome Gugi - Swiss Guard Record March 1748: Private in Dutch Service 1.8.1758: in French Service 1772: second lieutnant 1774: Lieutnant colonel 1777: Colonel 1780: Major 1789: "Pension" (= retirement salary) annual of 600

-- by Wikitree.com


La Tour Du Pin, Henriette De (1770–1853)
by Encyclopedia.com
Accessed: 7/31/21

French writer. Name variations: Henrietta, Marquise de La Tour du Pin. Born Henriette-Lucy Dillon in Paris, France, in 1770; died on April 2, 1853; daughter of Arthur Dillon (1750–1794) and Lucie de Rothe (1751–1782, lady-in-waiting to Marie Antoinette); married Frederic-Séraphin, comte de Gouvernet, later Marquise de La Tour du Pin (1759–1837, a soldier, prefect, and minister to the court at The Hague), in 1787; children: Humbert (1790–1816); Séraphine (1793–1795); Charlotte, known as Alix (1796–1822, who married the comte de Liedekerke Beaufort); Cécile de La Tour du Pin (1800–1817); Aylmar (1806–1867); three others died in infancy.

"Her memoirs are every bit as fascinating as those of Madame de Staël, Madame de Genlis, and Madame d'Abrantès ," wrote John Weightman in The Observer. "She has an enchanting eighteenth-century liveliness as well as an indomitable spirit. She was obviously a remarkable woman." Henriette de La Tour du Pin wrote of the Revolution and the Age of Napoleon because she had experienced both events firsthand.

She was born in 1770, during the final years of the reign of Louis XV. Two years after her marriage at age 16 to Frederic-Séraphin, comte de Gouvernet, later Marquise de La Tour du Pin, the revolution of 1789 broke out, robbing her of her post as lady-in-waiting to Queen Marie Antoinette and prompting her family to flee to Albany, in upstate New York, to wait out the revolution and avoid the guillotine. Her father Arthur Dillon, whose second wife was Comtesse de La Touche (first cousin of Empress Josephine), was executed by the Revolutionaries in 1794.

Following a return to France, Mme de La Tour du Pin was lady-in-waiting to Queen Marie Louise of Austria while her husband served Napoleon as prefect in Brussels (1801–12), then prefect in Amiens. He was also one of the Ambassadors Plenipotentiary of France at the Congress of Vienna and ambassador in Turin (1820–30).

Having fled the Revolution of 1830, she and her husband lived in Nice and Lausanne. Following the death of her husband in 1837, she settled at Pisa, in Tuscany, where she lived until her death on April 2, 1853. The mother of eight children, Mme de La Tour du Pin determined, at age 50, to document her life for her only surviving child.

suggested reading:

Memoirs of Madame de La Tour du Pin. Translated by Felice Harcourt. NY: McCall Publishing, 1971.


Henriette la Marquise de La Tour du Pin
(Henriette Lucy de La TOUR-DUPIN)
(Henriette Lucy DILLON)
voir Auteurs de mémoires (1778-1815)
• Born 25 February 1770 - Paris VII° (75)
• Deceased 2 April 1853 - Pise (Italie), aged 83 years old
• Ambassadrice de France à Turin (1827)
Parents
• Arthur, général DILLON, voir guillotinés 1750-1794 (Colonel du régiment de Dillon aux Antilles, ch.St Louis, CIN, maréchal de camp.)
• Thérèse Lucy de ROTHE 1751-1782
Spouses, children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren
• Married 21 May 1787, Montfermeil (93), to Frédéric Séraphin le Comte de Gouvernet de La TOUR du PIN-GOUVERNET, baron de l'Empire (1808), pair de France (1815), marquis de La Tour-du-Pin (1st, 1817), ambassadeur de France (1791), préfet de La Somme, born 6 January 1759, deceased 26 February 1837 - Lausanne, Canton de Vaud (Suisse) aged 78 years old,
Commandant du Régiment Royal-Vaisseaux (en 1789), ambassadeur à La Haye (1791).
(Parents : Jean-Frédéric de La TOUR du PIN-GOUVERNET, député aux États généraux 1727-1794 & Cécile GUINOT de MONCONSEIL 1733-1821) with
 Marie Charlotte Alix,comtesse de La TOUR du PIN-GOUVERNET 1796-1822 Married 20 April 1813, Bruxelles (Belgique), to Charles Florent Auguste de LIEDEKERKE-BEAUFORT 1789-1855 with
 Hadelin de LIEDEKERKE-BEAUFORT 1816-1890 Married 1 February 1842, Maastricht (Pays-Bas), to Isabelle van DOPFF 1822-1903 with :
 Humbert de LIEDEKERKE-BEAUFORT 1845-
 Aymar de LIEDEKERKE-BEAUFORT 1846-1909
 Cécile Claire Séraphine de LIEDEKERKE-BEAUFORT 1818-1893 Married 28 December 1841 to Ferdinand Joseph de BEECKMAN 1817-1869 with :
o Ferdinand Humbert Hadelin de BEECKMAN 1842
o Fernand de BEECKMAN de VIEUSART
o Raoul de BEECKMAN de VIEUSART
• Cécile de La TOUR du PIN-GOUVERNET 1800-1817 Engaged to Charles d'Argenteau de MERCY-ARGENTEAU, Archevêque de Tyr 1787-1879
 Aymar de La TOUR du PIN-GOUVERNET, marquis de La Tour du Pin 1806-1867 Married to Caroline de La BOURDONNAYE-BLOSSAC 1818-1867 with
 Humbert de La TOUR du PIN-GOUVERNET, Marquis de La Tour-du-Pin 1855-1943 Married 9 October 1883, Achy (60), to Gabrielle de CLERMONT-TONNERRE 1860-1931 with :
 Sabine de La TOUR du PIN-GOUVERNET 1884-
• Renée de La TOUR du PIN-GOUVERNET 1886-1954
 Anne de La TOUR du PIN-GOUVERNET 1891-1968
Half-siblings
On the side of Arthur, général DILLON, voir guillotinés 1750-1794
• with Marie Françoise Laure GIRARDIN de MONTGÉRALD
 Elisabeth Françoise Fanny DILLON †1836
Relationships
• Godmother (1827) : baptism, Charles de COSTER 1827-1879

-- by geneanet.org


Charles Florent Auguste de LIEDEKERKE-BEAUFORT
(Charles Florent Auguste de LIEDEKERKE-BEAUFORT)
• Born 4 September 1789 - Avesnes-le-Comte (62)
• Deceased 28 September 1855 - Roola di Papa (Italie), aged 66 years old
Parents
• Hilarion de LIEDEKERKE-BEAUFORT 1762-1841 (Maréchal de la Cour du Roi des Pays-Bas)
• Julie-Caroline DESANDROUIN 1769-1836
Spouses, children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren
• Married 20 April 1813, Bruxelles (Belgique), to Marie Charlotte Alix,comtesse de La TOUR du PIN-GOUVERNET, born 4 November 1796 - Saint-André-de-Cubzac (33), deceased 1 September 1822 - Château de Fau-Blanc, Pully, Canton de Vaud (Suisse) aged 25 years old (Parents : Frédéric Séraphin le Comte de Gouvernet de La TOUR du PIN-GOUVERNET, marquis de La Tour-du-Pin 1759-1837 & Henriette la Marquise de La Tour du Pin DILLON, voir Auteurs de mémoires 1770-1853) (see note) with
 Hadelin de LIEDEKERKE-BEAUFORT 1816-1890 Married 1 February 1842, Maastricht (Pays-Bas), to Isabelle van DOPFF 1822-1903 with
 Humbert de LIEDEKERKE-BEAUFORT 1845- Married to Marie de JONGHE 1851-1919 with :
 Aynard de LIEDEKERKE-BEAUFORT, Comte 1876-1951
 Aymar de LIEDEKERKE-BEAUFORT 1846-1909 Married 16 July 1885 to Cécile BÉRANGER 1858-1929 with :
 Simone de LIEDEKERKE-BEAUFORT 1886-1962
 Hadelin de LIEDEKERKE-BEAUFORT 1887-1974
 Cécile Claire Séraphine de LIEDEKERKE-BEAUFORT 1818-1893 Married 28 December 1841 to Ferdinand Joseph de BEECKMAN 1817-1869 with
o Ferdinand Humbert Hadelin de BEECKMAN 1842
o Fernand de BEECKMAN de VIEUSART
o Raoul de BEECKMAN de VIEUSART
Siblings
o Auguste de LIEDEKERKE-BEAUFORT 1789
 Charles Florent Auguste de LIEDEKERKE-BEAUFORT 1789-1855
 Maximilienne de LIEDEKERKE-BEAUFORT 1791-1870

Hilarion de LIEDEKERKE-BEAUFORT
• Born 7 June 1762 - Horion-Hozémont, Grâce-Hollogne (Belgique)
• Deceased 12 October 1841 - Château de Vêves, Celles (Belgique), aged 79 years old
• Maréchal de la Cour du Roi des Pays-Bas
Parents
• Jacques Ignace de LIEDEKERKE, Baron de Celles 1725-1807 (Grand Mayeur de Maestricht - Capitaine au régiment de Picardie)
• Marie Robertine Bernardine Jeanne Népomucène Josephe de BEAUFORT de CELLES 1737-1788 (Héritière de Celles)
Spouses, children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren
• Married in 1788 to Julie-Caroline DESANDROUIN, born 6 November 1769 - Namur (Belgique), deceased in 1836 - Celles, Houyet (Belgique) aged 67 years old (Parents : Pierre Jacques Gédéon DESANDROUIN, vicomte 1733-1803 & Marie Caroline de Neny 1743) with
o Auguste de LIEDEKERKE-BEAUFORT 1789
 Charles Florent Auguste de LIEDEKERKE-BEAUFORT 1789-1855 Married 20 April 1813, Bruxelles (Belgique), to Marie Charlotte Alix,comtesse de La TOUR du PIN-GOUVERNET 1796-1822 with
 Hadelin de LIEDEKERKE-BEAUFORT 1816-1890 Married 1 February 1842, Maastricht (Pays-Bas), to Isabelle van DOPFF 1822-1903 with :
 Humbert de LIEDEKERKE-BEAUFORT 1845-
 Aymar de LIEDEKERKE-BEAUFORT 1846-1909
 Cécile Claire Séraphine de LIEDEKERKE-BEAUFORT 1818-1893 Married 28 December 1841 to Ferdinand Joseph de BEECKMAN 1817-1869 with :
o Ferdinand Humbert Hadelin de BEECKMAN 1842
o Fernand de BEECKMAN de VIEUSART
o Raoul de BEECKMAN de VIEUSART
 Maximilienne de LIEDEKERKE-BEAUFORT 1791-1870 Married 17 December 1821, Furnaux, Mettet (Belgique), to Alphonse de CUNCHY 1786-1846 with
 Félix de CUNCHY Married to Marie-Julie DUMONT with :
• Maximilienne de CUNCHY 1872-1946
o Ferdinand de CUNCHY
Siblings
 Hilarion de LIEDEKERKE-BEAUFORT 1762-1841
 Alexandre de LIEDEKERKE-BEAUFORT 1764-1846
 Henriette de LIEDEKERKE 1767-1843
 Antoinette de LIEDEKERKE 1773-1841
 Hyacinthe de LIEDEKERKE-BEAUFORT 1774-1852
Half-siblings
On the side of Jacques Ignace de LIEDEKERKE, Baron de Celles 1725-1807
o with Anne-Marie de MÉAN, Dame de Pailhe 1723-1751
 Gérard de LIEDEKERKE, Comte de Liedekerke 1750-1827

Marie Robertine Bernardine Jeanne Népomucène Josephe de BEAUFORT de CELLES
(Marie Robertine Bernardine Jeanne Népomucène Josephe de BEAUFORT)
• Born 20 October 1737
• Deceased 19 July 1788, aged 50 years old
• Héritière de Celles
Parents
• Englebert Hilarion Maximilien de BEAUFORT de CELLES 1701-1770
• Isabelle Thérèse Joséphine de JACQUIER de ROSÉE 1709
Spouses, children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren
• Married to Jacques Ignace de LIEDEKERKE, Baron de Celles, Comte de Liedekerke, born 26 December 1725, deceased 22 February 1807 - Celles, Houyet (Belgique) aged 81 years old,
Grand Mayeur de Maestricht - Capitaine au régiment de Picardie
(Parents : Ferdinand François Joseph de LIEDEKERKE, Baron de Surlet 1684-1735 & Marie Bernardine de HORION 1693-1740) with
 Hilarion de LIEDEKERKE-BEAUFORT 1762-1841 Married in 1788 to Julie-Caroline DESANDROUIN 1769-1836 with
o Auguste de LIEDEKERKE-BEAUFORT 1789
 Charles Florent Auguste de LIEDEKERKE-BEAUFORT 1789-1855 Married 20 April 1813, Bruxelles (Belgique), to Marie Charlotte Alix,comtesse de La TOUR du PIN-GOUVERNET 1796-1822 with :
 Hadelin de LIEDEKERKE-BEAUFORT 1816-1890
 Cécile Claire Séraphine de LIEDEKERKE-BEAUFORT 1818-1893
 Maximilienne de LIEDEKERKE-BEAUFORT 1791-1870 Married 17 December 1821, Furnaux, Mettet (Belgique), to Alphonse de CUNCHY 1786-1846 with :
 Félix de CUNCHY
o Ferdinand de CUNCHY
 Alexandre de LIEDEKERKE-BEAUFORT 1764-1846 Married 11 June 1808, Beaufort (Gd-Duché-du-Luxembourg), to Félicilé Gabrielle Charlotte Cécile de TORNACO, Baronne de Tornaco 1775-1846 with
 Augusta de LIEDEKERKE-BEAUFORT, Comtesse 1809-1891 Married 19 October 1830, Jambes, Namur (Belgique), to Napoléon de LANNOY-CLERVAUX, prince de Rheina-Wolbeck 1807-1874 with :
o Arthur CIément Florent Charles de LANNOY 1833
 Edgard de LANNOY-CLERVAUX, prince de Rheina-Wolbeck 1835-1912
 Henriette de LIEDEKERKE 1767-1843 Married to Charles de VAULX de CHAMPION, baron de Vaulx de Champion 1762-1825 with
 Marie de VAULX de CHAMPION 1807-1887 Married to Henri Edmond de FABRIBECKERS 1799-1854 with :
 Charles de FABRIBECKERS 1838-1905
 Charlotte de FABRIBECKERS 1848-1881
 Gustave de VAULX de CHAMPION 1810-1875 Married to Caroline de SAINT-HUBERT 1812-1875 with :
• Marie Caroline Hyacinthe de VAULX de CHAMPION 1836-1901
 Charles de VAULX de CHAMPION 1843-1915
• Hélène de VAULX de CHAMPION 1844-1869
 Antoinette de LIEDEKERKE 1773-1841 Married 23 Thermidor year VI (10 August 1798), Celles, Houyet (Belgique), to Jacques François Laurent de JACQUIER de ROSÉE, Bataille de Wagram 1773-1809 with
 Laurence de JACQUIER de ROSÉE 1798-1863 Married 12 April 1817, Dinant (Belgique), to Bernard Auguste de SIRE de MELIN with :
 Léonide de SIRE de MELIN 1830-1909
 Hyacinthe de LIEDEKERKE-BEAUFORT 1774-1852 Married to Joséphine Adélaïde Ursule de MASSEN 1785-1843 with
 Alphonsine de LIEDEKERKE-BEAUFORT 1815-1868 Married in 1838 to Victor de VILLERS 1810-1895 with :
 Lamoral de VILLERS, comte de Villers 1856-1934
 Ferdinande de LIEDEKERKE-BEAUFORT, Comtesse de Liedekerke 1817-1890 Married to Hippolyte de LOOZ-CORSWAREM 1817- with :
 Georges de LOOZ-CORSWAREM 1845-1894
 Émilie de LIEDEKERKE-BEAUFORT, Comtesse de Liedekerke 1824-1890 Married 6 May 1851, Liège (Belgique), to Edmond de ROSEN, Baron de Rosen 1827-1902 with :
 Marie-Louise de ROSEN, Baronne de Rosen 1862-1892
Siblings
 Marie Robertine Bernardine Jeanne Népomucène Josephe de BEAUFORT de CELLES 1737-1788
 Amélie Gabrielle de BEAUFORT de CELLES 1739-1787

Englebert Hilarion Maximilien de BEAUFORT de CELLES
(Engelbert Hilarion Maximilien de BEAUFORT de CELLES)
• Born 9 July 1701
• Deceased 12 October 1770, aged 69 years old
Parents
• Théodore François de BEAUFORT de CELLES †1737
• Marie Hubertine de Waha de Fronville de WAHA 1669-1710
Spouses, children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren
• Married to Isabelle Thérèse Joséphine de JACQUIER de ROSÉE, born 13 April 1709 - Anthée, Onhaye (Belgique) (Parents : Jacques Gabriel de JACQUIER de ROSÉE, baron de Rosée 1666-1742 & Marie Isabelle de WIGNACOURT †) with
 Marie Robertine Bernardine Jeanne Népomucène Josephe de BEAUFORT de CELLES 1737-1788 Married to Jacques Ignace de LIEDEKERKE, Baron de Celles 1725-1807 with
 Hilarion de LIEDEKERKE-BEAUFORT 1762-1841 Married in 1788 to Julie-Caroline DESANDROUIN 1769-1836 with :
o Auguste de LIEDEKERKE-BEAUFORT 1789
 Charles Florent Auguste de LIEDEKERKE-BEAUFORT 1789-1855
 Maximilienne de LIEDEKERKE-BEAUFORT 1791-1870
 Alexandre de LIEDEKERKE-BEAUFORT 1764-1846 Married 11 June 1808, Beaufort (Gd-Duché-du-Luxembourg), to Félicilé Gabrielle Charlotte Cécile de TORNACO, Baronne de Tornaco 1775-1846 with :
 Augusta de LIEDEKERKE-BEAUFORT, Comtesse 1809-1891
 Henriette de LIEDEKERKE 1767-1843 Married to Charles de VAULX de CHAMPION, baron de Vaulx de Champion 1762-1825 with :
 Marie de VAULX de CHAMPION 1807-1887
 Gustave de VAULX de CHAMPION 1810-1875
 Antoinette de LIEDEKERKE 1773-1841 Married 23 Thermidor year VI (10 August 1798), Celles, Houyet (Belgique), to Jacques François Laurent de JACQUIER de ROSÉE, Bataille de Wagram 1773-1809 with :
 Laurence de JACQUIER de ROSÉE 1798-1863
 Hyacinthe de LIEDEKERKE-BEAUFORT 1774-1852 Married to Joséphine Adélaïde Ursule de MASSEN 1785-1843 with :
 Alphonsine de LIEDEKERKE-BEAUFORT 1815-1868
 Ferdinande de LIEDEKERKE-BEAUFORT, Comtesse de Liedekerke 1817-1890
 Émilie de LIEDEKERKE-BEAUFORT, Comtesse de Liedekerke 1824-1890
 Amélie Gabrielle de BEAUFORT de CELLES 1739-1787 Married 28 October 1766 to Antoine Laurent de JACQUIER de ROSÉE, voir Maîtres des forges 1747-1826 with
o Hilarion de JACQUIER de ROSÉE 1767-1809
• Isabelle de JACQUIER de ROSÉE 1769-1791 Married to Charles de MOREAU 1766-1828
o Thérèse de JACQUIER de ROSÉE 1771-1863
 Jacques François Laurent de JACQUIER de ROSÉE, Bataille de Wagram 1773-1809 Married 23 Thermidor year VI (10 August 1798), Celles, Houyet (Belgique), to Antoinette de LIEDEKERKE 1773-1841 with :
 Laurence de JACQUIER de ROSÉE 1798-1863
o Henri de JACQUIER de ROSÉE 1774-1777
o Henriette de JACQUIER de ROSÉE 1775-1860
 Stanislas de JACQUIER de ROSÉE 1782-1839 Married 29 August 1810 to Henriette de WAL de BARONVILLE 1789-1815 with :
 Laurent de JACQUIER de ROSÉE 1813-1858
o Léon de JACQUIER de ROSÉE 1814-1855
o Adèle de JACQUIER de ROSÉE 1815-

Théodore François de BEAUFORT de CELLES
• Deceased 16 January 1737 - Boisseilles-Dinant (Belgique)
Parents
• Albert de BEAUFORT de CELLES
• Catherine Thérèse (ludovicienne) de WIGNACOURT
Spouses, children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren
• Married 18 October 1698 to Marie Hubertine de Waha de Fronville de WAHA, born in 1669, deceased 12 December 1710 - Celles (Belgique) aged 41 years old (Parents : Hubert de Waha de Fronville de WAHA †1707 & Marie Scholastique de Waha de Fronville de WAHA) with
 Englebert Hilarion Maximilien de BEAUFORT de CELLES 1701-1770 Married to Isabelle Thérèse Joséphine de JACQUIER de ROSÉE 1709 with
 Marie Robertine Bernardine Jeanne Népomucène Josephe de BEAUFORT de CELLES 1737-1788 Married to Jacques Ignace de LIEDEKERKE, Baron de Celles 1725-1807 with :
 Hilarion de LIEDEKERKE-BEAUFORT 1762-1841
 Alexandre de LIEDEKERKE-BEAUFORT 1764-1846
 Henriette de LIEDEKERKE 1767-1843
 Antoinette de LIEDEKERKE 1773-1841
 Hyacinthe de LIEDEKERKE-BEAUFORT 1774-1852
 Amélie Gabrielle de BEAUFORT de CELLES 1739-1787 Married 28 October 1766 to Antoine Laurent de JACQUIER de ROSÉE, voir Maîtres des forges 1747-1826 with :
o Hilarion de JACQUIER de ROSÉE 1767-1809
• Isabelle de JACQUIER de ROSÉE 1769-1791
o Thérèse de JACQUIER de ROSÉE 1771-1863
 Jacques François Laurent de JACQUIER de ROSÉE, Bataille de Wagram 1773-1809
o Henri de JACQUIER de ROSÉE 1774-1777
o Henriette de JACQUIER de ROSÉE 1775-1860
 Stanislas de JACQUIER de ROSÉE 1782-1839
Siblings
 Théodore François de BEAUFORT de CELLES †1737
 Albertine Thérèse de BEAUFORT de CELLES, Comtesse de Beaufort

Albert de BEAUFORT de CELLES
Parents
• Robert de BEAUFORT de CELLES, sgr de Steenhault †1647
o Anne de La BOURLOTTE
Spouses, children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren
• Married to Catherine Thérèse (ludovicienne) de WIGNACOURT (Parents : Maximilien de WIGNACOURT, sgr d'Ourton & Françoise de CUNCHY, baronne de Pernes) with
 Théodore François de BEAUFORT de CELLES †1737 Married 18 October 1698 to Marie Hubertine de Waha de Fronville de WAHA 1669-1710 with
 Englebert Hilarion Maximilien de BEAUFORT de CELLES 1701-1770 Married to Isabelle Thérèse Joséphine de JACQUIER de ROSÉE 1709 with :
 Marie Robertine Bernardine Jeanne Népomucène Josephe de BEAUFORT de CELLES 1737-1788
 Amélie Gabrielle de BEAUFORT de CELLES 1739-1787
 Albertine Thérèse de BEAUFORT de CELLES, Comtesse de Beaufort Married in 1690 to Maurice d'ARGOUT, Gouverneur d'Annonay (07) 1642 with
 Pierre Maurice d'ARGOUT †1761 Married in May 1718 to Antoinette-Rose d'ARGOUT with :
 Gaston seigneur de Vessilière et de Moras d'ARGOUT, sgr de Moras 1720
 Robert d'ARGOUT, Gouverneur de Saint-Domingue 1723/1724-1780
o Pierre Joseph d'ARGOUT
o Joseph d'ARGOUT

-- by geneanet.org


Francis BEAUFORT
voir Marins
• Born in 1774
• Deceased in 1857, aged 83 years old
• Contre-amiral
Parents
o Daniel Augustus BEAUFORT 1739-1831
o ? WALLER
Spouses
o Married in 1812 to Alicia WILSON, born in 1782, deceased in 1834 aged 52 years old
• Married in 1838 to Honora EDGEWORTH, born in 1792, deceased in 1858 aged 66 years old (Parents : Richard Lovell EDGEWORTH 1744-1817 & Elizabeth SNEYD †1797)
Siblings
 Frances BEAUFORT 1769-
• Francis BEAUFORT, voir Marins 1774-1857

Daniel Augustus BEAUFORT
• Born in 1739
• Deceased in 1831, aged 92 years old
Parents: Daniel Cornelius de Beaufort (1700–1788); Esther Gougeon (m. London, 11 June 1738)
Spouses, children and grandchildren
o Married to ? WALLER with
 Frances BEAUFORT 1769- Married 31 May 1798 to Richard Lovell EDGEWORTH 1744-1817 with
o Frances Maria EDGEWORTH 1799-1848
• Harriet Jessie EDGEWORTH 1801-1889 Married 14 August 1826, Edgeworthstown (Irlande), to Richard II (Rev.) BUTLER 1794-1862
o Sophia EDGEWORTH 1803-1836
o Lucy EDGEWORTH 1805-1897
o Francis Beaufort EDGEWORTH 1809-1846
• Francis BEAUFORT, voir Marins 1774-1857 Married in 1812 to Alicia WILSON 1782-1834
Francis BEAUFORT, voir Marins 1774-1857 Married in 1838 to Honora EDGEWORTH 1792-1858

-- by geneanet.org
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Re: Freda Bedi Cont'd (#3)

Postby admin » Sun Aug 01, 2021 2:46 am

Part 2 of 2

Donatien le Marquis
(Donatien Alphonse François de SADE)
comte de Sade-1767, marquis de Sade (1767), marquis de Mazan, seigneur de La Coste, prisonnier de La Bastille, voir Romanciers
• Born 2 June 1740
• Deceased 2 December 1814 - Charenton-le-Pont (94), aged 74 years old
• Lieutenant général des pays de Bugey, de la Bresse et de Valromey,
écrivain doué et facécieux,
"Je me flatte que mon nom disparaisse de la mémoire des hommes."
(épitaphe pour lui-même)
Parents
• Jean-Baptiste dit le Comte de SADE, marquis de Sade 1703-1767 (Lieutenant générall des provinces de Bresse, Bugey, Valromey et Gex)
• Marie-Eléonore de MAILLÉ 1712-1777
Spouses, children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren
• Married to Pélagie CORDIER de MONTREUIL, born 2 December 1741, deceased in 1810 aged 69 years old (Parents : Claude René CORDIER de MONTREUIL 1715-1795 & Marie-Madeleine la Présidente de Montreuil MASSON de PLISSAY 1721-1789) with
 Donatien de SADE 1769-1847 Married to Laure de SADE 1772-1849 with
 Laure Émilie de SADE 1810-1875 Married 13 January 1839, Vallery (89), to Louis Marie Gaston de GRAINDORGE d'ORGEVILLE de MENIL DURAND 1814-1889 with :
• Louise Marie Madeleine de GRAINDORGE d'ORGEVILLE de MENIL DURAND 1844-1879
 Paul Edmond Marie de GRAINDORGE d'ORGEVILLE de MENIL DURAND 1846-1879
 Adolphe Ignace de SADE 1812-1890 Married to Henriette de CHOLET 1817-1895 with :
 Laure de SADE 1843-1893
 Hugues de SADE 1845-
 Auguste de SADE 1815-1868 Married 8 June 1844 to Germaine de MAUSSION 1818-1876 with :
 Jeanne de SADE
 Laure de SADE, voir Salonnières 1859-1936
Siblings
o Laure de SADE 1737-1739
 Donatien le Marquis de SADE, comte de Sade 1740-1814
o Marie Françoise de SADE 1746-

Donatien de SADE
• Born in 1769
• Deceased in 1847, aged 78 years old
Parents
• Donatien le Marquis de SADE, comte de Sade 1740-1814 (Lieutenant général des pays de Bugey, de la Bresse et de Valromey,
écrivain doué et facécieux,
"Je me flatte que mon nom disparaisse de la mémoire des hommes."
(épitaphe pour lui-même))
• Pélagie CORDIER de MONTREUIL 1741-1810
Spouses, children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren
• Married to Laure de SADE, born 6 June 1772, deceased 18 January 1849 aged 76 years old (Parents : Jean Baptiste Joseph David de Sade Eyguières de SADE, sgr d'Eyguières 1749-1838 & Emilie de BIMARD) with
 Laure Émilie de SADE 1810-1875 Married 13 January 1839, Vallery (89), to Louis Marie Gaston de GRAINDORGE d'ORGEVILLE de MENIL DURAND 1814-1889 with
• Louise Marie Madeleine de GRAINDORGE d'ORGEVILLE de MENIL DURAND 1844-1879 Married 22 September 1864 to Pierre Gaétan Gustave ROBERT de SAINT-VINCENT 1829-1923
 Paul Edmond Marie de GRAINDORGE d'ORGEVILLE de MENIL DURAND 1846-1879 Married in 1875 to Béatrix Le BASTIER de RAINVILLIERS de TRÉMÉRICOURT 1847-1938 with :
 Marie de GRAINDORGE d'ORGEVILLE de MENIL DURAND 1878-1963
 Adolphe Ignace de SADE 1812-1890 Married to Henriette de CHOLET 1817-1895 with
 Laure de SADE 1843-1893 Married in 1870 to Eugène de RAINCOURT, vicomte 1839-1906 with :
• Jeanne de RAINCOURT 1877-1966
 Henri de RAINCOURT 1883-1928
 Hugues de SADE 1845- Married to Marguerite JANSON de COUËT 1855- with :
 Yvonne de SADE 1880-
o Elzéar de SADE 1885
 Bernard de SADE 1891-1933
 Auguste de SADE 1815-1868 Married 8 June 1844 to Germaine de MAUSSION 1818-1876 with
 Jeanne de SADE Married in 1864 to Pierre LAURENS de WARU, voir Légion d'honneur (chevalier) 1837-1914 with :
• Jacques LAURENS de WARU
 Charles LAURENS de WARU
• Gustave LAURENS de WARU
 Geneviève LAURENS de WARU 1868
 Germaine LAURENS de WARU
 Laure de SADE, voir Salonnières 1859-1936 Married to Adhéaume de CHEVIGNÉ 1847-1911 with :
 Marie-Thérèse de CHEVIGNÉ 1880-1963
 François de CHEVIGNÉ 1882-1962

Laure de SADE
• Born 6 June 1772
• Deceased 18 January 1849, aged 76 years old
Parents
• Jean Baptiste Joseph David de Sade Eyguières de SADE, sgr d'Eyguières 1749-1838
• Emilie de BIMARD
Spouses, children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren
• Married to Donatien de SADE, born in 1769, deceased in 1847 aged 78 years old (Parents : Donatien le Marquis de SADE, comte de Sade 1740-1814 & Pélagie CORDIER de MONTREUIL 1741-1810) with
 Laure Émilie de SADE 1810-1875 Married 13 January 1839, Vallery (89), to Louis Marie Gaston de GRAINDORGE d'ORGEVILLE de MENIL DURAND 1814-1889 with
• Louise Marie Madeleine de GRAINDORGE d'ORGEVILLE de MENIL DURAND 1844-1879 Married 22 September 1864 to Pierre Gaétan Gustave ROBERT de SAINT-VINCENT 1829-1923
 Paul Edmond Marie de GRAINDORGE d'ORGEVILLE de MENIL DURAND 1846-1879 Married in 1875 to Béatrix Le BASTIER de RAINVILLIERS de TRÉMÉRICOURT 1847-1938 with :
 Marie de GRAINDORGE d'ORGEVILLE de MENIL DURAND 1878-1963
 Adolphe Ignace de SADE 1812-1890 Married to Henriette de CHOLET 1817-1895 with
 Laure de SADE 1843-1893 Married in 1870 to Eugène de RAINCOURT, vicomte 1839-1906 with :
• Jeanne de RAINCOURT 1877-1966
 Henri de RAINCOURT 1883-1928
 Hugues de SADE 1845- Married to Marguerite JANSON de COUËT 1855- with :
 Yvonne de SADE 1880-
o Elzéar de SADE 1885
 Bernard de SADE 1891-1933
 Auguste de SADE 1815-1868 Married 8 June 1844 to Germaine de MAUSSION 1818-1876 with
 Jeanne de SADE Married in 1864 to Pierre LAURENS de WARU, voir Légion d'honneur (chevalier) 1837-1914 with :
• Jacques LAURENS de WARU
 Charles LAURENS de WARU
• Gustave LAURENS de WARU
 Geneviève LAURENS de WARU 1868
 Germaine LAURENS de WARU
 Laure de SADE, voir Salonnières 1859-1936 Married to Adhéaume de CHEVIGNÉ 1847-1911 with :
 Marie-Thérèse de CHEVIGNÉ 1880-1963
 François de CHEVIGNÉ 1882-1962
Siblings
 Laure de SADE 1772-1849
 Généreuse Emilie de SADE

Jean Baptiste Joseph David de SADE de Sade Eyguières
(Joseph David de SADE)
(Jean Baptiste Joseph David de SADE)
sgr d'Eyguières
• Born 13 January 1749 - Aix-en-Provence (13)
• Deceased in 1838, aged 89 years old
Parents
• Joseph David de Sade Eyguières de SADE 1692-1761 (Maréchal des camps et armées du Roi (1747))
• Marguerite Marie Thérèse Le Gouge de Saint-Etienne Le GOUGE
Spouses, children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren
• Married 25 March 1770, La Bâtie-Montsaléon (05), to Emilie de BIMARD (Parents : Pierre Annibal de BIMARD, marquis de Bimard †1769 & Elisabeth Emilie PAPE de SAINT-AUBAN, Marquise de Bimard) with
 Laure de SADE 1772-1849 Married to Donatien de SADE 1769-1847 with
 Laure Émilie de SADE 1810-1875 Married 13 January 1839, Vallery (89), to Louis Marie Gaston de GRAINDORGE d'ORGEVILLE de MENIL DURAND 1814-1889 with :
• Louise Marie Madeleine de GRAINDORGE d'ORGEVILLE de MENIL DURAND 1844-1879
 Paul Edmond Marie de GRAINDORGE d'ORGEVILLE de MENIL DURAND 1846-1879
 Adolphe Ignace de SADE 1812-1890 Married to Henriette de CHOLET 1817-1895 with :
 Laure de SADE 1843-1893
 Hugues de SADE 1845-
 Auguste de SADE 1815-1868 Married 8 June 1844 to Germaine de MAUSSION 1818-1876 with :
 Jeanne de SADE
 Laure de SADE, voir Salonnières 1859-1936
 Généreuse Emilie de SADE Married to Diomède de CLERC de LADEVÈZE 1766 with
 Antonin de CLERC de LADEVÈZE 1806- Married to Anne Maximilienne de COUCQUAULT d'AVELON 1809- with :
 Marie-Clémence de CLERC de LADEVÈZE
 Marthe Louise Emilie de CLERC de LADEVÈZE 1835-

Joseph David de SADE de Sade Eyguières
(Joseph David de SADE)
• Born 1 September 1692 - Eyguières (13)
• Deceased 29 January 1761 - Antibes (06), aged 68 years old
• Maréchal des camps et armées du Roi (1747)
Parents
• Joseph de SADE EYGUIÈRES
• Anne Suzanne de ROUX d'ARBAUD
Spouses, children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren
• Married 24 March 1746, Manosque (04), to Marguerite Marie Thérèse Le Gouge de Saint-Etienne Le GOUGE (Parents : Jean Baptiste Le GOUGE, sgr de Saint-Estienne 1705 & Louise de DONODEI ca 1710) with
 Jean Baptiste Joseph David de Sade Eyguières de SADE, sgr d'Eyguières 1749-1838 Married 25 March 1770, La Bâtie-Montsaléon (05), to Emilie de BIMARD with
 Laure de SADE 1772-1849 Married to Donatien de SADE 1769-1847 with :
 Laure Émilie de SADE 1810-1875
 Adolphe Ignace de SADE 1812-1890
 Auguste de SADE 1815-1868
 Généreuse Emilie de SADE Married to Diomède de CLERC de LADEVÈZE 1766 with :
 Antonin de CLERC de LADEVÈZE 1806-
Siblings
 Marthe Henriette de SADE EYGUIÈRES ca 1680
 Joseph David de Sade Eyguières de SADE 1692-1761


Marthe Henriette de SADE EYGUIÈRES
• Born about 1680 - Eyguières (13)
Parents
• Joseph de SADE EYGUIÈRES
• Anne Suzanne de ROUX d'ARBAUD
Spouses, children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren
• Married 10 November 1706, Eyguières (13), to Nicolas Pierre François d'ICARD de PÉRIGNAN, écuyer, seigneur de Pérignan, born about 1675 (Parents : Pierre François d'ICARD, sgr de Pérignan †1706/ & Françoise d'AMAT) with
 Marthe Gabrielle Victoire d'ICARD de PÉRIGNAN Married to Alexandre de BONIJOL du BRAU with
 Gabriel de BONIJOL du BRAU 1768 Married 24 September 1806, Lille (59), to Félicité van RODE 1775 with :
 Benoît Alexandre Gabriel de BONIJOL du BRAU 1809-1887
Siblings
 Marthe Henriette de SADE EYGUIÈRES ca 1680
 Joseph David de Sade Eyguières de SADE 1692-1761

Marthe Gabrielle Victoire d'ICARD de PÉRIGNAN
(Marthe Gabrielle Victoire VICARD de PÉRIGNAN)
Parents
• Nicolas Pierre François d'ICARD de PÉRIGNAN, écuyer, seigneur de Pérignan ca 1675
• Marthe Henriette de SADE EYGUIÈRES ca 1680
Spouses, children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren
o Married to Alexandre de BONIJOL du BRAU with
 Gabriel de BONIJOL du BRAU 1768 Married 24 September 1806, Lille (59), to Félicité van RODE 1775 with
 Benoît Alexandre Gabriel de BONIJOL du BRAU 1809-1887 Married 4 September 1849, Nibas (80), to Marie Françoise Irène BLANCART 1820-1850 with :
o Louis Gabriel Marie de BONIJOL du BRAU 1850-1870
Benoît Alexandre Gabriel de BONIJOL du BRAU 1809-1887 Married 20 April 1872, Amiens (80), to Calixte CLÉRET de LANGAVANT 1837-1915 with :
 Joséphine de BONIJOL du BRAU 1875-1943

Alexandre de BONIJOL du BRAU
Spouses, children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren
• Married to Marthe Gabrielle Victoire d'ICARD de PÉRIGNAN (Parents : Nicolas Pierre François d'ICARD de PÉRIGNAN, écuyer, seigneur de Pérignan ca 1675 & Marthe Henriette de SADE EYGUIÈRES ca 1680) with
 Gabriel de BONIJOL du BRAU 1768 Married 24 September 1806, Lille (59), to Félicité van RODE 1775 with
 Benoît Alexandre Gabriel de BONIJOL du BRAU 1809-1887 Married 4 September 1849, Nibas (80), to Marie Françoise Irène BLANCART 1820-1850 with :
o Louis Gabriel Marie de BONIJOL du BRAU 1850-1870

Benoît Alexandre Gabriel de BONIJOL du BRAU 1809-1887 Married 20 April 1872, Amiens (80), to Calixte CLÉRET de LANGAVANT 1837-1915 with :
 Joséphine de BONIJOL du BRAU 1875-1943

Emilie de BIMARD
Parents
• Pierre Annibal de BIMARD, marquis de Bimard †1769
• Elisabeth Emilie PAPE de SAINT-AUBAN, Marquise de Bimard (Héritière par sa mère de la terre de Montbrun)
Spouses, children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren
• Married 25 March 1770, La Bâtie-Montsaléon (05), to Jean Baptiste Joseph David de Sade Eyguières de SADE, sgr d'Eyguières, born 13 January 1749 - Aix-en-Provence (13), deceased in 1838 aged 89 years old (Parents : Joseph David de Sade Eyguières de SADE 1692-1761 & Marguerite Marie Thérèse Le Gouge de Saint-Etienne Le GOUGE) with
 Laure de SADE 1772-1849 Married to Donatien de SADE 1769-1847 with
 Laure Émilie de SADE 1810-1875 Married 13 January 1839, Vallery (89), to Louis Marie Gaston de GRAINDORGE d'ORGEVILLE de MENIL DURAND 1814-1889 with :
• Louise Marie Madeleine de GRAINDORGE d'ORGEVILLE de MENIL DURAND 1844-1879
 Paul Edmond Marie de GRAINDORGE d'ORGEVILLE de MENIL DURAND 1846-1879
 Adolphe Ignace de SADE 1812-1890 Married to Henriette de CHOLET 1817-1895 with :
 Laure de SADE 1843-1893
 Hugues de SADE 1845-
 Auguste de SADE 1815-1868 Married 8 June 1844 to Germaine de MAUSSION 1818-1876 with :
 Jeanne de SADE
 Laure de SADE, voir Salonnières 1859-1936
 Généreuse Emilie de SADE Married to Diomède de CLERC de LADEVÈZE 1766 with
 Antonin de CLERC de LADEVÈZE 1806- Married to Anne Maximilienne de COUCQUAULT d'AVELON 1809- with :
 Marie-Clémence de CLERC de LADEVÈZE
 Marthe Louise Emilie de CLERC de LADEVÈZE 1835-

M Pierre Annibal de BIMARD
Pierre Annibal de BIMARD
marquis de Bimard, baron de La Bastide-Montsaléon
• Deceased in 1769
Parents
• Pierre IV de BIMARD, sgr de Mondragon 1667- (Mousquetaire du Roi en 1689, capitaine au régiment Royal-Infanterie (25 décembre 1693), puis nommé en 1720, 2ème consul de Carpentras)
• Marie Anne de FLOTTE
Spouses, children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren
• Married in April 1749 to Elisabeth Emilie PAPE de SAINT-AUBAN, Marquise de Bimard,
Héritière par sa mère de la terre de Montbrun
(Parents : Guy Antoine PAPE de SAINT-AUBAN, marquis de SAINT-AUBAN & Anne-Marie, héritière de Montbrun du PUY-MONTBRUN, marquise de Montbrun 1728-) with
 Emilie de BIMARD Married 25 March 1770, La Bâtie-Montsaléon (05), to Jean Baptiste Joseph David de Sade Eyguières de SADE, sgr d'Eyguières 1749-1838 with
 Laure de SADE 1772-1849 Married to Donatien de SADE 1769-1847 with :
 Laure Émilie de SADE 1810-1875
 Adolphe Ignace de SADE 1812-1890
 Auguste de SADE 1815-1868
 Généreuse Emilie de SADE Married to Diomède de CLERC de LADEVÈZE 1766 with :
 Antonin de CLERC de LADEVÈZE 1806-
Siblings
o Joseph de BIMARD 1703-1739
 Pierre Annibal de BIMARD, marquis de Bimard †1769
o Louis Alexandre de BIMARD
o Jean Gabriel de BIMARD
 Joseph Guillaume François Xavier de BIMARD


Elisabeth Emilie PAPE de SAINT-AUBAN
Marquise de Bimard
• Héritière par sa mère de la terre de Montbrun
Parents
• Guy Antoine PAPE de SAINT-AUBAN, marquis de SAINT-AUBAN
• Anne-Marie, héritière de Montbrun du PUY-MONTBRUN, marquise de Montbrun 1728- (Héitière du marquisat de Montbrun)
Spouses, children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren
• Married in April 1749 to Pierre Annibal de BIMARD, marquis de Bimard, baron de La Bastide-Montsaléon, deceased in 1769 (Parents : Pierre IV de BIMARD, sgr de Mondragon 1667- & Marie Anne de FLOTTE) with
 Emilie de BIMARD Married 25 March 1770, La Bâtie-Montsaléon (05), to Jean Baptiste Joseph David de Sade Eyguières de SADE, sgr d'Eyguières 1749-1838 with
 Laure de SADE 1772-1849 Married to Donatien de SADE 1769-1847 with :
 Laure Émilie de SADE 1810-1875
 Adolphe Ignace de SADE 1812-1890
 Auguste de SADE 1815-1868
 Généreuse Emilie de SADE Married to Diomède de CLERC de LADEVÈZE 1766 with :
 Antonin de CLERC de LADEVÈZE 1806-
Siblings
 Marguerite Charlotte PAPE de SAINT-AUBAN
• Olympe PAPE de SAINT-AUBAN, marquise de Montbrun
 Elisabeth Emilie PAPE de SAINT-AUBAN, Marquise de Bimard


Marguerite Charlotte PAPE de SAINT-AUBAN
• Born about 1721
• Deceased
Parents
• Guy Antoine PAPE DE SAINT-AUBAN, Marquis DE SAINT-AUBAN ca 1685-1740
Guy Antoine PAPE DE SAINT-AUBAN
Marquis DE SAINT-AUBAN
• Born about 1685
• Deceased 27 December 1740 (Tuesday) - MONTÉLIMAR 26, aged about 55 years old
Parents
• Samson PAPE DE SAINT-AUBAN ca 1645-
o Elisabeth DE MASSANES 1650-

• M Charlotte DU PUY-MONTBRUN ca 1690-1752
M Charlotte DU PUY-MONTBRUN
• Born about 1690
• Deceased 12 April 1752 (Wednesday) - MONTÉLIMAR 26, aged about 62 years old
Parents
• Jean DU PUY-MONTBRUN ca 1650-1693
o Marguerite DE FRIESEN ca 1660-
Spouses and children
• Married 28 May 1718 (Saturday) to Guy Antoine PAPE DE SAINT-AUBAN, Marquis DE SAINT-AUBAN ca 1685-1740 (Parents : Samson PAPE DE SAINT-AUBAN ca 1645- & Elisabeth DE MASSANES 1650-) with
 Marguerite Charlotte PAPE DE SAINT-AUBAN ca 1721-
 Elisabeth Emilie PAPE DE SAINT-AUBAN 1726-
Siblings
o Charles DU PUY-MONTBRUN ca 1681-1735
o Henri Raymond DU PUY-MONTBRUN 1687-
 François DU PUY-MONTBRUN 1693-1741 Married 10 July 1725 (Tuesday) to Anne LEBREST ca 1705-1741

Spouses and children
Married after 1739 to Jean François II LÉRIGET DE LA FAYE, Marquis DE LA FAYE ca 1710- (Parents : Jean Elie LÉRIGET DE LA FAYE, Capitaine 1671-1718 & Marie LE GRAS DU LUART ca 1690-1724) with
• Françoise Hippolyte LÉRIGET DE LA FAYE ca 1740-
Siblings
 Elisabeth Emilie PAPE DE SAINT-AUBAN 1726- Married 21 May 1749 (Wednesday), MONTÉLIMAR 26, to Pierre Annibal DE BIMARD, Marquis DE BIMARD 1707-1788

-- by Geneanet.org


Image
Jean-François Lériget, Marquis of La Faye: Born in Vienne, son of Pierre Leriget, Lord of La Faye, Gentleman of the King's Chamber in the service of Louis XIV and then of the Regent, he was in charge of various diplomatic missions in Genoa, Utrecht (1713) and London. Commissioner of the Royal Bank of the East India Company (1720), he added literary concerns to his financial and diplomatic occupations. His literary associations and some poetry earned him his election to the Académie Française (1730).

Jean-François Leriget de La Faye (1674, Vienne, Isère – 11 July 1731, Paris) was a French diplomat, wealthy landowner and art collector, poet, and member of the Académie française for a single year.

At one time a musketeer, through social connections La Faye became a member of the court of Louis XIV. His position was head of the royal cabinet, and private secretary and special adviser to the King on matters such as finding a wife for the young Louis XV. He also performed various diplomatic missions in London, Genoa and Utrecht, including involvement in negotiating the Treaty of Utrecht, and was also a director of the French East India Company.

Often classified first as a poet,
La Faye's work was indeed approvingly quoted by his correspondent Voltaire and others, but his work tended towards light verse and he was not prolific. His most well-known work was likely the Ode to Worms, published in the Mercure de France.

La Faye was the owner of an extensive art collection, two hotels in Paris, and another in Versailles. When he acquired the ancient château de Condé in 1719, he commissioned the most fashionable artists of his time and the architect Giovanni Niccolò Servandoni for elaborate improvements.


Image
Southern façade of the Château de Condé

Up to 1624, the date of the marriage of Marie de Bourbon, Countess of Soissons to Thomas, Prince of Carignan (the present Italian royal family), the castle belonged to the House of Condé. Unfortunately, it was badly damaged, from 1711 to 1719, by troops that were sent by King Louis XIV of France, who had it confiscated during the Franco-Austrian War (the owner of the time being a cousin of an Austrian general). It was stayed in by the famous Jeanne Baptiste d'Albert, comtesse de Verrue.

Image
Salon decorated by Jean-Baptiste Oudry (partial)

The confiscated castle was bought in 1719 by a private secretary of King Louis XIV, whose name was Jean-François Leriget, Marquis de la Faye. He was councillor to the King and a diplomat. It was he who was in charge of finding a wife to the young King Louis XV of France.

The Marquis was a member of the French Academy, a director of the French India Company, and accordingly, was a very rich man. In his mansion in Paris, he often received such famous people as Voltaire and Crébillon.

Much of the castle's final appearance is due to the Marquis' tastes. He brought to Condé, the talents of the Italian architect Servandoni, a master of the "deception" style, and one of the architects of the Palazzo Farnese in Rome. He shut down the southern aisle, to allow the sun to penetrate into the rooms, and gave a symmetrical appearance to the other aisle. To achieve this, he was obliged to paint false windows in the medieval part of the Castle, the walls being 2 meters thick. For the interior decoration, he invited fashionable painters of the time - Lemoyne, his disciple Boucher, Watteau and his disciple Lancret, and last but not least, Jean-Baptiste Oudry.

At a later date, the castle belonged to the Count de la Tour du Pin Lachaux, through his marriage with the niece of the Marquis de la Faye.

Perhaps the most important name connected with the EzV in this early period is that of Abraham Hyacinthe Anquetil Duperron (1731-1805), who quotes a long passage from it in the "Discours Preliminaire" to his Zend-Avesta (1771:1, I. lxxxiii-lxxxvii). Anquetil adds the interesting remark, that "the manuscript brought back to France by Mr. de Modave [and delivered to Voltaire] originally comes from the papers of Mr. Barthelemy,8 second of the Council at Pondicherry, who probably had the original translated by the Company's interpreters under his orders."

Anquetil possessed his own copy of the EzV; it is No. 20 of the Fonds Anquetil, now No. 8876 of the "Nouvelles acquisitions francaises" at the National Library in Paris.9 This copy is evidently more complete than Voltaire's; the supplementary final section (fol. 55 recto) is introduced: "from the copy of Mr. Tessier de la Tour, nephew of Mr. Barthelemy, a member of the Council at Pondicherry." Folio 2 recto contains a note, in Anquetil's handwriting, in which he mentions the name of the person who introduced him to Tessier's copy: Antoine Court de Gebelin,10 and in which he also speculates on the origin of Maudave's manuscript. "On August 27, 1766, a Swiss (Mr. Court de Gebelin, of Geneva) came to see me. He told me about the Ezour-Vedam which had been brought back from Pondicherry by Mr. Tessier, the nephew of Mr. Barthelemy, second in rank in that town. It had been found in the papers of that councilman who, as reported by Mr. Tessier, had also other Indian books translated. It is probably from there that Mr. de Maudave had derived his. This Swiss has in the meanwhile confirmed that it is the same work and that Mr. Tessier's copy contains one more chapter at the end. Or else, Mr. de Maudave has obtained his from Mr. Porcher, the commander at Carical whose daughter he had married." I shall come back to the manuscripts of the EzV, their origin and mutual relationship, later in this volume.


Anquetil's interpretation of the EzV and its dialogue between Biache and Chumontou is shown most clearly in a handwritten marginal note in his manuscript (fol. 8 verso). On Chumontou's statement (Text p. 116) that the common interpretation of the terms choto, rozo, and tomo is wrong and ought to be replaced by his own, Anquetil comments: "This is how the Br[ahman] Chumontou proceeds. Later in this treatise he refutes the legends told by Biache, either because they are contrary to good sense, or because they are not found in the ancient books, and he provides a moralistic explanation for those that are based on facts which he agrees to. However, these legends are accepted throughout India (see Abrah. Roger), and Chumontou does no more than confront them with the doubts of a philosopher which cannot be held to represent the religion of India. To prove that they are, he ought to combat authority by authority."

-- Ezourvedam, edited by Ludo Rocher


In 1814, the Countess de Sade, the daughter-in-law of the famous Marquis de Sade, inherited Condé from her cousin, La Tour du Pin. Since this time and up to 1983, the castle remained the property of the Sade family, who restored it with much care after the two World Wars.

-- Château de Condé, by Wikipedia


For the interior decoration he hired François Lemoyne and his disciple François Boucher; Antoine Watteau and his disciple Nicolas Lancret; as well as Jean-Baptiste Oudry.

-- Jean-François Leriget de La Faye, by Wikipedia


Jean François LÉRIGET DE LA FAYE
Marquis DE LA FAYE, Musketeer of the Garde du Roy, Ambassador of France, in Genoa, in France, in Utrech and in France, in England, Administrator of Compagnie des Indes, Académie Française (182, 25 February 1730), Poet
• Born in 1674 - VIENNE 38
• Deceased 11 July 1731 (Wednesday) - PARIS 75, aged 57 years old
• Director of the Compagnie des Indes
Parents
o Jean Pierre LÉRIGET DE LA FAYE, Sieur DE LA FAYE ca 1635-
• Captain of the Guards of the King of Poland who took refuge in France, Governor of Montluel en Bresse
o Marguerite HÉRAULD DE GOURVILLE ca 1632-
Spouses
o Married about 1705 to X X ca 1685-
Siblings
 Jean Elie LÉRIGET DE LA FAYE, Captain 1671-1718 Married about 22 April 1708 to Marie LE GRAS DU LUART ca 1690-1724
o Marie LÉRIGET DE LA FAYE 1677-
Relationships
• Foster child: Jean François II LÉRIGET DE LA FAYE, Marquis DE LA FAYE ca 1710-

(linked pages)
Notes
was ambassador to Genoa, Utrecht and England; a friend of La Motte, he frequented the cafes Procope, widow Laurent, Gradot; he left a small number of poems.
Elected on February 25, 1730, he replaced Valincour at the Academy where he was received by La Motte on March 16 of the same year.
++++++++++
The Château de Condé (in Brie), which has the privilege of having given its name to one of the most illustrious branches of the House of Bourbon, then had a less happy fate. In 1711, Louis XIV confiscated the Savoy property in France, no doubt to avenge himself for the failures that Prince Eugene of Savoy had subjected him to at the head of the Austrian armies.
The castle placed under sequestration, was occupied militarily from 1711 to 1719 and was in very bad condition when it was bought by Jean-François Lériget de la Faye.
This gifted man of many talents was at the same time a financier, a man of letters and a diplomat in the service of King Louis XIV and of the Regent. Administrator of the Compagnie des Indes, member of the Académie Française, he was also Head of the Royal Cabinet and particular advisor to the King and, as such, in charge of important missions, among others, that of looking for a wife for the young Louis XV.
Already owner in Paris of two hotels where he gave literary receptions, he wanted to enjoy a country residence by transforming Condé in the fashion of the eighteenth century. He entrusted the task to Servandoni, one of the architects of the Palazzo Farnese in Rome, master of trompe-l'oeil and specialist in mobile theater decor.
This gave the castle its current appearance
________________________________________
http://www.chateaudeconde.com/histo0.htm
________________________________________
Son of Pierre Leriget, Lord of La Faye, reader of the Duke of La Rochefoucauld in 1659 then secretary to the king in 1680 and receiver general of finances (and Anne Hérault), La Faye was initially destined for the career of arms and entered the musketeers before serving in the infantry.

Jean Elie LÉRIGET DE LA FAYE
(Jean Elie Lériget)
Musketeer, Captain (1704), Mathematician, Academy of Sciences (1716 - member_associated_Libre)
Born 15 April 1671 (Wednesday) - VIENNE 38
Deceased 20 April 1718 (Wednesday) - PARIS 75, aged 47 years old
Dedicated his leisure time to science, surveyed plans and imagined machines
Parents
Jean Pierre LÉRIGET DE LA FAYE, Sieur DE LA FAYE ca 1635-
Captain of the Guards of the King of Poland who took refuge in France, Governor of Montluel en Bresse
Marguerite HÉRAULD DE GOURVILLE ca 1632-
Spouses and children
Married about 22 April 1708 to Marie LE GRAS DU LUART ca 1690-1724 (Parents: François LE GRAS DU LUART 1640-1719 & M Madeleine MARTIN ca 1660-1703) with
Jean François II LÉRIGET DE LA FAYE, Marquis DE LA FAYE ca 1710-

Siblings
M Jean François LÉRIGET DE LA FAYE, Marquis DE LA FAYE 1674-1731 Married about 1705 to X X ca 1685-
F Marie LÉRIGET DE LA FAYE 1677-

Jean François LÉRIGET DE LA FAYE II
(Jean François LÉRIGET DE LA FAYE)
Marquis DE LA FAYE
Born about 1710
Deceased
Parents
Jean Elie LÉRIGET DE LA FAYE, Captain 1671-1718
Dedicated his leisure time to science, surveyed plans and imagined machines

Marie LE GRAS DU LUART ca 1690-1724
Spouses and children
Married after 1739 to Marguerite Charlotte PAPE DE SAINT-AUBAN ca 1721- (Parents: Guy Antoine PAPE DE SAINT-AUBAN, Marquis DE SAINT-AUBAN ca 1685-1740 & M Charlotte DU PUY-MONTBRUN ca 1690-1752) with
Françoise Hippolyte LÉRIGET DE LA FAYE ca 1740-

Relationships
Foster father: M Jean François LÉRIGET DE LA FAYE, Marquis DE LA FAYE 1674-1731
Notes
The Marquis de la Faye (1674-1731), his uncle, a great collector of paintings, also obtained the help of famous painters of the time. Jean-Baptiste Oudry painted for another large living room four magnificent paintings representing returns from hunting and fishing.
The other rooms were decorated by Watteau, Lancret, Lemoine and their students. Despite the destruction of the 1914 war, there are many paintings attributed to these schools.
This decorative work was continued by his nephew and heir, Jean-François II Lériget de la Faye, whose daughter married the Count de la Tour du Pin Lachaux. She was the one who inherited the castle and land of Condé on her father's death, which belonged to this family until 1814, when, by inheritance, the Countess de Sade, daughter-in-law of the famous Marquis, became the owner.
The de Sade family owned these places until 1983. After the ordeal of the two great wars, which seriously damaged the castle, they began the work of restoration in progress.

Marie LÉRIGET DE LA FAYE
Born 3 August 1677 (Tuesday) - COGNAC 16
Deceased
Parents
Jean Pierre LÉRIGET DE LA FAYE, Sieur DE LA FAYE ca 1635-
Captain of the Guards of the King of Poland who took refuge in France, Governor of Montluel en Bresse
Marguerite HÉRAULD DE GOURVILLE ca 1632-
Siblings
M Jean Elie LÉRIGET DE LA FAYE, Captain 1671-1718 Married about 22 April 1708 to Marie LE GRAS DU LUART ca 1690-1724
M Jean François LÉRIGET DE LA FAYE, Marquis DE LA FAYE 1674-1731 Married about 1705 to X X ca 1685-

Françoise Hippolyte LÉRIGET DE LA FAYE
• Born about 1740
• Deceased
Parents
• Jean François II LÉRIGET DE LA FAYE, Marquis DE LA FAYE ca 1710-
• Marguerite Charlotte PAPE DE SAINT-AUBAN ca 1721-
Spouses
o Married after 1770 to Charles François DE LA TOUR DU PIN MONTAUBAN DE LACHAU ca 1740-1806

-- by Geneanet.org


******************************

Jean DUPUY
[BORN ???] [1770s?]
Parents
o Joseph DUPUY
o Marie DUBAC
Spouses
• Married 29 December 1798, Anglards-de-Salers (15), to Jeanne Marie LESCURIER d'ESPÉRIÈRES (Parents : François LESCURIER d'ESPÉRIÈRES, seigneur des Peyrières ca 1735-1795 & Marie-Françoise du FAYET de La TOUR 1737-1813) (see note)

François LESCURIER d'ESPÉRIÈRES
seigneur des Peyrières [Lord of Peyrières]
• Born about 1735
• Deceased 16 November 1795, aged about 60 years old
Parents
• François LESCURIER d'ESPÉRIÈRES, seigneur de Fournols ca 1715-1780 (Juge d'Anglards-de-Salers (15), de La Trémolière et de Longevergne, notaire royal à Anglards) [Judge of Anglards-de-Salers (15), La Trémolière and Longevergne, royal notary in Anglards]
François LESCURIER d'ESPÉRIÈRES
seigneur de Fournols (1749)
• Born about 1715
• Deceased 14 September 1780, aged about 65 years old
• Juge d'Anglards-de-Salers (15), de La Trémolière et de Longevergne, notaire royal à Anglards
Parents
• Antoine LESCURIER †/1742 (Bourgeois)
o Marguerite FENOUILHAC

• Jeanne Marie LAVERGNE ca 1715-1780
Jeanne Marie LAVERGNE
• Born about 1715
• Deceased after 1780
Parents
o Antoine LAVERNHE (Bourgeois)
o Toinette SALVAIGE

Spouses, children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren
• Married 3 May 1767 to Marie-Françoise du FAYET de La TOUR, born 16 August 1737 - Saint-Vincent-de-Salers (15), baptized 18 September 1737 - Saint-Vincent-de-Salers (15), deceased 23 February 1813 aged 75 years old (Parents: Christophe (17 descendants !) du FAYET de La TOUR, seigneur de La Tour 1687-1758 & Ysabeau BROQUIN de MANCLAUX, voir Familles très nombreuses 1700-1768) (witness : Georges (seigneur de Fournols) LESCURIER, seigneur de Fournols 1729-1793) with
Marie-Françoise du FAYET de La TOUR
• Born 16 August 1737 - Saint-Vincent-de-Salers (15)
• Baptized 18 September 1737 - Saint-Vincent-de-Salers (15)
• Deceased 23 February 1813, aged 75 years old
Parents
• Christophe (17 descendants !) du FAYET de La TOUR, seigneur de La Tour 1687-1758 (Page de la Petite Écurie en 1706, puis aux chevau-léger du Roi en 1715) [Lord of La Tour 1687-1758 (Page of the Petite Écurie in 1706, then to the King's horse-light in 1715)]
Christophe du FAYET de La TOUR (17 descendants !)
(Christophe du FAYET de La TOUR)
seigneur de La Tour, Seigneur de la Borie and de Mainterolles, Voir Familles très nombreuses, Seigneur de la Bastide [Lord of La Tour, Lord of Borie and Mainterolles, See Very large families, Lord of the Bastide]
• Born 23 August 1687 - Château de La Borie, Saint-Vincent-de-Salers (15)
• Baptized 29 August 1687 - Saint-Vincent-de-Salers (15)
• Deceased 28 August 1758 - Saint-Vincent-de-Salers (15), aged 71 years old
• Buried 29 August 1758 - Saint-Vincent-de-Salers (15)
• Page de la Petite Écurie en 1706, puis aux chevau-léger du Roi en 1715 [Page of the Petite Écurie in 1706, then at the King's horse-light in 1715]
Parents
• François seigneur de La Tour du FAYET de La TOUR, seigneur de la Borie à Saint-Vincent 1654-1721 (Chevau-Léger en 1674 dans la compagnie de Soursac) [Chevau-Léger in 1674 in the company of Soursac]

>>>>>François du FAYET de La TOUR seigneur de La Tour
>>>>>(François du FAYET de La TOUR)
>>>>>seigneur de Tanières, de La Tour, de la Borie à Saint-Vincent, de La Bastide and des Égonies, seigneur de Clavières (1691), voir Armorial général (1702) [lord of Tanières, de La Tour, de la Borie in Saint-Vincent, de La Bastide and des Égonies, lord of Clavières (1691), see General Armorial (1702)]
>>>>>• Baptized 21 September 1654 - Saint-Vincent-de-Salers (15)
>>>>>• Deceased 19 July 1721 - Saint-Vincent-de-Salers (15), aged 66 years old
>>>>>• Buried - Château de La Borie, Saint-Vincent-de-Salers (15)
>>>>>• Chevau-Léger en 1674 dans la compagnie de Soursac
>>>>> Parents
>>>>>• François II du FAYET, seigneur de La Tour ca 1616-/1680 (Écuyer, chevau-léger)
>>>>>• Louise de TAUTAL ca 1620-1685

• Françoise (ludovicienne) de ROQUEMAUREL 1659-1728

>>>>>Françoise de ROQUEMAUREL (ludovicienne)
>>>>>Françoise de ROQUEMAUREL (ludovicienne)
>>>>>(Françoise de ROQUEMAUREL d'ESPINASSOLS)
>>>>>(Françoise de ROQUEMAUREL)
>>>>>• Born 19 December 1659 - Château d'Espinassol, Ytrac (15)
>>>>>• Baptized 21 December 1659
>>>>>• Deceased 16 April 1728 - Saint-Vincent-de-Salers (15), aged 68 years old
>>>>> Parents
>>>>>• Alexandre de ROQUEMAUREL, seigneur d'Espinassols ca 1625-1676 (Chevalier)
>>>>>• Catherine de VEYRE 1635-1687

• Ysabeau BROQUIN de MANCLAUX, voir Familles très nombreuses 1700-1768

>>>>> Ysabeau BROQUIN de MANCLAUX
>>>>> voir Familles très nombreuses
>>>>> • Born 25 December 1700 - Trizac (15)
>>>>> • Baptized 29 December 1700 - Trizac (15)
>>>>> • Deceased 21 October 1768 - Saint-Vincent-de-Salers (15), aged 67 years old
>>>>> • Buried 22 October 1768 - St-Vincent, Saint-Vincent-de-Salers (15)
>>>>> Parents
>>>>> • Antoine BROQUIN de MANCLAUX, seigneur de Manclaux 1667-1728 (Bailly de Trizac (15), avocat en Parlement)
>>>>> • Hélène MONTEIL 1674-1711

 Henri LESCURIER d'ESPÉRIÈRES 1770- Married 22 June 1813, Mauriac (15), to Marie Anne CHEVALIER du FAU 1781- with

Marie Anne CHEVALIER du FAU
• Born in 1781
• Deceased
Parents
• Joachim Nicolas CHEVALIER du FAU 1750

Joachim Nicolas CHEVALIER du FAU
• Baptized 28 January 1750 - Salers (15)
Parents
• Antoine CHEVALIER du FAU, sieur de Longevialle 1703 (Avocat) [Lawyer]

>>>>> Antoine CHEVALIER du FAU
>>>>>sieur de Longevialle
>>>>>• Born in August 1703 - Salers (15)
>>>>>• Avocat
>>>>> Parents
>>>>>• François CHEVALIER du FAU, sieur du Fau 1673-1705 (Bourgeois de Salers (15))

>>>>>>>>>> François CHEVALIER du FAU
>>>>>>>>>> sieur du Fau
>>>>>>>>>> • Born 6 January 1673 - Salers (15)
>>>>>>>>>> • Deceased 18 December 1705 - Salers (15), aged 32 years old
>>>>>>>>>> • Bourgeois de Salers (15)
>>>>>>>>>> Parents
>>>>>>>>>> • François CHEVALIER, sieur du Fau (Bourgeois de Salers (15))
>>>>>>>>>> • Anne SAUVAGE 1640-

>>>>>• Antoinette de MURAT

• Marguerite de BARDET de BURC

>>>>>Marguerite de BARDET de BURC
>>>>>(Marguerite BOUDET de BURC)
>>>>> Parents
>>>>>• Charles de BARDET de BURC, seigneur de Burc 1687-1757 (Ecuyer, lieutenant de cavalerie en 1738) [Squire, cavalry lieutenant in 1738 ]

>>>>>>>>>> Charles de BARDET de BURC
>>>>>>>>>> seigneur de Burc and de Pommiers, voir Ordre Royal et Militaire de Saint-Louis (Chevalier) [Lord of Burc and de Pommiers, see Royal and Military Order of Saint-Louis (Chevalier)]
>>>>>>>>>> • Born in 1687
>>>>>>>>>> • Deceased 19 April 1757 - Barriac-les-Bosquets (15), aged 70 years old
>>>>>>>>>> • Écuyer, lieutenant de cavalerie en 1738
>>>>>>>>>> Parents
>>>>>>>>>> • Pierre II de BARDET de BURC, seigneur de La Grillère 1658 (Il marcha sous les ordres du Marquis d'Apchon au ban de 1686.) [He marched under the orders of the Marquis d'Apchon at the ban of 1686.]
>>>>>>>>>> • Marguerite de MONTEIL de CHAVAROCHE 1665-1747

>>>>>• Marguerite de POUZOLS

>>>>>>>>>> Marguerite de POUZOLS
>>>>>>>>>> Parents
>>>>>>>>>> • Marc-Antoine de POUZOLS, seigneur de Bournazel [Lord of Bournazel]
>>>>>>>>>> o Antoinette DURET

• Jeanne CHEVALIER 1754-1830

Jeanne CHEVALIER
• Born 9 November 1754 - Mauriac (15)
• Deceased 3 January 1830 - Mauriac (15), aged 75 years old
Parents
• Guillaume Joseph CHEVALIER 1700-1771

>>>>> Guillaume Joseph CHEVALIER
>>>>> • Born 4 February 1700 - Mauriac (15)
>>>>> • Deceased 28 November 1771 - Mauriac (15), aged 71 years old
>>>>> Parents
>>>>> o Pierre CHEVALIER 1662-
>>>>> • Suzanne GRANIER 1677-1701

>>>>>>>>>> Suzanne GRANIER
>>>>>>>>>>• Born 30 September 1677 - Mauriac (15)
>>>>>>>>>>• Deceased 7 August 1701 - Mauriac (15), aged 23 years old
>>>>>>>>>> Parents
>>>>>>>>>>• Jacques GRANIER 1629

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> Jacques GRANIER
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> • Baptized 10 June 1629 - Mauriac (15)
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> Parents
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> • Jean GRANIER †1662 (Bourgeois de Mauriac (15))
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> • Marie LAVERGNE †1653

>>>>>>>>>>• Jeanne BROUSSES 1657

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>Jeanne BROUSSES
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>• Baptized 1 July 1657 - Mauriac (15)
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> Parents
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>o Annet BROUSSES †1672 (Maître apoticaire)
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>• Louise de MONTFORT

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> Louise de MONTFORT
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> Parents
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> • Jean de MONTFORT †1629 (Docteur en droit, avocat bailliage et siège présidial et baillage d'Aurillac (15), lieutenant de Mauriac (15)) [Doctor of law, lawyer bailiwick and presidial seat and bailiwick of Aurillac (15), lieutenant of Mauriac (15)]
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> • Antoinette de VIGIER 1600-1664

• Marie Anne ARMAND †1791

 Eugénie LESCURIER d'ESPÉRIÈRES 1814-1886 Married to Docteur Hippolyte RAYNAL de TISSONIÈRE, voir Légion d'honneur (Chevalier) 1806-1890 with :
• Général Georges RAYNAL de TISSONIÈRE, Voir Légion d'honneur (Commandeur) 1833-1905
o Victorin RAYNAL de TISSONIÈRE 1835-
 Eugène RAYNAL de TISSONIÈRE, propriétaire de Tissonière 1838-1924
o Jules RAYNAL de TISSONIÈRE 1845-1872
o François RAYNAL de TISSONIÈRE 1847-
o Mélanie RAYNAL de TISSONIÈRE
o Joachim LESCURIER d'ESPÉRIÈRES 1821-1887
 François Henri LESCURIER d'ESPÉRIÈRES 1779- Married 29 June 1808, Mauriac (15), to Françoise DUCLAUX 1789- with
• Antoine LESCURIER d'ESPÉRIÈRES 1814- Married 1 October 1840, Saint-Vincent-de-Salers (15), to Zélie du FAYET de La TOUR 1816-1861
Antoine LESCURIER d'ESPÉRIÈRES 1814- Married to Virginie MERLIN
 Pierre Paulin LESCURIER d'ESPÉRIÈRES 1815 Married 23 March 1846, Anglards-de-Salers (15), to Marie PEYTHIEU †1890 with :
o Delphine Agathe LESCURIER d'ESPÉRIÈRES 1847
o Jean LESCURIER d'ESPÉRIÈRES 1848
 Joachim Eugène LESCURIER d'ESPÉRIÈRES 1851
• Jean Pierre Françoise LESCURIER d'ESPÉRIÈRES 1860
Pierre Paulin LESCURIER d'ESPÉRIÈRES 1815 Married to ? ? with :
o Théodore LESCURIER d'ESPÉRIÈRES
 Caroline LESCURIER d'ESPÉRIÈRES 1822-1878 Married 28 February 1843, Anglards-de-Salers (15), to Jean Pierre François dit baron Théodore de SCORAILLES, propriétaire de Chanterelle 1813-1893 with :
o Eugène de SCORAILLES, Baron de Scorraille de Chanterelle 1844-1931
 Raoul de SCORAILLES 1853-1917
o Geneviève de SCORAILLES 1856-1928
 Pauline Françoise LESCURIER d'ESPÉRIÈRES 1824 Married 1 February 1842, Anglards-de-Salers (15), to Antoine Félix ROLLAND 1813 with :
• Rose Julienne ROLLAND 1854
o Paul LESCURIER d'ESPÉRIÈRES
 Antoine LESCURIER d'ESPÉRIÈRES, député aux États généraux 1778-1836 Married 2 March 1821, Anglards-de-Salers (15), to Jeanne ROBERT 1788 with
o Pierre LESCURIER 1812
o Antoine L 1814
 Jean Emile LESCURIER d'ESPÉRIÈRES 1816 Married 12 November 1845, Anglards-de-Salers (15), to Anne DEYDIER with :
o Théodore LESCURIER d'ESPÉRIÈRES †1857
o Marie Hernandine LESCURIER d'ESPÉRIÈRES 1846
o François Henri LESCURIER d'ESPÉRIÈRES 1847
o Jean Pierre Françoise LESCURIER d'ESPÉRIÈRES 1850
o Jean Achille LESCURIER d'ESPÉRIÈRES 1852
o Aspasie LESCURIER d'ESPÉRIÈRES 1854
o Marie LESCURIER d'ESPÉRIÈRES 1856
o Pierre Adolphe LESCURIER d'ESPÉRIÈRES 1857
• Géraud LESCURIER d'ESPÉRIÈRES 1862
o Géraud LESCURIER 1818
o Jeanne LESCURIER 1820
 François Henri LESCURIER 1824 Married to Anne Virginie SOUTOUL 1828 with :
o Justine Catherine LESCURIER 1867-1945
 Jeanne Marie LESCURIER d'ESPÉRIÈRES Married 22 June 1794, Anglards-de-Salers (15), to Jean Pierre Paul de COURBOULÈS de MONTJOLY 1760 with
o Mme Salvage de COURBOULÈS de MONTJOLY
Jeanne Marie LESCURIER d'ESPÉRIÈRES Married 29 December 1798, Anglards-de-Salers (15), to Jean DUPUY
Jeanne Marie LESCURIER d'ESPÉRIÈRES Married in 1807, Anglards-de-Salers (15), to Antoine ROUX 1778- with
 Emilie Marie Jeanne ROUX 1814 Married to Jean FIOCRE †1847 with :
 Irma FIOCRE
Siblings
 François LESCURIER d'ESPÉRIÈRES, seigneur des Peyrières ca 1735-1795
 Madeleine LESCURIER d'ESPÉRIÈRES

Le Four, commune de Monceaux (19)
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Re: Freda Bedi Cont'd (#3)

Postby admin » Sun Aug 01, 2021 6:13 am

Part 1 of 4

Louis Barthelemy [Barthelemi] [Bartelemy]
from various sources

"In relation to his Translation, it was made by the orders of Mr. Barthelemi, First Counselor in Pondicherry. Having a great number of interpreters for him, he had them translate some Indian works with all possible accuracy: but the wars of India & the ruin of Pondicherry resulted in the loss of all that he had gathered on these objects: and only the last translation of Zozur, of which only one complete copy remains, between the hands of M. Teissier de la Tour nephew of M. leConsr. Barthelemy. It's certain the one that we made the copy that we have in the Library of His Majesty, and which no doubt had not had time to complete when M. de Modave embarked to return to Europe."

I have not been able to gather any information on Tessier -- or Teissier -- de la Tour. Louis Barthelemy is much better known; although his career in India runs parallel to that of Porcher des Oulches, of the two he is the more prominent one and holds the highest offices. His name appears repeatedly in the official documents of the French Company. He was born at Montpellier, circa 1695, came to India in 1729, and stayed there until his death at Pondicherry, on 29 July 1760. He served at Mahe, was a member of the council at Chandernagore, and was called to Pondicherry in 1742. His duties at Pondicherry were twice interrupted in later years: in 1748 he was appointed governor of Madras, and in 1753-54 he preceded Porcher as commander of Karikal. He rose to the rank of "second du Conseil Superieur," and in the short period in 1755, between the departure of Godeheu and the arrival of de Leyrit, Barthelemy's name appears first on all official documents.
It should perhaps be mentioned, first, that on 22 February 1751 Barthelemy represented the father of the bride at the wedding of Jacques Law -- Dupleix was the witness for the bridegroom --, and second, that on 8 August 1758 he was godfather of Jacques Louis Law. These two entries seem to suggest that he was indeed close to the Law family, whose interpreter has been given credit for the translation of the EzV (see p. 28). It should also be pointed out that Barthelemy died more than half a year after Maudave -- and the EzV -- reached Lorient on 2 February 1760.

-- The Ezourvedam Manuscripts, Excerpt from Ezourvedam: A French Veda of the Eighteenth Century, Edited with an Introduction by Ludo Rocher


Louis Barthelemy [b. 1695; d. 1760] was the son of a Montpellier merchant. He entered the Company’s service in 1728, and at this time he was of the Pondichery Council, after serving in Bengal. In 1746 he was second at Madras under d’Espremenil, and, when the latter retired to Pondichery, became chief there; but refused to remain when he was superseded by Paradis. He married a daughter of Dulaurens. Etat general des Employes en 1750 (Ministere des Colonies, C2 15); Weber, pp. 466, 467 ; Cf., infra under date July 15.

-- The Diary of Ananda Ranga Pillai, translated from the Tamil by Order of the Government of Madras, edited by H. Dodwell, M.A., Curator, Madras Record Office, Volume 4, 1916


An entry dated 13 January 1770 in the registers of the minutes of the Council’s decisions describes a case concerning an inheritance dispute among the members of a family of pariah Christians. The opening lines of the entry introduce the crux of the dispute and the litigants involved:

[T]he request presented at the Chaudrie Tribunal by Antique, attorney for Dominique, Georges and Antoine of Pariah caste dressed as topas, fraternal nephews, claiming to be legitimate heirs of the deceased [Michel] Dragam, a Pariah, holds that Marie André, a Pariah dressed as a topassine, daughter of Francisca Demonte [Dragam’s daughter], Pariah dressed as a Malabar, is falsely claiming the succession of the said Dragam. [The request states that,] as a Pariah, she is subject to Malabar laws where women have no right to inherit when there are male relatives from the paternal line and that this case [should] be sent for adjudication to the Maganattars, judges for caste disputes, [and] then be decided by the Chaudrie Tribunal.66 [G. Diagou (ed.), Arrêts du Conseil Supérieur de Pondichéry, vol. 2 (13), pp. 174–78.]


Besides giving us the main cause of dispute, these lines also bring to the fore another level of cultural appropriation that serves to highlight the shifting and flexible nature of the legal categories. All members of Michel Dragam’s family were Christians of the pariah caste. Equally important, all members except Francisca Demonte (i.e. Dragam’s daughter) were dressed à la topas. In other words, these were Indians who had not only converted to Christianity, but had also adopted European dress like the topas, and, in doing so, had also claimed a different social identity. However, as the nephews’ claim shows, their legal identity was still a matter of debate: notwithstanding the change in attire, the nephews requested that the dispute be settled according to Malabar laws. Thus, by dressing as topas and yet claiming for the jurisdiction of Malabar laws as pariah Christians, such actors further proliferated jurisdictional complexity and defied being categorized simply as pariah Christians or as topas.

The nephews’ claim for the application of Malabar laws, as presented by Antique, evidently stemmed from the advantage these laws provided for men in matters of succession.67 [The role of these earliest Indian pleaders or ‘attorneys’, predecessors of the nineteenth-century Indians, trained formally as lawyers, still remains to be mapped. For a study of Indian lawyers as transcultural agents in the nineteenth- century Anglo-Indian judiciary, see the contribution by Verena Stellar in this special issue.] Like many other personal laws that discriminate(d) explicitly on the basis of sex, Malabar law prescribed that the estate of a deceased man passed on to his male descendants. 68 [J. Nair, Women and Law in Colonial India: A Social History, Bangalore 1996, p. 10. Indeed, as Nair points out, because personal laws are often considered to have a basis in religion, reforming them and redressing the explicit gender bias has been a long and hesitant enterprise.] Indeed, in matters relating to inheritance, male members of the family frequently used this claim to prevent female relatives from inheriting, possessing, or disposing of any property independently of male control beyond that allocated to them as caypencourou. 69 [Lazaro Modeliar vs Natchattiramamal, 20th March 1747, G. Diagou (ed.), Arrêts du Conseil Supérieur de Pondichéry, vol. 1 (13), pp. 178–181; Canagarayen and Cheganivasa vs Velavendren, 19th December 1766, Folder 233, Chaudrie Jugements; Sandaye vs Arlapean and others, 30th September 1774 in J.-C. Bonan, Jugements du tribunal de la Chaudrie (13), pp. 69–71. Nonetheless, there were exceptions to this practice; Poullé Mouttapoullé vs Gnanamoutamal, 20th February 1767, Folder 223, Chaudrie Jugements; Pogamalle vs Vinayagapoullé et Vedaguirypoullé, 2nd August 1774 in J.-C. Bonan, Jugements du tribunal de la Chaudrie (13), pp. 67– 68; Pragachen vs Canagapen, 2nd September 1774, no. 349, Folder 224, Chaudrie Jugements.] Even in the absence of a direct male heir, as in this case, an indirect male heir rather than a direct female heir was the prime contender for the inheritance.70 [ F.N. Laude, Manuel de droit Hindou (50), p. 120.] n fact, it was on this point, concerning collateral descendants that, compared to the Custom of Paris, Malabar laws provided a significant advantage to the nephews. Unlike Malabar laws, the Custom of Paris prescribed that, among the four kinds of successors, direct descendants took precedence over collateral descendants.71 [See the opening lines of the section on succession in Duplessis’ treatise on the Custom of Paris, in C. Duplessis, Traités de Mr. Duplessis, ancien avocat au Parlement, sur la Coutume de Paris, Paris 1754, p. 191. Similarly, Bourjon’s commentary on the succession laws in the Custom of Paris declares that ‘the law summons collateral descendants only when there are no children ....’ F. Bourjon, Le droit commun de la France et la Coutume de Paris réduits en principe, vol. 1, Paris 1770, p. 935.] Thus, by staking a claim to Malabar laws, the nephews, as collateral descendants, hoped to and could exploit the gender bias in their favour and gain their uncle Dragam’s inheritance.

Claude Sof, a European, husband and attorney to Marie André, presented several reasons why the nephews’ claims should be dismissed. Firstly, they were contesting an issue that had already been settled almost twenty years earlier. The Chaudrie judge at that time, M. Bartélemy, had dismissed their claims and divided the inheritance between Francisca Demonte and Marie André, in accordance with Dragam’s testament.72 [G. Diagou (ed.), Arrêts du Conseil Supérieur, vol. 1 (13), p. 176. Given that Chaudrie judgments started to be registered only in 1766, the earlier verdict is not available in the Chaudrie registers. However, I have been able to confirm the existence of the judge, M Bartélemy. This was Louis Barthélemy, who had been in the Company’s service since 1728. He served as a counsellor on the Provincial Council of Chandernagore from at least 1739 to 1742. He was a councillor at the Sovereign Council in Pondicherry between 1745 and 1759 and died in 1760. A. R. Pillai/H. Dodwell (ed.), The Diary of Ananda Ranga Pillai, from 1736 to 1761, vol. 8, Madras 1922, p. 27; G. Diagou (ed.), Arrêts du Conseil Supérieur, vol. 1 (13), pp. 60, 99, 139,324, 358.] They now made the same request again because Michel Dragam’s testament had recently been destroyed in a house fire. Secondly, Sof targeted the discrepancy created by the nephews’ claim to Malabar laws and their topas identity expressed by the adoption of European dress:

Michel Dragam’s nephews are falsely claiming pariah laws in their favour, for it is a custom among all European nations established in India that the said laws do not affect the people of the hat who are entirely subject to the laws of the Europeans under whose pavilion they reside, through privileges whose origins the petitioner [Claude Sof ] does not know but which have passed into laws…73 [‘Les dits neveux de Michel Dragam réclament mal à propos en leur faveur les lois des Paréas, étant de coutume parmi toutes les nations Européennes établies dans l‘Inde que les dites lois ne touchent point les gens à chapeau qui sont soumis en tout, aux lois des Européens sous le pavillon des quels ils résident, par des privilèges dont le suppliant ignore l‘origine mais qui sont passés en lois.’ [Google translate: The said nephews of Michel Dragam badly claim in their favor the laws of the Pareas, being customary among all the European nations established in India that the said laws do not affect people with hats who are subject in everything, to the laws Europeans under the flag of which they reside, by privileges of which the supplicant does not know the origin but which are passed into law.] G. Diagou (ed.), Arrêts du Conseil Supérieur, vol. 1 (13), p. 176.]

-- Between Saree and Skirt: Legal Transculturality in Eighteenth-Century Pondicherry, by Gauri Parasher


Louis Galliot of La Touche
• Born February 9, 1673 - Ste-Croix parish, Vannes (56)
• Deceased May 26, 1739 - Pondichéry (French India), at the age of 66 years old
• Buried on May 26, 1739 - ND des Anges, Pondichéry (French India)
Parents
o Mathurin Galliot from La Touche
Mathurin GALLIOT de la TOUCHE
• Born in 1650
• Deceased
Spouses and children
o Married to Estiennette BARBOT 1650- with

o Estiennette Barbot
Estiennette BARBOT
Born in 1650
Deceased
Spouses and children
Married to Mathurin GALLIOT de la TOUCHE 1650- with

Union (s) and child (ren)
• Married February 13, 1703, Pondichéry (French India), to Françoise Le Bon with
 Marie Galliot de La Touche 1707-

Francoise Le Bon
Parents
o Germain Le Bon

>>>>>Germain Le Bon
>>>>>Union (s) and child (ren)
>>>>>o Married to Sébastienne de Coelho with

o Sébastienne de Coelho
Union (s) and child (ren)

>>>>>Sébastienne de Coelho
>>>>>Union (s) and child (ren)
>>>>>o Married to Germain Le Bon with
>>>>> Françoise Le Bon

• Married February 13, 1703, Pondichéry (French India), to Louis Galliot de La Touche 1673-1739 with

o Married 5 May 1712, Pondichéry (French India), to Barbe Audibert de Boutteville 1694-1753 with
 Catherine Galliot de La Touche 1713-1754
o Louis François Galliot de La Touche 1715-
o Michel Galliot de La Touche 1716-
o Pierre Benoit Galliot de La Touche 1717-
o Louis Nicolas Galliot de La Touche 1717-
 Rosa Galliot de La Touche 1719-
o N Galliot de La Touche 1720-1720
o Marie Agnès Galliot de La Touche 1721-1738
o Jacques Galliot de La Touche 1723-

Marie Galliot of La Touche
• Born in 1707
• Deceased
Parents
• Louis Galliot de La Touche 1673-1739
• Françoise Le Bon
Union (s) and child (ren)
• Married February 3, 1723, Pondichéry (French India), to Jacques Baleine du Laurens ca 1699-1749 with
o Magdeleine Barbe Baleine du Laurens 1723-1766
 Jacques Joseph Baleine du Laurens 1725-1779
o Louis Charles Baleine du Laurens 1727-1758
• Marie Brigitte Agnès Geneviève Baleine du Laurens 1728-
• Marie Françoise Baleine du Laurens 1729-1775
 Antoine François Baleine du Laurens 1732-1775
Half-brothers and half-sisters
On the side of Louis Galliot de La Touche 1673-1739
o with Barbe Audibert de Boutteville 1694-1753
 Catherine Galliot de La Touche 1713-1754
o Louis François Galliot de La Touche 1715-
o Michel Galliot de La Touche 1716-
o Pierre Benoit Galliot de La Touche 1717-
o Louis Nicolas Galliot de La Touche 1717-
 Rosa Galliot de La Touche 1719-
o N Galliot de La Touche 1720-1720
o Marie Agnès Galliot de La Touche 1721-1738
o Jacques Galliot de La Touche 1723-


"Catherine" GALLIOT de la TOUCHE
• Born 22 March 1713 (Wednesday) - Pondichéry (Inde Française), , , ,, , , ,
• Deceased 20 February 1754 (Wednesday) - Pondichéry (Inde Française), , , ,, , , ,, aged 40 years old
• Buried 20 February 1754 (Wednesday) - Pondichéry (Inde Française), , , ,, , , ,
Parents
• Louis GALLIOT de la TOUCHE 1673-1739
• Barbe AUDIBERT de BOUTTEVILLE 1698-1753
Spouses and children
• Married to "Clair François Dominique" DESPLATS de FLAIX 1701-1736 with
 Geneviève Barbe Charlotte DESPLATS de FLAIX 1733-1761

"Clair François Dominique" DESPLATS de FLAIX
• Born 15 December 1701 (Thursday) - Fontainebleau (Seine et Marne), , ,, , , ,
• Deceased 1 October 1736 (Monday) - Pondichéry (Inde Française),, , , ,, aged 34 years old
• Buried 2 October 1736 (Tuesday) - Pondichéry (Inde Française),, , , ,
Parents
• "Charles Dominique" des PLACTZ 1668-1701
• "Marie Marguerite" THIROUX 1675-
Spouses and children
• Married to "Catherine" GALLIOT de la TOUCHE 1713-1754 with
 Geneviève Barbe Charlotte DESPLATS de FLAIX 1733-1761

Geneviève Barbe Charlotte DESPLATS de FLAIX
• Born 4 November 1733 (Wednesday) - Chandernagor (Inde Française), , , ,, , , ,
• Deceased 11 February 1761 (Wednesday) - Pondichéry (Inde Française), ,, , , ,, aged 27 years old
• Buried 12 February 1781 (Monday) - Pondichéry (Inde Française), , , ,, , , ,
Parents
• "Clair François Dominique" DESPLATS de FLAIX 1701-1736
• "Catherine" GALLIOT de la TOUCHE 1713-1754
Spouses and children
• Married to Pierre Jean FIGEAC 1720-1756 with
 Marie Joseph Paul Roch Gilbert Dit La Fayette FIGEAC 1720-1756
• Married to Hilaire Polycarpe BOURGINE de BEAUCHÊNE 1723-1781

Louis François Galliot de La Touche
• Born in 1715
• Deceased
Parents
• Louis Galliot de La Touche 1673-1739
o Barbe Audibert de Boutteville 1694-1753
Siblings
 Catherine Galliot de La Touche 1713-1754
o Michel Galliot de La Touche 1716-
o Pierre Benoit Galliot de La Touche 1717-
o Louis Nicolas Galliot de La Touche 1717-
 Rosa Galliot de La Touche 1719-
o N Galliot de La Touche 1720-1720
o Marie Agnès Galliot de La Touche 1721-1738
o Jacques Galliot de La Touche 1723-
Half-siblings
On the side of Louis Galliot de La Touche 1673-1739
o Louis Galliot de La Touche 1702-
• with Françoise Le Bon
 Marie Galliot de La Touche 1707-

Michel Galliot de La Touche
• Born in 1716
• Deceased
Parents
• Louis Galliot de La Touche 1673-1739
o Barbe Audibert de Boutteville 1694-1753
Siblings
 Catherine Galliot de La Touche 1713-1754
o Louis François Galliot de La Touche 1715-
o Pierre Benoit Galliot de La Touche 1717-
o Louis Nicolas Galliot de La Touche 1717-
 Rosa Galliot de La Touche 1719-
o N Galliot de La Touche 1720-1720
o Marie Agnès Galliot de La Touche 1721-1738
o Jacques Galliot de La Touche 1723-
Half-siblings
On the side of Louis Galliot de La Touche 1673-1739
o Louis Galliot de La Touche 1702-
• with Françoise Le Bon
 Marie Galliot de La Touche 1707-

Pierre Benoit Galliot de La Touche
• Born in 1717
• Deceased
Parents
• Louis Galliot de La Touche 1673-1739
o Barbe Audibert de Boutteville 1694-1753
Siblings
 Catherine Galliot de La Touche 1713-1754
o Louis François Galliot de La Touche 1715-
o Michel Galliot de La Touche 1716-
o Louis Nicolas Galliot de La Touche 1717-
 Rosa Galliot de La Touche 1719-
o N Galliot de La Touche 1720-1720
o Marie Agnès Galliot de La Touche 1721-1738
o Jacques Galliot de La Touche 1723-
Half-siblings
On the side of Louis Galliot de La Touche 1673-1739
o Louis Galliot de La Touche 1702-
• with Françoise Le Bon
 Marie Galliot de La Touche 1707-

Rosa Galliot de La Touche
• Born in 1719
• Deceased
Parents
• Louis Galliot de La Touche 1673-1739
o Barbe Audibert de Boutteville 1694-1753
Spouses and children
• Married 3 February 1740, Pondichéry (Inde Française), to Jean-François Nicolas de Calnois de Forancis 1715- with
Jean-François Nicolas de Calnois de Forancis
• Born in 1715 - Saint-Nicolas des Champs, Paris (75)
• Deceased
• conseiller au Conseil Supérieur de Pondichéry [adviser to the Superior Council of Pondicherry]
Parents
o Antoine Nicolas

Antoine Nicolas
• Secrétaire de la Compagnie des Indes [Secretary of the East India Company]
Spouses and children
o Married to Elisabeth Rousseau with
 Jean-François Nicolas de Calnois de Forancis 1715-

o Elisabeth Rousseau

 Jacques Nicolas de Forancis 1740-
o Alexandre Antoine Nicolas Nicolas 1742-
 Michel Nicolas de Calnois 1745-1786
o Louis Pierre Nicolas de Sainte-Foy 1748-1777
• Jean Guillaume Nicolas de La Merlière 1749-
Siblings
 Catherine Galliot de La Touche 1713-1754
o Louis François Galliot de La Touche 1715-
o Michel Galliot de La Touche 1716-
o Pierre Benoit Galliot de La Touche 1717-
o Louis Nicolas Galliot de La Touche 1717-
o N Galliot de La Touche 1720-1720
o Marie Agnès Galliot de La Touche 1721-1738
o Jacques Galliot de La Touche 1723-
Half-siblings
On the side of Louis Galliot de La Touche 1673-1739
o Louis Galliot de La Touche 1702-
• with Françoise Le Bon
 Marie Galliot de La Touche 1707-

N Galliot de La Touche
• Born in 1720
• Deceased in 1720
Parents
• Louis Galliot de La Touche 1673-1739
o Barbe Audibert de Boutteville 1694-1753
Siblings
 Catherine Galliot de La Touche 1713-1754
o Louis François Galliot de La Touche 1715-
o Michel Galliot de La Touche 1716-
o Pierre Benoit Galliot de La Touche 1717-
o Louis Nicolas Galliot de La Touche 1717-
 Rosa Galliot de La Touche 1719-
o Marie Agnès Galliot de La Touche 1721-1738
o Jacques Galliot de La Touche 1723-
Half-siblings
On the side of Louis Galliot de La Touche 1673-1739
o Louis Galliot de La Touche 1702-
• with Françoise Le Bon
 Marie Galliot de La Touche 1707-

Marie Agnès Galliot de La Touche
• Born in 1721
• Deceased in 1738, aged 17 years old
Parents
• Louis Galliot de La Touche 1673-1739
o Barbe Audibert de Boutteville 1694-1753
Siblings
 Catherine Galliot de La Touche 1713-1754
o Louis François Galliot de La Touche 1715-
o Michel Galliot de La Touche 1716-
o Pierre Benoit Galliot de La Touche 1717-
o Louis Nicolas Galliot de La Touche 1717-
 Rosa Galliot de La Touche 1719-
o N Galliot de La Touche 1720-1720
o Jacques Galliot de La Touche 1723-
Half-siblings
On the side of Louis Galliot de La Touche 1673-1739
o Louis Galliot de La Touche 1702-
• with Françoise Le Bon
 Marie Galliot de La Touche 1707-

Jacques Galliot de La Touche
• Born in 1723
• Deceased
Parents
• Louis Galliot de La Touche 1673-1739
o Barbe Audibert de Boutteville 1694-1753
Siblings
 Catherine Galliot de La Touche 1713-1754
o Louis François Galliot de La Touche 1715-
o Michel Galliot de La Touche 1716-
o Pierre Benoit Galliot de La Touche 1717-
o Louis Nicolas Galliot de La Touche 1717-
 Rosa Galliot de La Touche 1719-
o N Galliot de La Touche 1720-1720
o Marie Agnès Galliot de La Touche 1721-1738
Half-siblings
On the side of Louis Galliot de La Touche 1673-1739
o Louis Galliot de La Touche 1702-
• with Françoise Le Bon
 Marie Galliot de La Touche 1707-

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Re: Freda Bedi Cont'd (#3)

Postby admin » Mon Aug 02, 2021 5:35 am

Part 2 of 4

Jacques BALEN du Laurent
(Jacques BALEN)
• Born about 1630
• Deceased
Cuisinier de la duchesse de Nemours [Cook of the Duchess of Nemours, Marie de Nemours, Marie d'Orléans-Longueville (1625–1707), was Princess of Neuchâtel from 1694 to 1707. She was the daughter of Henri II d'Orléans, duc de Longueville and Louise de Bourbon. After the death of her brother Jean Louis Charles d'Orléans-Longueville in 1694 she succeeded him as sovereign Princess of Neuchâtel, although she remained a prominent member of the French royal court.]
Spouses and children
o Married to ? ? [Magdeleine Monnay] with
 Jacques BALEINE du LAURENS 1699-1749

Jacques Baleine du Laurens
• Born around 1699 - Saint-Eustache Parish, Paris (75)
• Died October 29, 1749 - Pondichéry (French India), at the age of about 50 years
• Arrived in India in 1722, Secretary of the Superior Council of Pondicherry in 1722, Provision of adviser to the CSP on 12/30/1738
• secretary of the Superior Council of Pondicherry
Parents
o Jacques Baleine du Laurens

o Magdeleine Monnay
Union (s) and child (ren)
• Married February 3, 1723, Pondichéry (French India), to Marie Galliot de La Touche 1707- with
o Magdeleine Barbe Baleine du Laurens 1723-1766
 Jacques Joseph Baleine du Laurens 1725-1779
o Louis Charles Baleine du Laurens 1727-1758
• Marie Brigitte Agnès Geneviève Baleine du Laurens 1728-
• Marie Françoise Baleine du Laurens 1729-1775
 Antoine François Baleine du Laurens 1732-1775

Magdeleine Barbe Baleine du Laurens
• Born in 1723
• Deceased in 1766, aged 43 years old
Parents
• Jacques Baleine du Laurens ca 1699-1749
• Marie Galliot de La Touche 1707-
[MARRIED???]
Siblings
 Jacques Joseph Baleine du Laurens 1725-1779
o Louis Charles Baleine du Laurens 1727-1758
• Marie Brigitte Agnès Geneviève Baleine du Laurens 1728-
• Marie Françoise Baleine du Laurens 1729-1775
 Antoine François Baleine du Laurens 1732-1775

Jacques Joseph Baleine du Laurens
• Born in 1725
• Deceased in 1779, aged 54 years old
• Employé de la Compagnie des Indes, conseiller au CSP 1/4/1764, cdt pour le roi à Madras
• conseiller au Conseil Supérieur de Pondichéry
Parents
• Jacques Baleine du Laurens ca 1699-1749
• Marie Galliot de La Touche 1707-
Spouses and children
• Married in 1753 to Agnès Brigitte Catherine du Casse 1737- with
• Marie Agnès Brigitte Baleine du Laurens 1762-
Siblings
o Magdeleine Barbe Baleine du Laurens 1723-1766
o Louis Charles Baleine du Laurens 1727-1758
• Marie Brigitte Agnès Geneviève Baleine du Laurens 1728-
• Marie Françoise Baleine du Laurens 1729-1775
 Antoine François Baleine du Laurens 1732-1775

Louis Charles Baleine du Laurens
• Born in 1727
• Deceased in 1758, aged 31 years old
• conseiller au Conseil Supérieur de Pondichéry
Parents
• Jacques Baleine du Laurens ca 1699-1749
• Marie Galliot de La Touche 1707-
Siblings
o Magdeleine Barbe Baleine du Laurens 1723-1766
 Jacques Joseph Baleine du Laurens 1725-1779
• Marie Brigitte Agnès Geneviève Baleine du Laurens 1728-
• Marie Françoise Baleine du Laurens 1729-1775
 Antoine François Baleine du Laurens 1732-1775

Marie Brigitte Agnès Geneviève Baleine du Laurens
• Born in 1728
• Deceased
Parents
• Jacques Baleine du Laurens ca 1699-1749
• Marie Galliot de La Touche 1707-
Spouses
Married in 1771, Pondichéry (Inde), to Raymond de Rivalz de Gincla 1728-1777
Siblings
o Magdeleine Barbe Baleine du Laurens 1723-1766
 Jacques Joseph Baleine du Laurens 1725-1779
o Louis Charles Baleine du Laurens 1727-1758
• Marie Françoise Baleine du Laurens 1729-1775
 Antoine François Baleine du Laurens 1732-1775

Raymond de Rivalz de Gincla
• Born 20 October 1728 - Carcassonne (11)
• Deceased 24 September 1777 - Virampatnam (Inde), aged 48 years old
• Officier des troupes de l'Inde
Parents
• Raymond de Rivalz de Gincla 1705-1783
o Marie de La Poterie
Spouses
• Married in 1771, Pondichéry (Inde), to Marie Brigitte Agnès Geneviève Baleine du Laurens 1728-

Marie Françoise Baleine du Laurens
• Born in 1729
• Deceased in 1775, aged 46 years old
Parents
• Jacques Baleine du Laurens ca 1699-1749
• Marie Galliot de La Touche 1707-
Spouses
o Married in 1746 to Jean Baptiste Berthelin
Siblings
o Magdeleine Barbe Baleine du Laurens 1723-1766
 Jacques Joseph Baleine du Laurens 1725-1779
o Louis Charles Baleine du Laurens 1727-1758
• Marie Brigitte Agnès Geneviève Baleine du Laurens 1728-
 Antoine François Baleine du Laurens 1732-1775

Jean Baptiste Berthelin
Spouses
• Married in 1746 to Marie Françoise Baleine du Laurens 1729-1775

Memoir for Sieur Berthelin, merchant in Pondicherry; against the Count of Lally, formerly commanding His Majesty's troops in India.
Author: Denis Louis Pasquier; Benoiment, M. de.
Publisher: In Paris: From the Imprimerie de Chardon, rue Galande, opposite that of Fouarre, to the Golden Cross, MDCCLXVI [1766]
Subjects
Berthelin, Jean-Baptiste.
Lally, Thomas-Arthur, - Earl of, - 1702-1766.


Antoine François Baleine du Laurens
• Born in 1732
• Deceased in 1775, aged 43 years old
• Avocat au Parlement de Paris, conseiller au CSP 20/2/1769, greffier-notaire à Tranquebar
• conseiller au Conseil Supérieur de Pondichéry
Parents
• Jacques Baleine du Laurens ca 1699-1749
• Marie Galliot de La Touche 1707-
Spouses and children
o Married in 1757 to Anne Marie Jeanne Desjardins with
o Antoine François Baleine du Laurens 1758-
 Jean Baptiste Louis Charles Baleine du Laurens 1759-
• Marie Françoise Baleine du Laurens ca 1765
Siblings
o Magdeleine Barbe Baleine du Laurens 1723-1766
 Jacques Joseph Baleine du Laurens 1725-1779
o Louis Charles Baleine du Laurens 1727-1758
• Marie Brigitte Agnès Geneviève Baleine du Laurens 1728-
• Marie Françoise Baleine du Laurens 1729-1775

Anne Marie Jeanne Desjardins
Spouses and children
• Married in 1757 to Antoine François Baleine du Laurens 1732-1775 with
o Antoine François Baleine du Laurens 1758-
 Jean Baptiste Louis Charles Baleine du Laurens 1759-
• Marie Françoise Baleine du Laurens ca 1765

-- geneanet.org


Henry [Henri] Alexandre de LARCHE
• Born 4 January 1720 - Pondichéry, Tamil Nadu (Inde)
• Conseiller du Conseil Supérieur de Pondichéry.
Parents
• Jean Marie Henry de LARCHE †1730
• Marie ROLLAND 1702-1722
Spouses, children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren
o Married 27 May 1743, Pondichéry, Tamil Nadu (Inde), to Marguerite Madeleine ELIAS, born 16 April 1728 - Pondichéry, Tamil Nadu (Inde), deceased 8 April 1754 - Pondichéry, Tamil Nadu (Inde) aged 25 years old with
 Joachim Henri Alexandre de LARCHE 1748-1816 Married to Julie Angélique Joannis SINAN 1749-1797 with
 Charles Augustin de LARCHE 1773-1848 Married to Marie Jacqueline Félicité Le NORMAND du GOULLANOU 1777-1848 with:
 Félicité Marie Alexandrine Angélina de LARCHE 1806-1872

Marguerite Madeleine ELIAS
• Born 16 April 1728 - Pondichéry, Tamil Nadu (Inde)
• Deceased 8 April 1754 - Pondichéry, Tamil Nadu (Inde), aged 25 years old
Spouses, children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren
• Married 27 May 1743, Pondichéry, Tamil Nadu (Inde), to Henry Alexandre de LARCHE, born 4 January 1720 - Pondichéry, Tamil Nadu (Inde),
Conseiller du Conseil Supérieur de Pondichéry.
(Parents: Jean Marie Henry de LARCHE †1730 & Marie ROLLAND 1702-1722) with
 Joachim Henri Alexandre de LARCHE 1748-1816 Married to Julie Angélique Joannis SINAN 1749-1797 with
 Charles Augustin de LARCHE 1773-1848 Married to Marie Jacqueline Félicité Le NORMAND du GOULLANOU 1777-1848 with:
Félicité Marie Alexandrine Angélina de LARCHE 1806-1872

 Aurèle LATOUR de VINAY 1798-1869 Married 14 April 1825 (Thursday), Puducherry, (Pondichéry, Inde Française), Tamil Nadu, INDIA, to Félicité Marie Alexandrine Angélina de LARCHE 1806-1872 with
• Joseph Charles Volcy VINAY 1828-1880 Married 8 January 1851 (Wednesday), Puducherry, (Pondichéry, Inde Française), Tamil Nadu, INDIA, to Louise Lavinia PERNON 1834-1870
 Marie Javotte Noémie VINAY 1829-1864 Married 22 September 1845 (Monday), Puducherry, (Pondichéry, Inde Française), Tamil Nadu, INDIA, to John Félix PHILIPPS 1821- with:
 Lawrence Charles PHILIPS
 William Barnett PHILIPS
o Esther Marguerite PHILIPS
 Angélina Lucie PHILIPS
o Alexandre VINAY-PHILIPS
 Marie Emilie Polymnie dite Poly VINAY 1832-1907 Married 30 March 1853 (Wednesday), Puducherry, (Pondichéry, Inde Française), Tamil Nadu, INDIA, to Henri Charles Jacques de CLOSETS 1828-1902 with:
 Marie Françoise Philomène de CLOSETS 1862-1942
o Volcy Joseph Claude de CLOSETS 1865-1891
 "Henri" Aurèle Amédée de CLOSETS d'ERREY 1868-1940
 Lucie Angelina Noémie Luce de CLOSETS 1874-1953
o Charles Emile Alcide Laurent VINAY 1835-
 Frédéric VINAY ?1839-1879 Married 12 January 1863 (Monday), Karaikal, (Karical, Inde Française) Tamil Nadu, INDIA, to Marie Perrine Amélie COËT MORVEN /1848-1879/ with :
• Marie Francoise Mathilde VINAY 1863-
o Marie VINAY
o Julie VINAY
 Xavier Joseph Emile "Laurent" VINAY 1868-
o Albert Edouard VINAY 1841-
o Aurèle Edouard VINAY 1842
o Henry Adolphe Auguste VINAY 1843-
 Félix Gustave Philibert "Edouard" VINAY 1845- Married 24 June 1873 (Tuesday), Ceylan, SRI LANKA, to Sophie YOUNG 1850-1924 with:
o Marie Anne Françoise Angélina Noémie VINAY
o Geneviève VINAY
o Joseph Annet Pierre VINAY
o Madeleine VINAY
 Jeanne Marie Josèphe VINAY 1881


Joachim Henri Alexandre de LARCHE
• Born 28 March 1748 - Pondichéry, Tamil Nadu (Inde)
• Deceased in 1816, aged 68 years old
Parents
• Henry Alexandre de LARCHE 1720 (Conseiller du Conseil Supérieur de Pondichéry.)
o Marguerite Madeleine ELIAS 1728-1754
Spouses, children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren
• Married to Julie Angélique Joannis SINAN, born 5 May 1749 - Pondichéry, Tamil Nadu (Inde), deceased 7 June 1797 - Pondichéry, Tamil Nadu (Inde) aged 48 years old (Parents: Coja Joannis SINAN ca 1711-1767 & Catherine ELIAS) with
 Charles Augustin de LARCHE 1773-1848 Married to Marie Jacqueline Félicité Le NORMAND du GOULLANOU 1777-1848 with
 Félicité Marie Alexandrine Angélina de LARCHE 1806-1872 Married 14 April 1825, Pondichéry, Tamil Nadal (Inde), to Aurèle [LATOUR DE] VINAY 1798-1869 with:
 Marie Emilie Polymnie VINAY 1832-1907
 Félix Gustave Philibert Edouard VINAY 1845

Julie Angélique Joannis SINAN
• Born 5 May 1749 - Pondichéry, Tamil Nadu (Inde)
• Deceased 7 June 1797 - Pondichéry, Tamil Nadu (Inde), aged 48 years old
Parents
• Coja Joannis SINAN ca 1711-1767 (Négociant arménien à Pondichéry)
• Catherine ELIAS
Spouses, children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren
• Married to Joachim Henri Alexandre de LARCHE, born 28 March 1748 - Pondichéry, Tamil Nadu (Inde), deceased in 1816 aged 68 years old (Parents: Henry Alexandre de LARCHE 1720 & Marguerite Madeleine ELIAS 1728-1754) with
 Charles Augustin de LARCHE 1773-1848 Married to Marie Jacqueline Félicité Le NORMAND du GOULLANOU 1777-1848 with
 Félicité Marie Alexandrine Angélina de LARCHE 1806-1872 Married 14 April 1825, Pondichéry, Tamil Nadal (Inde), to Aurèle VINAY 1798-1869 with:
 Marie Emilie Polymnie VINAY 1832-1907
 Félix Gustave Philibert Edouard VINAY 1845
Siblings
 "Jeanne" Madeleine Joanis SINAN 1746-
 Julie Angélique Joannis SINAN 1749-1797
o Jacques Anne Joanis SINAN 1756-1837
• Marie Catherine SINAN 1760-
 Brigitte SINAN 1761-

Marie de LARCHE
• Deceased 30 March 1756 - Pondichéry - Pondichéry, IND, Indes
Parents
o Henri Alexandre de LARCHE, born 4 January 1720 - Pondichery, IND, Indes, deceased,
Conseiller au Conseil Supérieur
Married 27 May 1743, Pondichery, IND, Indes, to
• Marguerite Madelaine ELIAS, deceased 8 April 1754 - Pondichery, IND, Indes
Siblings
 Joachim Henri Alexandre de LARCHE 1748- With Julie Angélique Joannis SINAN
o Marie de LARCHE †1756
o Louis de LARCHE 1751-1756
• Jean Baptiste Joséphine de LARCHE 1752-1773 Married 24 October 1767, Madras, IND, Indes, to Augustin BEYLIE

Louis de LARCHE
• Born 23 January 1751 - Pondichery, IND, Indes
• Deceased 26 March 1756 - Pondichéry - Pondichéry, IND, Indes, aged 5 years old
Parents
o Henri Alexandre de LARCHE, born 4 January 1720 - Pondichery, IND, Indes, deceased,
Conseiller au Conseil Supérieur
Married 27 May 1743, Pondichery, IND, Indes, to
• Marguerite Madelaine ELIAS, deceased 8 April 1754 - Pondichery, IND, Indes
Siblings
 Joachim Henri Alexandre de LARCHE 1748- With Julie Angélique Joannis SINAN
o Marie de LARCHE †1756
o Louis de LARCHE 1751-1756
• Jean Baptiste Joséphine de LARCHE 1752-1773 Married 24 October 1767, Madras, IND, Indes, to Augustin BEYLIE

Jean Baptiste Joséphine de LARCHE
• Born 21 September 1752 - Pondichery, IND, Indes
• Deceased 28 August 1773 - Pondichery, IND, Indes, aged 20 years old
Parents
o Henri Alexandre de LARCHE, born 4 January 1720 - Pondichery, IND, Indes, deceased,
Conseiller au Conseil Supérieur
Married 27 May 1743, Pondichery, IND, Indes, to
• Marguerite Madelaine ELIAS, deceased 8 April 1754 - Pondichery, IND, Indes
Spouses
• Married 24 October 1767, Madras, IND, Indes, to Augustin BEYLIE (Parents: Jacques BEYLIE & Françoise BARDE)
Siblings
 Joachim Henri Alexandre de LARCHE 1748- With Julie Angélique Joannis SINAN
o Marie de LARCHE †1756
o Louis de LARCHE 1751-1756
• Jean Baptiste Joséphine de LARCHE 1752-1773 Married 24 October 1767, Madras, IND, Indes, to Augustin BEYLIE

-- by geneanet.org


Louis Joseph Jacques LATOUR de VINAY
(Louis Joseph Jacques VINAY)
(Louis Joseph Jacques LATOUR de VINAY)
• Born 25 July 1746 (Monday) - Valence, 26362, Drôme, Rhône-Alpes, France
• Deceased 11 March 1802 (Thursday) - Port-Louis, Île Maurice, MAURITIUS, aged 55 years old
• Commissaire de la Marine, administrateur de Karikal [Commissioner of the Navy, administrator of Karikal]
Karaikal (/kʌdɛkʌl/, French: Karikal /kaʁikal/) is a town of the Indian Union Territory of Puducherry. Karaikal became a French Colony in 1674 and held control, with occasional interruption from the British and Dutch, until 1954 (de jure in 1956), when it was incorporated into the Republic of India, along with Chandernagore, Mahé, Yanaon, and Pondichéry.

-- Karaikal, by Wikipedia

Parents
o Laurent Marcellin VINAY, born possibly in 1720 - Grenoble, 38, Isère, Rhône-Alpes, France,
Avocat au Parlement de Grenoble

Married to
o Marie Aimée MAURIN
Spouses, children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren
Married 1 November 1782 (Friday), Gondelour, Tamil Nadu, INDE, to Geneviève de BOISTEL de ROMAINVILLE, born 21 August 1767 (Friday) - Port-Louis, Île Maurice, MAURITIUS, deceased 21 August 1825 (Sunday) - Port-Louis, Île Maurice, MAURITIUS aged 58 years old (Parents: Pierre Paul Joseph Ferdinand de BOISTEL de ROMAINVILLE, chevalier de Boistel de Romainville 1730-1785 & Anne GALLET 1751-1784) with
o Claude Ange Joseph LATOUR de VINAY 1783-
 Laurent LATOUR de VINAY 1784-1846 Married 10 April 1822 (Wednesday), Port-Louis, Île Maurice, MAURITIUS, to Françoise Fanny PIGEOT de SAINT VALLERY †1861 with
o Saint Valéry VINAY
 "Renée Malcy" Laurent VINAY 1825-1871 Married 23 February 1846 (Monday), Puducherry, (Pondichéry, Inde Française), Tamil Nadu, INDIA, to Amédée Charles Alexandre PIERRE de CLOSETS d'ERREY 1817-1891 with:
 Lucien Amédée dit LENOIR de CLOSETS d'ERREY 1856-
 Inès Malcy Alexandrine de CLOSETS d'ERREY 1857-
o Ernest Henri Léopold de CLOSETS de JENTVILLE 1859-
o Anna Laure Fanny de CLOSETS d'ERREY 1861-
o Adrien Paul René de CLOSETS d'AMBREVILLE 1862-
 Louis Charles Emile de CLOSETS de JORTS 1864-1940
o Mauricia Aimée Angélique de CLOSETS d'ERREY 1867-
• Albert VINAY 1826- Married 4 June 1863 (Thursday), Bombay, INDE, to Héléna COUSENS
o Frédéric VINAY
• Amanda VINAY Married to James HAYES
 Jacques Joseph Julien François René LATOUR de VINAY 1785- Married to x POUGET de SAINT-ANDRÉ with
o Armand LATOUR de VINAY
o Juliette LATOUR de VINAY
Jacques Joseph Julien François René LATOUR de VINAY 1785- Married to Marie Françoise Caroline de COLONIA
 David Désiré LATOUR de VINAY 1785-1844 Married to Marie Louise VICTOIRE with
 Alphonse VINAY Married to Marie Hermine VERNON with:
 Marie Victoire Noémie VINAY 1857
o Louis Jules VINAY
o Marie Alphonsine VINAY †1859
o Louis David VINAY 1850
o Marie Estella VINAY 1855-1857
o Marie Louise "Lolotte" VINAY
o Alphonsine VINAY
o Zélie VINAY
o Jules VINAY
 Edouard LATOUR de VINAY ca 1787- Married to N AMELINE with
o Aline LATOUR de VINAY †1844
o Philippine LATOUR de VINAY ca 1788-1856
• Angélique LATOUR de VINAY ca 1790- Married to Christophe Aimable FRUCHARD †/1822
 Aurèle LATOUR de VINAY 1798-1869 Married 14 April 1825 (Thursday), Puducherry, (Pondichéry, Inde Française), Tamil Nadu, INDIA, to Félicité Marie Alexandrine Angélina de LARCHE 1806-1872 with
• Joseph Charles Volcy VINAY 1828-1880 Married 8 January 1851 (Wednesday), Puducherry, (Pondichéry, Inde Française), Tamil Nadu, INDIA, to Louise Lavinia PERNON 1834-1870
 Marie Javotte Noémie VINAY 1829-1864 Married 22 September 1845 (Monday), Puducherry, (Pondichéry, Inde Française), Tamil Nadu, INDIA, to John Félix PHILIPPS 1821- with :
 Lawrence Charles PHILIPS
 William Barnett PHILIPS
o Esther Marguerite PHILIPS
 Angélina Lucie PHILIPS
o Alexandre VINAY-PHILIPS
 Marie Emilie Polymnie dite Poly VINAY 1832-1907 Married 30 March 1853 (Wednesday), Puducherry, (Pondichéry, Inde Française), Tamil Nadu, INDIA, to Henri Charles Jacques de CLOSETS 1828-1902 with:
 Marie Françoise Philomène de CLOSETS 1862-1942
o Volcy Joseph Claude de CLOSETS 1865-1891
 "Henri" Aurèle Amédée de CLOSETS d'ERREY 1868-1940
 Lucie Angelina Noémie Luce de CLOSETS 1874-1953
o Charles Emile Alcide Laurent VINAY 1835-
 Frédéric VINAY ?1839-1879 Married 12 January 1863 (Monday), Karaikal, (Karical, Inde Française) Tamil Nadu, INDIA, to Marie Perrine Amélie COËT MORVEN /1848-1879/ with:
• Marie Francoise Mathilde VINAY 1863-
o Marie VINAY
o Julie VINAY
 Xavier Joseph Emile "Laurent" VINAY 1868-
o Albert Edouard VINAY 1841-
o Aurèle Edouard VINAY 1842
o Henry Adolphe Auguste VINAY 1843-
 Félix Gustave Philibert "Edouard" VINAY 1845- Married 24 June 1873 (Tuesday), Ceylan, SRI LANKA, to Sophie YOUNG 1850-1924 with:
o Marie Anne Françoise Angélina Noémie VINAY
o Geneviève VINAY
o Joseph Annet Pierre VINAY
o Madeleine VINAY
 Jeanne Marie Josèphe VINAY 1881

Laurent Marcellin [LATOUR DE (The Tower Of)] VINAY
(Laurent Marcellin VINAY)
• Born possibly in 1720 - Grenoble, 38, Isère, Rhône-Alpes, France
• Avocat au Parlement de Grenoble [Lawyer at the Parliament of Grenoble, France]
Spouses, children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren
o Married to Marie Aimée MAURIN with
 Louis Joseph Jacques LATOUR de VINAY 1746-1802 Married 1 November 1782 (Friday), Gondelour, Tamil Nadu, INDE, to Geneviève de BOISTEL de ROMAINVILLE 1767-1825 with
o Claude Ange Joseph LATOUR de VINAY 1783-
 Laurent LATOUR de VINAY 1784-1846 Married 10 April 1822 (Wednesday), Port-Louis, Île Maurice, MAURITIUS, to Françoise Fanny PIGEOT de SAINT VALLERY †1861 with:
o Saint Valéry VINAY
 "Renée Malcy" Laurent VINAY 1825-1871
• Albert VINAY 1826-
o Frédéric VINAY
• Amanda VINAY
 Jacques Joseph Julien François René LATOUR de VINAY 1785- Married to x POUGET de SAINT-ANDRÉ with:
o Armand LATOUR de VINAY
o Juliette LATOUR de VINAY
Jacques Joseph Julien François René LATOUR de VINAY 1785- Married to Marie Françoise Caroline de COLONIA
 David Désiré LATOUR de VINAY 1785-1844 Married to Marie Louise VICTOIRE with :
 Alphonse VINAY
o Alphonsine VINAY
o Zélie VINAY
o Jules VINAY
 Edouard LATOUR de VINAY ca 1787- Married to N AMELINE with:
o Aline LATOUR de VINAY †1844
o Philippine LATOUR de VINAY ca 1788-1856
• Angélique LATOUR de VINAY ca 1790- Married to Christophe Aimable FRUCHARD †/1822
 Aurèle LATOUR de VINAY 1798-1869 Married 14 April 1825 (Thursday), Puducherry, (Pondichéry, Inde Française), Tamil Nadu, INDIA, to Félicité Marie Alexandrine Angélina de LARCHE 1806-1872 with:
• Joseph Charles Volcy VINAY 1828-1880
 Marie Javotte Noémie VINAY 1829-1864
 Marie Emilie Polymnie dite Poly VINAY 1832-1907
o Charles Emile Alcide Laurent VINAY 1835-
 Frédéric VINAY ?1839-1879
o Albert Edouard VINAY 1841-
o Aurèle Edouard VINAY 1842
o Henry Adolphe Auguste VINAY 1843-
 Félix Gustave Philibert "Edouard" VINAY 1845-

Geneviève de BOISTEL de ROMAINVILLE
(Geneviève de BOISTEL de ROMAINVILLE)
• Born 21 August 1767 (Friday) - Port-Louis, Île Maurice, MAURITIUS
• Deceased 21 August 1825 (Sunday) - Port-Louis, Île Maurice, MAURITIUS, aged 58 years old
Parents
• Pierre Paul Joseph Ferdinand de BOISTEL de ROMAINVILLE, chevalier de Boistel de Romainville, born 5 September 1730 (Tuesday) - Phalsbourg (57), deceased 22 June 1785 (Wednesday) - Puducherry, (Pondichéry, Inde Française), Tamil Nadu, INDIA aged 54 years old,
Gouverneur de Gondelour et de Karikal
Married 10 April 1765 (Wednesday), Port-Louis, Île Maurice, MAURITIUS, to
• Anne GALLET, born in 1751, deceased in 1784 aged 33 years old

Spouses, children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren
Married 1 November 1782 (Friday), Gondelour, Tamil Nadu, INDE, to Louis Joseph Jacques LATOUR de VINAY, born 25 July 1746 (Monday) - Valence, 26362, Drôme, Rhône-Alpes, France, deceased 11 March 1802 (Thursday) - Port-Louis, Île Maurice, MAURITIUS aged 55 years old,
Commissaire de la Marine, administrateur de Karikal

(Parents : Laurent Marcellin VINAY ?1720 & Marie Aimée MAURIN) with
o Claude Ange Joseph LATOUR de VINAY 1783-
 Laurent LATOUR de VINAY 1784-1846 Married 10 April 1822 (Wednesday), Port-Louis, Île Maurice, MAURITIUS, to Françoise Fanny PIGEOT de SAINT VALLERY †1861 with
o Saint Valéry VINAY
 "Renée Malcy" Laurent VINAY 1825-1871 Married 23 February 1846 (Monday), Puducherry, (Pondichéry, Inde Française), Tamil Nadu, INDIA, to Amédée Charles Alexandre PIERRE de CLOSETS d'ERREY 1817-1891 with:
 Lucien Amédée dit LENOIR de CLOSETS d'ERREY 1856-
 Inès Malcy Alexandrine de CLOSETS d'ERREY 1857-
o Ernest Henri Léopold de CLOSETS de JENTVILLE 1859-
o Anna Laure Fanny de CLOSETS d'ERREY 1861-
o Adrien Paul René de CLOSETS d'AMBREVILLE 1862-
 Louis Charles Emile de CLOSETS de JORTS 1864-1940
o Mauricia Aimée Angélique de CLOSETS d'ERREY 1867-
• Albert VINAY 1826- Married 4 June 1863 (Thursday), Bombay, INDE, to Héléna COUSENS
o Frédéric VINAY
• Amanda VINAY Married to James HAYES
 Jacques Joseph Julien François René LATOUR de VINAY 1785- Married to x POUGET de SAINT-ANDRÉ with
o Armand LATOUR de VINAY
o Juliette LATOUR de VINAY
Jacques Joseph Julien François René LATOUR de VINAY 1785- Married to Marie Françoise Caroline de COLONIA
 David Désiré LATOUR de VINAY 1785-1844 Married to Marie Louise VICTOIRE with
 Alphonse VINAY Married to Marie Hermine VERNON with :
 Marie Victoire Noémie VINAY 1857
o Louis Jules VINAY
o Marie Alphonsine VINAY †1859
o Louis David VINAY 1850
o Marie Estella VINAY 1855-1857
o Marie Louise "Lolotte" VINAY
o Alphonsine VINAY
o Zélie VINAY
o Jules VINAY
 Edouard LATOUR de VINAY ca 1787- Married to N AMELINE with
o Aline LATOUR de VINAY †1844
o Philippine LATOUR de VINAY ca 1788-1856
• Angélique LATOUR de VINAY ca 1790- Married to Christophe Aimable FRUCHARD †/1822
 Aurèle LATOUR de VINAY 1798-1869 Married 14 April 1825 (Thursday), Puducherry, (Pondichéry, Inde Française), Tamil Nadu, INDIA, to Félicité Marie Alexandrine Angélina de LARCHE 1806-1872 with
• Joseph Charles Volcy VINAY 1828-1880 Married 8 January 1851 (Wednesday), Puducherry, (Pondichéry, Inde Française), Tamil Nadu, INDIA, to Louise Lavinia PERNON 1834-1870
 Marie Javotte Noémie VINAY 1829-1864 Married 22 September 1845 (Monday), Puducherry, (Pondichéry, Inde Française), Tamil Nadu, INDIA, to John Félix PHILIPPS 1821- with :
 Lawrence Charles PHILIPS
 William Barnett PHILIPS
o Esther Marguerite PHILIPS
 Angélina Lucie PHILIPS
o Alexandre VINAY-PHILIPS
 Marie Emilie Polymnie dite Poly VINAY 1832-1907 Married 30 March 1853 (Wednesday), Puducherry, (Pondichéry, Inde Française), Tamil Nadu, INDIA, to Henri Charles Jacques de CLOSETS 1828-1902 with:
 Marie Françoise Philomène de CLOSETS 1862-1942
o Volcy Joseph Claude de CLOSETS 1865-1891
 "Henri" Aurèle Amédée de CLOSETS d'ERREY 1868-1940
 Lucie Angelina Noémie Luce de CLOSETS 1874-1953
o Charles Emile Alcide Laurent VINAY 1835-
 Frédéric VINAY ?1839-1879 Married 12 January 1863 (Monday), Karaikal, (Karical, Inde Française) Tamil Nadu, INDIA, to Marie Perrine Amélie COËT MORVEN /1848-1879/ with :
• Marie Francoise Mathilde VINAY 1863-
o Marie VINAY
o Julie VINAY
 Xavier Joseph Emile "Laurent" VINAY 1868-
o Albert Edouard VINAY 1841-
o Aurèle Edouard VINAY 1842
o Henry Adolphe Auguste VINAY 1843-
 Félix Gustave Philibert "Edouard" VINAY 1845- Married 24 June 1873 (Tuesday), Ceylan, SRI LANKA, to Sophie YOUNG 1850-1924 with :
o Marie Anne Françoise Angélina Noémie VINAY
o Geneviève VINAY
o Joseph Annet Pierre VINAY
o Madeleine VINAY
 Jeanne Marie Josèphe VINAY 1881
Siblings
• Joseph Ferdinand Anasthase de BOISTEL 1766-1829 Married in 1794 to Marie Louise BREISTROFF
 Geneviève de BOISTEL de ROMAINVILLE 1767-1825 Married 1 November 1782 (Friday), Gondelour, Tamil Nadu, INDE, to Louis Joseph Jacques LATOUR de VINAY 1746-1802
 Anne Victoire de BOISTEL 1769- Married in 1783 to Etienne Edouard PERICHON de VANDEUIL
• Angélique de BOISTEL 1774- Married 26 May 1790 (Wednesday), Port-Louis, Île Maurice, MAURITIUS, to Nicolas Paul Alexis de CHASTEL d'AUTRECOURT
• Christian Marie de BOISTEL 1776- Married in 1805 to Marie Josèphe Brigitte PERICHON de VANDEUIL
• Anne Perrine Félicité de BOISTEL Married to Gigismond HAAS
Anne Perrine Félicité de BOISTEL Married to N van SLOBEN
o Eugénie de BOISTEL
o Louise de BOISTEL 1783-1786
o Anne de BOISTEL 1784-
 Anne Etienne dite Nanon de BOISTEL 1784-1830 Married to Marie François Xavier BELLIER de MONTROSE 1766-1846
o Louise de BOISTEL †1786
Paternal grand-parents, uncles and aunts
 Joseph Ferdinand de BOISTEL, chevalier de Saint Louis ca 1693-1751
 Marie Anasthasie de BELLIVET 1702-1779
• Antoine Henri de BOISTEL de ROMAINVILLE 1728-1796
(1776)
1 child
• Pierre Paul Joseph Ferdinand de BOISTEL de ROMAINVILLE, chevalier de Boistel de Romainville 1730-1785
(1765)
11 children
Maternal grand-parents, uncles and aunts
 Gilles Jean dit Desroches GALLET 1710-1779 (1743)
o Geneviève DESCHAMPS ?1720-1795
• Anne GALLET 1751-1784
(1765)
11 children
• Thomas GALLET 1762-1819
(1789)
1 child
• Jean Baptiste GALLET 1764-1816

Pierre Paul Joseph Ferdinand de BOISTEL de ROMAINVILLE
(Pierre Paul Joseph Ferdinand de BOISTEL de ROMAINVILLE)
chevalier de Boistel de Romainville
• Born 5 September 1730 (Tuesday) - Phalsbourg (57)
• Deceased 22 June 1785 (Wednesday) - Puducherry, (Pondichéry, Inde Française), Tamil Nadu, INDIA, aged 54 years old
• Gouverneur de Gondelour et de Karikal

Parents
• Joseph Ferdinand de BOISTEL, chevalier de Saint Louis, born about 1693, deceased in 1751 aged about 58 years old,
Lieutenant provincial de l'artillerie de France, commandant de la place de Phalsbourg, brigadier des Armées de sa Majesté
Married to
• Marie Anasthasie de BELLIVET, born in 1702, deceased in 1779 aged 77 years old
Spouses, children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren
• Married 10 April 1765 (Wednesday), Port-Louis, Île Maurice, MAURITIUS, to Anne GALLET, born in 1751, deceased in 1784 aged 33 years old (Parents : Gilles Jean dit Desroches GALLET 1710-1779 & Geneviève DESCHAMPS ?1720-1795) with
• Joseph Ferdinand Anasthase de BOISTEL 1766-1829 Married in 1794 to Marie Louise BREISTROFF
 Geneviève de BOISTEL de ROMAINVILLE 1767-1825 Married 1 November 1782 (Friday), Gondelour, Tamil Nadu, INDE, to Louis Joseph Jacques LATOUR de VINAY 1746-1802 with
o Claude Ange Joseph LATOUR de VINAY 1783-
 Laurent LATOUR de VINAY 1784-1846 Married 10 April 1822 (Wednesday), Port-Louis, Île Maurice, MAURITIUS, to Françoise Fanny PIGEOT de SAINT VALLERY †1861 with :
o Saint Valéry VINAY
 "Renée Malcy" Laurent VINAY 1825-1871
• Albert VINAY 1826-
o Frédéric VINAY
• Amanda VINAY
 Jacques Joseph Julien François René LATOUR de VINAY 1785- Married to x POUGET de SAINT-ANDRÉ with:
o Armand LATOUR de VINAY
o Juliette LATOUR de VINAY
Jacques Joseph Julien François René LATOUR de VINAY 1785- Married to Marie Françoise Caroline de COLONIA
 David Désiré LATOUR de VINAY 1785-1844 Married to Marie Louise VICTOIRE with :
 Alphonse VINAY
o Alphonsine VINAY
o Zélie VINAY
o Jules VINAY
 Edouard LATOUR de VINAY ca 1787- Married to N AMELINE with :
o Aline LATOUR de VINAY †1844
o Philippine LATOUR de VINAY ca 1788-1856
• Angélique LATOUR de VINAY ca 1790- Married to Christophe Aimable FRUCHARD †/1822
 Aurèle LATOUR de VINAY 1798-1869 Married 14 April 1825 (Thursday), Puducherry, (Pondichéry, Inde Française), Tamil Nadu, INDIA, to Félicité Marie Alexandrine Angélina de LARCHE 1806-1872 with:
• Joseph Charles Volcy VINAY 1828-1880
 Marie Javotte Noémie VINAY 1829-1864
 Marie Emilie Polymnie dite Poly VINAY 1832-1907
o Charles Emile Alcide Laurent VINAY 1835-
 Frédéric VINAY ?1839-1879
o Albert Edouard VINAY 1841-
o Aurèle Edouard VINAY 1842
o Henry Adolphe Auguste VINAY 1843-
 Félix Gustave Philibert "Edouard" VINAY 1845-
 Anne Victoire de BOISTEL 1769- Married in 1783 to Etienne Edouard PERICHON de VANDEUIL with
o Edouard Etienne PERICHON de VANDEUIL †1829
• Angélique de BOISTEL 1774- Married 26 May 1790 (Wednesday), Port-Louis, Île Maurice, MAURITIUS, to Nicolas Paul Alexis de CHASTEL d'AUTRECOURT
• Christian Marie de BOISTEL 1776- Married in 1805 to Marie Josèphe Brigitte PERICHON de VANDEUIL
• Anne Perrine Félicité de BOISTEL Married to Gigismond HAAS
Anne Perrine Félicité de BOISTEL Married to N van SLOBEN
o Eugénie de BOISTEL
o Louise de BOISTEL 1783-1786
o Anne de BOISTEL 1784-
 Anne Etienne dite Nanon de BOISTEL 1784-1830 Married to Marie François Xavier BELLIER de MONTROSE 1766-1846 with
 Marie Clémentine BELLIER 1805-1838 Married 30 September 1824 (Thursday), Saint-Denis, 97411, La Réunion, France, to Jules Henri MAINGARD 1800-1877 with :
o Xavier Jules MAINGARD 1825-1891
o Paul Josselin MAINGARD 1827-
o Marie Julie MAINGARD 1829-1891
o Ernest Pierre MAINGARD 1832-
o Maurice Jean MAINGARD 1835-
o Manon Henriette MAINGARD 1837-
 Adrien Martin BELLIER MONTROSE 1806-1891 Married 20 November 1827 (Tuesday), Saint-André, 97409, La Réunion, France DOM, to Marie Louise Clémentine de HEAULME 1809-1869 with :
 Marianne Elisènne BELLIER de MONTROSE
o Adrien BELLIER de MONTROSE
o Gabriel BELLIER de MONTROSE
o Augustine BELLIER 1808-1809
o Victoire Oreillie BELLIER 1809-
o Louise de BOISTEL †1786
Siblings
 Antoine Henri de BOISTEL de ROMAINVILLE 1728-1796 Married 13 August 1776 (Tuesday), Charenton-le-Pont, 94018, Val-de-Marne, Île-de-France, France, to Anne Victoire KEMPFER von PLOBSHEIM 1746-1831
 Pierre Paul Joseph Ferdinand de BOISTEL de ROMAINVILLE, chevalier de Boistel de Romainville 1730-1785 Married 10 April 1765 (Wednesday), Port-Louis, Île Maurice, MAURITIUS, to Anne GALLET 1751-1784
Paternal grand-parents, uncles and aunts
 Simon de BOISTEL †1724
o Anne-Sophie de SCHMALE
• Joseph Ferdinand de BOISTEL, chevalier de Saint Louis ca 1693-1751
2 children
Maternal grand-parents, uncles and aunts
o Pierre François de BELLIVET 1663 (1699)
o Anne Marie BRUNCK
• Marie Anasthasie de BELLIVET 1702-1779
2 children
• Marie Claire de BELLIVET ?1710
(1728)
1 child

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