Project MKUltra, by Wikipedia

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Project MKUltra, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Wed Dec 20, 2017 7:09 am

Part 1 of 2

Project MKULtra
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 12/20/17



Declassified MKUltra documents

Project MKUltra, also called the CIA mind control program, is the code name given to a program of experiments on human subjects, at times illegal, designed and undertaken by the United States Central Intelligence Agency.[1] Experiments on humans were intended to identify and develop drugs and procedures to be used in interrogations and torture in order to weaken the individual to force confessions through mind control. Organized through the Scientific Intelligence Division of the CIA, the project coordinated with the Special Operations Division of the U.S. Army's Chemical Corps.[2]

The operation began in the early 1950s, was officially sanctioned in 1953, was reduced in scope in 1964, further curtailed in 1967, and officially halted in 1973.[3] The program engaged in many illegal activities,[4][5][6] including the use of unwitting U.S. and Canadian citizens as its test subjects, which led to controversy regarding its legitimacy.[4](p74)[7][8][9] MKUltra used numerous methods to manipulate people's mental states and alter brain functions, including the surreptitious administration of drugs (especially LSD) and other chemicals, hypnosis, sensory deprivation, isolation and verbal abuse, as well as other forms of psychological torture.[10][11]

The scope of Project MKUltra was broad, with research undertaken at 80 institutions, including 44 colleges and universities, as well as hospitals, prisons, and pharmaceutical companies.[12] The CIA operated through these institutions using front organizations, although sometimes top officials at these institutions were aware of the CIA's involvement.[13] As the US Supreme Court later noted in CIA v. Sims 471 U.S. 159 (1985) [14] MKULTRA was:

concerned with "the research and development of chemical, biological, and radiological materials capable of employment in clandestine operations to control human behavior." The program consisted of some 149 subprojects which the Agency contracted out to various universities, research foundations, and similar institutions. At least 80 institutions and 185 private researchers participated. Because the Agency funded MKUltra indirectly, many of the participating individuals were unaware that they were dealing with the Agency.[15]

Although the Supreme Court sided with the CIA that sources' names could be redacted for their protection, it nonetheless validated the existence of MKULTRA to be used in future court cases and confirmed that the CIA for 14 years performed clandestine experiments on human behavior.

Between 1953 and 1966, the Central Intelligence Agency financed a wide-ranging project, code-named MKULTRA, concerned with the research and development of chemical, biological, and radiological materials capable of employment in clandestine operations to control human behavior.

Project MKUltra was first brought to public attention in 1975 by the Church Committee of the U.S. Congress, and a Gerald Ford commission to investigate CIA activities within the United States. Investigative efforts were hampered by the fact that CIA Director Richard Helms ordered all MKUltra files destroyed in 1973; the Church Committee and Rockefeller Commission investigations relied on the sworn testimony of direct participants and on the relatively small number of documents that survived Helms' destruction order.[16]

In 1977, a Freedom of Information Act request uncovered a cache of 20,000 documents relating to project MKUltra, which led to Senate hearings later that same year.[4][17] In July 2001, some surviving information regarding MKUltra was declassified.

Forty-four American colleges or universities, 15 research foundations or chemical or pharmaceutical companies including Sandoz (now Novartis) and Eli Lilly and Company, 12 hospitals or clinics (in addition to those associated with universities), and three prisons are known to have participated in MKUltra.[18][19]


Sidney Gottlieb approved of an MKUltra subproject on LSD in this June 9, 1953 letter.

Precursor experiments

In 1945 the Joint Intelligence Objectives Agency was established and given direct responsibility for Operation Paperclip. The program recruited former Nazi scientists,[20] some of whom had been identified and prosecuted as war criminals during the Nuremberg Trials.[21]


The project's intentionally obscure CIA cryptonym is made up of the digraph MK, meaning the project was sponsored by the agency's Technical Services Staff, followed by the word Ultra (which had previously been used to designate the most secret classification of World War II intelligence). Other related cryptonyms include Project MKNAOMI and Project MKDELTA.

Headed by Sidney Gottlieb, the MKUltra project began on the order of CIA director Allen Welsh Dulles on April 13, 1953.[22] Its aim was to develop mind-controlling drugs for use against the Soviet bloc in response to alleged Soviet, Chinese, and North Korean use of mind control techniques on U.S. prisoners of war in Korea.[23] The CIA wanted to use similar methods on their own captives. The CIA also showed interest in being able to manipulate foreign leaders with such techniques,[24] and would later invent several schemes to drug Fidel Castro. They often conducted experiments without the subjects' knowledge or consent.[25] In some cases, academic researchers being funded through grants from CIA front organizations were unaware the CIA was using their work for these purposes.[26]

The project attempted to produce a perfect truth drug for use in interrogating suspected Soviet spies during the Cold War, and to explore other possibilities of mind control. Another MKUltra effort, Subproject 54, was the Navy's top secret "Perfect Concussion" program, which was supposed to use sub-aural frequency blasts to erase memory. However, the program was never carried out.[27]

Because most MKUltra records were destroyed in 1973 by order of then CIA director Richard Helms, it has been difficult, if not impossible, for investigators to gain a complete understanding of the more than 150 funded research sub-projects sponsored by MKUltra and related CIA programs.[28]

The project began during a period of what Rupert Cornwell described as "paranoia" at the CIA, when the U.S. had lost its nuclear monopoly, and fear of Communism was at its height.[29] James Jesus Angleton, head of CIA counter-intelligence, believed a mole penetrated the organization at the highest levels.[29]

The Agency poured millions of dollars into studies examining methods of influencing and controlling the mind, and of enhancing their ability to extract information from resistant subjects during interrogation.[30][31]

Some historians assert creating a "Manchurian Candidate" subject through "mind control" techniques was a goal of MKUltra and related CIA projects.[32] Alfred McCoy has claimed the CIA attempted to focus media attention on these sorts of "ridiculous" programs, so the public would not look at the primary goal of the research, which was developing effective methods of torture and interrogation. Such authors cite as one example the CIA's KUBARK interrogation manual refers to "studies at McGill University", and most of the techniques recommended in KUBARK are exactly those researcher Donald Ewen Cameron used on his test subjects (sensory deprivation, drugs, isolation, etc.).[30]

One 1955 MKUltra document gives an indication of the size and range of the effort; this document refers to the study of an assortment of mind-altering substances described as follows:[33]

1. Substances which will promote illogical thinking and impulsiveness to the point where the recipient would be discredited in public.
2. Substances which increase the efficiency of mentation and perception.
3. Materials which will cause the victim to age faster/slower in maturity.
4. Materials which will promote the intoxicating effect of alcohol.
5. Materials which will produce the signs and symptoms of recognized diseases in a reversible way so they may be used for malingering, etc.
6. Materials which will cause temporary/permanent brain damage and loss of memory.
7. Substances which will enhance the ability of individuals to withstand privation, torture, and coercion during interrogation and so-called "brain-washing".
8. Materials and physical methods which will produce amnesia for events preceding and during their use.
9. Physical methods of producing shock and confusion over extended periods of time and capable of surreptitious use.
10. Substances which produce physical disablement such as paralysis of the legs, acute anemia, etc.
11. Substances which will produce a chemical that can cause blisters.
12. Substances which alter personality structure in such a way the tendency of the recipient to become dependent upon another person is enhanced.
13. A material which will cause mental confusion of such a type the individual under its influence will find it difficult to maintain a fabrication under questioning.
14. Substances which will lower the ambition and general working efficiency of men when administered in undetectable amounts.
15. Substances which promote weakness or distortion of the eyesight or hearing faculties, preferably without permanent effects.
16. A knockout pill which can be surreptitiously administered in drinks, food, cigarettes, as an aerosol, etc., which will be safe to use, provide a maximum of amnesia, and be suitable for use by agent types on an ad hoc basis.
17. A material which can be surreptitiously administered by the above routes and which in very small amounts will make it impossible for a person to perform physical activity.


The Church Committee report in 1976 described the MKDELTA program as follows: "A special procedure, designated MKDELTA, was established to govern the use of MKULTRA materials abroad. Such materials were used on a number of occasions. Because MKULTRA records were destroyed, it is impossible to reconstruct the operational use of MKULTRA materials by the CIA overseas; it has been determined that the use of these materials abroad began in 1953, and possibly as early as 1950. Drugs were used primarily as an aid to interrogations, but MKULTRA/MKDELTA materials were also used for harassment, discrediting, or disabling purposes."[34][35][36]


In 1964, MKSEARCH was the name given to the continuation of the MKULTRA program. The MKSEARCH program was divided into two projects dubbed MKOFTEN/CHICKWIT. Funding for MKSEARCH commenced in 1965, and ended in 1971.[37] The project was a joint project between The U.S. Army Chemical Corps and the Central Intelligence Agency's Office of Research and Development to find new offensive-use agents with a focus on incapacitating agents. The purpose of the project was to develop, test, and evaluate capabilities in the covert use of biological, chemical, and radioactive material systems and techniques for producing predictable human behavioral and/or physiological changes in support of highly sensitive operational requirements.[37]

By March 1971 over 26,000 potential agents had been acquired for future screening.[38] The CIA were interested in bird migration patterns for CBW research under MK/ULTRA where, a Subproject 139 designated "Bird Disease Studies" at Penn State.[39]


MKOFTEN was to deal with testing and toxicological, transmissivity and behavioral effects of drugs in animals and, ultimately, humans.[37]


MKCHICKWIT was concerned with acquiring information on new drug developments in Europe and the Orient, and with acquiring samples.[37]


CIA documents suggest they investigated "chemical, biological, and radiological" means for the purpose of mind control as part of MKUltra.[40] They spent an estimated $10 million USD (roughly $87.5 million adjusted for inflation) or more.[41]



Early CIA efforts focused on LSD9/589, which later came to dominate many of MKUltra's programs.[42] The CIA wanted to know if they could make Soviet spies defect against their will and whether the Soviets could do the same to the CIA's own operatives.[43]

Once Project MKUltra got underway in April 1953, experiments included administering LSD to mental patients, prisoners, drug addicts, and prostitutes—"people who could not fight back," as one agency officer put it.[44] In one case, they administered LSD to a mental patient in Kentucky for 174 days.[44] They also administered LSD to CIA employees, military personnel, doctors, other government agents, and members of the general public to study their reactions. LSD and other drugs were often administered without the subject's knowledge or informed consent, a violation of the Nuremberg Code the U.S. had agreed to follow after World War II. The aim of this was to find drugs which would bring out deep confessions or wipe a subject's mind clean and program him or her as "a robot agent."[45]

In Operation Midnight Climax, the CIA set up several brothels within agency safehouses in San Francisco, California to obtain a selection of men who would be too embarrassed to talk about the events. The men were dosed with LSD, the brothels were equipped with one-way mirrors, and the sessions were filmed for later viewing and study.[46] In other experiments where people were given LSD without their knowledge, they were interrogated under bright lights with doctors in the background taking notes. They told subjects they would extend their "trips" if they refused to reveal their secrets. The people under this interrogation were CIA employees, U.S. military personnel, and agents suspected of working for the other side in the Cold War. Long-term debilitation and several deaths resulted from this.[45] Heroin addicts were bribed into taking LSD with offers of more heroin.[13]

The Office of Security used LSD in interrogations but Dr. Sidney Gottlieb, the chemist who directed MKUltra, had other ideas; he thought it could be used in covert operations. Since its effects were temporary, he believed one could give it to high-ranking officials and in this way affect the course of important meetings, speeches etc. Since he realized there was a difference in testing the drug in a laboratory and using it in clandestine operations, he initiated a series of experiments where LSD was given to people in "normal" settings without warning. At first, everyone in Technical Services tried it; a typical experiment involved two people in a room where they observed each other for hours and took notes. As the experimentation progressed, a point arrived where outsiders were drugged with no explanation whatsoever and surprise acid trips became something of an occupational hazard among CIA operatives. Adverse reactions often occurred, such as an operative who received the drug in his morning coffee became psychotic and ran across Washington, seeing a monster in every car passing him. The experiments continued even after Dr. Frank Olson, an Army scientist who had not taken LSD before, went into deep depression after a surprise trip and later fell from a thirteenth story window.[47]

Some subjects' participation was consensual, and in these cases they appeared to be singled out for even more extreme experiments. In one case, seven volunteers in Kentucky were given LSD for seventy-seven consecutive days.[48]

MKUltra's researchers later dismissed LSD as too unpredictable in its results.[49] They gave up on the notion LSD was "the secret that was going to unlock the universe," but it still had a place in the cloak-and-dagger arsenal. However, by 1962 the CIA and the army developed a series of superhallucinogens such as the highly touted BZ, which was thought to hold greater promise as a mind control weapon. This resulted in the withdrawal of support by many academics and private researchers, and LSD research became less of a priority altogether.[47]

Other drugs

Another technique investigated was the intravenous administration of a barbiturate into one arm and an amphetamine into the other.[50] The barbiturates were released into the person first, and as soon as the person began to fall asleep, the amphetamines were released. The person would begin babbling incoherently, and it was sometimes possible to ask questions and get useful answers.

Other experiments involved heroin, morphine, temazepam (used under code name MKSEARCH), mescaline, psilocybin, scopolamine, cannabis, alcohol, and sodium pentothal.[51]


Declassified MKUltra documents indicate they studied hypnosis in the early 1950s. Experimental goals included: the creation of "hypnotically induced anxieties," "hypnotically increasing ability to learn and recall complex written matter," studying hypnosis and polygraph examinations, "hypnotically increasing ability to observe and recall complex arrangements of physical objects," and studying "relationship of personality to susceptibility to hypnosis."[52] They conducted experiments with drug induced hypnosis and with anterograde and retrograde amnesia while under the influence of such drugs.

Canadian experiments

Donald Ewen Cameron c.1967

They exported experiments to Canada when the CIA recruited Scottish psychiatrist Donald Ewen Cameron, creator of the "psychic driving" concept, which the CIA found interesting. Cameron had been hoping to correct schizophrenia by erasing existing memories and reprogramming the psyche. He commuted from Albany, New York, to Montreal every week to work at the Allan Memorial Institute of McGill University and was paid $69,000 from 1957 to 1964 ($603,580 in 2017 dollars) to carry MKUltra experiments there. These research funds were sent to Dr. Cameron by a CIA front organization, the Society for the Investigation of Human Ecology, and as shown in internal CIA documents, Cameron did not know the money came from the CIA.[53] In addition to LSD, Cameron also experimented with various paralytic drugs as well as electroconvulsive therapy at thirty to forty times the normal power. His "driving" experiments consisted of putting subjects into drug-induced comas for weeks at a time (up to three months in one case) while playing tape loops of noise or simple repetitive statements. His experiments were often carried on patients who entered the institute for minor problems such as anxiety disorders and postpartum depression, many of whom suffered permanent effects from his actions.[54] His treatments resulted in victims' incontinence, amnesia, forgetting how to talk, forgetting their parents, and thinking their interrogators were their parents.[55] His work was inspired and paralleled by the British psychiatrist William Sargant at St Thomas' Hospital, London, and Belmont Hospital, Surrey, who was also involved in the Intelligence Services and who experimented on his patients without their consent, causing similar long-term damage.[56] In the 1980s, several of Cameron's former patients sued the CIA for damages, which the Canadian news program The Fifth Estate documented.[57] Their experiences and lawsuit was made into a 1998 television miniseries called The Sleep Room.[58]

During this era, Cameron became known worldwide as the first chairman of the World Psychiatric Association as well as president of the American and Canadian psychiatric associations. Cameron was also a member of the Nuremberg medical tribunal in 1946–47.[59]

Naomi Klein argues in her book The Shock Doctrine Cameron's research and his contribution to the MKUltra project was not about mind control and brainwashing, but about designing "a scientifically based system for extracting information from 'resistant sources.' In other words, torture."[60] Alfred W. McCoy writes "Stripped of its bizarre excesses, Dr. Cameron's experiments, building upon Donald O. Hebb's earlier breakthrough, laid the scientific foundation for the CIA's two-stage psychological torture method," which refers to first creating a state of disorientation in the subject, and then second creating a situation of "self-inflicted" discomfort in which the disoriented subject can alleviate their pain by capitulating.[61]


Frank Church headed the Church Committee, an investigation into the practices of the US intelligence agencies.

In 1973, amid a government-wide panic caused by Watergate, CIA Director Richard Helms ordered all MKUltra files destroyed.[62]Pursuant to this order, most CIA documents regarding the project were destroyed, making a full investigation of MKUltra impossible. A cache of some 20,000 documents survived Helms' purge, as they had been incorrectly stored in a financial records building and were discovered following a FOIA request in 1977. These documents were fully investigated during the Senate Hearings of 1977.[4]

In December 1974, The New York Times alleged that the CIA had conducted illegal domestic activities, including experiments on U.S. citizens, during the 1960s. That report prompted investigations by the U.S. Congress, in the form of the Church Committee, and by a commission known as the Rockefeller Commission that looked into the illegal domestic activities of the CIA, the FBI, and intelligence-related agencies of the military.

In the summer of 1975, congressional Church Committee reports and the presidential Rockefeller Commission report revealed to the public for the first time that the CIA and the Department of Defense had conducted experiments on both unwitting and cognizant human subjects as part of an extensive program to find out how to influence and control human behavior through the use of psychoactive drugs such as LSD and mescaline and other chemical, biological, and psychological means. They also revealed that at least one subject, Frank Olson had died after administration of LSD. Much of what the Church Committee and the Rockefeller Commission learned about MKUltra was contained in a report, prepared by the Inspector General's office in 1963, that had survived the destruction of records ordered in 1973.[63] However, it contained little detail. Sidney Gottlieb, who had retired from the CIA two years previously, was interviewed by the committee but claimed to have very little recollection of the activities of MKUltra.[12]

The congressional committee investigating the CIA research, chaired by Senator Frank Church, concluded that "[p]rior consent was obviously not obtained from any of the subjects". The committee noted that the "experiments sponsored by these researchers [...] call into question the decision by the agencies not to fix guidelines for experiments."

Following the recommendations of the Church Committee, President Gerald Ford in 1976 issued the first Executive Order on Intelligence Activities which, among other things, prohibited "experimentation with drugs on human subjects, except with the informed consent, in writing and witnessed by a disinterested party, of each such human subject" and in accordance with the guidelines issued by the National Commission. Subsequent orders by Presidents Carter and Reagan expanded the directive to apply to any human experimentation.

1977 United States Senate report on MKUltra

In 1977, during a hearing held by the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, to look further into MKUltra, Admiral Stansfield Turner, then Director of Central Intelligence, revealed that the CIA had found a set of records, consisting of about 20,000 pages, that had survived the 1973 destruction orders because they had been incorrectly stored at a records center not usually used for such documents.[63] These files dealt with the financing of MKUltra projects and contained few project details, but much more was learned from them than from the Inspector General's 1963 report.

On the Senate floor in 1977, Senator Ted Kennedy said:

The Deputy Director of the CIA revealed that over thirty universities and institutions were involved in an "extensive testing and experimentation" program which included covert drug tests on unwitting citizens "at all social levels, high and low, native Americans and foreign." Several of these tests involved the administration of LSD to "unwitting subjects in social situations."

At least one death, the result of the defenestration of Dr. Frank Olson, was attributed to Olson's being subjected, unaware, to such experimentation, nine days before his death. The CIA itself subsequently acknowledged that these tests had little scientific rationale. The agents conducting the monitoring were not qualified scientific observers.[64][65]

In Canada, the issue took much longer to surface, becoming widely known in 1984 on a CBC news show, The Fifth Estate. It was learned that not only had the CIA funded Dr. Cameron's efforts, but also that the Canadian government was fully aware of this, and had later provided another $500,000 in funding to continue the experiments. This revelation largely derailed efforts by the victims to sue the CIA as their U.S. counterparts had, and the Canadian government eventually settled out of court for $100,000 to each of the 127 victims. Dr. Cameron died on September 8, 1967 after suffering a heart attack while he and his son were mountain climbing. None of Cameron's personal records of his involvement with MKUltra survived, since his family destroyed them after his death.[66][67]

1984 U.S. General Accounting Office report

The U.S. General Accounting Office issued a report on September 28, 1984, which stated that between 1940 and 1974, DOD and other national security agencies studied thousands of human subjects in tests and experiments involving hazardous substances.

The quote from the study:[68]

Working with the CIA, the Department of Defense gave hallucinogenic drugs to thousands of "volunteer" soldiers in the 1950s and 1960s. In addition to LSD, the Army also tested quinuclidinyl benzilate, a hallucinogen code-named BZ. (Note 37) Many of these tests were conducted under the so-called MKULTRA program, established to counter perceived Soviet and Chinese advances in brainwashing techniques. Between 1953 and 1964, the program consisted of 149 projects involving drug testing and other studies on unwitting human subjects


Given the CIA's purposeful destruction of most records, its failure to follow informed consent protocols with thousands of participants, the uncontrolled nature of the experiments, and the lack of follow-up data, the full impact of MKUltra experiments, including deaths, may never be known.[28][33][68][69]

Several known deaths have been associated with Project MKUltra, most notably that of Frank Olson. Olson, a United States Army biochemist and biological weaponsresearcher, was given LSD without his knowledge or consent in November, 1953, as part of a CIA experiment and committed suicide by jumping out of a window a week later. A CIA doctor assigned to monitor Olson claimed to have been asleep in another bed in a New York City hotel room when Olson exited the window and fell thirteen stories to his death. In 1953, Olson's death was described as a suicide that had occurred during a severe psychotic episode. The CIA's own internal investigation concluded that the head of MKUltra, CIA chemist Sidney Gottlieb, had conducted the LSD experiment with Olson's prior knowledge, although neither Olson nor the other men taking part in the experiment were informed as to the exact nature of the drug until some 20 minutes after its ingestion. The report further suggested that Gottlieb was nonetheless due a reprimand, as he had failed to take into account Olson's already-diagnosed suicidal tendencies, which might have been exacerbated by the LSD.[70]

The Olson family disputes the official version of events. They maintain that Frank Olson was murdered because, especially in the aftermath of his LSD experience, he had become a security risk who might divulge state secrets associated with highly classified CIA programs, about many of which he had direct personal knowledge.[71]A few days before his death, Frank Olson quit his position as acting chief of the Special Operations Division at Detrick, Maryland (later Fort Detrick) because of a severe moral crisis concerning the nature of his biological weapons research. Among Olson's concerns were the development of assassination materials used by the CIA. The CIA's use of biological warfare materials in covert operations, experimentation with biological weapons in populated areas, collaboration with former Nazi scientists under Operation Paperclip, LSD mind-control research, and the use of psychoactive drugs during "terminal" interrogations under a program code-named Project ARTICHOKE.[72] Later forensic evidence conflicted with the official version of events; when Olson's body was exhumed in 1994, cranial injuries indicated that Olson had been knocked unconscious before he exited the window.[70] The medical examiner termed Olson's death a "homicide".[73] In 1975, Olson's family received a $750,000 settlement from the U.S. government and formal apologies from President Gerald Ford and CIA Director William Colby, though their apologies were limited to informed consent issues concerning Olson's ingestion of LSD.[69][74] On 28 November 2012, the Olson family filed suit against the U.S. federal government for the wrongful death of Frank Olson.[75]

A 2010 book by H. P. Albarelli Jr. alleged that the 1951 Pont-Saint-Esprit mass poisoning was part of MKDELTA, that Olson was involved in that event, and that he was eventually murdered by the CIA.[76][77] However, academic sources attribute the incident to ergot poisoning through a local bakery.[78][79][80]

Legal issues involving informed consent

The revelations about the CIA and the Army prompted a number of subjects or their survivors to file lawsuits against the federal government for conducting experiments without informed consent. Although the government aggressively, and sometimes successfully, sought to avoid legal liability, several plaintiffs did receive compensation through court order, out-of-court settlement, or acts of Congress. Frank Olson's family received $750,000 by a special act of Congress, and both President Ford and CIA director William Colby met with Olson's family to apologize publicly.

Previously, the CIA and the Army had actively and successfully sought to withhold incriminating information, even as they secretly provided compensation to the families. One subject of Army drug experimentation, James Stanley, an Army sergeant, brought an important, albeit unsuccessful, suit. The government argued that Stanley was barred from suing under a legal doctrine—known as the Feres doctrine, after a 1950 Supreme Court case, Feres v. United States—that prohibits members of the Armed Forces from suing the government for any harms that were inflicted "incident to service."

In 1987, the Supreme Court affirmed this defense in a 5–4 decision that dismissed Stanley's case: United States v. Stanley.[81] The majority argued that "a test for liability that depends on the extent to which particular suits would call into question military discipline and decision making would itself require judicial inquiry into, and hence intrusion upon, military matters." In dissent, Justice William Brennan argued that the need to preserve military discipline should not protect the government from liability and punishment for serious violations of constitutional rights:

The medical trials at Nuremberg in 1947 deeply impressed upon the world that experimentation with unknowing human subjects is morally and legally unacceptable. The United States Military Tribunal established the Nuremberg Code as a standard against which to judge German scientists who experimented with human subjects... . [I]n defiance of this principle, military intelligence officials ... began surreptitiously testing chemical and biological materials, including LSD.

Justice Sandra Day O'Connor, writing a separate dissent, stated:

No judicially crafted rule should insulate from liability the involuntary and unknowing human experimentation alleged to have occurred in this case. Indeed, as Justice Brennan observes, the United States played an instrumental role in the criminal prosecution of Nazi officials who experimented with human subjects during the Second World War, and the standards that the Nuremberg Military Tribunals developed to judge the behavior of the defendants stated that the 'voluntary consent of the human subject is absolutely essential ... to satisfy moral, ethical, and legal concepts.' If this principle is violated, the very least that society can do is to see that the victims are compensated, as best they can be, by the perpetrators.

In another lawsuit, Wayne Ritchie, a former United States Marshal, after hearing about the project's existence in 1990, alleged the CIA laced his food or drink with LSD at a 1957 Christmas party which resulted in his attempting to commit a robbery at a bar and his subsequent arrest. While the government admitted it was, at that time, drugging people without their consent, U.S. District Judge Marilyn Hall Patel found Ritchie could not prove he was one of the victims of MKUltra or that LSD caused his robbery attempt and dismissed the case in 2007.[82]
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Re: MKULTRA: What I Learned About Mind Control from Clients

Postby admin » Wed Dec 20, 2017 7:13 am

Part 2 of 2

Scientists involved

• Harold Alexander Abramson
• Donald Ewen Cameron
• Sidney Gottlieb
• Harris Isbell[17]
• Louis Jolyon West
• José Manuel Rodriguez Delgado

Notable subjects

• Merry Prankster Ken Kesey, author of One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest, volunteered for MKUltra experiments involving LSD and other psychedelic drugs at the Veterans Administration Hospital in Menlo Park while he was a student at nearby Stanford University. Kesey's experiences while under the influence of LSD inspired him to promote the drug outside the context of the MKUltra experiments, which influenced the early development of hippie culture.[83][84]

• Robert Hunter is an American lyricist, singer-songwriter, translator, and poet, best known for his association with Jerry Garcia and the Grateful Dead. Along with Ken Kesey, Hunter was an early volunteer MKUltra test subject at Stanford University. Stanford test subjects were paid to take LSD, psilocybin, and mescaline, then report on their experiences. These experiences were creatively formative for Hunter:

Sit back picture yourself swooping up a shell of purple with foam crests of crystal drops soft nigh they fall unto the sea of morning creep-very-softly mist ... and then sort of cascade tinkley-bell-like (must I take you by the hand, every so slowly type) and then conglomerate suddenly into a peal of silver vibrant uncomprehendingly, blood singingly, joyously resounding bells... By my faith if this be insanity, then for the love of God permit me to remain insane.[85]

• Boston mobster James "Whitey" Bulger volunteered for testing while in prison in Atlanta in 1957.[86][87]

Conspiracy theories and claims

MKUltra plays a part in many conspiracy theories due to its nature and the destruction of most records.[88]

Lawrence Teeter, attorney for convicted assassin Sirhan Sirhan, believed Sirhan was under the influence of hypnosis when he fired his weapon at Robert F. Kennedy in 1968. Teeter linked the CIA's MKUltra program to mind control techniques that he claimed were used to control Sirhan.[89]

Conspiracy theorist Cathy O'Brien claims to have been subjected to the program since childhood. She names several prominent government participants in her book Trance Formation of America. American fashion model and radio host Candy Jones also claimed to have been a victim of mind control in the 1960s.[90]


At his retirement in 1972, Gottlieb dismissed his entire effort for the CIA's MKUltra program as useless.[29][91]

Although the CIA insists that MKUltra-type experiments have been abandoned, some CIA observers say there is little reason to believe it does not continue today under a different set of acronyms.[62] Victor Marchetti, author and 14-year CIA veteran, stated in various interviews that the CIA routinely conducted disinformation campaigns and that CIA mind control research continued. In a 1977 interview, Marchetti specifically called the CIA claim that MKUltra was abandoned a "cover story."[92][93] Author John D. Marks wrote an award-winning book published in 1979 titled The Search for the Manchurian Candidate disputing CIA Chief Stansfield Turner's assurances that mind control programs have been phased out, indicating that the work went on into the 1970s.[94]


1. "One of the Most Shocking CIA Programs of All Time: Project MKUltra". 2013-09-23. Retrieved 2016-08-18.
2. Advisory on Human Radiation Experiments, July 5, 1994, National Security Archives, retrieved January 16, 2014
3. Jo Thomas (3 Sep 1977). "C.I.A Says It Found More Secret Papers on Behavior Control: Senate Panel Puts Off Hearing to Study Data Dozen Witnesses Said To Have Misled Inquiry C.I.A. Tells Of Finding Secret Data". New York Times.
4. "Project MKUltra, the Central Intelligence Agency's Program of Research into Behavioral Modification. Joint Hearing before the Select Committee on Intelligence and the Subcommittee on Health and Scientific Research of the Committee on Human Resources, United State Senate, Ninety-Fifth Congress, First Session" (PDF). U.S. Government Printing Office (copy hosted at the New York Times website). August 8, 1977. Retrieved 2010-04-18.
5. Chapter 3: Supreme Court Dissents Invoke the Nuremberg Code: CIA and DOD Human Subjects Research Scandals Archived 2013-03-31 at the Wayback Machine.
6. U.S. Senate Report on CIA MKULTRA Behavioral Modification Program 1977 | Public Intelligence
7. Richelson, JT (ed.) (2001-09-10). "Science, Technology and the CIA: A National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book". George Washington University. Retrieved 2009-06-12.
8. "Chapter 3, part 4: Supreme Court Dissents Invoke the Nuremberg Code: CIA and DOD Human Subjects Research Scandals". Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments Final Report. Retrieved 2005-08-24.
9. "The Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, Foreign and Military Intelligence". Church Committee report, no. 94-755, 94th Cong., 2d Sess. Washington, D.C..: United States Congress. 1976. p. 392.
10. Otterman, Michael (2007). American Torture: From the Cold War to Abu Ghraib and Beyond. Melbourne University Publishing. p. 24. ISBN 0522853331.
11. McCoy, Alfred (2007). A Question of Torture: CIA Interrogation, from the Cold War to the War on Terror. Macmillan. p. 29. ISBN 1429900687.
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24. Church Committee; p. 391 "A special procedure, designated MKDELTA, was established to govern the use of MKUltra materials abroad. Such materials were used on a number of occasions."
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37. 1977 Senate MKULTRA Hearing: Appendix C--Documents Referring to subprojects This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
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55. Turbide, Diane (1997-04-21). "Dr. Cameron's Casualties". Retrieved 2007-09-09.
56. Collins, Anne (1998) [1988]. In the Sleep Room: The Story of CIA Brainwashing Experiments in Canada. Toronto: Key Porter Books. pp. 39, 42–3, 133. ISBN 1-55013-932-0.
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Further reading

• "U.S. Congress: The Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, Foreign and Military Intelligence (Church Committee report), report no. 94-755, 94th Cong., 2d Sess. (Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1976), 394".
• "U.S. Senate: Joint Hearing before The Select Committee on Intelligence and The Subcommittee on Health and Scientific Research of the Committee on Human Resources, 95th Cong., 1st Sess. August 3, 1977".
• "The Search for the "Manchurian Candidate": The CIA and Mind Control: The Secret History of the Behavioral Sciences".
• Acid: The Secret History of LSD, by David Black, London: Vision, 1998, ISBN 1901250113. Later edition exists.
• Acid Dreams: The Complete Social History of LSD: The CIA, the Sixties, and Beyond by Martin Lee and Bruce Shlain, New York: Grove Press, 1985, ISBN 0802130623
• The Agency: The Rise and Decline of the CIA, by John Ranelagh, p208-210.
• 80 Greatest Conspiracies of All Time, by Jonathan Vankin and John Whalin, chapter 1, "CIAcid Drop".
• In the Sleep Room: The Story of CIA Brainwashing Experiments in Canada, Anne Collins, Lester & Orpen Dennys (Toronto), 1988.
• Journey into Madness: The True Story of Secret CIA Mind Control and Medical Abuse, by Gordon Thomas, NY: Bantam, 1989, ISBN 0553284134
• Operation Mind Control: Our Secret Governments's War Against Its Own People, by W H Bowart, New York: Dell, 1978, ISBN 0440167558
• The Men Who Stare at Goats, by Jon Ronson, Picador, 2004, ISBN 0330375482
• The Search for the Manchurian Candidate, by John Marks, W.W. Norton & Company Ltd, 1999, ISBN 0393307948
• Storming Heaven: LSD and The American Dream, by Jay Stevens, New York: Grove Press, 1987, ISBN 0802135870

External links
Wikimedia Commons has media related to MKUltra.

• Entire Four (4) CD-ROM set of CIA / MKUltra Declassified documents released by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), image format, The Black Vault
• MKUltra Declassified documents, PDF format
• U.S. Supreme Court, CIA v. Sims, 471 U.S. 159 (1985) 471 U.S. 159, Findlaw
• U.S. Supreme Court, United States v. Stanley, 483 U.S. 669 (1987) 483 U.S. 669, Findlaw
• Mind Control and MKULTRA by Richard G. Gall
• The Most Dangerous Game Downloadable 8 minute documentary by independent filmmakers GNN
• Results of the 1973 Church Committee Hearings, on CIA misdeeds, and the 1984 Iran/Contra Hearings
• XXVII. Testing and Use of Chemical and Biological Agents by the Intelligence Community
• List of MKULTRA Unclassified Documents including subprojects
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Re: MKULTRA: What I Learned About Mind Control from Clients

Postby admin » Wed Dec 20, 2017 7:30 am

MKULTRA: What I Learned About Mind Control from Clients
by Kathy J. Forti
February 3, 2016




Back in the 1990’s I had a psychotherapy practice in Virginia Beach, Virginia. Since the area was home to the U.S. Atlantic Fleet, I saw many patients from military families. My clinical specialty was Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID), formerly known as Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD), which is how I came to treat two women who had been part of an experimental and secret government mind control program dating back to the 1950’s.

Neither woman knew of or had met the other, and both had been referred to me at different times over a two year period. Yet, the information that came to light for both was so similar that it couldn’t be dismissed as delusional fabrication.

Both women claimed that they had been used during childhood for covert spying by some faction of the U.S. government. This was done by creating dissociative identities, as children, to safeguard classified information that would then be delivered by the child and its handler. I would later have a name for this program and its various offshoots. They were all part of what is now known as the “Mother of all Mind Control” CIA programs—Project MKULTRA along with the subprogram PROJECT MONARCH.

Because most MKULTRA records were deliberately destroyed in 1973 by order of then CIA director Richard Helms, it has been difficult, if not impossible, to gain a complete understanding of the more than 150 individually funded research sub-projects sponsored by MKULTRA and other related CIA programs. But the damage lives on.


Both women I saw were involuntarily recruited before the age of eight. This is an important factor. The personality is still forming and has more plasticity before age seven. Severe physical, emotional, and/or sexual abuse before that age will have profound effects on the laying down of neuronal pathways as well as how memory is stored. Multiple personality disorder happens during childhood as a defense coping mechanism to deal with trauma. Despite public or medical opinion, it is not rare. This dysfunctional coping mechanism may become more noticeable during adulthood, but it starts in childhood, not in one’s adult years. This personality split off into an alter personality occurs to save the child from ego annihilation and insanity. In their eyes, it happened to someone else (the alter personality), not them.

Alter personalities can be induced under the right circumstances at a young age, and the people behind MKULTRA had to have known this in order to create covert childhood spies. What better way to transport information than hide it inside a child alter’s mind, which could only be retrieved on the other end by hypnosis or some other de-programming means. Who would suspect a child or take them seriously? It was quite a diabolical plan.


My clients’ stories had so many similarities, it was beyond mere coincidence:

Both women were born and raised in Virginia and came from military families where a family member was involved in military intelligence work. This keeps the test subject close to home and able to be easily monitored. Oftentimes, a military family member becomes their “handler” and the one who transports them to and from an information retrieval operator.

Both women had memories of sexual abuse by participants in MKULTRA. (These memories were not retrieved under hypnosis.) They both claimed to have been sexually abused by Richard Nixon, Henry Kissinger, George Bush, Sr., Ronald Reagan and Bob Hope.
This sounds totally implausible, unless those doing the abuse wore realistic masks to protect their identity. Picking famous people to hide behind, guarantees the victims will never be believed later, should they tell. (But then again, I may be wrong, and some of these luminaries may have been complicit in this secretive government program. Time will tell as what is hidden or Dark eventually is unmasked by the Light. )

Both drew similar pictures of equipment and/or devices used “to not tell.” Phallic symbols, drugs, and poker-like instruments “that burned” seemed to be prevalent.

When each women came close to revealing something secret and/or taboo, suddenly a new personality would come out and shut down the whole process. In the dissociative field, these are known as “scrambler personalities.” They are programmed into the person’s mind to block off memories and, sometimes, even report back to a handler for re-programming.

Each women remembers being taken on night-time trips by a handler, or nice person, to meet someone in a distant place.
Sometimes air travel was involved. Sometimes they remembered where they were taken, other times they only remembered being returned home after a blank period of time away.

Both feared for their life by seeking therapeutic help.

Let me just preface here that I don’t know any military secrets and both these women were too damaged and psychologically tortured to stay in treatment. They each had a fear of being punished for “telling,” which was undoubtedly part of their mind control programming. I am not the only therapist to have encountered these types of stories. The victims are still out there, but are now adults with severe psychological problems. Over the years I’ve heard enough strange stories in my therapy office to not readily dismiss such claims. Some have proven to be true.

There was no secondary gain for either of the women trying to obtain help. They were plagued with nightmares and memories trying to bleed through to the surface after so many years of holding their secrets. While MKULTRA was allegedly shut down in 1973, it hasn’t stopped other mind control related work by our government.

Many experiments dealing with the disruption of brain function for human control are still very much real:

Scientists are researching the construction of super soldiers that feel no pain, terror and do not suffer from fatigue. The Pentagon allocated $400 million to this research.

Scientists are using electrodes to direct people’s movements by sending a signal from a mobile phone, which stimulates a muscle in the leg, showing them the direction they need to go in. They claim it is to replace the need for an external GPS program. I sure hope the Apple Watch doesn’t have this hidden program installed.

A DARPA program conducted by The Center for Strategic Communication at Arizona State University experimented with “Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation” (TMS) to remotely combat dissent and extremism. TMS stimulates the temporal lobe of the brain with electromagnetic fields in order to “turn off” reactive centers in the brain. While those in the psychology field may use such experimentation to help combat depression and anxiety, DARPA’s sole goal has always been for defense and weaponry use.

I once worked for an altered-states research lab in Northern California which used alpha brainwave entrainment programs for consciousness exploration. I learned that the institute had been coerced into training several elite Green Berets groups for mind control or, as the military termed it “affecting one-mind cooperation in the field.”


One only has to look around to see the signs that we are already slaves to mind control. We sit in front of TVs for hours being bombarded by messages, both subliminal and overt to buy products, take drugs, or show us what we are missing or might never have. We become immune to violence and killings. We are glued to our mobile devices, whipping them out at the first second of inactivity, to amuse and distract us from life going on all around us.

Can we escape it all? We can certainly try.

Dr. Kathy Forti is a clinical psychologist, inventor of the Trinfinity8 technology, and author of the book, Fractals of God
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Re: MKULTRA: What I Learned About Mind Control from Clients

Postby admin » Wed Dec 20, 2017 7:34 am

Canadian Government Quietly Compensates Daughter of MK-Ultra Victim
by Elizabeth Thompson
CBC News



Alison Steel was only 4½ years old when her mother's life changed forever.

In 1957, Jean Steel was admitted to Montreal's Allan Memorial Institute. The once happy and energetic 33-year-old was diagnosed with manic depression and delusional thinking.

In the months that followed, Steel became the victim of CIA-funded brainwashing experiments conducted by Dr. Ewen Cameron. She was kept in a chemically induced sleep for weeks and subjected to rounds of electroshocks, experimental drugs and tape-recorded messages played non-stop.

Steel said her mother was never quite the same.


"She was never able to really function as a healthy human being because of what they did to her."

Now, 60 years after Cameron's experiments left her mother damaged for life, Alison Steel has finally won a measure of justice for her family.

CBC News has learned that the federal government quietly reached an out-of-court settlement with Steel earlier this year, paying her $100,000 in exchange for dropping the legal action she launched in September 2015.

While a non-disclosure agreement prohibits Steel from talking about the settlement itself, the existence of the settlement and the amount was included in the most recent public accounts tabled by the government earlier this month.

Alison Steel holds a photograph of her mother Jean. Sixty years after her mother underwent "de-patterning" experiments at Montreal's Allan Memorial Institute, the federal government has provided compensation. (Elizabeth Thompson/CBC)

Montreal lawyer Alan Stein, who negotiated the deal, said the government's decision to compensate Steel could provide hope for the families of other patients who were subjects of Cameron's "de-patterning" experiments but were initially denied compensation.

"They still have a possibility if their medical reports clearly establishes that they were substantially de-patterned."

Although the official compensation program closed more than 20 years ago, Stein said the federal government has quietly settled claims from a handful of patients in recent years. He said Steel's settlement is the second case of the government compensating the estate of a former patient.

LSD and the CIA

The settlement with Steel is the latest development in the decades-old saga that began with Cameron's experiments at the Allan Memorial Institute in the '50s and '60s.

Cameron believed a combination of chemically induced sleep for weeks at a time, massive electroshock treatments, experimental hallucinogenic drugs like LSD and techniques such as "psychic driving" through the repeated playing of taped messages could "de-pattern" the mind, breaking up the brain pathways and wiping out symptoms of mental illnesses such as schizophrenia. Doctors could then "re-pattern" patients.

However, the de-patterning also wiped out much the patient's memory and left them in a childlike state. In some cases, grown adults forgot basic skills such as how to use the bathroom, how to dress themselves or how to tie their shoes.

Montreal lawyer Alan Stein negotiated compensation for Steel. (Elizabeth Thompson/CBC)

The experiments were funded in part by grants from the federal government's Health and Welfare Department, although a 1986 report by lawyer George Cooper found that government officials were not aware of the full extent of Cameron's experiments.

What patients and their families didn't know was that Cameron's experiments were also being funded by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency's MK Ultra program.

The CIA, concerned about the brainwashing of U.S. soldiers who had been Korean prisoners of war, funded mind-control experiments across North America.

In 1992, Conservative Justice Minister Kim Campbell decided to compensate dozens of Cameron's former patients. Without admitting legal liability, Campbell said the government would make the $100,000 payments for "compassionate and humanitarian reasons."

An estimated 70 patients were compensated, but hundreds more who applied were rejected because the government said they hadn't been "de-patterned" enough to warrant compensation.

Steel's father applied for compensation on his wife's behalf but was rejected.

Story featured in CBC documentary

It was only in 2014, when CBC Television re-aired a Fifth Estate documentary about Cameron's experiments, that Alison Steel was inspired to give it another try.

She consulted Stein, who had successfully won compensation for former patient Gail Kastner in 2004 and an out-of-court settlement for former patient Janine Huard in 2007, and filed an Access to Information request to get her mother's entire medical file.

"I just wanted to prove that this was done and justice was served for my mother," said Steel.

Steel's photos of her mother before she was admitted to the Allan Memorial show a happy, active person, skiing, horseback riding, laughing with her friends. Her letters are those of a normal, healthy person.

But Steel said her parents had lost a first child who was born with spina bifida. Her mother appeared to have suffered from postpartum depression after Steel's own birth a couple years later.

The Allan Memorial Institute, where CIA-funded brainwashing experiments took place in the
1950s and 1960s. (Elizabeth Thompson/CBC)

"She was showing signs of depression and not able to cope," Steel said. "And having a young infant — me, at the time, one or two years old — it was getting difficult, so they were worried."

Steel said her grandparents, who lived in the Montreal suburb of Westmount, heard about Cameron's reputation and thought he offered the solution.

Pages upon pages of medical records document what happened next.

'Confused... but much more co-operative'

According to a report written by Cameron, Steel was kept in a chemically induced sleep for weeks. One series lasted 29 days. A second lasted 18 days. The sleep therapy was accompanied by a series of electroshocks.

"She was extremely confused and disoriented but much more co-operative," Cameron wrote in his report.

Nurses' notes on her charts detail repeated doses of sodium amytal, and how Steel would pace the hall and rail about feeling like a prisoner:

"'It's just like being buried alive. Somebody please do something.' This was all said screaming at the nurse and doctor," one note said.

Alison Steel says her mother was happy when she was young, but lost a child and later
suffered depression after Alison's birth. (Photo courtesy of Alison Steel)

Steel said at one point her mother was so upset at the prospect of going back for followup treatments that she tried to jump out of her husband's car in downtown Montreal.

Steel began to realize when she was a teenager that her mother wasn't quite the same as other mothers.

"When you wanted to talk with her about something emotional … she just could not do it," Steel said. "Her emotions were stripped. It took away her soul."

Her mother would sit alone in the dark, writing codes and numbers on the walls.

"One time I came home and the ceiling was spray-painted with red swirls all over it," Steel said. "She would take wallpaper and cut out little sections of it and she would pin it to the whole room."

With the out-of-court settlement Steel has some measure of justice, but she thinks of the families of other patients who have never received compensation.

"I feel that it's important to bring out the story, to tell others that this is what happened."
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Re: Project MKUltra, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sun Apr 28, 2019 8:54 am

Donald Ewen Cameron
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 4/28/19



Donald Ewen Cameron
Cameron, circa 1967
Born 24 December 1901[1]
Bridge of Allan, Stirlingshire, Scotland
Died 8 September 1967 (aged 65)[1]
Lake Placid, New York, U.S.
Residence United States
Nationality Scottish-American
Scientific career
Fields Psychiatry, Mind Control

Donald Ewen Cameron (24 December 1901 – 8 September 1967)[1] — known as D. Ewen Cameron or Ewen Cameron — was a Scottish-born psychiatrist who served as President of the American Psychiatric Association (1952–1953), Canadian Psychiatric Association (1958–1959),[2] American Psychopathological Association (1963),[3] Society of Biological Psychiatry (1965)[4] and World Psychiatric Association (1961–1966).[5] In spite of his high professional reputation, he has been criticized for his experimentation on and sexual abuse of children, administering electroconvulsive therapy and experimental drugs, including poisons such as curare, to patients without their informed consent. Some of this work took place in the context of the Project MKUltra mind control program.[6]

Early life and career

Donald Ewen Cameron was born in Bridge of Allan, Scotland, the oldest son of a Presbyterian minister. He received an M.B., Ch.B. in psychological medicine at the University of Glasgow in 1924, a D.P.M. from the University of London in 1925, and an M.D. with distinction from the University in 1936.[7]

Cameron began his training in psychiatry at the Glasgow Royal Mental Hospital in 1925. In 1926, Cameron served as Assistant Medical Officer there[8] and was introduced to psychiatrist Sir David Henderson, a student of Swiss-born US psychiatrist Adolf Meyer. He continued his training in the United States under Meyer at the Phipps Clinic, Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland from 1926 to 1928 with a Henderson Research Scholarship.

In 1928, Cameron left Baltimore for the Burghölzli, the psychiatric hospital of the University of Zurich, in Switzerland, where he studied under Hans W. Maier, the successor of Swiss psychiatrist Eugen Bleuler, who had significantly influenced psychiatric thinking.[9] There he met A.T. Mathers, Manitoba's principal psychiatrist, who convinced Cameron in 1929 to move to Brandon, the second largest city of Manitoba, Canada. Cameron stayed there for 7 years and was named the Physician-in-Charge of the Reception Unit of the Provincial Mental Hospital. He also organized the structure of mental health services in the western half of the province, establishing 10 functioning clinics; this model was used as the blueprint for similar efforts in Montreal and a forerunner of 1960s community health models.[citation needed]

In 1933, he married Jean C. Rankine, whom he had met while they were students at the University of Glasgow. She was a former captain of the Scottish field hockey team, a competitive tennis player,[10] and lecturer in mathematics at the University of Glasgow. They had four children; a daughter and three sons.

In 1936, he moved to Massachusetts to become director of the research division at Worcester State Hospital only 1 year later. In 1936, he also published his first book, Objective and Experimental Psychiatry which introduced his belief that psychiatry should approach the study of human behavior in a rigorous, scientific fashion rooted in biology. His theories of behavior stressed the unity of the organism with the environment; the book also outlined experimental method and research design. Cameron believed firmly in clinical psychiatry and a strict scientific method.

In 1938 he moved to Albany, New York where he received his diplomate in psychiatry and thus was certified in psychiatry. From 1939 to 1943 he was professor of neurology and psychiatry at Albany Medical College, and at the Russell Sage School of Nursing, also in the Albany area. During those years, Cameron began to expand on his thoughts about the interrelationships of mind and body, developing a reputation as a psychiatrist who could bridge the gap between the organic, structural neurologists, and the psychiatrists whose knowledge of anatomy was limited to maps of the mind as opposed to maps of the brain. Through his instruction of nurses and psychiatrists he became an authority in his areas of concentration.[citation needed]

Cameron focused primarily on biological descriptive psychiatry and applied the British and European schools and models of the practice. Cameron followed these schools in demanding that mental disturbances are diseases and somatic in nature; all psychological illness would therefore be hardwired, a product of the body and the direct result of a patient's biological structure rather than caused by social environments.[citation needed] Characteristics were thus diagnosed as syndromes emerging from the brain. It is at this juncture that Cameron became interested with how he could effectively manipulate the brain to control and understand the processes of memory.[citation needed] Cameron furthermore wanted to understand the problems of memory caused by aging, believing that the aged brain suffered from psychosis.

In 1943, Cameron was invited to McGill University in Montreal by neurosurgeon Dr Wilder Penfield. With a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation, money from John Wilson McConnell of the Montreal Star, and a gift of Sir Hugh Allan's mansion on Mount Royal, the Allan Memorial Institute for psychiatry was founded. Cameron became the first director of the Allan Memorial Institute as well as the first chairman of the Department of Psychiatry at McGill. He recruited psychoanalysts, social psychiatrists and biologists globally to develop the psychiatry program at McGill[11] From its beginning in 1943, the Allan Memorial Institute was run on an "open door" basis, allowing patients to leave if they wished, as opposed to the "closed door" policy of other hospitals in Canada in the early 1940s. In 1946, Cameron introduced the practice of the day hospital, the first of its kind in North America, permitting patients to remain at home while receiving treatment at the Institute during the day, thus avoiding unnecessary hospitalization and allowing the patients to maintain ties with their community and family.[12]

The Nuremberg Trials

In 1945, Cameron, Nolan D.C. Lewis and Dr Paul L. Schroeder, colonel and psychiatrist, University College of Illinois, were invited to the Nuremberg Trials for a psychiatric evaluation of Rudolf Hess. Their diagnosis was amnesia and hysteria per a short commentary in JAMA.[13] Hess later confessed that he had faked the amnesia.[14]

Before his arrival in Nuremberg, Cameron had written The Social Reorganization of Germany, in which he argued that German culture and its individual citizens would have to be transformed and reorganized. In his analysis, German culture was made up of people who had the need for status, worshipped strict order and regimentation, desired authoritarian leadership and had a deeply ingrained fear of other countries. The paper stated that German culture and its people would have offspring bound to become a threat to world peace in 30 years. To prevent this, the West would have to take measures to reorganize German society. Other similar psychiatric diagnoses of Germany were published during this time.[15]

Cameron next published Nuremberg and Its Significance. In this, Cameron hoped to establish a suitable method to reinstate a form of justice in Germany that could prevent its society from recreating the attitudes that led it from the Great War to World War II. Cameron viewed German society throughout history as continually giving rise to fearsome aggression. He came up with the idea that if he presented the world and confronted the Germans with the atrocities committed during the war, the world and the Germans would refrain from repeated acts of extreme aggression.[citation needed]; if the greater population of Germany saw the atrocities of World War II, they would surely submit to a re-organized system of justice. Cameron decided that Germans would be most likely to commit atrocities due to their historical, biological, racial and cultural past and their particular psychological nature. All Germans on trial would be assessed according to the likeliness for committing the crime.[citation needed]

Cameron began to develop broader theories of society, new concepts of human relations to replace concepts he deemed dangerous and outdated. These became the basis of a new social and behavioural science that Cameron would later institute through his presidencies of the Canadian, American and World Psychiatric Associations, the American Psychopathological Association and the Society of Biological Psychiatry. With the results of the Manhattan project, Cameron feared that without proper re-organization of society, atomic weapons could fall into the hands of new, fearsome aggressors.[16] Cameron argued that it was necessary for behavioral scientists to act as the social planners of society, and that the United Nations could provide a conduit for implementing his ideas for applying psychiatric elements to global governance and politics.

Cameron started to distinguish populations between "the weak" and "the strong". Those with anxieties or insecurities and who had trouble with the state of the world were labelled as "the weak"; in Cameron's analysis, they could not cope with life and had to be isolated from society by "the strong". The mentally ill were thus labelled as not only sick, but also weak. Cameron further argued that "the weak" must not influence children. He promoted a philosophy where chaos could be prevented by removing the weak from society.[citation needed]

Social and intrapsychic behaviour analysis

In the late 1940s and early 1950s, Cameron continued his work on memory and its relationship to aging. He published a book called Remembering and extended psychiatric links to human biology. In papers published during this time he linked RNA to memory. He furthered his diagnostic definitions of clinical states such as anxiety, depression and schizophrenia.

He began to develop the discipline of social psychiatry which concentrated on the roles of interpersonal interaction, family, community and culture in the emergence and amelioration of emotional disturbance. Cameron placed the psychiatric treatment unit inside of the hospital and inspected its success. Here in the hospital Cameron could observe how the psychiatric patient resembled patients with other diseases that were not psychiatric in nature. In this manner, somatic causes could be compared. The behaviour of a mental patient could resemble the behaviour of a patient with, for example, syphilis, and then a somatic cause could be deduced for a psychological illness. Cameron titled this procedure "intrapsychic" (a term derived from the psycho-somatic relationship of hospital patients).

Cameron began to abandon the Freudian unconscious in favour of a social constructivist's view of mental illness. In his analysis, culture and society played a crucial role in the ability for one to function according to the demands necessary for human survival. Therefore, society should function to select out the weak and unwanted, those apt towards fearsome aggression that threatened society. Psychiatry would play a disciplinary role.

Cameron began to explore how industrial conditions could satisfy the population through work and what kind of person or worker is best suited to industrial conditions. A stronger personality would be able to maintain itself in heavy industrial situations, he theorised, while the weaker would not be able to cope with industrial conditions. Cameron would analyze what conditions produced the stronger worker, what would be the necessary conditions to replicate this personality and to reward the stronger while disciplining the weaker. In his 1946 paper entitled "Frontiers of Social Psychiatry", he used the case of World War II Germany as an example where society poisoned the minds of citizens by creating a general anxiety or neurosis.[17]

Cameron and Freud: civilization and discontents

Although Cameron rejected the Freudian notion of the unconscious, he shared the Freudian idea in that personal psychology is linked to the nervous nature. He theorized that attitudes and beliefs should reinforce the overall attitudes of the desired society. Like Freud, Cameron maintained that the family was the nucleus of social behavior and anxieties later in life were spawned during childhood. Cameron wanted to build an inventive psychiatric institution to determine rapid ways for societal control while demanding a psychological economy that did not center itself around guilt and guilt complexes. His focus on children included the rights to protection against outmoded, doctrinaire tactics, and the necessity for the implantation of taboos and inhibitions from their parents. Cameron wrote that mental illness was transmitted generationally; thus, the re-occurrence of mental illness could be stopped by remodeling and expanding existing concepts of marriage suitability, as well as the quarantine of mentally ill individuals from the general population. The only cure for mental illness, he theorized, was to eliminate its "carriers" from society altogether.

Cameron believed that mental illness was literally contagious – that if one came into contact with someone suffering from mental illness, one would begin to produce the symptoms of a mental disease. For example, something like rock music could be created by mentally ill people and would produce mentally ill people through infection, which in turn would be transmitted to the genes. Thus, this group would have to be studied and controlled as a contagious social disease. Police, hospitals, government, and schools would need to use the correct psychiatric authority to stop mental contagions from spreading. Cameron also hoped to generate families capable of using authority and techniques to take measures against mental illness, which would later be apparent in Cameron's MKULTRA and MKDELTA experiments.

Cameron and the Germans

If we can succeed in inventing means of changing their attitudes and beliefs, we shall find ourselves in possession of measures which, if wisely used, may be employed in freeing ourselves from their attitudes and beliefs in other fields which have greatly contributed to the instability of our period by their propensity for holding up progress

— Cameron on the Germans, in Life is For Living[18]

In Cameron's book Life is For Living, published in 1948, he expressed a concern for the German race in general. Just as Sigrid Schultz stated in Germany will try it again, Cameron fostered a fear for Germans and their genetic determination.[clarification needed] Those Germans affected by the events that led to World War II were of utmost concern. Cameron's concerns extended to his policies determining who should have children and/or advance to positions of authority. According to Cameron's psychiatric analysis of the German people, they were not suitable to have children or hold positions of authority because of a genetic tendency to organize society in a way that fostered fearsome aggression and would lead to war rather than peace; he would repeatedly use the German as the archetypal character structure on which to ground the most psychologically deviant humans.[citation needed]

Mental illness as a social contagion

Although society had established sanctions against the spread of infectious diseases, Cameron wanted to extend the concept of contagion to chronic anxiety. He warned that people with mental illnesses could spread and transmit their diseases. He warned that government institutions should take measures against such potential liabilities. Cameron began to base some of his notions on race, as is seen in his theories regarding the German people.

In the late 1940s, Cameron presented his ideas in a lecture entitled Dangerous Men and Women. It describes various personalities that he believed were of marked danger to all members of society. The personality types are as follows:

• A passive man who "is afraid to say what he really thinks" and "will stand anything, and stands for nothing". "[H]e was born in Munich, he is the eternal compromiser and his spiritual food is appeasement".[19]
• A possessive type, filled with jealousy and demanding utmost loyalty. This personality type poses a danger to those closest to them, especially children.
• The insecure man — "They are the driven crowds that makes the army of the authoritarian overlord; they are the stuffing of conservatism ... mediocrity is their god. They fear the stranger, they fear the new idea; they are afraid to live, and scared to die." This third type needs conformity and obeys the dictates of society, adhering to a world of strict standards of right or wrong (which are manipulated by power groups to keep the insecure controlled and dependent). Cameron theorized that this type is dangerous because of its "lust for authority".[19]
• The last type is the psychopath, the greatest danger in times of political and societal upheaval; this Cameron labeled "the Gestapo".

Cameron believed that a society in which psychiatry built and developed the institutions of government, schools, prisons and hospitals would be one in which science triumphed over the "sick" members of society. He demanded that political systems be watched, and that German people needed to be monitored due to their "personality type", which he claimed results in the conditions that give rise to the dictatorial power of an authoritarian overlord.

Cameron stated, "Get it understood how dangerous these damaged, sick personalities are to ourselves – and above all, to our children, whose traits are taking form and we shall find ways to put an end to them." He spoke about Germans, but also to the larger portion of the society that resembled or associated with such traits. For Cameron, the traits were contagions and anyone affected by the societal, cultural or personality forms would themselves be infected. Cameron used his ideas to implement policies on who should govern and/or parent in society. The described types would have to be eliminated from society if there was to be peace and progress. The sick were, for Cameron, the viral infection to its stability and health. The described types were the enemies of society and life. Experts must develop methods of forcefully changing attitudes and beliefs to prevent the authoritarian overlord.[19]

MKULTRA Subproject 68

Main article: Project MKUltra

During the 1950s and 1960s, Cameron became involved in what has later become known as the MKUltra mind control program, which was covertly sponsored by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)[6] and which eventually led to the publication of the KUBARK Counterintelligence Interrogation manual. Cameron's work was funded under MKUltra's subproject 68.[20][21] He is unrelated to another CIA psychiatrist, Alan S. Cameron, who helped pioneer psychological profiling of world leaders during the 1970s and was not associated with the behavioral modification research program.[22]

Cameron had been hoping to correct schizophrenia by erasing existing memories and reprogramming the psyche. He commuted from Albany to Montreal every week to work at McGill's Allan Memorial Institute and was paid $69,000 from 1957 to 1964 to carry out MKUltra experiments there, known as the Montreal experiments. In addition to LSD, he experimented with various paralytic drugs and electroconvulsive therapy at thirty to forty times the normal power.[23] His "Psychic driving" experiments consisted of putting a subject into a drug-induced coma for weeks at a time (up to three months in one case) while playing tape loops of noise or simple statements. These experiments were typically carried out on patients who had entered the institute for minor problems such as anxiety disorders and postnatal depression; many suffered permanent debilitation after these treatments.[24] Such consequences included incontinence, amnesia, forgetting how to talk, forgetting their parents, and thinking their interrogators were their parents.[25] His work was inspired and paralleled by the psychiatrist William Sargant, who was also involved with the Intelligence Services and experimented extensively on his patients without their consent, causing similar long-term damage.[26] Several of the children who Cameron experimented on were sexually abused, in at least one case by several men. One of the children was filmed numerous times performing sexual acts with high-ranking federal government officials, in a scheme set up by Cameron and other MKULTRA researchers, to blackmail the officials to ensure further funding for the experiments.[27]

Sid Taylor stated that Cameron used curare to immobilise his patients during his research. After one test he noted: "Although the patient was prepared by both prolonged sensory isolation (35 days) and by repeated depatterning, and although she received 101 days of positive driving, no favourable results were obtained." Patients were tested in the Radio Telemetry Laboratory, which was built under Cameron's direction. Here, patients were exposed to a range of RF and electromagnetic signals and monitored for changes in behaviour. It was reported that none of the patients sent to the Radio Telemetry Lab showed any signs of improvement.[28]

In 1980, the Canadian investigative news program The Fifth Estate interviewed two former patients of Cameron's who were among several of his ex patients who were at that time suing the CIA for the long term effects of Cameron's treatment.[29] In her book, In the Sleep Room: The Story of the CIA Brainwashing Experiments in Canada,[30] author Anne Collins explored the history of Cameron and Montreal's Allan Memorial Institute. This was made into a TV mini-series directed by Anne Wheeler in 1998, called The Sleep Room, which also dramatizes the lawsuit of Cameron's ex-patients against the CIA.[31]

Naomi Klein states in her book The Shock Doctrine that Cameron's research and his contribution to MKUltra were not about mind control and brainwashing, but "to design a scientifically based system for extracting information from 'resistant sources.' In other words, torture."[32] She then cites Alfred W. McCoy: "Stripped of its bizarre excesses, Cameron's experiments, building upon Donald O. Hebb's earlier breakthrough, laid the scientific foundation for the CIA's two-stage psychological torture method."[33]


Cameron died of a heart attack while mountain climbing with his son on September 8, 1967.[34]

See also

• Andrei Snezhnevsky
• Aziz al-Abub
• Sidney Gottlieb


1. "Obituary Notices". British Medical Journal. 3 (5568): 803–804. 1967-09-23. doi:10.1136/bmj.3.5568.803. ISSN 0959-8138. PMC 1843238.
2. "Past Presidents & Board Chairs". Canadian Psychiatric Association. Retrieved 10 October 2016.
3. "Presidents of the APPA". American PsychoPathological Association. Retrieved 10 October 2016.
4. "Society of Biological Psychiatry 65th Annual Meeting Program Book (p. 14)" (PDF). Society of Biological Psychiatry. Retrieved 10 October 2016.
5. "World Psychiatric Association Chronology". World Psychiatric Association. Retrieved 10 October 2016.
6. Ross, Colin. Bluebird: Deliberate Creation of Multiple Personality Disorder by Psychiatrists. Manitou Communications. ISBN 978-0-9704525-1-1.
7. Cleghorn RA, Silverman B (1967-10-14). "D. Ewen Cameron, M.D., F.R.C.P.{C}". Canadian Medical Association Journal. 97(16): 984–986. ISSN 0820-3946. PMC 1923436. PMID 4861213.
8. "Notes and News: Scottish Division". Journal of Mental Science. 72: 304. 1926. ISSN 0368-315X.
9. Weinstein, Harvey (1990). Father, Son and CIA. Formac Publishing Company. pp. 97–101. ISBN 9780887801594.
10. "Scottish Championships". The Argus. Melbourne, Vic. 26 August 1929. Archived from the original on 2 December 2012.
11. Cleghorn, Robert (1995). "Cameron at McGill". In Sourkes, Theodore L.; Gilbert, Pinard (eds.). Building on a Proud Past: 50 Years of Psychiatry at McGill. Department of Psychiatry, McGill University. pp. 77–78. ISBN 9782980096341.
12. "Part-Time Mental Patients". Time Magazine: 28. January 2, 1956. (Subscription required (help)). Cite uses deprecated parameter |subscription= (help)
13. Anonymous (1946). "Current Comment: Psychiatric Examination of Rudolf Hess". Journal of the American Medical Association. 130 (12): 790. doi:10.1001/jama.1946.02870120036012.
14. Manvell, Roger; Fraenkel, Heinrich (1971). Hess: A Biography. London: Granada. p. 159. ISBN 0-261-63246-9.
15. Paul Weindling. John W. Thompson: Psychiatrist in the Shadow of the Holocaust. University Rochester Press, 2010. pg. 85.
16. Father, Son and CIA by Harvey Weinstein pg 97.
17. Father, Son and CIA by Harvey Weinstein p. 90
18. Father, Son and CIA by Harvey Weinstein p. 100
19. Father, Son and CIA by Harvey Weinstein p. 101
20. Marks, John D. (1979-01-01). The Search for the "Manchurian Candidate": The CIA and Mind Control. Times Books. ISBN 9780812907735.
21. CIA. "MKUltra Subproject 68" (PDF). National Security Archive, George Washington University. Retrieved August 24,2016.
22. Shudel, Matt (August 31, 2008). "Doctor Looked After the Sick, And Looked Around for the CIA". Washington Post.
23. "Inside Montreal's House Of Horrors" Montreal Gazette. January 21, 1984
24. Marks, John (1979). The Search for the Manchurian Candidate. New York: Times Books. pp. 140–150. ISBN 0-8129-0773-6.
25. Turbide, Diane (1997-04-21). "Dr. Cameron's Casualties". Retrieved 2007-09-09.
26. Collins, Anne (1998) [1988]. In the Sleep Room: The Story of CIA Brainwashing Experiments in Canada. Toronto: Key Porter Books. pp. 39, 42–3, 133. ISBN 1-55013-932-0.
27. Goliszek, 2003: pp. 170–171
28. Taylor, Sid (1992). "A History of Secret CIA Mind Control Research". Nexus Magazine. Retrieved August 24,2016.
29. "MK Ultra", The Fifth Estate, March 11, 1980
30. Collins, Anne (1988), In the sleep room: the story of the CIA brainwashing experiments in Canada, Lester & Orpen Dennys
31. "The Sleep Room (1998)". IMDb. Retrieved 10 October 2016.
32. Klein, N., "The Shock Doctrine", p. 39, Metropolitan Books, New York, 2007
33. Klein, N., "The Shock Doctrine", p. 41, Metropolitan Books, New York, 2007
34. Stunning tale of brainwashing, the CIA and an unsuspecting Scots researcher, The Scotsman, January 5, 2006. Retrieved 13 January 2017.
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Re: Project MKUltra, by Wikipedia

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Mission Mind Control
ABC News Special



Mission Mind Control ABC NEWS SPECIAL 1979
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Re: Project MKUltra, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sun Sep 22, 2019 8:30 am

Scientology Guardian's Office Debbie Sharp Reveals Secret CIA Human Experiments
April, 1980




Announcer: You’ve been keeping track of what the CIA and the Defense Department have been doing for a long time as far as using us as guinea pigs for mind control and other types of horrible things they had in mind for us and the rest of the people in the world.

What are some of them?

Debby Sharp: Well, uh, it started out with the CIA basically doing experimentations on their own men to discover if they could get rid of, uh, agents who were going to quit the department and still had classified information.

So, they utilized different types of drugs and pain and hypnosis, and electric shock, to try and get the guys to forget.

Then they also did experimentations to using different chemicals to see if you can induce a person to commit a crime or induce him to do that or to do this.

Um, of course, the CIA claimed that it didn’t carry it through. Um, the documentation we got was actually that they did that.

Then we came across the overall project called MK Ultra. It’s earlier code name was Artichoke and that included 149 sub-projects.

Announcer: A hundred and forty nine? (sounding shocked)

Debby: Yea. And those sub projects ranged from what I just described to open air testing in the United States, experimentation on prisoners, experimentation on soldiers, experimentation on college students.

Announcer: Uh, were these people know they were being experimented on and give their approval?

Debby: No. Except for the “Volunteer” – the Voluntary Army soldiers.

Announcer: Yea.

Debby: And the way the volunteer Army program worked is that it started in 1959 and the guys were just told that they would be doing experimentation on new weapons. All right.

Then they get to Fort Detrick, Maryland where the experimentation was done and find out that they were going to be doing it on drugs and chemicals, but they were never told what they would be experimented on.

And they just knew that they went crazy for a couple days or so forth and so on and then years later have uh… similar things to the guys who have had Agent Orange.

Cuz there’s this one chemical that was used called BZ and its a hundred times stronger than LSD. It’s a very gross drug that causes a person to totally go out of his head for at least 12 hours, sometimes up to 2 or 3 weeks where he doesn’t even know where he is or who he is.

Announcer: Are there residual effects to BZ?

Debby: Yes. Now the Army at first said that they had done testing to discover it and they said that there weren’t any residual tests…any residual results.

Announcer: It’s harmless, it’s harmless – they always say that.

Debby: Right.

And we did a campaign to find the soldiers who had been experimented on and we found approximately 40 in the U.S. All of which have been experiencing extreme emotional and physical upset since that time, you know, with children with birth defects – the same sort of thing as Agent Orange.

But the Army, as part of the CIA’s experimentations, wanted to simulate chemical biological warfare attacks and to see what effect it would have on different Americans, how far it could go in, and so forth, but also test to see how they could use it on other countries.

The different kinds of things that they did without the citizens permission, any time, on any of these tests was…

Announcer: Or even knowing about it.

Debby: Oh No. Of course not. They didn’t even say they were going to do a test, you know…

They experimented with the use of mosquitoes. Where they just let tons of mosquitoes go in uh…South Carolina, and uh…just to test how far the mosquitoes would go because they had the idea that maybe if they used a particular strain of mosquitoes in say….Soviet Russia, then those guys aren’t immune to Yellow Fever, because they don’t have yellow fever there, then Russia could be infected with an epidemic of Yellow Fever.

But OUR guys were tested on it. Not the Russians were tested on it, WE were tested on it.

Announcer: What other types of things did they drop in the air?

Debby: They dropped a particular bacterium, I can’t pronounce it very well, serra…. whatever, and it was used – I’m sure that most people have heard of it… in San Francisco where at least 10 people got sick from it and one died. In fact, Edward Neevin the III is suing the Army currently because of his father who died from it.

Now that chemical was also used utilized in Florida, and it’s a bacteria that causes a pneumonia type disease, you know, respiratory problems and things like that. So that was tested in San Francisco and in Florida.

Then they also used other chemicals that they have not released what they are…yet. In New York, they released it in subways and in tunnels and in turnpikes. In 1956 and 1966, in two different tests.

Um, then the major thing that they used after that was zinc cadmium sulfide – which the Army spokesman have again said is harmless. But the only scientific studies that we’ve come up with says that it is…it could be very harmful. In fact if a person is exposed to it continuously… it could cause death, but it would definitely cause anyone with respiratory problems to get it agitated to a degree that they would either get very, very sick or they could actually die.

Announcer: Well they’ve used Texas and Texans as guinea pigs for a long time, haven’t they…

Debby: Oh yes, and that’s zinc cadmium sulfide. Now that was done – what we’ve documented – in at least 15 different locations in the U.S. One of which was in Dallas in 1961.

A series of 34 different tests were done off a TV tower, where they blew it out to a very large area, and the whole test area went from Dallas all the way down to McLean?? Texas which is a very long way, it’s like 160 miles.

Announcer: Well, Austin’s been involved in one of these tests too, hasn’t it?

Debby: Right.

The other series of tests that we discovered with zinc cadmium sulfide, was in – the test area was described as from Corpus Christie up to San Antonio, Austin over to Houston. So, it was that area.

And they sprayed off jet bombers, zinc cadmium sulfide, by following the coastline and then it would blow in to the coast. Then they set up samplers to see the concentration and how far it would go in. That was done in 1965 in that area.

But a year later, they did a similar type test, but this time the simulant used was 23 tons of glass beads and cork particles.

Announcer: Glass beads and cork particles, and we inhaled these?

Debby: Yea. Yea. Now those wouldn’t be as dangerous as zinc cadmium sulfide but I don’t think I’d want to breathe 23 tons of glass beads.

Announcer: No…

Debby: So…then again, the thing is…Now, with these tests we are currently trying to get Texas Senators at least, we’ve given a submission to Senator Tower and Binsen and Pickle, to ask them to please, put a ban on any chemical biological warfare testing without anyone’s permission.

So, that if a city wants to, you know, be utilized as a guinea pig then they have the ability to decide whether they want it or not.

I mean it’s just not ok for Dallas to get sprayed and everyone in the city get that effect without their permission and so we were trying currently to get a ban on this.

Announcer: What about the …certain types of testing of a strictly racial or ethnic nature?

Debby: Well, we discovered that, actually what they phrased it as is – ethnic weapons.

Now in the United States, we’ve been able to document that Negro men were experimented on with LSD and other hallucinogenics, who were either mental patients or prisoners.

And the attempt with that, is to discover how different ethnic groups or races would not be as immune to something as someone else. Like as…with Soviet Russia they don’t have Yellow Fever, so those guys they hadn’t built up an immunity to Yellow Fever yet, so if you used a particular chemical in that area, then, say, Russians may not have that immunity and might get an epidemic that’s real quick and disable the country, immediately.

Announcer: That reminds me back in the old days, the good old days, when the Army and all, used to give the smallpox infested, infected blankets to the Indians.

Debby: Right.

Announcer: We haven’t really changed much, have we, except we’ve gone on a mass-produced basis and have the ability to spread it throughout the whole world.

Debby: Well, the irresponsibility with it is, is what, is a terrible thing. Because the Army apparently felt like…some of the guys are good guys and they really probably felt that we need to do chemical biological warfare tests to make sure we don’t get attacked on this. I mean what if Russia came over here did a chemical…you know, sprayed a chemical on the United States. What would happen?

But, who was responsible for telling the Army that that chemical was safe? I mean that has never been in any documentation.

Who was responsible for saying that BZ, which is an extremely dangerous drug, could be used on our soldiers.

Who said that it was ok to use Agent Orange and that it was harmless?

You know?

Those guys cannot be found.

They are not in the documentation, you can find out about all the tests…of course you go to the Army cuz the Army conducted the tests …but WHO in the Army said that it was ok?

That’s what I think is the thing that must be found out because those individuals I think should be prosecuted. It was a criminal… it was a criminal thing and it shouldn’t have been done.


Secret CIA Projects Are Finally Revealed
The Daily News
January 6, 1979


Obtaining an African crocodile's gall bladder and a witch doctor's secret recipe for stewing it up into a potent poison presented quite a challenge to CIA experts in 1962.

But, according to hitherto secret documents made public Friday, they had it all figured out. And even if the gall bladder came from a sick crocodile, they'd somehow bypass fussy British customs.

The scheme was part of Operation Artichoke, one of the many secret CIA projects which ran from 1951 until 1973 involving experiments in mind and behavior control and the collecting of exotic poisons that could be used in assassination plots and clandestine operations.

Under a Freedom of Information Act request, details of the CIA's crocodile gall bladder operation were made available to the American Citizens for Honesty in Government, an organization sponsored by the Church of Scientology.

The material included the following memorandum from a CIA officer to the "chief" of an unidentified division — probably the scientific or clandestine operations section.

"1. We have approached the problem of picking up a Tanganyikan (now Tanzania) crocodile's gall bladder from two points of view. The first is to have one of our (blank) buddies in Tanganyika find, capture and eviscerate a native crocodile on the spot and then try to ship its gall bladder and/or other poisonous viscera to the united States in a condition which will permit analysis of the poisons contained. The second alternative would be to acquire a crocodile on the spot in Tanganyika through a licensed collector and ship the live animal to the United States through the (blank) Department, of Herpetology.

"2. (Blank) visited with'Dr. (blank), curator of Herpetology at (blank) zoo, and discussed the possibility ...Dr. (blank) thought it would be possible to pick up a medium-size Nile crocodile ... The cost of such an animal would be in the neighborhood of $200. An adult animal, weighing up to 300 pounds, would be a little more expensive. Dr. (blank) feels that the only sure way of getting the gall bladder to the United States intact is in the live crocodile, since temperature and climatic conditions as well as shipping delays under poor refrigeration conditions would make it almost impossible to deliver the gall bladder in an unchanged condition...

"3. On 1 Feb. 1962 (blank) and (blank) discussed the matter of getting the gall bladder and related innards directly from Tanganyika. (Blank) has written to (blank) and (blank) who are both now in Tanganyika. We are quite sure (they) can provide us with the details concerning methods and techniques employed by the witch doctor in preparing the poison.

"4. One of the main difficulties of gelling the gall bladder and/or other vital organs to the United Stales is the shipment must proceed from independent Tanganyika through British controlled Kenya. British colonial law forbids the handling of toxic materials derived from sick Tanganyikan crocodiles of the Nile variety."
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Re: Project MKUltra, by Wikipedia

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Sex, Drugs and the CIA
by Douglas Valentine
June 19, 2002



Barbara Crowley Smithe was nineteen years old in January 1953. She was full-figured, sexy and smart, with dark hair, blue eyes, and a trace of Irish freckles. She lived in Manhattan with her husband Eliot Smithe, and their 20-month old daughter, Valerie.

People who knew Barbara said she was a vibrant, happy young woman, but that she became confused about her sexuality, and gradually lost her self-esteem. Her friends did not know why, but she began to have angry confrontations with Eliot. Arguments led to rough fights and a separation in 1957. Two extra-martial affairs engendered a haunting sense of guilt, guilt led to depression, depression dissolved into despair, and ultimately Barbara succumbed to paranoia.

At her psychiatrist’s advice Barbara was admitted to Stony Lodge Hospital in December 1958. Before long she and Eliot divorced, and Valerie went to live with Eliot’s parents. Institutionalized for much of the next twenty years, Barbara died of leukemia in February 1978, without ever telling Eliot the secret she took to her grave–the stunning secret that may very well explain her descent into mental illness.

Indeed, Barbara’s mental breakdown may be traced to the night of January 11th, 1953, when–without her knowledge or consent–she was given a dose of LSD by an agent of the Central Intelligence Agency. After that incredible night, her short, sad life was never the same.


Why would the CIA want to give LSD to a nineteen-year-old woman with an infant in her arms? What did Barbara Smithe have to do with pressing matters of National Security?

The official explanation dates to 1951, when the CIA received an unsubstantiated report that the Soviet Union was about to corner the world market in LSD. The Soviets were thought to be perfecting drug-induced “brainwashing” techniques, and the CIA reeled at the prospect of Russian agents dumping LSD into New York’s water supply, and then using insidious Communist propaganda to turn drug addled American citizens against their own government.

While this frightening scenario never did materialize, the CIA was able to use it as a pretext to start testing LSD on friends and foes alike. The spy agency’s ultimate objective was to develop the capability to entrap and blackmail spies, diplomats, and politicians–ours, as well as theirs.

The CIA called its experimental LSD “mind-control” project MKULTRA.

After a year of conducting MKULTRA experiments in laboratories, the CIA’s researchers decided they needed to start testing LSD in “real life” settings. In order to do this, however, they needed a “front,” so they asked Harry Anslinger, the Commissioner of the Federal Bureau of Narcotics (FBN), to provide them with an agent who was capable of finding suitable test subjects within the arcane setting of narcotics control. Subjects were to be FBN informants, drug addicts and drug peddlers, prostitutes, pornographers, and other degenerate underworld characters–in other words, people who were already compromised by their deviant behaviors, and would be unable to complain to the police if they were damaged during the LSD experiments.
The Double Man

The man Anslinger selected for the MKULTRA job was George Hunter White. A highly successful and flamboyant federal narcotic agent since1935, White’s claim to fame was a 1937 undercover case he made against the notorious drug smuggling Sino-American trade association, the Hip Sing T’ong. Posing as John Wilson, the nephew of his “Uncle Sam” (a hitherto unknown hood who was forming a new drug syndicate), White crossed the country contracting with Hip Sing T’ong members for huge purchases of opium.

According to legend, White, a Caucasian, was initiated into the T’ong, swearing to accept “death by fire” should he ever break its sacred oath of secrecy. The investigation climaxed in November 1937 with a series of spectacular mass arrests, including several prominent Mafiosi. The case cemented White’s status as the FBN’s top agent, and subsequently involved him its most important, secret investigations.

At five feet, seven inches tall, and weighing a rotund 200 pounds, White, who shaved his head completely bald, was the image of a tough detective, the kind who made bad guys tip their hats and speak politely to cops. A native of California, he was ebullient and brash, and as a former crime reporter for the San Francisco Call Bulletin, had a nose for sniffing out trouble. And trouble was what White enjoyed more than anything else. Rough and tough and good with his fists, White led his fellow federal agents into many a fight with the country’s most vicious hoods. More importantly, his many newspaper contacts were always available to his publicity hunger boss, and after he extricated Anslinger’s stepson from an undisclosed legal problem, White became the Commissioner’s favorite and most trusted agent.

The main reason White was given the MKULTRA LSD testing assignment, was that he had acquired clandestine drug testing experience during the Second World War. In 1943 he had been transferred from the FBN to the Office of Strategic Services (OSS). Assigned to the spy agency as a counter-intelligence officer, Major White became deeply involved in OSS “truth drug” experiments, in which distilled marijuana was used in the interrogation of prisoners of war, suspected double agents, and conscientious objectors. White’s ‘truth drug” experiments continued until at least 1947.

White also was selected for the MKULTRA assignment because he was a disgruntled employee. After the war he had returned to the FBN and by 1950 was serving in New York City, where, apart from his work as a federal narcotic agent, he participated in a number of sensitive “political” investigations for the U.S. Government. Among his special assignments, White worked briefly with Assistant U.S. Attorney Roy Cohn and Senator Joseph McCarthy (R-WI) rooting Communists out of the CIA and the State Department, and from mid-1950 until early 1951 he served as the chief investigator for Senator Estes Kefauver (D-TN) in a nationwide expose of organized crime. But White was impetuous and overstepped his bounds. First he incurred Harry Truman’s wrath by attempting to link the President to organized crime in Kansas City. And in early 1951 he was fired from the Kefauver Committee for leaking classified information. But the final blow came a few months later when the Kefauver Committee aired allegations that New York Governor Thomas Dewey had commuted Lucky Luciano’s prison sentence for a sizable campaign contribution. The allegation was base on a memorandum White had written in 1947, and in retaliation, the sullied Governor banished White from New York.

Dewey’s edict was a disappointment to White, whose ambition at the time was to serve as the FBN’s district supervisor in New York. But White was too important to be dismissed offhand: the MKULTRA Program, which was to be established in New York, was already in the works, and so Commissioner Anslinger simply reassigned him as district supervisor in Boston. But White was rarely there. Instead he kept his apartment in New York while awaiting his final security clearance from the CIA. He was still an employee of the FBN, but he was bitter about the roadblock in his narcotic law enforcement career, and was hoping to find steady employment with the CIA. In this spirit George White willingly and energetically embarked on his CIA, MKULTRA assignment.

Partners in Crime

Although George White had notoriety and powerful friends, and existed above the law as one of Espionage Establishment’s “protected few,” he was a deeply conflicted man. His first wife, Ruth, deserted him in 1945, calling him “a fat slob,” and according to psychological reports compiled while he was applying for employment with the CIA, White compensated for that humiliation by seeking attention, and by hurting people. This was the third reason why the CIA accepted him for the MKULTRA job: George White was a sadist-masochist with an unquenchable thirst for alcohol, kinky sex, and power.

The archetypal Double Man, White, however, had the ability to charm as well as to repulse, and on 18 August 1951 he married his second wife, Albertine Calef, a clothing buyer at the Abraham and Strauss department store in Brooklyn. Described as a “bubbly” woman, Tine was born in New York of Egyptian Jewish parents. When interviewed for this article, Tine expressed nothing but devotion to the memory of her former husband. She described him as “effective and punctual, a great raconteur, a voracious reader of non-fiction books, and a very good writer.” According to her, George White was a liberal Democrat who never picked a fight or resorted to strong-arm tactics.

Tine apparently turned a blind eye toward her husband’s deviant behavior. They shared a comfortable apartment at 59 West 12th Street in Greenwich Village, and hob-nodded with politicians, diplomats, law enforcement officials, artists and writers. Tine thoroughly enjoyed the fast company her husband kept, and in order to maintain her exciting lifestyle, she stood by and did nothing when he poisoned Barbara Smithe with LSD. Indeed, when this writer asked her what George White did to Barbara on the night of January 11th, 1953, the 80 plus year old woman descended into a string of expletives that would have embarrassed a sailor. Her tirade left this writer with the firm impression that she was thoroughly capable of having been White’s accomplice in his dirty work.

The Fatal Flaw

By 1952 White’s advancement within the FBN had come to a halt, and he was seeking full-time employment with the CIA. For both parties, the timing could not have been better. In April 1952 White was introduced to Dr. Sidney Gottlieb, a club-footed, stuttering, Brooklyn-born officer in the CIA’s Technical Services Division and chief of its nascent MKULTRA drug-testing program. White and Gottlieb formed an immediate rapport, and when White’s background check was completed in July 1952, Dr. Gottlieb hired him. For the next 13 years, White conducted MKULRA experiments, first in New York City from 1952 through 1955, and then in San Francisco from 1955 until his retirement from the FBN in 1965.

White’s sadistic streak, underworld contacts, flexible status with the FBN, and experience in “truth drug” experiments, combined to make him the perfect choice to begin testing LSD on unsuspecting American citizens. But White was an anomaly who secretly resented the elitists who ran the CIA. He also had literary ambitions, and against strict CIA regulations he kept a diary of his daily activities.

According to his diary (portions of which were released to this writer as part of a 1994 Freedom of Information Act Request), White conducted his first LSD experiment on 21 September 1952 on a hapless hoodlum named “Tony”. White did not record the results of that initial test, but his diary indicates that he met regularly through November with Dr. Gottlieb and other top CIA officials regarding his LSD experiments.
Notably, these meetings were only one side of his Jekyll-Hyde personality; White simultaneously was working undercover on federal narcotic cases and in that capacity he posed alternately as a merchant seaman or a bohemian artist, and consorted with a vast array of underworld characters, all of whom were involved in vice, including drugs, prostitution, gambling, and pornography.

It was under his assumed, bohemian artist persona that White would entrap most of his MKULTRA victims, including Barbara Smithe, whom he first met on December 28th, 1952.

The Swingers

In order to avoid a lawsuit filed by this writer in federal district court, the CIA in February 2000 released approximately 90 pages from White’s diary. The CIA censors were required to redact the names of White’s victims, but they inadvertently released a set of pages naming several of the victims, including Barbara Smithe and her husband, Eliot.

Eliot Smithe was located through a computer search, and generously agreed to speak on the record both about his brief association with George White, and the strange event that occurred in New York on January 11th, 1953–an event Eliot was unaware of until he received a letter, dated 18 July 1979, from CIA officer Frank Laubinger of the Victims Task Force. The startling letter informed Eliot that the CIA, at the request of Congress, was investigating the MKULTRA Program, and that George White might have given Eliot’s recently deceased wife a surreptitious dose of LSD.

Born in 1926 and raised in a suburb of New York, Eliot was attending Upsala College in New Jersey when, through a mutual friend, he met Barbara Crowley on a blind date. Barbara was sixteen and a high school senior from East Orange. They started going steady and when Barbara became pregnant, Eliot, on his father’s advice, asked her to marry him.

“I was confused, not in love,” he explains. “But it was the right thing to do, and I thought love would follow.”

Eliot and Barbara were married in September 1950 and their daughter, Valerie, was born the following May. Eliot went [ti] go work for the family business, the F. L. Smithe Machine Company, and Barbara stayed at home and took care of their child. She was a good mother, but naive, with no real interests of her own. Eliot was seven years older and far more worldly wise. He’d spent two years in the Navy and was a college graduate with a degree in English literature, so Barbara tended to follow his lead in everything.

Unfortunately, Eliot abused his power over Barbara, and projected his personal problem onto his young wife. His biggest problem was, in his own words, that he liked to “skirt the edge.” He describes himself as “immature, irresponsible, and erratic,” and confesses that he had tried psychotherapy as a way of understanding and controlling his sexual compulsions. But the compulsions persisted, even after he married Barbara. Their first apartment was on 168th Street and Riverside Drive, but they soon moved to 74th Street and Columbus Avenue, in Eliot’s words, “to be closer to the action.”

“The action” was promiscuous sex in the swinging Greenwich Village scene.

Long before he met Barbara, Eliot had been indulging his sexual fantasies in the Village, and at one fateful party he met Gil Fox, a writer of soft-core pornography. Gil’s books dealt with lesbian sex in an inhibited 1950’s fashion, referring, for example, to a woman’s “secret place.” But sex clearly was the subject, and bringing the reader to climax through masturbation at certain points in the narrative was, according to Gil, the object.

Something of a sexual predator, Gil immediately recognized that Eliot was looking for sexual adventures and he invited Eliot, and Eliot’s current girlfriend (not Barbara), to participate in a “foursome” with him and his attractive wife, Pat.

“Gil was a charmer,” Eliot recalls, “so we agreed. But it wasn’t a success. He asked me to peel Pat’s stocking off with my teeth, and I tried, but I found myself getting red with rage. It was impossible for me to act against my will. Luckily Gil realized this and told Pat to let me go, which she did. They treated me with kid gloves and because of that we remained friends. We decided to forgot the whole thing.”

After he married Barbara, Eliot continued to socialize with Gil and Pat Fox. In fact, Gil dedicated his book, And Baby Makes Three, to Barbara and Eliot Smithe.

It was through Gil that Barbara and Eliot met George White.

Sex & Drugs & CIA Schemes

Gil Fox served in the U.S. Army Air Force as a bombardier in the Second World War, and in 1948 he graduated from Bolling Green College in Ohio with a degree in musicology. At Bolling Green he met Pat, whom he describes as the most beautiful girl on campus. They were married in their junior year and after graduation moved to Chapel Hill, North Carolina, where Gil taught music.

But Gil wasn’t your typical trombone teacher. His real interest was in writing about sexual deviation, especially lesbians and fetishes. Pat shared his interests and after tiring of Chapel Hill, they moved to New York in 1950. A Chapel Hill resident who enjoyed spanking provided Gil with a letter of introduction to John Willie, an artist whose specialty was drawing pictures of women wearing high heels. Gil met Willie at a bar on McDougal Street and began writing pornographic novels for Willie’s Woodford Press. Shortly thereafter Gil decided to self-publish. He set up Vixen Press at his apartment at 125 Christopher Street, and began writing a book a month under the aliases Dallas Mayo, Paul V. Russo, and Kimberly Kemp.

The first mention of Gil Fox in George White’s diary occurs on 6 November 1952.

“I knew George well,” Gil explains. “Extremely well, in a strange way. George was into high heels. That was his major fetish, and we met through John Willie. Willie was putting out a little magazine called Bizarre that featured women in high heels, and White liked it. He liked my books too, and he asked me to write about high heels.

“Later I did a semi-analysis of him,” Gil explains. “As a child, White had been infatuated with an aunt who wore high heels. He was an interesting guy with a sensitive side. He loved to hold and pet little birds, like canaries. But he was a gin drunk. He drank morning noon and night. At parties he would prepare two pitchers of martinis, one for everyone else, and one for himself. He was playing out his sexual fantasies too. One time Pat and I went with him to see his hooker girlfriend at a hotel. She tied him up and strapped him to the bed and whipped his ass. She had on high heels.

“Tine knew George was playing around,” Gil adds, “but she was a social climber and she pushed him to succeed. At the time George was big into the New York mayoral election. The candidate he was backing, Rudolph Halley, had been chief of staff on the Kefauver Committee and was running for mayor on the Fusion Party ticket. If Halley won the election, he was going to make George the Commissioner of the NYPD.

“Anyway, as long as Tine wore high heeled boots, George tolerated her. He would lace her into a special pair of high heeled boots. Those high-heeled boots made up their sex life together.”

An entry in White’s diary notes that he and Tine had the Foxes to their apartment for drinks on Friday night, November 28th, 1952. Kai Jurgenson, a drama professor from Chapel Hill, and Kai’s wife, Jo, were also present–and White dosed them all with LSD. The subjects, White wrote in his diary, had a “delayed reaction” and not until the following day did Gil call him regarding Pat’s “symptoms.” Gil, according to White’s diary, was “puzzled.”

As Gil recalls: “We were all boozing and smoking pot in those days, including George, and one night George gave us LSD. He slipped it to us secretly. Kai and Jo were visiting us at Christopher Street and we went to the Whites. Afterwards we went slumming around the Lower Village. It was snowing. We stopped the car on Cornelius Street and the snow was red and green and blue–a thousand beautiful colors–and we were dancing in the street. Jo thought she had lace gloves up to her elbows. Then we went into a lesbian bar, but that freaked-out Pat and Jo. Pat had trouble coming off the trip, and Jo later went wacko, like Eliot’s wife. And Jo eventually divorced Kai too.

“I was angry at George for that,” Gil concludes. “It turned out to be a bad thing to do to people, but we didn’t realize it at the time.”

Indeed, on December 14th the Foxes again socialized with the Whites, as if nothing unusual had happened. And considering the proclivities of the Foxes and their milieu, to a large extent that was true.

January 11th, 1953

“I was into people on the edge,” Eliot explains, “and Gil said he knew some people over on the West Side that I might like to meet. I’m not trying to make excuses but I was twenty-five going on seventeen, and the Foxes were our friends, and I had no idea that White was a government agent. So Barbara and I went to see them.

“I remember George was fat and bull-like, with a large head and knots on the back of his neck. He was gruff, but wore a nice suit and was well spoken. Tine was in her thirties and very pretty. I had an immediate sexual attraction to her–which White recognized. He showed me a closet full of her shoes, the kind with spiked heels. He was trying to find out what fetishes I was interested in, and he alluded to Tine, who was the bait, and was aware she was bait. Barbara was very good looking too, and it was obvious that they were trying to get us into a sex scene. But because White was so gross I moved away and there never was one.”

At least, there never was a sex scene with Eliot.

Eliot enjoyed the fact that his wife, like Pat Fox and Tine White, attracted men. But while he was away on a business trip, the Whites invited Barbara back to their place for dinner and drinks. It was January 11th, 1953, and Barbara was so naive and so trusting that she brought along her twenty-month old baby, Valerie.

Two other women were present that evening: Clarice Stein, a co-worker of Tine’s at Abraham & Strauss; and Francine Kramer, a linen buyer at Macy’s and a good friend of Tine’s. As White noted in his diary, Francine unexpectedly stopped by later that evening and interrupted the LSD experiment he was conducting on Barbara and Clarice.

It was an experiment that ended traumatically for Clarice. As White scribbled in his diary, Clarice got “the Horrors”.

After being notified by the Victims Task Force that she too may have been one of White’s test subjects, Clarice wrote a letter to the CIA describing what happened that night. In the letter, dated November 12th, 1979, she explained that she lived nearby in the Village and often went to the Whites’ apartment after work. She recalled that Barbara was present with her baby daughter that fateful evening, and that George White served martinis, after which Barbara, Tine, and Clarice embarked on a “laughing jag.”

When Clarice got home, multi-colored images appeared whenever she closed her eyes. She became frightened but when she called White, he told her not to bother him. He hung up the phone. Her fear evolved into abject terror. She promised herself that if she never fell asleep again, she “would kill myself.”

Clarice tried calling White three or four more times that night, each time begging him to tell her what he had put in her drink so she could call her doctor and ask for something to counteract it. White was unsympathetic and hung up every time.

Finally in the morning Clarice called a friend (she did not want to alarm her parents), who remained with her until the symptoms subsided and she fell asleep later that night. Several days elapsed before she returned to work, where, out of necessity, she continued to have a professional relationship with Tine. Resentful and hurt, Clarice cooled their friendship for several months. And yet even though she could never forgive George White, she ineluctably drifted back into his captivating social scene. To this day, Clarice remains friends with Tine.

Her Secret Heart

For some reason, Barbara never told Eliot about her LSD experience. This is one of the great mysteries of her mental illness. Why didn’t she tell?

It was not until CIA officer Frank Laubinger wrote to him in July 1979, on behalf of the Victims Task Force, that Eliot learned that his wife had been given LSD. Barbara had died from cancer a mere seven months earlier. She and Eliot had separated in 1957 after a tumultuous marriage, and he’d had little contact with her for over twenty years. Then Laubinger’s letter unlocked all of his repressed memories and emotions.

“Barbara was healthy in the early days of our marriage,” Eliot recalls. “She was a good wife and mother and I never sensed that she fooled around. But I never knew what was in her secret heart. I can’t remember exactly when she began to deteriorate, but it was several years into our marriage, and it got progressively worse. We started going for counseling, but that didn’t help, and eventually we separated. She went to live with her parents and later, out of a desire to possess her, I called and asked for a reconciliation.

“When I got to her house she was cowering in a corner. She thought the Mafia was out to get her. Her parents were unable to cope with the problem, so on our psychiatrist’s advice I admitted her to Stony Lodge Hospital in December 1958. Not long after that we got divorced, and Valerie went to live with my parents.

“I can’t explain why Barbara broke down,” Eliot says matter-of-factly. “The psychiatrist told me I was partially to blame, and it’s true that I wasn’t the best supporter. But after talking with Laubinger, I was ready to accept the possibility that her problems were the result of a reaction to the LSD. Laubinger implied that the LSD experiment had contributed to her mental illness, so I decided to sue the CIA.”

Wrangling with the CIA

In October 1979, Eliot hired the law firm of Rogovin, Stern, and Huge to represent him on a contingency basis and to seek compensation from the CIA on the premise that Barbara’s mental illness was caused by a surreptitious dose of LSD administered by George White. There was just one catch. Senior partner Mitchell Rogovin, a former assistant attorney general in the Johnson administration, had worked for the CIA on a number of occasions, and that raised the specter of a conflict of interest. But Rogovin assured Eliot that the CIA’s General Counsel did not anticipate any problems in that respect. On the contrary, Rogovin told Eliot that the CIA had expressed a desire to settle the case rather than litigate.

Laubinger, meanwhile, had contacted Clarice, and she too had decided to sue the CIA. She was living in Florida with her husband Sol Smithline, a retired attorney who represented her in the case. Clarice had developed a rare type of cancer, and in her claim against the CIA her physician stated his belief that the cancer might have originated with the surreptitious dose of LSD. Treatments for the cancer had saddled Clarice with diabetes, glaucoma and cataracts, and she was suing the CIA for $150,000 in damages.

Clarice already was suing the CIA when Eliot hired the Rogovin law firm. They never actually met, but through Laubinger they became aware of each other’s cases, and they decided to join forces, at which point Sol Smithline gave the Rogovin law firm a copy of Clarice’s claim. Barbara, of course, had died of cancer in February 1978, and the fact that both women had developed cancer led all of the plaintiffs to the inevitable conclusion that there was a causal relationship between the LSD and the cancer. Taken together the separate cases were a powerful one-two punch, and Eliot, based on Rogovin’s assurances, was certain the CIA would settle without a fight.

Unanticipated problems developed, however, when the Rogovin law firm began to research the long-term effects of LSD. The firm asked several qualified doctors if there could have been a causal relationship between the surreptitious dose of LSD and Barbara’s breakdown several years later, but a “qualified maybe” was the unanimous response.

The CIA had reached the same conclusion and on February 15th, 1980, shortly after the Rogovin law firm completed its research, CIA attorney William Allard sent a letter to the Smithlines characterizing their offer as “excessive” and asserting that there were no facts on which to base the belief that Clarice’s problems were caused by LSD. Allard said her fright and anxiety had been limited to a few days, and the only provable problem was the brief strain on her friendship with Tine. Allard made the Smithlines a counter-offer of $5000.

On March 1st the Smithlines lowered their price to $110,000. In the letter to the CIA, Clarice said that the anxiety and terror of the LSD trip had left an indelible stamp on her memory. She still got an icy reaction whenever she recalled the incident.

On March 21st Allard again denied her claim and shortly thereafter Clarice settled for $15,000–and a gratuitous visit to CIA headquarters in Langley, Virginia.

Meanwhile, as Rogovin informed Eliot, the CIA changed its strategy. Instead of settling, it decided to face the bad publicity a lawsuit might generate. But Eliot pressed ahead and on May 16th 1980 he submitted a $2,500,000 Claim for Damage, Injury, and Death against the CIA. The Claim argued that Barbara began to manifest the mental problems that contributed to her divorce from Eliot, and her inability to care for Valerie, only after White slipped her an undetermined dosage of LSD.

The Claim also argued that LSD contributed to Barbara’s death. It noted that White’s boss, Dr. Gottlieb, had monitored the LSD tests, but had made no effort to inform Barbara, even though he later became aware of her subsequent mental problems.

Notably, Dr. Gottlieb in 1972 and 1973 destroyed all MKULTRA operational files, including White’s reports, in order to cover their tracks.

The CIA’s response was predictable in light of the Smithline case. On July 28th 1980, CIA General Counsel Daniel B. Silver responded to Eliot’s Claim by saying there was no evidence that Barbara was ever given LSD. Despite Clarice’s testimony, Silver said it was impossible “to reconstruct the details of the unfortunate and reprehensible course of conduct followed by George White.”

Seeking to bolster its case, the Rogovin firm sought a court order for medical records from Stony Lodge Hospital, and it contacted Barbara’s psychiatrist. With these two actions, the case fell apart.

What the Medical Records Revealed

Barbara was admitted to Stony Lodge Hospital on December 2nd, 1958 when she was only 25 years old. Dr. Milton Berger, the psychiatrist who had been treating her for over a year, referred her there. A Clinical Summary composed during her initial intake described Barbara as “above average intelligence” and “rather attractive”. But her hair was disheveled, and she was apprehensive, confused, and restless. She was agreeable and tried to cooperate, but her thoughts were scattered. She was depressed and afraid that gangsters planned to get rid of her because she had talked much about the labor rackets. She felt her telephone was tapped and that “they” were listening. She expressed feelings of guilt about two affairs she had had after her separation from Eliot. She felt she was paying for her wrongdoing. Barbara was diagnosed as having had “a symptomatic schizophrenic episode.”

Several days of testing followed this initial intake. During these tests Barbara seemed fatigued and perplexed, with motor retardation. She said her marriage was bad to begin with. “My husband kept threatening to kill me and I felt someone was going to kill me–shoot me,” she told the doctors.

Barbara felt rejected by Eliot. She sensed that he didn’t like her or think much of her as a person, because he constantly tried to get her to change her appearance and behavior. He demanded that she wear tight clothes and pretend to be different people–a ballet dancer in one instance, a burlesque queen in another–to satisfy whatever fantasy he had at the moment. Seeking his approval, she would pose for him and act sexy in front of other men. Eliot would get angry if they did notice her, or if they did not. Either way she lost, but for some reason, Barbara blamed herself. “I would just never try to make a go of things, and I’d keep going out to try to find someone else to fall in love with,” she said.

Barbara described herself as follows: “I find myself very confused. I have a short span of interest, and my mind wanders. I used to think I was so right, but now I see that I did a lot of things that caused a lot of friction.”

Applying Freudian theories that were popular at the time, the doctors diagnosed Barbara as having psychosexual confusion, problems with authority, and a “precarious contact with reality.” They said she was a chronic paranoid with depression superimposed–that she had doubts about her feminine identity, felt inadequate in personal relationships, viewed her environment as rejecting and hostile, and had a suicidal preoccupation.

The most damaging information for Eliot’s lawsuit came from Barbara’s psychiatrist, Dr. Berger, who informed the Rogovin firm that he would testify as a “hostile witness” against Eliot. Berger said that Barbara told him that Eliot was associating with racketeers, abused her verbally, and threatened her with a knife.

Despite the fact that there was hearsay evidence that Dr. Berger had made sexual advances toward Barbara while she was his patient, Eliot’s lawyers considered his testimony to be a death warrant. They abandoned the case in April 1981, saying it was too difficult to prove a causal relationship between a dose of LSD administered in 1953, and Barbara’s breakdown in 1958. Furthermore, the medical reports were specious, and the CIA would certainly use them to discredit Eliot. The final nail in the coffin was the possibility that Barbara’s father may also have suffered from paranoia.

“I should have settled right away,” Eliot concedes, “but the climate changed and the law firm abdicated. I was kind of tired of it by then, anyway. They said they would help me find another lawyer, but they didn’t. Then they sent me a bill for about $1000. I never paid it, and they never asked again.”

Lingering Doubts

Eliot denies having any underworld connections. He did carry a knife for a while, and he admits that this frightened Barbara. But they were squabbling over alimony at the time, and Eliot believes that their legal hassles may have motivated her to exaggerate her concerns to Dr. Berger.

He does, however, admit that he played a role in her breakdown. “I harassed her for a year after she kicked me out,” he confesses. “I thought of her as a possession. For me it was always just a sexual attraction.”

Perhaps subconsciously, Eliot may have wanted the relationship to end. On the day she kicked him out, he appeared before his wife and daughter (deleted at Eliot’s request).

For all of these reasons, Eliot felt remorse. After Barbara was re-admitted to Stony Lodge in 1962, he visited her and discovered that the doctors had, in his opinion, damaged her brain with electroshock. “They called it “regressive therapy”,” he explains, “but they never were able to reconstruct her personality.”

Reconstructing History

What emerges from the story so far is the likelihood that Barbara secretly went to the Whites’ apartment looking for something she could never obtain from Eliot. Had Eliot been a caring and supportive husband, she might not have gone. Or she might have trusted him enough to tell him about her visit and the bizarre experience that ensued.

Possibly she enjoyed the LSD trip. But considering the paranoia she developed later in life, it’s more likely that she, like Clarice, was traumatized, and that she buried the trauma in her subconscious mind, like a war veteran burying some horrible combat experience, only to have it emerge years later as Post Traumatic Stress Syndrome.

It is possible, too, that the CIA was responsible for exacerbating the seeds of doubt, guilt, and self-loathing that evolved into Barbara’s paranoia. White put LSD in her drink while she was in a compromising position. She was with her infant daughter, without her husband. In a similar situation, Clarice decided not to tell her parents–the authority figures in her life at the time.

The overwhelming question is, what exactly happened to Barbara that night? Clarice cannot recall if Barbara left the Whites’ apartment before her. Because she was tripping on LSD, she cannot even recall walking home. She wonders why George White would do such a horrible thing to a friend, let alone to a woman with a baby?

Did White take advantage of Barbara while she was defenseless under the influence of LSD? Eliot wonders if White molested Barbara? If White did abuse her while she was out of her mind on LSD, would she risk telling Eliot, whom she knew to be jealous at worst, and unsympathetic at best?

It is agonizing to imagine Barbara’s predicament. How did she manage to care for her child? Like Clarice, did she fear she might never fall asleep again? That terrifying thought made Clarice contemplate suicide. Did it also plant the first suicidal thoughts in Barbara’s mind?

Clarice does not recall what happened to Barbara that night, and Tine isn’t saying. So none of these questions will ever be answered. But plenty of evidence suggests that the CIA conspired to conceal the truth about what really happened on the evening of January 11th, 1953.

The Missing Pieces

Mitchell Rogovin initially told Eliot that his prior relationship with the CIA was unrelated to the case. Later, however, he advised Eliot that the CIA did intend to assert a conflict if the case went to trial. Does that mean that Rogovin, in some way, was involved in the MKULTRA Program?

In addition, the Rogovin firm may have given Eliot misinformation about a crucial matter of law. In a February 8, 1980 internal memorandum, the Rogovin firm said that Eliot could not sue the federal government for battery, because White was working for the CIA at the time he dosed Barbara. But in testimony before the Senate in 1977, Gottlieb said that White was being paid directly by the CIA for only three to six months. Gottlieb could not remember the time frame, but he testified that all of the operations White conducted involved Bureau of Narcotics interests. A May 1953 entry in White’s diary indicates that he returned to the Bureau of Narcotics that month. And if White was only on the CIA’s payroll for three months, as Gottlieb testified, then he was a bona fide federal law enforcement officer when he dosed Barbara with LSD. The government could have been sued.

Another questionable incident occurred in early 1981, when Rogovin met with John Blake, the Staff Director of the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, whom he described to Eliot as “a former Deputy Director of the CIA.” In fact, Blake had been the CIA’s Deputy Director of Administration, and in that capacity was the direct supervisor of CIA officer Robert Wiltse, the chief of the Victims Task Force. According to Rogovin, Blake in turn introduced him to John Bross, “an old-time CIA man who recently returned from retirement to the Agency to assist in the transition to the New CIA Director, William Casey.” Rogovin expressed the hope that Bross would convince the CIA to look more favorably on a pre-lawsuit settlement. But that never happened, and one must wonder what role Blake actually played in the negotiations.

Finally, a July 1978 memorandum from John Blake to the Director of Central Intelligence, Stansfield Turner, refers to a strategy paper for defending the CIA against lawsuits by victims of the MKULTRA Program. The CIA’s Assistant General Counsel Anthony Lapham composed the paper. While serving as a special assistant to Assistant Secretary of the Treasury David Acheson in the mid-1960s, Lapham was responsible for liaison with the CIA regarding its relationship with the Bureau of Narcotics. In this capacity Lapham was aware of the existence and purpose of several MKULTRA “safehouses,” the first of which was established by George White in Greenwich Village in June 1953. Indeed, in 1966, Lapham directed FBN agent Andrew Tartaglino to shut down a second MKULTRA safehouse on 13th Street in New York.

Furthermore, on January 23rd, 1967, Lapham met with Dr. Sidney Gottlieb and several other CIA and Treasury officials in sensitive discussions concerning an investigation by Senator Edward Long (D-MS). As Chairman of the Subcommittee on Invasion of Privacy, Long was probing allegations of illegal wiretapping by various branches of the U.S. government, and his staff had stumbled on the existence of the MKULTRA safehouses. A January 30th, 1967 memorandum, written by Gottlieb, records the CIA’s on-going efforts to conceal its involvement with the MKULTRA safehouses from Senator Long. When asked if the CIA was using the Narcotics Bureau as a “front” for domestic operations, Gottlieb said no. He told the Treasury Department officials that the “pads” were only used for routine narcotics operations.

Lapham knew this wasn’t true. And ten years later he designed the CIA’s strategy against MKULTRA-related lawsuits. If anyone had a conflict of interest in the Victims Task Force case it was Tony Lapham. But his activities have never been questioned, let alone investigated.

The Causal Relationship

Entries in his diary conclusively prove that George White gave Barbara Smithe LSD. A surreptitious dose of LSD is battery, and Clarice testified that it was delivered to Barbara. So why didn’t Rogovin pursue this issue? Why did he emphasize the potential damage of Dr. Berger’s testimony instead, when there was hearsay evidence that Berger had made sexual advances toward Barbara while she was his patient?

Considering this, one must also wonder if the electroshock treatments were prescribed for Barbara’s benefit, or if they were designed to erase memories of George White from her troubled mind?

Although his firm generated evidence to support the theory that LSD was the “precipitating agent” in Barbara’s paranoia, Rogovin seems to have ignored it. As the Rogovin firm noted in a January 15, 1980 report it provided to Eliot, LSD was thought to precipitate a “model fit” of schizophrenia. There was a consensus in the research community that LSD flashbacks could occur and cause mental illness, and there was agreement that unwitting ingestion was an important contributing factor to adverse LSD reactions. Unwitting ingestion represented “a maximally stressful event because the perceptual and ideational distortions then occur without the saving knowledge that they were drug induced and temporary.”

One researcher concluded, “the hallucinogenic experience is so striking that many subsequent disturbances may be attributed to it without further justification.”

Even the CIA had uncovered evidence that LSD may have caused Barbara’s breakdown. A year before the Rogovin firm conducted its research into LSD, Director of Central Intelligence Stansfield Turner, in a letter dated January 10th, 1979, asked the Department of Health Education and Welfare (HEW) to study the problem. In his personal response to Turner, HEW Administrator Joseph A. Califano said, “We believe it may be assumed that where studies with these drugs were conducted in academic institutions by reputable investigators, any short-term consequences would have been detected. But if the CIA administered these drugs to persons under other circumstances, we believe you should take all possible steps to ascertain whether any individuals might have been injured as a consequence of their participation in such research.”

George White gave Barbara Smithe LSD in his apartment, while she was with her 20-month old daughter, and yet the Rogovin firm decided to drop the case. Why?

Lowlifes on LSD

Deviants were not the only subject population of the CIA’s LSD experiments. As an August 1963 report on MKLUTRA, authored by the CIA Inspector General John Earman, clearly stated, “the effectiveness of the substances on individuals at all social levels, high and low, native American and foreign, is of great significance and testing has been performed on a variety of individuals within these categories.”

Entries in George White’s diary indicate that several MKLUTRA victims were dosed at a safehouse he rented with CIA money in Greenwich Village. In June 1953 White received $4100 from Dr. Gottlieb. He deposited the money in the National City Bank and used it to rent an apartment at 81 Bedford Street. Helping White decorate the apartment with Toulouse-Lautrec posters was his “Special Employee” Pierre Lafitte, who also hired prostitutes to lure victims into White’s lair. Also assisting White were Gil and Pat Fox.

“Tine knew that George was dosing people,” Gil Fox explains. “It was his job, and when George was working LSD he rented an apartment in the Village at 81 Bedford Street. He set himself up as an artist/painter named Morgan Hall. He had Pat, who was an artist, paint murals on the walls.”

Other people helped White as well, including other FBN agents, and White’s close friend Irwin Eisenberg. A wealthy industrialist from California, Eisenberg owned an expensive home in Larchmont, New York. White often visited Eisenberg there, and in his diary he describes swimming in the estate’s spacious pool.

According to CIA officer Laubinger, Eisenberg was a “benefactor of the arts” who in 1953 was sponsoring the career of Linda King, an aspiring New York actress. An entry in White’s diary notes that he invited Linda to the Bedford “pad” on 12 September 1953. A subsequent entry indicates that Linda became “psychotic” and that Tine took her to Lenox Hills Hospital on East 77th Street and Park Avenue. When Linda arrived at the hospital she claimed White had “drugged” her. But nothing came of the incident. Evidently the CIA arranged an accommodation with the medical department of the New York City Police department to protect White from any hassles with victims.

“We knew he was a federal narcotic agent and was giving people LSD,” Gil Fox says. “He would invite people to Bedford pad, dose them with LSD, and then take photographs of them through a two-way mirror. But I never got into it. We weren’t interested in that aspect of his life. He wanted to keep that aspect of his lifestyle secret. At the time LSD was great fun, that’s all. Then sub-agent Olson walked out the window, and that’s when the shit hit the fan.”

On 26 November 1953, Defense Department employee Frank Olson, who had been working on the MKULTRA Program, allegedly ran through a window and fell to his death from the tenth floor of the Statler Hotel in New York City. Several days before, Olson had been given a surreptitious dose of LSD by Dr. Gottlieb. Olson’s death was ruled a suicide by the CIA and the NYPD.


Clarice Smithline never forgave George White. She describes him as a mean man who drank all day and kept lots of guns on the table. Once he crushed her curtains because, he said, they were too pretty.

But she respected him, too. After he retired as the FBN’s District Supervisor in San Francisco, White invited his father to live with him and Tine at their apartment in town. There was a fire in the apartment and George rescued his father. But he could not get back inside to save his beloved parrot.

“Why,” Clarice asks, “did he dose his friends with LSD?”

The short answer is, so the CIA could learn how to entrap and discredit people. In one alleged case, White, on behalf of his friend, New York mayoral candidate Rudolph Halley, slipped LSD to an opposition speaker at a Halley political rally.

That is what MKULTRA was all about: entrapping and compromising politicians, friends and foes alike. It is well known within the intelligence research community that the CIA tried to dose Fidel Castro with LSD, and that the FBI made illegal tapes of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. engaging in extra-marital sex, in a blatant attempt to force him out of politics.

This is the truly frightening aspect of MKULTRA, and it was known not only to espionage insiders like Anthony Lapham, but also to the Victims Task Force. As Frank Laubinger recalls, the Victims Task Force was led to believe that White “was mixing it up with drug dealers; that he would slip it to people to aide in their debriefings. But there was no evidence White was giving pot to drug dealers.”

Instead, White was giving LSD to average, vulnerable people like Barbara Smithe.

“Why give them LSD then let them wander into the night?” Laubinger asked this writer. “Was it a lark? Was he serious? This is not standard scientific procedure.”


“We were interested to find out why,” Laubinger concludes, “and we would have stayed with it for several years, but the powers that be told us to put it behind us.”

Laubinger pauses. “If they really wanted to find out what happened, it would have been investigated by Congress.”

And if not for the fact that so many Congresspersons have stayed at CIA safehouses, that might actually be a valid course of action.

The Known Victims

Barbara Smithe: died of cancer after suffering serious mental problems.

Valerie Smithe: lives in a foreign country.

Clarice Stein Smithline: settled with the Whites and the CIA.

Francine Kramer: when contacted by CIA officer Frank Laubinger she was courteous, but did not recall who was present on the night of 11 January 1953.

Gil and Pat Fox: swingers who didn’t really care.

Kai Jurgenson: never found

Jo Jurgenson: advised by her psychiatrist not to assist the Victims Task Force.

Linda King: never found by the Victims Task Force. There was no record at Lenox Hills Hospital, and when Laubinger contacted White’s childhood friend, Irwin Eisenberg, he was on his deathbed and did not want to be bothered. She is said to be living in Los Angeles, her home for over 50 years.

Herman Ginsberg and his wife Bobbie: Herman Ginsberg was an executive with Crown Cork & Seal. White’s diary indicates they were dosed on 13 September 1953 at the Bedford “pad.” White wrote that Herman told him of a “psychic transformation” after using “the hypertension drug.” When contacted by CIA officer Frank Laubinger, Ginsberg was not helpful and said he did not believe they had been dosed.

Ruth Kelly: a dancer in San Francisco, never found by the Victims Task Forcer, said to be alive and well and living in Miami.

Laubinger could not find Pierre Lafitte either, despite the combined efforts of the DEA , CIA and FBI, and the knowledge that he lived in and operated a restaurant in New Orleans.

George White: in 1963 he became seriously ill with cirrhosis of the liver and by 1965 his weight was down to 135 pounds. Upon his retirement he was appointed fire marshal in Stimson Beach, California. He continued to drink and surround himself with adoring deviants until his death in 1975. (White wrote famous letter to Sid Gottlieb, in which he said: “I was a very minor missionary, actually a heretic, but I toiled wholeheartedly in the vineyards because it was fun, fun, fun. Where else could a red-blooded American boy lie, kill, cheat, steal, rape and pillage with the sanction and blessing of the All-Highest?”)

Albertine White: the only person who knows the truth.

Douglas Valentine is the author of The Hotel Tacloban, The Phoenix Program, and TDY, all of which are available through For information about Mr. Valentine and his books and articles, please visit his website at He can be reached at:
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