Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

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1. Gregory Tillett, a religious studies scholar, claimed in his dissertation, "The relationship of Theosophy to Christianity was never straightforward."[2]
2. Goodrick-Clarke wrote that "the very concept of the Masters" is the Rosicrucian idea of "invisible and secret adepts, working for the advancement of humanity."[3] And Tillett stated: "The concept of Masters or Mahatmas as presented by HPB involved a mixture of western and eastern ideas; she located most of them in India or Tibet. Both she and Colonel Olcott claimed to have seen and to be in communication with Masters. In Western occultism the idea of 'Supermen' has been found in such schools as... the fraternities established by de Pasqually and de Saint-Martin."[4]
3. It is nonsense, when theologian Martin proclaims that Theosophy "equates God the Father with the pagan gods Buddha (?!) and Vishnu."[9]
4. Blavatsky was refusing to accept God as the personality.[16]
5. Theologian Drujinin wrote that Berdyaev noted, "In the contemporary Theosophy it is difficult to find a teaching about God."[20][21]
6. According to professor Hanegraaff, Blavatskian Theosophy is "an example of Comparative Religion on occultist premises, developed with the express intention of undermining established Christianity."[23]
7. According to Berdyaev, Theosophy separates Jesus from Christ and so "denies Christ the God-man."[30]
8. Professor Williams wrote that one should not understand literally the words of Jesus, "I am the Way, the Truth, and the Life." (John 14.6) He speaks here, not as a historical character, but as "the divine light, the light presumably known to all the wise sages of every age."[33]
9. Curuppumullage Jinarajadasa wrote that Mahachohan, the great Adept, wrote that the seventh principle of man is being named some as Christ, others as Buddha.[35]
10. In Kuraev's opinion, Blavatsky was relating "critically-aggressively" to the church tradition.[16] Nevertheless, professor Ellwood claimed: "The Theosophical attitude toward religion can easily be oversimplified and misunderstood. Blavatsky and other classic Theosophical writers vehemently attacked whole colleges of theologians. Yet they also affirmed that a core of truth lies in all religions."[44]
11. The Master Kuthumi wrote, "Though we may not say with the Christians, 'return good for evil' — we repeat with Confucius — 'return good for good; for evil — justice.'"[51]
12. Berdyaev stated that "Christianity is a religion of love, and not a religion of justice," therefore, for a true Christian, the law of karma is abolished.[42] Opposed to the Christian doctrines of redemption and punishment, Theosophy offers no remission for evil except "through myriads of reincarnations."[52] Theosophy offers no "living redeemer, no freedom from the power of sin."[24]
13. Nevertheless, a Russian Christian philosopher Nikolay Lossky believed that "doctrine of reincarnation" is not contradicting Christian teaching.[59]
14. Washington wrote that Patterson, "Blavatsky's bitter enemy", hated Theosophy for its anti-Christian and anti-European orientation.[65]
15. In Senkevich's opinion, The Secret Doctrine was created under dictation of the Master Morya by the method of automatic writing.[67]
16. Nevertheless, professor Radhakrishnan, an Indian philosopher, wrote that supernatural powers are "by-products" of the higher life and "obstacles to samadhi" of the yogi. Only "through the disregard" of these powers, he can gain the liberation.[75]
17. Drujinin proclaimed, "The founders of Theosophy were actively fulfilling the task of their patron—Prince of Darkness."[79] The same way, Skeen declared that Blavatsky's teachings are of "Satanic character."[29]
18. Nevertheless, according to professor Julia Shabanova, a Ukrainian philosopher, in The Secret Doctrine, the interpretation of the definitions of Satan, Lucifer is fundamentally different from Christian declarations.[81]
19. "Satan of the exoteric Jewish and Christian books is a mere figment of the monkish theological imagination."[83]
20. Doctor Kuhn wrote that Blavatsky used ancient lore to prove that in their esoteric meaning all the "old legends" of the Evil Ones and the Powers of Darkness refer to no "essentially evil" beings but to the Divine Wisdom of the Sons of Light who had have the principle of intelligence.[84]
21. In a professor Leo Klejn's opinion, Blavatsky "had a revolutionary's merits."[87] Olcott wrote that in proof of her story Blavatsky showed him "where her left arm had been broken in two places by a sabre-stroke," and made him "feel in her right shoulder a musket-bullet, still imbedded in the muscle, and another in her leg."[88]
22. According to René Guénon, the Catholic Church has petitioned to "condemn Theosophy and to formally declare that 'its doctrines cannot be reconciled with the Catholic faith.' (Decision of the Congregation of the Holy Office, July 19, 1919: Acta Apostolicae Sedis, August 1, 1919, p. 317.)"[90]
23. In Blavatsky's interpretation of history, the "Vatican especially is seen as a negative, anti-progressive force, animated by 'despotic pretensions'."[91]
24. "The Vatican has always been against Theosophy, for Theosophy proposes universal brotherhood and denounces and fights every form of religious dogmatism."[92]
25. In 1880 Blavatsky and Olcott converted to Buddhism officially. (See here: Buddhism and Theosophy#The Founders of the Theosophical Society.)
26. According to Ellwood, Blavatsky was horrified "by the brutality of religious persecution done in the name of Christianity and by the tactics of the zealous but ill-informed Christian missionaries she encountered in India and elsewhere."[97]"After further interaction with Blavatsky and his own labors on behalf of Asian Buddhists, Olcott developed more and more antipathy to the Christian faith."[1]
27. In her book Isis Unveiled, Blavatsky compared "the results of Hinduism, Buddhism and Christianity to the detriment of the latter."[100]
28. For the Christian churches, Lucifer was a "synonymous with Satan."[102]
29. This was after the publication of Hodgson Report. Hodgson believed also that Blavatsky's function in India was "to foster as widely as possible among the natives a disaffection towards British rule."[105] Nevertheless, 35 years after this, Guénon wrote that the Theosophical Society "faithfully served the interests of British imperialism."[106]
30. In 1893 at Chicago, Buddhists, Jains, Baha'is, Muslims, Hindus, and Theosophists "shared a platform" with Catholics, Protestants, and Judaists.[108]
31. Berdyaev wrote that in this book by Besant you can find a number of truths peculiar to the mystical understanding of Christianity, and that, compared to others, this book is less anti-Christian.[113]
32. Nevertheless, according to Berdyaev, modern "theosophical sects" discredited the "glorious word Theosophia" and forced to forget about the existence of the "genuine Christian Theosophy."[118] He wrote, "We ought to be re-united with the traditions of the theosophy and anthroposophy of J.Boehme, in truth with a Christian theosophy and anthroposophy. And moreover, even more deeply ought we to be re-united with the traditions of the esoteric, hidden Christianity."[20]
33. Henry Sheldon, professor of theology, wrote that Besant, praising Jesus in ardent words, "makes him a debtor to Eastern wisdom, of which he is assumed to have been a devoted student for many years."[121]
34. February 13, 1916 is regarded as "the foundation date" of the Church.[122] "The first public services of the Church in Australia were held in Penzance Chambers in Sydney in April, 1917."[123]
35. In a book Thought-Forms[126] its authors have provided illustrated descriptions of the "subtle energies" that surround men. The subtle energies "activated and directed by Christian worship" surely correlate with the thought-forms.[127]
36. Bailey's book Reappearance of the Christ has many scriptural references and "seems to function as a text designed to convert Christians" to her version of Theosophy.[134]
37. In childhood Annie was "deeply religious."[29]
38. According to professor Godwin, "the Western esoteric tradition has no more important figure in modern times than Helena Petrovna Blavatsky."[138]
39. According to doctor Campbell, in the 19th century the Theosophical Society has been "probably the most important nontraditional or occult group."[139]
40. Aunt Nadyezhda Andreyevna Fadeyeva, at the age of three, had set fire to the priest's robe at the baptism of her niece, baby Helena Petrovna von Hahn. The biographer wrote, "It was a bad omen."[141]
41. Leadbeater's uncle William Wolfe Capes was an eminent Anglican churchman.[146]


1. Ellwood.
2. Tillett 1986, p. 991.
3. Goodrick-Clarke 2004, p. 6.
4. Tillett 1986, p. 966.
5. Barker 1924, p. 52; Дружинин 2012, p. 42.
6. Barker 1924, p. 52; Дружинин 2012, pp. 42, 45.
7. Besant 1902, p. 8; Kuhn 1992, p. 145.
8. Barker 1924, Letter 10.
9. Martin 2003, p. 295.
10. Blavatsky 1889, p. 61; Sheldon 1916, p. 47.
11. Дружинин 2012, p. 48.
12. Blavatsky 1960a, p. 176; Lachman 2012, p. 112.
13. Blavatsky 1888b, p. 41.
14. Blavatsky 1888a, p. 14; Kuhn 1992, p. 199; Santucci 2012, pp. 234–235.
15. Driscoll 1912, p. 628.
16. Кураев 2002.
17. Blavatsky 1967a, p. 91; Movement 1951, p. 72.
18. Blavatsky 1889, p. 84; Bednarowski 1989, p. 36.
19. Berdyaev 1972, p. 271.
20. Berdyaev.
21. Дружинин 2012, p. 41.
22. Соловьёв 1911, p. 397.
23. Hanegraaff 1998, p. 443.
24. Martin 2003, p. 296.
25. Blavatsky 1877, p. 150; Purucker 1998, p. 1.
26. Blavatsky 1877, p. 553; Tyson 2006, p. 213.
27. Blavatsky 1877, p. 544; Сенкевич 2012, p. 298.
28. Campbell 1980, p. 3.
29. Skeen 2002.
30. Бердяев 1994, p. 180.
31. Blavatsky 1960b, p. 270; Movement 1951, p. 131; Крэнстон 1999, p. 408.
32. Blavatsky 1960a, p. 208.
33. Williams 2001.
34. Tyson 2006, p. 210.
35. Jinarajadasa 1919, p. 7.
36. Мень 2002.
37. Blavatsky 1889, p. 66; Дружинин 2012, p. 122.
38. Sheldon 1916, p. 49.
39. Blavatsky 1889, p. 67.
40. Blavatsky 1889, p. 70; Bednarowski 1989, p. 66.
41. Bulgakov 2012, p. 25.
42. Бердяев 1994, p. 185.
43. Blavatsky 1889, pp. 68–71; Кураев 2000, p. 105.
44. Ellwood 2014a, p. 159.
45. Кураев 2000, p. 107.
46. Blavatsky 1889, p. 112; Bednarowski 1989, p. 92.
47. Blavatsky 1889, p. 138; Bednarowski 1989, p. 92.
48. Blavatsky 1889, p. 148; Guénon 2004, p. 114.
49. Дружинин 2012, p. 112.
50. Strohmer 1996.
51. Barker 1924, Letter 85.
52. Martin 2003, p. 287.
53. Blavatsky 1889, p. 140; Bednarowski 1989, p. 92.
54. Blavatsky 1888b, p. 305; Ellwood 2014a, p. 153.
55. Blavatsky 1877, p. 280; Lavoie 2012, p. 186.
56. Blavatsky 1888b, p. 306; Ellwood 2014a, p. 153.
57. Дружинин 2012, pp. 106, 107.
58. Дружинин 2012, p. 103.
59. Лосский 1992, p. 133; Aliaiev, Kutsepal 2018, p. 159.
60. Patterson 1884, p. 200.
61. Melton 2014, p. 132.
62. Дружинин 2012, p. 25.
63. Hodgson 1885b, p. 207; Дружинин 2012, p. 25.
64. Patterson 1891.
65. Washington 1995, p. 82.
66. Кураев 2000, p. 39.
67. Сенкевич 2012, p. 427.
68. Дружинин 2012, p. 144.
69. Martin 2003, p. 263.
70. Sinnett 1913, p. 108; Крэнстон 1999, p. 99.
71. Blavatsky 1877, p. 588; Сенкевич 2012, p. 300.
72. Sloan 1922, pp. 135, 138.
73. Sloan 1922, pp. 133–134.
74. Дружинин 2012, pp. 120–121.
75. Radhakrishnan 2008, p. 367.
76. Дружинин 2012, p. 132.
77. Murphet 1975, p. 216.
78. Blavatsky 1967b, p. 98; Kalnitsky 2003, p. 65.
79. Дружинин 2012, p. 53.
80. Blavatsky 1888b, p. 234; Кураев 2000, p. 174.
81. Шабанова 2016.
82. Blavatsky 1888b, p. 389; Ellwood 2014a, p. 161.
83. Purucker 1999, Satan.
84. Kuhn 1992, p. 212.
85. Дружинин 2012, p. 105.
86. Guénon 2004, p. 9; Lachman 2012, p. 51.
87. Клейн 2011.
88. Olcott 2011, p. 9; Kuhn 1992, p. 54.
89. Jinarajadasa 2010, p. 33.
90. Guénon 2004, pp. 296-7.
91. Kalnitsky 2003, p. 298.
92. Aveline.
93. PDB 2013.
94. Melton 2014, p. 127.
95. Prothero 1996, p. 100.
96. Prothero 1996, p. 97.
97. Ellwood 2000.
98. Washington 1995, p. 79.
99. Кураев 2000, p. 26; Guénon 2004, p. 3.
100. Goodrick-Clarke 2004, p. 122.
101. Крэнстон 1999, p. 408.
102. Murphet 1975, p. 213.
103. Blavatsky 1960b, p. 283; Murphet 1975, p. 216.
104. Cranston 1993, Ch. 6/6.
105. Hodgson 1885a.
106. Guénon 2004, p. 197.
107. Fields 1981, p. 120; Крэнстон 1999, p. 509.
108. Lachman 2012, p. 135.
109. Interdict.
110. Максимович 2001.
111. Hartmann 1909, p. 150.
112. Kingsford 1919.
113. Бердяев 1994, p. 181.
114. Besant 1902, p. 2.
115. Besant 1902, pp. 60–61.
116. Besant 1902, p. ix.
117. Besant 1902, p. 40.
118. Бердяев 1994, p. 175.
119. Besant 1902, p. 123.
120. Besant 1902, p. 140.
121. Besant 1902, p. 129; Sheldon 1916, p. 36.
122. Hooker.
123. Tillett 1986, p. 610.
124. Leadbeater 2007, Frontispiece.
125. Leadbeater 2007.
126. TForms 1901.
127. Ellwood 2014b, p. 88.
128. Hoeller 2001.
129. Bland.
130. Ellwood 2014b, p. 94.
131. Theowiki.
132. Дружинин 2012, p. 38.
133. Ellwood1.
134. Keller 2006.
135. Bowden 1993a.
136. Wessinger.
137. Bowden 1993b.
138. Godwin 1994, p. xv.
139. Campbell 1980, p. 1.
140. Сенкевич 2012, pp. 8, 13.
141. Sinnett 1913, p. 14; Murphet 1975, p. 6.
142. Theowiki1.
143. Theowiki2.
144. Zirkoff 1960, p. 439.
145. Keiden.
146. Tillett 1986, p. 94.
147. Ellwood2.
148. Hammer 2003, p. 509.
149. Bowden 1993c.
150. Murphet 1972, p. 12; Lavoie 2012, p. 59.
151. Dougherty.
152. Tillett 1986, p. 999.
153. Hooker1.


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• Prothero, S. R. (1996). The white Buddhist: the Asian odyssey of Henry Steel Olcott. Religion in North America. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. ISBN 9780585109503. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
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• Radhakrishnan, S. (2008) [1923]. Indian Philosophy. 2 (2nd ed.). New Delhi: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195698428. Retrieved 21 November 2017.
• Santucci, J. A. (2012). "Theosophy". In Hammer, O.; Rothstein, M. (eds.). The Cambridge Companion to New Religious Movements. Cambridge Companions to Religion. Cambridge University Press. pp. 231–246. ISBN 9781107493551. Retrieved 18 October 2017.
• Sheldon, H. C. (1916). Theosophy and New Thought. New York: Abingdon Press. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
• Sinnett, A. P. (1913) [1886]. Incidents in the Life of Madame Blavatsky (2nd ed.). London: Theosophical Publishing House.
• Skeen, James (2002). Foutz, S. D. (ed.). "Theosophy: A Historical Analysis and Refutation" (PDF). Quodlibet. Chicago, Ill. 4 (2). ISSN 1526-6575. OCLC 42345714. Retrieved 24 October 2017.
• Sloan, M. E. (1922). Demonosophy Unmasked in Modern Theosophy (2nd ed.). Saint Paul, Minnesota: The Way Press. Retrieved 4 October 2017.
• Strohmer, Charles (1996). "Karma and reincarnation". In Ankerberg, J.; Weldon, J. (eds.). Encyclopedia of New Age Beliefs. Harvest House Publishers. pp. xii–xiii. ISBN 9781565071605. Retrieved 31 October 2017.
• Tillett, Gregory J. (1986). Charles Webster Leadbeater 1854–1934: a biographical study (PhD thesis). Sydney: University of Sydney (published 2007). OCLC 220306221. Retrieved 29 October 2017 – via Sydney Digital Theses.
• Tyson, J. H. (2006). Madame Blavatsky Revisited. iUniverse. ISBN 9780595857999. Retrieved 21 October 2017.
• Washington, P. (1995). Madame Blavatsky's baboon: a history of the mystics, mediums, and misfits who brought spiritualism to America. Schocken Books. ISBN 9780805241259. Retrieved 20 October 2017.
• Wessinger C. L. (2012-03-10). "Besant, Annie". Theosopedia. Manila: Theosophical Publishing House. Retrieved 19 October 2017.
• Williams, Jay G. (March 2001). "Christian Exclusiveness Theosophical Truth". Quest. Theosophical Society in America. 89 (2). Retrieved 26 October 2017.
• Zirkoff, B. de (1960). "Franz Hartmann" (PDF). In Zirkoff, B. de (ed.). Blavatsky Collected Writings. 8. Wheaton, Ill: Theosophical Publishing House. pp. 439–457. Retrieved 9 October 2017.

In Russian

• "Определение "О псевдохристианских сектах, неоязычестве и оккультизме"" [Interdict "On the Pseudo-christian Sects, Neopaganism, and Occultism"]. (in Russian). Москва: Московский Патриархат. 2009-01-18. Retrieved 19 October 2017.
• Бердяев, Н. А. (1994). "Гл. VIII. Теософия и гнозис" [Ch. VIII. Theosophy and Gnosis]. Философия свободного духа [Freedom and the Spirit]. Мыслители XX века (in Russian). Москва: Республика. pp. 175–193. ISBN 5-250-02453-X. Retrieved 9 October 2017.
• Дружинин, Д. (2012). Блуждание во тьме: основные положения псевдотеософии Елены Блаватской, Генри Олькотта, Анни Безант и Чарльза Ледбитера [Wandering in the Dark: The Fundamentals of the Pseudo-theosophy by Helena Blavatsky, Henry Olcott, Annie Besant, and Charles Leadbeater] (in Russian). Нижний Новгород. ISBN 978-5-90472-006-3. Retrieved 10 October 2017.
• Клейн, Л. С. (June 2011). Кувакин, Валерий (ed.). "Рациональный взгляд на успехи мистики" [Rational View on the Successes of Mysticism]. Здравый смысл (in Russian). Москва: Российское гуманистическое общество. 16 (2). ISSN 1814-0416. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
• Крэнстон, С. (1999). Данилов, Л. Л. (ed.). Е. П. Блаватская. Жизнь и творчество основательницы современного теософского движения [HPB: the extraordinary life and influence of Helena Blavatsky, founder of the modern Theosophical movement] (in Russian). Рига: Лигатма. ISBN 5-7738-0017-9. Retrieved 9 October 2017.
• Кураев, А. В. (2000). Кто послал Блаватскую? [Who had sent Blavatsky?]. Христианство в "Эру Водолея" (in Russian). Троицкое слово. Retrieved 9 October 2017.
• ———— (2002). "Блаватская Елена Петровна" [Blavatsky Helena Petrovna]. In Кирилл (ed.). Православная энциклопедия (in Russian). 5 (Online ed.). Москва: Церковно-научный центр "Православная энциклопедия". pp. 231–233. ISBN 5-89572-010-2. Retrieved 10 October 2017.
• Лосский, Н. О. (1992). Учение о перевоплощении. Интуитивизм [The Doctrine of Reincarnation. Intuitionism] (in Russian). Moscow: Прогресс. Retrieved 10 September 2018.
• Максимович, К. А. (2001). "Анафема" [Anathema]. In Кирилл (ed.). Православная энциклопедия (in Russian). 2 (Online ed.). Москва: Церковно-научный центр "Православная энциклопедия". pp. 274–279. ISBN 5-89572-007-2. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
• Мень, А. В. (2002). "Теософия и Библия" [Theosophy and Bible] (PDF). Библиологический словарь (in Russian). 3. Москва: Фонд им. А. Меня. pp. 224–227. ISBN 5-89831-028-2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 May 2013. Retrieved 10 October 2017.
• Сенкевич, А. Н. (2012). Елена Блаватская. Между светом и тьмой [Helena Blavatsky. Between Light and Darkness]. Носители тайных знаний (in Russian). Москва: Алгоритм. ISBN 978-5-4438-0237-4. OCLC 852503157. Retrieved 6 October 2017.
• Соловьёв, Владимир С. (1911). "Заметка о Е. П. Блаватской" [Note on H. P. Blavatsky]. In Соловьёв, С. М. (ed.). Собрание сочинений [Collected Writings] (in Russian). 6. СПб.: Книгоиздательское Товарищество "Просвещение". pp. 394–398.
• Шабанова Ю. А. (2016). "Идеи Е. П. Блаватской в творчестве А. Н. Скрябина" [The ideas of H.P. Blavatsky in the creation of A.N. Scriabin]. Статті Наукової групи ТТ України (in Russian). Теософское общество в Украине. Retrieved 15 October 2017.

Further reading

• Bailey, A. (1970) [1947]. The Reappearance of the Christ (2nd ed.). Lucis Publishing Company. Retrieved 19 October 2017.
• Edge, H. T. (1998). Theosophy and Christianity (Online ed.). Pasadena: Theosophical University Press. ISBN 1-55700-102-2. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
• Heindel, Max (1996) [1909]. "Christ and His Mission". Rosicrucian Cosmo-Conception: Mystic Christianity. Rosicrucian Fellowship. pp. 367–410. ISBN 9780911274028. Retrieved 19 October 2017.
• Seiling, Max (1913). Theosophy and Christianity. Rand, McNally & Co. Retrieved 4 October 2017.
• Steiner, R. (2008). Christ and the Human Soul. Rudolf Steiner Press. ISBN 9781855842038. Retrieved 19 October 2017.

External links

• The Grand Inquisitor, trans. by Helena Blavatsky.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Mon Nov 25, 2019 12:38 am

Kora La
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 11/24/19



Kora La
Location in Nepal
Elevation 4,660 m (15,289 ft)
Location China–Nepal border
Range Himalayas
Coordinates 29°18′14″N 83°58′7″ECoordinates: 29°18′14″N 83°58′7″E

Kora La or Korala (Nepali: कोरला; literally Kora Pass) is a mountain pass between Tibet and Upper Mustang. It is only 4,660 metres (15,290 ft) in elevation, it has been considered the lowest drivable path between Tibetan Plateau and Indian subcontinent.[1] It is currently being planned as vehicle border crossing between China and Nepal.[2]


Kora La is situated on the drainage divide between the Yarlung Tsangpo and Ganges river basins. At 4,660 m (15,290 ft), it is the lowest pass across the Himalayan mountain range. As such, it forms the key col for K2 on the ridgeline connecting it to Mount Everest. The Kali Gandaki River has its source near the southern side of the pass.


Kora La is one of the oldest routes between the two regions. It was historically used for salt trade between Tibet and Nepalese kingdoms.[3] Up until 2008 Upper Mustang was the Kingdom of Lo, an ethnic Tibetan kingdom that was a suzerainty of Kingdom of Nepal. The suzerainty allowed for a certain level of independence in local governance from the Nepalese central government.[4]

During the late 1950s and 60s, the Tibetan guerrilla group Chushi Gangdruk operated out of Upper Mustang with the intention of raiding PLA positions in Tibet.[4] This led to a border incident that caused the killing of a Nepalese officer who was mistaken by Chinese border guards as a Tibetan rebel.[5][6]

Far to the east, Walt could speak firsthand about the state of the resistance. From the moment he and his two fellow agents landed in November 1957, they were immersed in the heart of the Kham guerrilla movement. Due to district rivalries, that movement had never developed a unified province-wide command structure. Twenty-three Khampa clans, however, were fighting together under the common title of the Volunteer Army to Defend Buddhism. By early 1958, this functional name had given way to a geographic one: Chushi Gangdruk -- "Four Rivers, Six Ranges" -- a reference to the major rivers (Mekong, Salween, Yangtze, and Yalung) and mountains that ran across Kham.

In Walt's own band, 500 Chushi Gangdruk rebels were focused on expelling the Chinese around Lithang. Things started out well enough, including the unexpected arrival of the final Saipan-trained student, Dick. After hyperventilating in the rear of the B-17, Dick had been off-loaded in Dacca and smuggled overland back to Darjeeling. Once there, Gyalo Thondup had matched him up with another able-bodied Khampa and sent both on horseback to Tibet via Sikkim.

After making his way to Lithang, Dick presented a letter from Gyalo pledging imminent support. This was welcome news for Walt; almost from the moment he had landed, he had been sending multiple radio requests for weapons and ammunition. Now armed with Gyalo's letter, he generated considerable excitement among the insurgents and succeeded in attracting new recruits. [9]

Walt's ethnic kin were not the only ones taking notice of his recruitment activity. Due to the relatively low altitude and easy access along the new byways completed in 1956, the PLA had been able to shift 150,000 soldiers to eastern Tibet by the end of 1957. Specifically targeted against southern Kham were hordes of Hiu Muslim cavalrymen, who had already been used to devastating effect against a sister rebellion on the steppes of Amdo.

In the ensuing mismatch of numbers, the fate of Chushi Gangdruk was a foregone conclusion. By mid-1958, Walt's servant Thondup, known as "Dan" while on Saipan, took a bullet to the head. A month later, Sam fell victim to an ambush. Shortly thereafter, Dick was shot. With three of the four Saipan students lost, Walt and the remnants of his band had little choice but to abandon Lithang and begin a fighting withdrawal toward central Tibet.

Walt was not alone. By the summer of 1958, waves of Khampa refugees and defeated rebels were heading west toward Lhasa. Of these, some diverted south to the banks of the Drigu Tso, where on 16 June Gompo Tashi arrived to oversee the inauguration ceremony for a unified resistance movement dubbed the National Volunteer Defense Army (NVDA). With 1,500 guerrillas in attendance and Gompo Tashi named titular head by acclamation, the previous flag of the Chushi Gangdruk (a mythical snow lion on a blue background) was replaced by a new NVDA standard featuring crossed Tibetan swords on a yellow field. Tom was on hand to take photographs of the occasion; the roll of film was then couriered out to Gyalo in India. [10]

The reason for the name change was more than semantic. Although the NVDA was overwhelmingly composed of Khampas, Gompo Tashi intentionally sought to break from the regional overtones of Chushi Gangdruk and present a name and image that would appeal to all Tibetans.

As this was transpiring, Tom and Lou duly radioed updates back to the CIA. Much of their reporting consisted of requests for weapons and ammunition, both of which were in short supply. When none were forthcoming, Gompo Tashi took matters into his own hands and departed NVDA headquarters in August to lead a raid against an isolated Chinese garrison southwest of the capital. There, it was hoped, they could make off with a haul of armaments at little risk.

In the ensuing series of battles, the NVDA was less than successful. Word of its first impending attack had apparently been leaked, and the scout party walked into an ambush. Withdrawing after a three-day fight, they promptly walked into a second ambush. Continuing on a western heading, they next attempted to raid an armory of the Tibetan army.

There, the NVDA was exposed to the rude ironies of its nationalist struggle. Though it might have shared much common ground with the NVDA, the small Tibetan army, like the central government to which it answered, remained publicly opposed to the anti-Chinese resistance and took pains not to assist the resistance in any way. This was done in part to avoid angering Bejjing, which was already pressuring Lhasa to take up arms against the insurgents. In part, too, it was due to lingering ethnic prejudices: the NVDA, like Chushi Gangdruk before it, could not shake the Khampa brigand stereotype held by many central Tibetans. This became painfully apparent when Gompo Tashi and his guerrillas approached the government armory. Anticipating the raid, Lhasa had secretly ordered the weapons shifted to a nearby monastery. Eventually learning of the ruse, the NVDA leaned on the local monks but found their audience to be less than receptive. Only after many days of cajoling did the religious officials reluctantly open their stores to the resistance fighters. [11]

-- The CIA's Secret War in Tibet, by Kenneth Conboy and James Morrison

People's Republic of China and Kingdom of Nepal officially signed border agreement in 1961.[7] The border was set slightly north of the traditional boundary marker. The traditional location of Kora La is marked by a stupa lies a bit south of the demarcated border between China and Nepal at 29°18′14″N 83°58′7″E.[4]

In December 1999, the 17th claimant Karmapa fled Tibet through this area.[8][9] In response, China built a border fence immediately after.[3] There is a PLA border outpost a few miles on Chinese side, it is the western most border outpost in Tibet Military District. The outpost was renovated in 2009 to have a modern facility.[10]

The border has been closed since the 1960s. However, there is a semiannual cross-border trade fair during which the border is open to local traders.[3] In 2012, Nepal and China agreed to open 6 more official border crossings, Kora La being one of them.[11] In July 2016, Nepalese government announced that this border crossing is expected to open in a year, and also expects it to be the third most important crossing between the two countries.[12]


1. Peissel, Michel (October 1965). "Mustang, Nepal's Lost Kingdom". National Geographic. Retrieved 2017-02-10. high point of 4660 m at Kora La on the Mustang-TAR border, the lowest drivable corridor through the Himalayas linking the Tibetan Plateau via Nepal to the tropical Indian plains
2. Tripathi, Binod (19 Jun 2016). "China extends road up to Korala border". Kathmandu Post. Retrieved 2017-02-10.
3. Murton, Galen (March 2016). "A Himalayan Border Trilogy: The Political Economies of Transport Infrastructure and Disaster Relief between China and Nepal". Cross-Currents E-Journal. ISSN 2158-9674. Retrieved 2017-02-09.
4. Cowan, Sam (17 January 2016). "The curious case of the Mustang incident". The Record. Retrieved 2017-02-10.
5. "Chinese Troops Kill a Nepalese; 18 Captured in Reds' Raid Across Border -- 'Urgent' Protest Sent to Peiping". New York Times. 30 June 1960. Retrieved 2017-02-10.
6. Elleman, Bruce; Kotkin, Stephen; Schofield, Clive (2014). "China-Nepal Border". Beijing's Power and China's Borders: Twenty Neighbors in Asia. Routledge. p. 211. ISBN 9781317515654. Retrieved 2017-02-10.
7. 中华人民共和国和尼泊尔王国边界条约 [China-Nepal Border Agreement] (in Chinese). 1961-10-05 – via Wikisource.
8. "The Karmapa's Great Escape (December 28, 1999 – January 5, 2000) -". Karmapa – The Official Website of the 17th Karmapa. Retrieved 2017-02-10. we were not discovered and arrived in Mustang, Nepal, on the morning of December 30, 1999
9. Crossette, Barbara (31 January 2000). "Buddhist's Escape From Tibet, by Car, Horse and Plane". New York Times. Retrieved 2017-02-10.
10. "中国边海防巡礼之昆木加哨所" [Tour of Chinese Border Guards and Coast Guards - Kunmuja Border Outpost]. (in Chinese). Retrieved 2017-02-11. 西藏军区最西边的哨所——昆木加哨所
11. Prithvi Man Shrestha; Jaya Bahadur Rokaya (24 March 2016). "Nepal, China rush to open Hilsa border". Kathmandu Post. Retrieved 2017-02-10. Nepal has also given priority to opening this border point along with Kimathanka and Korala in Mustang.
12. Tripathi, Binod (8 July 2016). "'Korala border to open within a year'". Kathmandu Post. Retrieved 2017-02-10.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Mon Nov 25, 2019 12:44 am

Lo Manthang
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 11/24/19



Lo Manthang
Rural municipality
Nickname(s): city of wall
Lomanthang (the uppermost part of district)
Location in Nepal
Coordinates: 29°10′59″N 83°57′24″ECoordinates: 29°10′59″N 83°57′24″E
Country Nepal
Province Gandaki Pradesh
District Mustang
Settled 1380
Established (rural municipality) 10 March 2017
• Type Rural council
• Body Lomanthang Rural Council
• Chairperson Suwarn Kumar Bist (NC)
• Deputy-Chairperson Pema Dolma Bist (NC)
• Total 727 km2 (281 sq mi)
Elevation 3,840 m (12,600 ft)
Population (2011)
• Total 1,899
• Density 2.6/km2 (6.8/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+5:45 (Nepal Time)

Lomanthang (Nepali: लोमन्थाङ) is a rural municipality situated in Mustang District of Gandaki Province of Nepal[2] It is located at the northern end of the district, sandwiched between Tibet Autonomous Region of China in north and Dalome rural municipality of Mustang District in south.

The total area of the rural municipality is 727 square kilometres (281 sq mi) and total population of the rural municipality according to 2011 Nepal census is 1899. The rural municipality is divided into 5 wards. [3]

Previously Lomanthang was a Village development committee which upgraded into a rural municipality merging adjoining Village development committees i.e. Chhoser and Chhonhup.[3] The rural municipality came into existence on 10 March 2017, fulfilling the requirement of the new Constitution of Nepal 2015, Ministry of Federal Affairs and General Administration replaced all old VDCs and Municipalities into 753 new local level bodies. [4] [5]

Lo is the culturally and linguistically Tibetan northern two-thirds of Mustang District, while the southern third is called Thak, the homeland of Thakali people who speak a different language and have a synthesis of Tibetan and Nepalese culture.

Recently a series of at least twelve caves were discovered north of Annapurna and near the village, decorated with ancient Buddhist paintings and set in sheer cliffs at 14,000 feet (4,300 m) elevation.[6] The paintings show Newari influence, dating to approximately the 13th century, and also contain Tibetan scripts executed in ink, silver and gold and pre-Christian era pottery shards.[6] Explorers found stupas, decorative art and paintings depicting various forms of the Buddha, often with disciples, supplicants and attendants, with some mural paintings showing sub-tropical themes containing palm trees, billowing Indian textiles and birds.[6]


Lo Manthang was the walled capital of the Kingdom of Lo from its founding in 1380 by Ame Pal who oversaw construction of the city wall and many of the still-standing structures.[7] After the Shahs of Gorkha forged Nepal out of numerous petty kingdoms in the 18th century, Lo became a dependency but kept its hereditary rulers. This arrangement continued as long as Nepal remained a kingdom, until republican government began in 2008 and Jigme Dorje Palbar Bista (c. 1933–2016) lost his title.[8] His protector King Gyanendra suffered the same fate, however the Raja or gyelpo of Mustang was 25th in a direct line of rulers dating back to 1380 A.D. Gyanendra was only the eleventh Shah ruler since Prithvi Narayan Shah conquered Kathmandu in 1768.

More prosaically, Lo Manthang became a Village Development Committee in Mustang District, Dhawalagiri Zone of northern Nepal. The 1991 Nepal census counted 876 people living in 178 households.[9] The population includes ethnic Lhobas.[6]


Main article: Upper Mustang § Transport

Lo Manthang is 20 kilometres (12 mi) by unpaved road from a border crossing into Zhongba County of Shigatse Prefecture, TAR. This road continues about 50 kilometres (31 mi) from the border to China National Highway 219, which follows the valley of the Yarlung Tsangpo River.

Nepal is building a road north along the Kaligandaki River, to within 9 kilometres (6 mi) of Lo Manthang as of 2010. There are also scheduled flights from Kathmandu to Jomsom Airport, 50 kilometres (31 mi) south of China .

Tourism and access

The village is noted for its tall whitewashed mud-brick walls, gompas and the Raja's or Royal or King's Palace, a nine-cornered, five-story structure built around 1400.[10] There are four major temples: Jampa Lhakhang or Jampa Gompa, the oldest, built in the early 15th century and also known as the "God house"; Thubchen Gompa, a huge, red assembly hall and gompa built in the late 15th century and located just southwest of Jampa Gompa; Chodey Gompa, now the main city gompa; and the Choprang Gompa, which is popularly known as the "New Gompa".[11]

Even though foreign visitors have been allowed in the kingdom since 1992, tourism to Upper Mustang remains limited, with just over 2000 foreign tourists in 2008.[6]

The Nepalese Department of Immigration requires foreign visitors to obtain a special permit, which costs $50 per day per person, and liaison (guide) to protect local tradition from outside influence as well as to protect their environment.[12]

Earthquake Damage

The April 2015 Nepal earthquake caused multiple cracks in the 600-year-old Lo Manthang Royal Palace.[13][14]


The Royal Palace in Lo Manthang


The settlement of Lo Manthang

Nepal Tourism Center, Upper Mustang

See also

• Gandaki River
• Kali Gandaki Gorge
• Kali Gandaki River
• Jomsom Airport
• Mustang Caves
• Mustang District
• Upper Mustang


1. "स्थानीय निर्वाचन २०७४ - निर्वाचन विवरण तथा नतिजा - मुस्ताङ - लोमन्थाङ".
2. "स्थानीय तहहरुको विवरण" [Details of the local level bodies]. (in Nepali). Ministry of Federal Affairs and Local Development. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
3. Jump up to:a b "District Corrected Last for RAJAPATRA" (PDF). Retrieved 17 July 2018.
4. "New local level structure comes into effect from today". The Himalayan Times. 10 March 2017. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
5. "New local level units come into existence". 11 March 2017. Retrieved 18 July2018.
6. Jump up to:a b c d e Gopal Sharma, Explorers find ancient caves and paintings in Nepal, Reuters, May 3, 2007, Accessed October 28, 2012
7. Peissel, Michel (1992) [1967]. Mustang - A Lost Tibetan Kingdom (2nd ed.). Book Faith India, Delhi. pp. 227–31.
8. "China View news".
9. "Nepal Census 2001". Nepal's Village Development Committees. Digital Himalaya. Archived from the original on 12 October 2008. Retrieved 15 November 2009..
10. Mustang: The Forbidden Kingdom Archived 2007-06-30 at the Wayback Machine, Royal Mountain Travel, 2004, Accessed May 3, 2007.
11. Upper Mustang Trek Archived 2013-06-02 at the Wayback Machine, Osho World Adventure Pvt. Ltd., Accessed June 2, 2013.
12. Nepal Trekking Permit Fees Archived 2013-07-15 at the Wayback Machine, TAAN Nepal, Accessed June 2, 2013.
13. Quake-hit Upper Mustang still in ruins,, 25 November 2015. Retrieved 18 April 2018.
14. Local people have reconstructed Lomanthang Palace on their own,, 31 October 2016. Retrieved April 19, 2018.


• Maïe Kitamura, La cité fortifiée de Lo Manthang, Mustang, Nord du Népal. Paris, Éditions Recherches, 2011. 214 plans & drawings, photography. ISBN 978-2-86222-077-2. [1]

External links
• UN map of the municipalities of Mustang District
• Restoring a temple on Nova (series)
• Lo-manthang Photo Gallery
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Mon Nov 25, 2019 1:06 am

Chushi Gangdruk [NVDA: National Volunteer Defense Army]
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 11/24/19



Another source of volunteers came via the international network she had established in Delhi, the Tibetan Friendship Group, through which Freda roped in pen pals, sponsors, and helpers for her tulkus and Tibetan refugees in general.

-- The Revolutionary Life of Freda Bedi, by Vicki Mackenzie

Dhotoe Chushi Gangdrug, Europe (Switzerland)

Name of Administrative Contact: Tashi Wangdü Khorlotsang
Street Address: Illnauerstr. 30
City, State/Province, Country and Postal Code: 8307 Effretikon, Switzerland
Telephone Number: 0041 52 343 89 70
Email Address:
Web Page URL (Address):

Dhokham Chushi Gangdruk (New York) (USA)

Name of Administrative Contact: Doma Norbu
Street Address: Dhokham Chushi Gangdruk
75-22, 37th Avenue
Mail Box #326
City, State/Province, Country and Postal Code: Jackson Heights, NY 11372, USA
Telephone Number: +1 (646) 435-7880
Fax Number: +1 (646) 435-7880
Email Address:
Web Page URL (Address):

Dhokham Chushi Gangdruk (DCG) is a non-governmental, non-religious, nonpartisan organization registered in the state of New York as a not-for-profit corporation and authorized under Section 501 (c)(3) of the United States Internal Revenue Code.

DCG's mission is to:

Work towards restoring the independence of Tibet through a non-violent movement.
Work towards the rights of the Tibetan people to determine their own political, economic, social, religious and cultural future under the sole leadership of His Holiness the Dalai Lama.
Preserve the unique Tibetan culture in-exile, which is being systematically destroyed by the Communist Chinese Government inside Tibet.
Look after the welfare of the veteran Chushi Gangdruk members.

-- Tibetan Friendship Group, by

What many people may not know is that Trungpa first taught in Boulder at CU [Colorado University], and today the university shares with Columbia University the distinction of having three faculty members who specialize in modern Tibetan studies: McGranahan, Gayley and Associate Professor of Geography Emily Yeh, whose research focuses on environmental issues on the Tibetan Plateau and the Tibetan diaspora. All three women have traveled extensively in Tibet.

“I usually say we have three tenure-track, full-time specialists in Tibet, and that’s three more faculty specializing in Tibet than you find at most universities,” McGranahan says. “It’s not a huge group … but it’s an incredible opportunity (for research) and also for students.”

McGranahan in recent years has been researching Tibetan guerillas who fought against the Chinese occupation in the 1960s and were trained by the CIA at Camp Hale, a U.S. Army facility near Leadville, Colo.

The combined academic heft of CU’s [Colorado University's] Tibetan studies trio, Naropa and a new Boulder research branch of the New York-based Tsadra Foundation, which funds the translation of Tibetan Buddhist texts, have attracted attention and new opportunities to Boulder and Colorado.

A joint lecture series between CU [Colorado University] and Naropa, named in honor of Chogyam Trungpa, kicked off in 2013 with Janet Gyatso of Harvard University. John Makransky, professor of Buddhism and Comparative Theology at Boston University and a meditation teacher, will speak in September on compassion, the theme at Naropa’s 40th-anniversary year.

“This is a step forward in the collaboration between the universities,” Gayley says. “There is the perfect nexus for Buddhist studies in Boulder and (collaborations of this kind) will strengthen both programs.”

The lecture series was started with a seed grant from the Uberoi Foundation for Religious Studies, founded by the late Mahinder Uberoi, former chair of the Department of Aerospace Engineering at CU-Boulder.

In October, the Tibetan Translation and Transmission Conference, sponsored by the Tsadra Foundation, will bring some 200 Tibetan studies scholars and translators to Keystone. Andrew Quintman, assistant professor of Religious Studies at Yale University, will speak in Boulder as a lead up to the conference.

“Boulder is definitely a lightning rod for Buddhist and Tibetan studies,” Gayley says. “I always have a wait list for my Buddhism classes, and I get 120 to 150 for the Foundation of Buddhism class. … It would be hard to garner that kind of interest anywhere else.”

-- CU's [Colorado University's] expertise in Tibetan and Buddhist studies is unusually deep, by Clay Evans

A deep state (from Turkish: derin devlet), also known as a state within a state, is a form of clandestine government made up of hidden or covert networks of power operating independently of a state's political leadership, in pursuit of their own agenda and goals. Examples include organs of state, such as the armed forces or public authorities (intelligence agencies, police, secret police, administrative agencies, and government bureaucracy). A deep state can also take the form of entrenched, career civil servants acting in a non-conspiratorial manner, to further their own interests. The intent of a deep state can include continuity of the state itself, job security for its members, enhanced power and authority, and the pursuit of ideological objectives. It can operate in opposition to the agenda of elected officials, by obstructing, resisting, and subverting their policies, conditions and directives. It can also take the form of government-owned corporations or private companies that act independently of regulatory or governmental control.[1]

-- Deep State, by Wikipedia

Chushi Gangdruk
Badge of the "Tibetan Volunteer Defenders of the Faith". Inscription in Tibetan is gangs ljongs bstan srung dang blangs.
Leader(s) Andruk Gonpo Tashi
Dates of operation June 16, 1958–1974
Dissolved 1974[1]

Chushi Gangdruk (Tibetan: ཆུ་བཞི་སྒང་དྲུག་, Wylie: Chu bzhi sgang drug, literally "Four Rivers, Six Ranges", full name: Tibetan: མདོ་སྟོད་ཆུ་བཞི་སྒང་དྲུག་བོད་ཀྱི་བསྟན་སྲུང་དང་བླངས་དམག་, Wylie: mdo stod chu bzhi sgang drug bod kyi bstan srung dang blangs dmag, "the Kham Four Rivers, Six Ranges Tibetan Defenders of the Faith Volunteer Army"[2]) was an organization of Tibetan guerrilla fighters, formally created on June 16, 1958, which had been fighting the forces of the People's Republic of China (PRC) in Tibet since 1956.

The Dokham Chushi Gangdruk organization, a charity set up in New York City and India with chapters in other countries, now supports survivors of the Chushi Gangdruk resistance currently living in India. Chushi Gangdruk also led The 14th Dalai Lama out of Lhasa, where he had lived, soon after the start of the Chinese invasion. During that time, a group of Chushi Gangdruk guerillas was led by Kunga Samten, who is now deceased.[3] Because the United States was prepared to recognize People's Republic of China in the early 1970s, CIA Tibetan Program, which funded the Chushi Gangdruk army, was ended in 1974.[4]


Chushi Gangdruk "Four Rivers, Six Ranges" is the name traditionally given to the eastern Tibetan region of Kham where the gorges of the Gyalmo Nyulchu (Salween), Dzachu (Mekong), Drichu (Yangtse), and Machu (Huang Ho) rivers, all arising on the Tibetan Plateau, pass between six parallel ranges of mountains (Duldza Zalmogang, Tshawagang, Markhamgang, Pobargang, Mardzagang, and Minyagang) that form the watersheds for these rivers. "Chu" (choo) is the Tibetan word for "water", and "shi" (she) is the Tibetan word for 4. "Gang" is range, and "druk" (drewk) means 6.[5]


The Fall of Chamdo and signing of the Seventeen-Point Agreement

On 19 October 1950, the monastery where Ngabo Shapé was hiding was surrounded by the Chinese troops accompanied by a few Khampa guides, and here Ngabo Shapé and his officials and troops surrendered to the invading Chinese.[6] The Tibetan Government army in Chamdo was defeated, and the Communist Chinese army took over the city of Chamdo. In Drugu monastery, Ngabo Shapé signed the official surrender.

During the negotiation of the Seventeen-Point Agreement, when the negotiation broke down after Ngabo Shapé resisted to sign the agreement, Li Weihan threatened to order the Chinese troops to march into Lhasa. They decided it was more perilous to Tibet not to reach an agreement, therefore, they accepted the Chinese terms without asking Lhasa.[7] The Chinese were further furious when they were told that the Dalai Lama’s seal was still in Yatung with him.[8] The Chinese made new seal for Ngabo Shapé to stamp the document when he exclaimed that he did not have his official seal to stamp the document, though he had with him the official seal as the Governor General of Kham.[9] Therefore, on 23 May 1951, Ngabo Shapé was forced to sign under duress the “Agreement of the Central People’s Government and the Local Government of Tibet on Measures for the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet,” commonly known as the “Seventeen-Point Agreement”.[10]

Formation of Chushi Gangdrug

Andrug Gompo Tashi (also known as Andrug Jindak) established a people's army called Chushi Gangdrug. Like many other volunteered fighters, Andrug Jindak financed many of the freedom fighters and was accepted as their undisputed leader of the resistance army.

In order to mobilize more support across the different regions of Tibet, the names Tenshung Danglang Mak were appended to Chushi Gangdrug in order to address the pan-Tibetan composition of the people's army. It was not a Tibetan government army but rather a grassroots army of the Tibetan people. Tenshung Danglang Mak fought for the political and religious freedom of Tibet. Khampas and Amdowas had been fighting against the invading Chinese Communist troops since 1956 in different parts of Kham and Amdo. On 16 June 1958, a meeting of Chushi Gangdrug and their supporters was held in Lhodak Dhama Dzong with impressive cavalry parade, incense burnt to the Dalai Lama photograph, and then launched the Chushi Gangdrug yellow flag of the Tensik Danglang Mak with an emblem of two swords represented a deity and handles symbolic of Dorjee or thunderbolt and lotus flower.[11][12]

The formation of the Chushi Gangdruk Volunteer Force was announced on June 16, 1958. It was called National Volunteer Defence Army (NVDA). "Chushi Gangdruk" is a Tibetan phrase meaning "land of four rivers and six ranges," and refers to Amdo and Kham. The group included Tibetans from those regions of eastern Tibet, and its main objective was to drive PRC occupational forces out of Tibet. While central and western Tibet (Ü-Tsang) were bound by a 17-point agreement with the People's Republic of China, the PRC initiated land reform in eastern Tibet (including Amdo and Kham) and engaged in harsh reprisals against the Tibetan land-owners there.

Andrug Gompo Tashi[13] before 1959

Under the direction of General Andrug Gonpo Tashi, Chushi Gangdruk included 37 allied forces and 18 military commanders. They drafted a 27-point military law governing the conduct of the volunteers. Their headquarters were located at Tsona, then later moved to Lhagyari.

Initially militia members purchased their own weapons, mainly World War II-era British .303 in, German 7.92 mm, and Russian 7.62 mm caliber rifles. Chushi Gangdruk contacted the US government for support. However, the State Department required an official request from the Tibetan government in Lhasa, which was not forthcoming. State Department requests were made and ignored in both 1957 and 1958.

CIA support

Without getting approval from the Dalai Lama, the US Central Intelligence Agency decided to go ahead to support the Chushi Gangdrug Tenshung Danglang Mak in the summer of 1959.[14] The CIA provided the group with material assistance and aid, including arms and ammunition, as well as training to members of Chushi Gangdruk and other Tibetan guerrilla groups at Camp Hale.

Chapter 3: The Prodigal Son

During the second week of September 1956, CIA officer John Hoskins arrived at Calcutta's Dum Dum Airport to a blast of late summer heat. At twenty-nine, he had already spent two years recruiting agents in Japan and another four shuttling between Washington desk assignments and vigorous tradecraft instruction. [1] Now assigned to the Calcutta consulate, his new post was an experiment of sorts. The CIA's Far East Division had just gotten permission to station its officers at any diplomatic mission where overseas Chinese were found in numbers. This meant superimposing Far East Division personnel outside of their home turf -- in this case, in India of the Near East Division. [2]

In Calcutta, Hoskins could choose from a wealth of Chinese targets. Topping the list was the PRC's consulate and the People's Bank of China branch, both of which had been opened following the 1954 Sino-Indian trade agreement. In addition, some 30,000 Chinese expatriates -- three-quarters of all those living in India -- made their homes in and around the city.

Hoskins landed the secondary assignment of preening non-Chinese sources in the Himalayan states along the Tibetan border. Just as case officer Kenneth Millian had found out four years earlier, however, the Indians went out of their way to obstruct such efforts. "Overseas Chinese were fair game for penetration," recalls Hoskins, "but the others were considered under Indian hegemony." [3] This was driven home when Mary Hawthorne, a CIA officer assigned to Calcutta, allowed Jigme Thondup (a Bhutanese royal who later became prime minister) and his family to spend the night at her apartment. When the Indians learned of the incident, their outcry was so shrill that Hawthorne was forbidden by her superiors to attempt any similar invitations. [4]

Mindful of Indian surveillance, Hoskins made plans for an exceedingly discreet approach to establish his own ties with Princess Kukula of Sikkim. As she was known to have an affinity for equestrian events, he first considered making an overture at the Tibetan pony races held in Darjeeling. But because the crowds were small and whites were sure to attract notice, Hoskins instead opted to wait until she came to Calcutta for one of the city's thoroughbred competitions. Blending with the event's large number of Western spectators, he approached the princess. But Kukula, Hoskins found, had more reservations than in the past. "She wanted to keep contacts strictly social," he concluded. "She was not serious about getting involved."

As things turned out, the services of the Sikkimese royals would soon prove redundant. When the United States learned that the Dalai Lama had gotten permission in early November to attend the Buddha Jayanti celebrations, the CIA scrambled to bypass Sikkim and establish direct links with Tibetan sources close to the monarch. [5]

None were closer than the Dalai Lama's two brothers in exile. The eldest, Thubten Norbu, already had a history of indirect contact with the agency via the Committee for a Free Asia. After he had been unceremoniously dropped from CFA funding in 1952, both he and his servant, Jentzen Thondup, had become stateless refugees in Japan. Not until 1955, following repeated appeals channeled through Church World Services, did he and Jentzen finally get new Indian identity cards and U.S. visas. Settling in New Jersey, Norbu began to earn a modest income teaching Tibetan to a handful of students as part of a noncredited course at Columbia University.

The other brother, Gyalo Thondup, was residing in Darjeeling. Six years Norbu's junior, Gyalo was the proverbial prodigal son. The problem was, he was the figurative son to a number of fathers. He was the only one of five male siblings not directed toward a monastic life. As a teen, he had befriended members of the Chinese mission in Lhasa and yearned to study in China. Although this was not a popular decision among the more xenophobic members of his family, Gyalo got his wish in 1947 when he and a brother-in-law arrived at the Kuomintang capital of Nanking and enrolled in college.

Two years later, Gyalo, then twenty-one, veered further toward China when he married fellow student Zhu Dan. Not only was his wife ethnic Chinese, but her father, retired General Chu Shi- kuei, had been a key Kuomintang officer during the early days of the republic. Because of both his relationship to General Chu and the fact that he was the Dalai Lama's brother, Gyalo was feted in Nanking by no less than Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek.

The good times were not to last. With the communists closing in on Nanking during the final months of China's civil war, Gyalo and his wife fled in mid-1949 to the safer climes of India. Once again because of his relationship to the Dalai Lama, he was added to the invitation list for various diplomatic events and even got an audience with Prime Minister Nehru.

That October, Gyalo briefly ventured to the Tibetan enclave at Kalimpong before settling for seven months in Calcutta. While there, his father-in-law, General Chu, attempted to make contact with the Tibetan government. With the retreat of the Kuomintang to Taiwan, Chu had astutely shifted loyalty to the People's Republic and was now tasked by Beijing to arrange a meeting between Tibetan and PRC officials at a neutral site, possibly Hong Kong. [6]

Conversant in Chinese and linked to both the Dalai Lama and General Chu, Gyalo was a logical intermediary for the Hong Kong talks. The British, however, were dragging their feet on providing visas to the Tibetan delegation. Unable to gain quick entry to the crown colony, Gyalo made what he intended to be a brief diversion to the Republic of China (ROC) on Taiwan. But Chiang Kai- shek, no doubt anxious to keep Gyalo away from General Chu and the PRC, had other plans. Smothering the royal sibling with largesse, Chiang kept Gyalo in Taipei for the next sixteen months. Only after a desperate letter to U.S. Secretary of State Dean Acheson requesting American diplomatic intervention did the ROC relent and give Gyalo an exit permit.

After arriving in Washington in September 1951, Gyalo continued to dabble in diplomacy. Within a month of his arrival, he was called to a meeting at the State Department. Significantly, Gyalo's Chinese wife was at his side during the encounter. Because of the couple's close ties to Chiang, department representatives assumed that details of their talk would quickly be passed to the Kuomintang Nationalists. [7]

Gyalo, in fact, was not a stooge of Taipei, Beijing, or, for that matter, Washington. Despite State Department efforts to secure him a scholarship at Stanford University, he hurriedly departed the United States in February 1952 for the Indian subcontinent. Leaving his wife behind, he then trekked back to Lhasa after a six- year absence.

By that time, Beijing had a secure foothold in the Tibetan capital. Upon meeting this wayward member of the royal family, the local PRC representatives were pleased. As a Chinese speaker married to one of their own, Gyalo was perceived as a natural ally. Yet again, however, he would prove a disappointment. After showing some interest in promoting a bold land reform program championed by the Dalai Lama, Gyalo once more grew restive. In late spring, he secretly met with the Indian consul in Lhasa, and after promising to refrain from politicking, he was given permission to resettle in India. [8]

Although not exactly endearing himself to anyone with his frequent moves, Gyalo was not burning bridges either. Noting his recent return to Darjeeling, the U.S. embassy in early August 1952 cautiously considered establishing contact. Calcutta's Consul General Gary Soulen saw an opportunity in early September while returning from his Sikkim trek with Princess Kukula. Pausing in Darjeeling, Soulen stayed long enough for Gyalo to pass on the latest information from his contacts within the Tibetan merchant community. [9]

Although he had promised to refrain from exile politics, Gyalo saw no conflict in courting senior Indian officials. In particular, he sought a meeting with India's spymaster Bhola Nath Mullik. As head of Indian intelligence, Mullik presided over an organization with deep colonial roots. Established in 1887 as the central Special Branch, it had been organized by the British to keep tabs on the rising tide of Indian nationalism. Despite several redesignations before arriving at the title Intelligence Bureau, anticolonialists remained its primary target for the next sixty years.

Upon independence in 1947, Prime Minister Nehru appointed the bureau's first Indian director. Rather than suppressing nationalists, the organization now had to contend with communal violence and early problems with India's erstwhile Muslim brothers now living in the bisected nation of Pakistan.

Three years later, Mullik became the bureau's second director. A police officer since the age of twenty-two, the taciturn Mullik was known for his boundless energy (he often worked sixteen-hour days), close ties to Nehru, healthy suspicion of China, and (rare for a senior Indian official) predisposition against communism. Almost immediately, the Tibetan frontier became his top concern. This followed Beijing's invasion of Kham that October, which meant that India's military planners now had to contend with a hypothetical front besides Pakistan. Moreover, the tribal regions of northeastern India were far from integrated, and revolutionaries in those areas could now easily receive Chinese support. The previous year, in fact, the bureau had held a conference on risks associated with Chinese infiltration. [10]

Despite Mullik's concerns, Nehru was prone to downplay the potential Chinese threat. Not only did he think it ludicrous to prepare for a full-scale Chinese attack, but he saw real benefits in cultivating Beijing to offset Pakistan's emerging strategy of anticommunist cooperation with the West. "It was Nehru's idealism against hard-headed Chinese realism," said one Intelligence Bureau official. "Mullik injected healthy suspicions."

Astute enough to hedge his bets, Nehru allowed Mullik some leeway in improving security along the border and collecting intelligence on Chinese forces in Tibet. To accomplish this, Mullik expanded the number of Indian frontier posts strung across the Himalayas. In addition, he sought contact with Tibetans living in the Darjeeling and Kalimpong enclaves. Not only could these Tibetans be tapped for information, but a symbolic visit by a senior official like Mullik would lift morale at a time when their homeland was being subjugated. Such contact, moreover, could give New Delhi advance warning of any subversive activity in Tibet being staged from Indian soil. [11]

Of all the Tibetan expatriates, Mullik had his eye on Gyalo Thondup. Besides having an insider's perspective of the high offices in Lhasa, Gyalo had already passed word of his desire for a meeting. Prior to his departure for his first visit to Darjeeling in the spring of 1953, Mullik asked for -- and quickly received -- permission from the prime minister to include the Dalai Lama's brother on his itinerary. Their subsequent exchange of views went well, as did their tete-a-tete during Mullik's second visit to Darjeeling in 1954. [12]

Apart from such occasional contact with Indian intelligence, Gyalo spent much of the next two years removed from the tribulations in his homeland. To earn a living, he ironically began exporting Indian tea and whiskey to Chinese troops and administrators in Tibet. For leisure, he and his family were frequent guests at the Gymkhana Club. Part of an exclusive resort chain that was once a playpen for the subcontinent's colonial elite, the Gymkhana's Darjeeling branch was situated amid terraced gardens against the picturesque backdrop of Kanchenjunga. A regular on the tennis courts, the Dalai Lama 's brother was the local champion. [13]

In the summer of 1956, Gyalo's respite came to an abrupt end. The senior abbot and governor from the Tibetan town of Gyantse had recently made his escape to India and in July wrote a short report about China's excesses. Gyalo repackaged the letter in English and mailed copies to the Indian media, several diplomatic missions, and selected world leaders. One of these arrived in early September at the U.S. embassy in the Pakistani capital of Karachi, and from there was disseminated to the American mission in New Delhi and consulate in Calcutta. [14]

Although the letter was less than accurate on several counts, it served two important purposes. First, it corroborated the reports of China's brutality provided by the crown prince of Sikkim in June. Second, it brought Gyalo back to the attention of Washington as a concerned activist. For the past four years, there had been virtually no contact between him and American diplomats in India. In particular, he was completely unknown among CIA officers in Calcutta. [15]

This was set to change, and quickly. Once word reached India in early November that the Dalai Lama would be attending the Buddha Jayanti, John Hoskins got an urgent cable from headquarters. Put aside your efforts against the Chinese community, he was told, and make immediate contact with Gyalo. A quick check indicated Gyalo's predilection for tennis, so Hoskins got a racket and headed north to Darjeeling. After arranging to get paired with Gyalo for a doubles match, the CIA officer wasted no time in quietly introducing himself.

First impressions are lasting ones, and Hoskins was not exactly wowed by Gyalo's persona. "There was a lot of submissiveness rather than dynamism," he noted. At their first meeting, little was discussed apart from reaching an understanding that, to avoid Indian intelligence coverage in Darjeeling, future contact would be made in Calcutta using proper countersurveillance measures.

Later that same month, the Dalai Lama and a fifty-strong delegation departed Lhasa by car. Switching to horses at the Sikkimese border, the royal entourage was met on the other side by both Gyalo and Norbu, who had rushed to India from his teaching assignment in New York. The party was whisked through Gangtok and down to the closest Indian airfield near the town of Siliguri, and by 25 November the monarch was being met by Nehru on the tarmac of New Delhi's Palam Airport. [16]

By coincidence, three days after the Dalai Lama's arrival in New Delhi, Chinese premier Zhou En- Lai began a twelve-day stop in India as part of a five-country South Asian tour. Keeping with diplomatic protocol, the young Tibetan leader was on hand to greet Zhou at the airport. The two then held a private meeting, at which time the elderly Chinese statesman lectured the Dalai Lama on the necessity of returning to his homeland.

Zhou was not alone in his appeal. As eager as Nehru was to offset Chinese influence in Tibet, he, too, was against the Dalai Lama's seeking asylum -- especially on Indian soil. This was partly because India wanted to maintain good relations with China. This was also because New Delhi did not want to go it alone, and not a single country to date had recognized Tibetan independence. Fearing that the monarch's brothers would have an unhealthy effect on any decision, Indian officials in the capital did all in their power to keep Gyalo and Norbu segregated from their royal sibling. [17]

The Dalai Lama hardly needed convincing from his brothers, however. During his first private session with Nehru, he openly hinted about not going back to Lhasa. He also requested that the issue of Tibetan independence be taken up by Nehru and President Dwight Eisenhower at their upcoming summit in Washington in December. Nehru was not entirely surprised by all this: Gyalo had already sought out Mullik and told the Indian intelligence chief in no uncertain terms that his brother would opt for exile. [18]

As India's leadership digested these developments, the Dalai Lama departed the capital for an exhausting schedule of Buddha Jayanti festivities. He was still in the midst of this tour when Zhou returned to New Delhi for an encore visit on 30 December. In the interim, Nehru had had his Washington meeting with Eisenhower, and the Chinese premier had scheduled the stop specifically to discuss the outcome of that summit. As it turned out, however, Tibet was a major topic of conversation. In particular, Nehru used the opportunity to press Zhou about tempering China's harsh military and agrarian policies on the Tibetan plateau.

Tibet was clearly shaping into a litmus test for Sino-Indian relations. Anxious to broker a deal that would assuage both Lhasa and Beijing, Nehru summoned the Dalai Lama from his pilgrimage and underscored to the Tibetan leader that Indian asylum was not in the cards. But if that was bitter news, Zhou had earlier proposed a sweetener. While noting that China was ready to use force to stamp out resistance, he claimed that Mao now recognized the folly of rapid collectivization and pledged to delay further revolutionary reforms in Tibet.

Zhou and his senior comrades were by now gravely concerned over permanently losing the Dalai Lama. Leaving nothing to chance, Zhou was back in New Delhi on 24 January 1957 for his third visit in as many months.

Despite Beijing's lobbying, Gyalo and Norbu were still insistent that their brother choose exile. Torn over his future, the twenty-one-year-old monarch had already departed Calcutta on 22 January for Kalimpong, which by then was home to a growing number of disaffected Tibetan elite. Once there, he did what Tibet's leaders had done countless other times when confronted with a hard decision: he consulted the state oracle. Two official soothsayers happened to be traveling with his delegation; using time-honored -- if unscientific -- methods, the pair went into a trance on cue and recited their sagely advice. Return to Lhasa, they channeled. [19]

As far as the Dalai Lama was concerned, the ruling of his oracles was incontrovertible, and the decision was made all the easier by the fact that nobody seemed anxious to give him refuge. Flouting the suggestions of his brothers, he declared his intention to go home. He crossed into Sikkim in early March and was compelled to remain in Gangtok until heavy snows melted from the mountain passes. There, he finalized plans to set out for Lhasa by month's end.

Prior to November 1956, Tibet had never ranged far from the bottom of the priority watch list for those in the Far East Division at CIA headquarters in Washington. The agency had no officer assigned solely to Tibetan affairs; it, along with Mongolia and other peripheral ethnic regions under PRC control, barely factored as a minor addendum to the activities of William Broe's China Branch.

But as soon as the Dalai Lama received permission to attend the Buddha Jayanti, Broe felt it prudent to show heightened interest. Looking for a junior officer to spare, he soon settled on John Reagan. Twenty-eight years old, Reagan had joined the agency upon graduation from Boston College in 1951. He was soon in Asia, where he spent the next twenty-four months working on paramilitary projects in Korea. Switching to China Branch, he served two more years in Japan as part of the CIA's penetration effort against the PRC. Returning to the United States in 1955, Reagan divided the next twelve months between Chinese language training and trips to New York City to practice tradecraft against United Nations delegates.

As the branch's new man on Tibet, Reagan initially did little more than forward instructions for John Hoskins to make contact with Gyalo. He was silent on further guidance, primarily because senior U.S. policy makers had not yet ironed out a coherent framework for dealing with Lhasa. In earlier meetings between CIA and State Department officials during the summer of 1956, there had been those who felt that the Dalai Lama should flee to another Buddhist nation to offer a rallying cry for anticommunist Buddhists across Asia. Others, primarily inside the agency, believed that he could play a more important role as a rallying symbol in Lhasa among his fellow Tibetans. This eas still the CIA's operating assumption in late 1956: once the Dalai Lama was in India, the prevailing mood at agency headquarters was that he should eventually go home. [20]

Gyalo, meantime, was telling Hoskins that his brother had every intention of seeking asylum. With the Dalai Lama apparently intent on staying away from his homeland -- and therefore not conforming to the agency's preferred scenario of rallying his people from Lhasa -- Reagan was largely idle during most of the Dalai Lama's four-month absence from Tibet. [21]

Eventually, however, the CIA looked to hedge its bets. Since the second half of 1956, a band of twenty-seven young Khampa men -- some still in their late teens -- had been growing restive in the enclave of Kalimpong. Most came from relatively wealthy trading families and had been spirited to India to protect them from the instability in their native province. Full of vigor, the entire group had ventured to New Delhi shortly before the Dalai Lama's Buddha Jayanti pilgrimage to conduct street protests. Once the Dalai Lama arrived, they sought a brief audience to make an impassioned plea for Lhasa's intercession against the Chinese offensive in Kham.

To their disappointment, the Dalai Lama counseled patience. "His Holiness only said things would settle down," recalls one of the Khampas. Undaunted, the twenty-seven young men shadowed the monarch during several of the Buddha Jayanti commemorative events. By early January 1957, this took them to Bodh Gaya, the city in eastern India where the historical Buddha was said to have attained enlightenment. While there, the Dalai Lama's older brother, Thubten Norbu, approached the Khampas and asked if he could take their individual photographs as a souvenir. Although it was an odd request, they complied. [22]

For the next few weeks, nothing happened. Frustrated by the Dalai Lama's repeated rebuffs, the Khampas sulked back to Kalimpong. Several Chinese traders were in town, some of whom were rumored to have links to the Nationalist regime on Taiwan. Desperate, the Khampas sounded them out on the possibility of covert assistance from Taipei. It was at that point that Gyalo Thondup arrived and requested a meeting with all twenty-seven. For most of the young Khampas, it was the first time they had spoken with the Dalai Lama's lay brother. As they listened attentively, Gyalo lectured them to steer clear of the Kuomintang. "The United States," he told them cryptically, "is a better choice." [23]

Less than a week later, the Dalai Lama arrived in Kalimpong, the oracles had their channeling session, and things changed dramatically. With the monarch's return journey now imminent, John Reagan in Washington scrambled to script a program of action. At its core, the plan called for a unilateral capability to determine how much armed resistance activity really existed in Tibet; further commitments could then be weighed accordingly.

The CIA had good reason to act with prudence. It already had a long and growing list of embarrassing failures while working with resistance groups behind communist lines. Perhaps none had been more painful than its experience against the PRC. There the agency's efforts had taken two tracks. The first was a collaborative effort with the Kuomintang government on Taiwan. Clinging to its dream of reconquering the mainland, the ROC in 1950 claimed to control a million guerrillas inside the People's Republic. Although a February 1951 Pentagon study placed the figure at no more than 600,000 -- only half of which were thought to be nominally loyal to the ROC -- Washington saw fit to support these insurgents as a means of appeasing a key Asian ally while at the same time possibly diverting Beijing's attention from the conflict on the Korean peninsula. [24]

To funnel covert American assistance to the ROC, the CIA established a shell company in Pittsburgh known as Western Enterprises (WE). In September 1951, WE's newly appointed chief, Raymond Peers, arrived on Taiwan with a planeload of advisers. A U.S. Army colonel who had earned accolades during World War II as chief of the famed OSS Detachment 101 in Burma, Peers quickly initiated a number of paramilitary efforts. A large portion of his resources was directed toward airborne operations, including retraining the ROC's 1,50O-man parachute regiment. Other WE advisers, meanwhile, were tasked with putting ROC action and intelligence teams through an airborne course. [25]

To deploy these operatives, WE turned to the agency's Far East air proprietary, Civil Air Transport (CAT). By the spring of 1952, CAT planes were dropping teams and singletons on the mainland, as well as supplies to resistance groups that the ROC claimed were already active on the ground. Some of the penetrations ranged as far as Tibet's Amdo region, where the ROC alleged it had contact with Muslim insurgents. [26]

Concurrently, the agency in April 1951 initiated a unilateral third-force effort using anticommunist Chinese unaffiliated with the ROC. Allocated enough arms and ammunition for 200,000 guerrillas, the CIA recruited many of these third-force operatives from Hong Kong, trained them in Japan and Saipan, and inserted them in CAT planes via air bases in South Korea. [27]

By the spring of 1953, both the ROC program and third-force effort were in their second years. Although the Pentagon's top brass (groping for ways to pressure Beijing during Korean cease-fire negotiations) were wistfully talking in terms of "sparking a coordinated anti-communist resistance movement throughout China," those running the CIA's infiltration program could hardly have been so optimistic. "None of the Taiwan agents we dropped were successful," said one WE adviser. The third-force tally was just as bad: all its operatives were either killed or taken prisoner, and CAT lost one plane during an attempted exfiltration that resulted in the capture of two CIA officers. [28]

That summer, an armistice sent the Korean conflict into remission. This provided the CIA with convenient cover to reassess its third-force track. Although it elected to maintain a China Base at Yokosuka, Japan, this unit was to handle primarily agent penetrations and low-level destabilization efforts; support for broader unilateral resistance got the ax.

Cooperative ventures with the ROC were not so easily nixed. Although Taipei had tempered its claims somewhat, it still pegged loyal mainland guerrilla strength at 650,000 insurgents. By contrast, a November 1953 estimate by the U.S. National Security Council (NSC) put the figure closer to 50,000. Despite this huge discrepancy, the NSC still advocated continued covert assistance to the ROC in order to develop anticommunist guerrillas for resistance and intelligence. Even temporary guerrilla successes, the council reasoned, might set off waves of defections and stiffen passive resistance. [29]

Chiang Kai-shek could not have agreed more. Eager to vastly increase the scope of guerrilla support, the generalissimo in 1954 asked Washington for some 30,000 parachutes. Turned down the first time, he made further high-priority appeals over the next two years. These parachutes were needed for an ambitious plan to drop 100-man units near major PRC population centers. Hoping to set off a chain of uprisings, Chiang optimistically talked in terms of uprooting Chinese communism in as little as two years. [30]

Hearing these plans, Washington patiently counseled against the proposed airborne blitz. On a more modest level, however, the CIA's assistance program continued unabated. In this, success was more elusive than ever. Despite inserting an average of two Nationalist agents a month through the mid-1950s, the ROC operatives were still being killed or captured in short order. [31]

Reasons for the lack of success against the People's Republic were legion. First, the infiltration program took at face value some of Taipei's claims about contact with a vast network of anticommunists on the mainland. In reality, such claims were wildly exaggerated, and precious little was known about events in the PRC countryside; even top PRC leaders were prone to mysteriously disappear from public view for months on end. [32] Second, in the unlikely event such resistance existed, the logistical challenge of maintaining support to these guerrilla pockets outstripped what could realistically be staged by Taiwan and the CIA. Third, the CIA's recent experience against the Soviet Union and its satellites had shown the folly of abetting insurgents in a tightly controlled police state; Beijing's omnipresent militia and party network were no less daunting. [33] Finally, even though the PRC's ruthless experimentation in social engineering had no doubt bred detractors by the score, the corruption of the Kuomintang regime hardly endeared Taipei to any disenchanted masses on the mainland.

Although these reasons might have made covert operations against the PRC a study in frustration, Tibet appeared to be different. Unlike many of Taipei's wishful claims about other areas of the mainland, Tibet had a resistance movement corroborated by multiple, albeit dated, sources. What the CIA needed was timely data that could give a current and accurate picture of this resistance. And given the historical animosity between Tibetans and lowland Chinese, the agency needed to gather this information without resort to ROC assistance.

In February 1957, John Hoskins was ordered by Washington to immediately identify eight Tibetan candidates for external training as a pilot team that would infiltrate their homeland and assess the state of resistance. Gyalo, who had been in Kalimpong making an eleventh-hour bid to convince his brother to seek asylum, was given responsibility for screening candidates among the Tibetan refugees already in India. Although the twenty-seven Khampas did not know it, Gyalo intended to make the selection from their ranks. Using the photographs taken by Norbu at Bodh Gaya, he sought guidance from two senior Khampas in town, both of whom hailed from the extended family of Gompo Tashi Andrugtsang, a prominent trader of Tibetan wool, deer horns, and musk.

With their assistance, Gyalo soon settled on his first pick. Wangdu Gyato-tsang, age twenty-seven, had been born to an affluent Khampa family from the town of Lithang. He was well connected: Gompo Tashi was his uncle, as was one of the senior Khampas helping Gyalo with the selection.
Wangdu also had the right disposition for the task at hand. Despite being schooled at the Lithang monastery from the age of ten, he did not exactly conform to monastic life. "He was hot tempered from childhood," recalls younger brother Kalsang.

A sampling of this temper came at age seventeen during a trip to the Tibetan town of Menling. Out of deference to the local chieftain, it was decreed that hats, firearms, and horse bells would be removed in front of the chief's residence. It was raining, however, so Wangdu continued wearing his cap. Spying this violation, the chieftain's bodyguard strode up and knocked the Khampa on the head. Without flinching, the young monk drew his pistol and shot the guard dead. [34]

On account of his family connections, Wangdu was spared punishment. In 1956, his family ties again came into play following the PLA's devastating attack on the Lithang monastery. On orders from uncle Gompo Tashi, Wangdu and his younger brother were bundled off to the safer environs of Kalimpong.

When approached by Gyalo, Wangdu immediately volunteered for the mission. Within days, five other Khampas were singled out (Washington now wanted a total of six trainees, not eight), but only Wangdu was given any hint of the impending assignment. Four were from Lithang; of these, three were Wangdu's close acquaintances, and one was his family servant. The fifth was a friend from the nearby town of Bathang (also spelled Batang). All were still on hand to attend the Dalai Lama's final open-air blessing in a Kalimpong soccer field shortly before the monarch headed back toward Tibet.

With the Dalai Lama en route to Lhasa, attention shifted in early March to smuggling the six Khampas out of India for training. This was easier said than done. Because of Nehru's determination to maintain cordial Sino-Indian ties, New Delhi's complicity remained out of the question. Moreover, the Khampas were refugees without proper identification, discounting overt travel via commercial airliner or boat. Brainstorming covert alternatives, several came to mind. "There was some talk in the Calcutta consulate about floating them off the Indian coast," said Gyalo, "then having them picked up by submarine." Consideration was also given to issuing fake Nepalese passports. [35]

-- The CIA's Secret War in Tibet, by Kenneth Conboy and James Morrison

[The Tibetan involvement with the U.S. came during the Cold War and decolonization period in world history that in the United States manifested as anticommunism, and in the People’s Republic of China as anticapitalism. [15][16]

Allen Dulles, the CIA deputy director responsible for overseeing all CIA covert operations, saw an opportunity to destabilize Communist China.[17] The primary motive was more to impede and harass the Chinese Communists, than to render sufficient aid to the Tibetans.[18]

Surrender to Indian government

Chushi Gangdrug assisted the escape of the 14th Dalai Lama to India in March 1959. After this, the idea of any further battle with the Chinese Communist troops was abandoned. Andrug Jindak persuaded Kunga Samten Dewatshang in Tawang to surrender his weapons to the Indian authorities.[19] Shangri Lhagyal and other Chushi Gangdrug fighters handed over their weapons to the Indian officials at Tezpur, India. They crossed the border where they were greeted by a representative of the Tibetan Government, Tsedrung Jampa Wangdu.[20] On 29 April 1959, they handed over their rifles, ammunition, and all other weapons to the Deputy Commissioner of Tezpur district, and were permitted to take their gold, silver, and other valuables.[21]

The 14th Dalai Lama conferred the rank of Dsasak to Andrug Gompo Tashi in a letter: “You have led the Chushi Gangdrug force with unshakeable determination to resist the Chinese occupation army for the great national cause of defending the freedom of Tibet. I confer on you the rank of Dzasak (the highest military rank equivalent to general) in recognition of your services to the country. The present situation calls for a continuance of your brave struggle with the same determination and courage.”[22] In addition, Andrug Jindak received some gifts of priceless religious relics including an earthen statue of God of Protection Jigchi Mahai and some holy beads.[23]

Later guerrilla operations

From 1960, Chushi Gangdruk conducted its guerrilla operations from the northern Nepalese region of Mustang.[24] In 1974, guerrilla operations ceased after the CIA, given the realignment of Sino-American relations initiated by President Richard Nixon, terminated its program of assistance to the Tibetan resistance movement and the Dalai Lama, the exiled Tibetan spiritual and temporal leader, taped a message telling the Tibetans to lay down their weapons and surrender peacefully.

See also

Ratuk Ngawang was in ‘Four Rivers, Six Ranges’, the Tibetan resistance force against the Communist Chinese

• List of organizations of Tibetans in exile
• Tibetan American
• Tibetan Resistance Since 1950
• Special Frontier Force



1. "Resistance and Revolution". Tibet Oral History Project. Archived from the original on 2017-06-27. Retrieved 2017-06-25. He went to India after the Nepalese Government disbanded the unit in 1974.
2. Goldstein, Melvyn: A History of Modern Tibet. Vol. 2. The Calm before the Storm, 1951-1955, University of California Press, London, 2007, p. 598
3. "Membership & Support". Archived from the original on 2012-07-17. Retrieved 2012-06-10.
4. Stephen Talty (Dec 31, 2010). "The Dalai Lama's Great Escape". The Daily Beast.
5. Kunga Samten Dewatshang (1997). Flight at the Cuckoo’s Behest, The Life and Times of a Tibetan Freedom Fighter. New Delhi: Paljor Publications. p. 113.
6. Ford, Robert (1990). Captured in Tibet. NY: Oxford University Press. pp. 136–137.
7. Knaus, J. K. (1999). Orphans of the Cold War: America and the Tibetan Struggle for Survival. NY: Public Affairs. p. 84.
8. Goodmann, M. H. (1986). The Last Dalai Lama, A Biography. London: Sidgwick & Jackson. p. 173.
9. Dalai Lama (2006). My Land and My People. New Delhi: Srishti Publishers & Distributors. p. 88.
10. INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION OF JURISTS (1959). "The Question of Tibet and the Rule of Law". International Commission of Jurists.
11. Knaus, J. K. (1999). Orphans of the Cold War: America and the Tibetan Struggle for Survival. NY: Public Affairs. p. 150.
12. Gyalo Thondup and Thurston, A. F. (2015). The Noodle Maker of Kalimpong, The Untold Story of My Struggle for Tibet. NY: Public Affairs. p. 176.
13. Thondup, Gyalo; Thurston, Anne F. (2015). The Noodle Maker of Kalimpong: The Untold Story of My Struggle for Tibet. Gurgaon, India: Random House India. p. 169. ISBN 978-818400-387-1. Most of the resisters in India were followers of Andrug Gompo Tashi, a wealthy, patriotic Kham trader from Litang where the resistance had begun with the introduction of China's so-called reforms. Popular outrage had been further fueled with the death and destruction unleashed when the Chinese attacked and bombed the local Litang monastery.
14. Knaus, J. K. (1999). Orphans of the Cold War. NY: Public Affairs. pp. 139.
15. McGranahan, C. (2018). Ethnographies of U.S. Empire: Love and Empire: The CIA, Tibet, and Covert Humanitarianism. Durham and London: Duke University. p. 334.
16. McGranahan, C. "Ethnographies of U.S. Empire: Love and Empire: The CIA, Tibet, and Covert Humanitarianism" (PDF).
17. Roberts II, J. B. (1997). "The Secret War Over Tibet". The American Spectator. December: 31-35.
18. Knaus, J. K. (1999). Orphans of the Cold War. NY: Public Affairs. pp. 139.
19. Kunga Samten Dewatshang (1997). Flight at the Cuckoo’s Behest, The Life and Times of a Tibetan Freedom Fighter. New Delhi: Paljor Publications. p. 149.
20. Gompo Tashi Andrugtsang (1973). Four Rivers, Six Ranges: Reminiscences of the Resistance Movement in Tibet. Dharamsala: Information and Publicity Office of H.H. The Dalai Lama. p. 105.
21. Gompo Tashi Andrugtsang (1973). Four Rivers, Six Ranges: Reminiscences of the Resistance Movement in Tibet. Dharamsala: Information and Publicity Office of H.H. The Dalai Lama. pp. 105–106.
22. Gompo Tashi Andrugtsang (1973). Four Rivers, Six Ranges: Reminiscences of the Resistance Movement in Tibet. Dharamsala: Information and Publicity Office of H.H. The Dalai Lama. p. 101.
23. Gompo Tashi Andrugtsang (1973). Four Rivers, Six Ranges: Reminiscences of the Resistance Movement in Tibet. Dharamsala: Information and Publicity Office of H.H. The Dalai Lama. p. 101.
24. Cowan, Sam (17 January 2016). "The curious case of the Mustang incident". The Record. Retrieved 2017-02-10.


• Tsering Shakya, The Dragon in the Land of Snows - A History of Modern Tibet Since 1947, Columbia University Press, 1999, ISBN 0-231-11814-7.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

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Janet Gyatso
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 11/24/19



Janet Gyatso
Born Janet Frank
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Nationality American
Education University of California at Berkeley (BA, MA, and PhD)
Occupation Professor of Buddhist Studies, Associate Dean for Faculty and Academic Affairs
Years active 1981- current
Employer Harvard Divinity School
Known for Study of Buddhism and Tibetan and South Asian culture
Notable work
Being Human in a Buddhist World
Women in Tibet
Apparitions of the Self
In the Mirror of Memory
(See § Works.)

Janet Gyatso is a Religious Studies scholar currently employed as the Hershey Professor of Buddhist Studies and the Associate Dean for Faculty and Academic Affairs at Harvard Divinity School.[1] She is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Gyatso's research interests are in Buddhism and its relationship to Tibetan and South Asian civilizations.[1]


Gyatso attended the University of California at Berkeley for her BA, MA and PhD. She received her PhD in 1981 in the department of South and Southeast Asian Languages and Literatures [at Berkeley,] with a dissertation on Thangtong Gyalpo and the visionary tradition of Tibetan Buddhism [2][3] Prior to her PhD, she completed her Master of Arts in 1974 in Sanskrit, and her Bachelor of Arts in 1972 in Religious studies at Berkeley.


Gyatso currently teaches at Harvard Divinity School and has taught with Harvard since 2001.[4] She is the first Hershey Professor of Buddhist Studies at Harvard's Divinity School and is the Associate Dean of Faculty and Academic Affairs. Prior to teaching at Harvard, Gyatso taught at Amherst College (between 1987-2001), the University of Michigan (Spring 1999) and Wesleyan University (1986–87; Spring 1988).[3]

From 2000-2006, Gyatso held the position of president of the International Association of Tibetan Studies. From 2004-2010, she was co-chair of the Buddhism Section of the American Academy of Religion.[1]


Gyatso is known for her work on Tibet, primarily through text analysis and has focused on the twelfth to eighteenth centuries, examining the introduction of Buddhism to Tibet and its eventual status as mainstream in Tibet. Her first monograph explored the writing of autobiography in Tibet, and translated and analysed one of its most beautiful examples, the visionary journals of 'Jigs med gling pa (Apparitions of the Self, Princeton, 1998). Her more recent book, Being Human in a Buddhist World, studied the relationship between Buddhism and medicine in early modern Tibet.[5] Her work has been credited by Barbara Gerke as helping to develop our understanding of the relationship between science and religion in early modern Tibetan culture.[6]

Gyatso has also edited a book entitled Women in Tibet, a compilation of essays on the topic.[7] Gyatso and her fellow editor Hannah Havnevik put this book together to draw attention to the lack of research in the area of women in Tibet.[7] A previous edited collection by Gyatso was "In the Mirror of Memory" (State University of New York Press, 1992), a study of the types of memory theorized and used in Buddhist practice. Other topics of interest have been the reception of Indian poetic theory in Tibetan literature, the nature of experience in Buddhist thought and practice, Buddhist monasticism, and Buddhist conceptions of sex and gender, including the "third sex." She is currently working on animal ethics.



• Being Human in a Buddhist World: An Intellectual History of Medicine in Early Modern Tibet (2015)[8][9][10][11]
• Women of Tibet. Co-edited with Hanna Havnevik. (2005)
• Apparitions of the Self: The Secret Autobiographies of a Tibetan Visionary (1998)[12][13][14][15]
• In the Mirror of Memory: Reflections on Mindfulness and Remembrance in Indian and Tibetan Buddhism. Edited volume of essays.(1992)[16][17]


• Turning Personal: Recent Work on Autobiography in Tibetan Studies Journal of Asian Studies (2016) 229-235
• One Picture. In Tibetan and Himalayan Healing - An Anthology for Anthony Aris, edited by Charles Ramble and Ulrike Roesler (2014) 273-278.
• Buddhist Practices and Ideals in Desi Sangye Gyatso’s Medical Paintings in Bodies in Balance: The Art of Tibetan Medicine, edited by Theresia Hofer (2013) 198-220.
• Looking for Gender in the Medical Paintings of Desi Sangye Gyatso, Regent of the Tibetan Buddhist State in Asian Medicine: Tradition and Modernity in the med issue on Gender, Health and Medicine in Tibet edited by Theresia Hofer and Heidi Fjeld [no] (2010–11) 217-292.
• Discerning Tibetan Modernities: Moments, Methods, Assumptions in Mapping the Modern in Tibet edited by Gray Tuttle (2011) 1-37.
• Experience, Empiricism, and the Fortunes of Authority: Tibetan Medicine and Buddhism on the Eve of Modernity pp. 311–335 in Forms of Knowledge in Early Modern Asia: Explorations in the Intellectual History of India and Tibet edited by Sheldon Pollock (2011)
• Female Ordination in Buddhism: Looking into a Crystal Ball, Making a Future in Dignity and Discipline edited by Thea Mohr and Jampa Choedron (2010) pp. 1–21.
• Spelling Mistakes, Philology, and Feminist Criticism: Women and Boys in Tibetan Medicine in Tibetan Studies in Honor of Samten Karmay Dharamsala: Amnye Machen InstituteFrançoise Pommaret edited by Jena-Luc Achard (2009) 81-98.
• Introduction in Body & Spirit: Tibetan Medical Paintings edited by Laila Williams (2009) 3-13
• Culture and Education in Authenticating Tibet: Answers to China's 100 Questions edited by Anne-Marie Blondeau and Katia Buffetrille (2008)
• A Partial Genealogy of the Lifestory of Yeshe Tsogyal In Journal of the International Association of Tibetan Studies Seminar (2006) 1-27
• Sex in Critical Terms for the Study of Buddhism edited by Donald S. Lopez (2005) 271-290.
• The Ultimate Couple in Buddhist Scriptures edited by Donald S. Lopez (2004) 488-494.
• Compassion at the Millenium: A Buddhist Salvo for the Ethics of the Apocalypse In Thinking Through the Death of God: Essays on the Thought of Thomas J. J. Altizer edited by Brian Schroeder and Lissa McCullough (2004)
• One Plus One Makes Three: Buddhist Gender Conception and the Law of the Non-Excluded Middle in History of Religions (2003): 89-115.
• The Ins and Outs of Self-Transformation: Personal and Social Sides of Visionary Practice in Tibetan Buddhism in Self and Self-Transformation in the History of Religions edited by David Shulman 2002.
• Longchenpa and the Possession of the Dakinis in Tantra in Practice edited by David White (2000) 239-265
• Healing Burns with Fire: The Facilitations of Experience in Tibetan Buddhism in Journal of the American Academy of Religion (1999) 113-147.
• Introduction to Lama Chonam and Sangye Khandro in The Lives and Liberation of Princess Mandarava (1998) 1-14
• Counting Crows' Teeth: Tibetans and Their Diaries in Les habitants du Toit du monde edited by Samten Karmay and Phillip Sagant (1997) 159-178
• The Relic Text as Prophecy: The Semantic Drift of Byang-bu and its Appropriation in the Treasure Tradition in Commemorative Volume for Rai Bahadur T.D edited by Densapa Tashi Tsering, a special issue of Tibet Journal. Still forthcoming.
• Drawn from the Tibetan Treasury: The Gter-ma Literature in Tibetan Literature: Studies in Genre edited by José Ignacio Cabezón and Roger Jackson (1996) 147-169
• An Avalokitesvara Sadhana in Religions of Tibet in Practice edited by Donald S. Lopez (1997) 266-270
• From the Autobiography of a Visionary in Religions of Tibet in Practice edited by Donald S. Lopez (1997) 369-375.
• Guru Chos-dbang's gTer 'byung chen mo: An Early Survey of the Treasure Tradition and its Strategies in Discussing Bon Treasure in Tibetan Studies: Proceedings of the Sixth International Association of Tibetan Studies Seminar edited by Per Kvaerne (1994) 275-287.
• The Logic of Legitimation in the Tibetan Treasure Tradition in History of Religions (1993) 97-134.
• Autobiography in Tibetan Religious Literature: Reflections on Its Modes of Self-Presentation in Tibetan Studies:Proceedings of the 5th International Association of Tibetan Studies Seminar. Narita: Naritasan Institute for Buddhist Studies edited by Shoren Ihara and Zuiho Yamaguchi (1992) 465-478
• Genre, Authorship and Transmission in Visionary Buddhism: The Literary Traditions of Thang-stong Rgyal-po in Tibetan Buddhism: Reason and Revelation edited by Ronald Davidson and Steven Goodman (1992) 95-106.
• Down with the Demoness: Reflections on a Feminine Ground in Tibet in Tibet Journal XII.4 (1987) 34-46
• Signs, Memory and History: A Tantric Buddhist Theory of Scriptural Transmission in Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies (1986) 7-35.
• Thang-stong rGyal-po, Father of the Tibetan Drama: The Bodhisattva as Artist in Zlos-gar, The Tibetan Performing Arts: Commemorative Issue on the Occasion of the 25th Anniversary of the Founding of the Tibetan Institute of Performing Arts edited by Jamyang Norbu (1986) 91-104.
• The Development of the gCod Tradition in Soundings in Tibetan Civilization edited by Barbara Aziz and Matthew Kapstein (1985) 74-98.
• The Teachings of Thang-stong rGyal-po in Tibetan Studies in Honour of Hugh Richardson edited by Michael Aris and Aung San Suu Kyi (1980) 111-119

Awards and accolades

• 2017 - Elected to American Academy of Arts and Sciences[18]
• 2017 E. Gene Smith Award for Best Book in Inner Asia; Association of Asian Studies, for her book Being Human in a Buddhist World'
• 2016 - Toshihide Numata Book Award for her book Being Human in a Buddhist World[19]


1. "Janet Gyatso". Retrieved 2018-12-01.
2. "Digital Dharma". Retrieved 2018-12-10.
3. (PDF) ... ug2011.pdf. Retrieved 2018-12-10.Missing or empty |title= (help)
4. "Janet Gyatso | Harvard University -". Retrieved 2018-12-01.
5. Gyatso, Janet (2015). Being Human in a Buddhist World: An Intellectual History of Medicine in Early Modern Tibet. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-53832-9.
6. Barbara, Gerke (2016-05-27). Review of ' Being Human in a Buddhist World: An Intellectual History of Medicine in Early Modern Tibet' by Janet Gyatso. Himalaya, the Journal of the Association for Nepal and Himalayan Studies. OCLC 954619043.
7. Gyatso, Janet & Havnevik, Hanna (eds.) (2005). Women in Tibet. C. Hurst. ISBN 978-1850656531. OCLC 248178272.
8. Samuel, Geoffrey (2016-08-01). "Janet Gyatso, Being Human in a Buddhist World: An Intellectual History of Medicine in Early Modern Tibet". Social History of Medicine. 29 (3): 634–636. doi:10.1093/shm/hkw024. ISSN 0951-631X.
9. Salguero, C. Pierce (2016-03-30). "Being Human in a Buddhist World: An Intellectual History of Medicine in Early Modern Tibet by Janet Gyatso (review)". Bulletin of the History of Medicine. 90 (1): 150–152. doi:10.1353/bhm.2016.0007. ISSN 1086-3176.
10. Kværne, Per (2016-12-21). "Gyatso Janet, Being human in a Buddhist world. An intellectual history of medicine in early modern Tibet. New York, Columbia University Press, 2015, x + 519 pages, ISBN 978-0-231-16496-2". Études Mongoles et Sibériennes, Centrasiatiques et Tibétaines (47). ISSN 0766-5075.
11. Katharina Sabernig, "Janet Gyatso. Being Human in a Buddhist World: An Intellectual History of Medicine in Early Modern Tibet.," Isis 107, no. 1 (March 2016): 148-149.
12. Geoffrey, Samuel (2000). "Reviewed Work: Apparitions of the Self: The Secret Autobiographies of a Tibetan Visionary by Janet Gyatso". Journal of the American Academy of Religion. 68 (3): 642–644. JSTOR 1465902.
13. Willis, Janice D. (2000). "Reviewed Work: Apparitions of the Self: The Secret Autobiographies of a Tibetan Visionary by Janet Gyatso". History of Religions. 39 (4): 390–393. doi:10.1086/463608. JSTOR 3176552.
14. Samuel, Geoffrey (2000). "Reviewed Work: Apparitions of the Self: The Secret Autobiographies of a Tibetan Visionary by Janet Gyatso". Journal of the American Academy of Religion. 68 (3): 642–644. doi:10.1093/jaarel/68.3.642. JSTOR 1465902.
15. Lavine, Amy (1999). "Reviewed Work: Apparitions of the Self: The Secret Autobiographies of a Tibetan Visionary by Janet Gyatso". The Journal of Religion. 79 (3): 511–512. doi:10.1086/490491. JSTOR 1205529.
16. Bartholomeusz, Tessa; Gyatso, Janet (1993). "In the Mirror of Memory: Reflections of Mindfulness and Remembrance in Indian and Tibetan Buddhism". The Journal of Asian Studies. 52 (4): 1053. doi:10.2307/2059409. ISSN 0021-9118. JSTOR 2059409.
17. Fox, Alan; Gyatso, Janet (1997). "In the Mirror of Memory: Reflections on Mindfulness and Remembrance in Indian and Tibetan Buddhism". Philosophy East and West. 47 (4): 616. doi:10.2307/1400312. ISSN 0031-8221. JSTOR 1400312.
18. "Janet Gyatso Elected to American Academy of Arts and Sciences". Retrieved 2018-12-01.
19. "Announcements - Buddhist Studies - University of California, Berkeley". Retrieved 2018-12-01.

External links

• Janet Gyatso on IMDb


Doris [Black] Frank, 88, Fled Pogroms and Found Vineyard
by Vineyard Gazette
Thursday, April 12, 2007 - 8:00pm

The family of Doris [Black] Frank is saddened to announce her death on Wednesday. She had been living for the last two and a half years in Brighton at Chestnut Park, an assisted living facility close to her daughter's home. She died peacefully of natural causes. She was 88.

Doris was born in the Ukraine, near Kiev, in 1918. With the rest of her immediate and some of her extended family, she fled the pogroms in 1921, moving across Europe in stealth until they finally sailed to Canada at some time in 1923. It is not certain if the port of sail was Liverpool, England or a port in Belgium.

Doris was raised and schooled in Montreal, where she lived with her two sisters, Fannie and Ray, and her parents Benjamin and Sosia Black. In 1939 she attended an adult's socialist tennis camp in upstate New York where she met her future husband, Gilbert Frank, to whom she was eventually married in 1941 in Montreal.

They settled in Philadelphia, Pa., where Doris gave birth to her son Daniel in 1944 and her daughter Janet in 1949. During these years, in addition to being a mother and housewife, Doris was active in the League of Women Voters and various leftist Jewish organizations. Following the example of members of Gilbert's family, including his second cousin Hattie Jacobs and her husband George, and later his sisters Rea and Selma Frank, Doris and Gilbert moved to the Vineyard in 1980. They lived there happily until Gilbert died in 2004.

Throughout her life, Doris was an observant Jew who cared passionately about the fate of the Jewish people, the state of Israel, and the learning of Hebrew and Yiddish culture. She and her husband were also avid lovers of nature and animals. They enjoyed the simple life they were able to achieve on the Vineyard, and continued to have a wide circle of friends and social causes in which they participated well into their 80s.

Survivors include her children Daniel Frank and Janet Gyatso, along with their respective spouses Doris Clerc and Charles Hallisey; her grandchildren Johanna, Jeremy, Michael and Zoey Frank, as well as Sean, Stephen and Gina Hallisey; her great grandchildren Ben, Jillian and Allison Troth; Gilbert's sister, Selma Frank of Vineyard Haven; and the following nieces and nephews who are children of her late sisters Fannie Silverman and Ray Yellin: Peretz, Ozzie, and Jerry Silverman, and Esther Wynn, Sorel Cohen, and Dorothy Yellin.

A funeral will be held on Sunday at 9:30 a.m. at the Hebrew Cemetery in Vineyard Haven. Arrangements are under the care of the Chapman, Cole & Gleason Funeral Home, Oak Bluffs.


Charles Hallisey
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 11/24/19


Charles Hallisey is the Yehan Numata Senior Lecturer on Buddhist Literatures at Harvard Divinity School and an authority on Sinhala literature.


Hallisey obtained his AB from Colgate University, MDiv from Harvard Divinity School and later a MA from the University of Pennsylvania. Subsequently, he received his PhD from the University of Chicago.[1]

From 1996 to 2001 he was John L. Loeb Associate Professor of the Humanities in the Committee on the Study of Religion and the Department of Sanskrit and Indian Studies at Harvard University. Later in 2001 he joined the University of Wisconsin as Associate Professor in the Department of Languages and Cultures of Asia and the Religious Studies Program. He joined the Faculty of Divinity of Harvard Divinity School in the academic year 2007–08.[1]


• Therigatha: Poems of the First Buddhist Women. Murty Classical Library of India. Harvard University Press. 2015. ISBN 978-0-674-42773-0.


1. "Charles Hallisey".

External links

• Official website


by Wikipedia
Accessed: 11/24/19


Word/name: Tibetan
Meaning: Ocean

Gyatso or Gyamco (Tibetan: རྒྱ་མཚོ, Wylie: rgya mtsho, ZYPY: Gyamco), is a Tibetan personal name meaning "ocean". It is also written Rgya-mtsho in Wylie transliteration, Gyaco in Tibetan pinyin, Gyatsho in Tournadre Simplified Phonetic Transcription and Gyatso in THDL Simplified Phonetic Transcription. In the Lhasa dialect, it is pronounced [càtsʰo] or [càmtsʰo]. In accordance with the latter pronunciation, it can also be spelled "Gyamtso" in English.

Notable persons whose names include "Gyatso" include:

• Each Dalai Lama, other than the 1st, has had Gyatso as the second word of his personal name; for instance, the current Dalai Lama is named Tenzin Gyatso. See the list of Dalai Lamas;
• Chödrak Gyatso, the 7th Karmapa;
• Chögyam Trungpa (Chögyam is short for Chögyi Gyamtso), Buddhist teacher;
• Gyamco, village in Tibet
• Geshe Kelsang Gyatso, the founder of the New Kadampa Tradition (NKT);
• Khenpo Tsültrim Gyamtso, a Karma Kagyu lama;
• Palden Gyatso, a monk who served thirty-three years as a political prisoner
• Desi Sangye Gyatso, 17th century political figure
• Geshe Sherab Gyatso, 20th century Communist politician
• Thubten Gyatso, an Australian Gelug monk.
• Monk Gyatso, a character from the Nickelodeon cartoon Avatar: The Last Airbender.
Site Admin
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Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Mon Nov 25, 2019 3:12 am

by Wikipedia
Accessed: 11/24/19



Manangbhot, Nyeshang
Manang village. Annapurna-III (left, 7555 m) and Gangapurna (7455 m) peaks are in the background.
Location in Nepal
Coordinates: 28°40′0″N 84°1′0″ECoordinates: 28°40′0″N 84°1′0″E
Country Nepal
Admin. division Gandaki Zone
District Manang District
Elevation 3,519 m (11,545 ft)
Population (2001)
• Total 6,527
Time zone UTC+05:45 (Nepal Time)

Manang (Nepali: मनाङ) is a town in the Manang District of Nepal. It is located at 28°40'0N 84°1'0E with an altitude of 3,519 metres (11,545 ft).[1] According to the preliminary result of the 2011 Nepal census it has a population of 6,527 people living in 1,495 individual households. Its population density is 3 persons/km2.[2]

It is situated in the broad valley of the Marshyangdi River to the north of the Annapurna mountain range. The river flows to the east. To the west, the 5,416-metre (17,769 ft) Thorong La pass leads to Muktinath shrine and the valley of the Gandaki River. To the north there is the Chulu East peak of 6,584 m (21,601 ft). Most groups trekking around the Annapurna range will take resting days in Manang to acclimatize to the high altitude, before taking on Thorong La pass. The village is situated on the northern slope[citation needed], which gets the most sunlight and the least snow cover in the winter. The cultivation fields are on the north slope[citation needed] with terraces.

There are now motorable road as well as trails where goods are transported on jeep or mule trains or carried by porters. A small airport, located 2.5 km (1.6 mi) east of the town, serves the whole valley. The airport was begun in 1985. The development of a trail linking Manang to the Annapurna Conservation Area was finished in February 2011 and has brought many benefits to the villagers and the area.

Besides catering to trekkers, there is some agriculture and herding of yaks. There is a medical centre, which specializes in high-altitude sickness.


Main street of Manang with yaks

A view of Gangapurna Lake situated at Manang district

Gangapurna Lake close to Manang

Gangapurna glacier and lake near Manang

See also

Manang Language


1. "redirect to /world/NP/00/Manangbhot.html".
2. , Nepal Census Bureau ... eet%29.xls, retrieved 20 September 2012 Missing or empty |title= (help).

External links

• Map of Annapurna Range
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Mon Nov 25, 2019 3:22 am

Jigme Dorje Palbar Bista
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 11/24/19



Raja Jigme Dorje Palbar Bista
The Rt. Hon. Sri Sri Sri Raja
Reign 1964–2008
Predecessor Sri Sri Sri Raja Angun Tenzing Trandul bista
Successor Monarchy Abolished
Born 1930
Lo Manthang, Mustang district, Nepal
Died December 16, 2016 (aged 86)
Kathmandu, Nepal
Spouse Rani Sahiba Sidol Palbar Bista
Issue Angun Tenzing (died young)
Full name
A-ham 'Jig-med d pal-'bar o 'Jig-med rdo-rje 'dgra-'drul
House Lo
Father Sri Sri Sri Raja Angun Tenzing Trandul bist
Mother Rani Kelsang Choeden
Religion Tibetan Buddhism

Flag of the Kingdom of Mustang

Jigme Dorje Palbar Bista (Nepali:जिग्मे दोर्जे पलवर विष्ट) (1930-2016) was the unofficial King of Mustang (Tibetan: Lo rGyal-po, Nepalese: Mustang Rājā) between 1964 and 2008, until Monarchy, Semi-Monarchy, Vassals and Titular Kingship were abolished in Nepal. He was descendant in 25th generation of King A-ma-dpal bist (1440–1447), who was founder of the Lo (Lo-Manthang) dynasty.[1]


Jigme Dorje Palbar Bista was born in Lo-Manthang Palace in Upper Mustang in the Himalayan Range of Nepal. He was the third son of Colonel H.H. Sri Sri Sri Raja Angun Tenzing Trandul, King of Mustang, by his wife, Kelsang Choeden. He was educated privately at Shigatse, Tibet. He was appointed as the Heir Apparent recognised by the Nepal Government in 1959 A.D. He succeeded as the Head of the Royal House of Lo and to the title of Lo-rGyal-po and King of Mustang upon the death of his father in 1964 A.D and elder brother in 1958 A.D. Bista is the title given by King of Nepal which means Distinguished Baron in the Nepali language and not the Nepali family name Bista. He was a member of the Raj Sabha between (1964–1990) and a Lieutenant Colonel of Nepalese Army (1964).

Lo Manthang Palace

He married a noble lady from Shigatse, Tibet, H.H. Rani Sahiba Sidol Palbar Bista in the 1950s.[2] He had one son, Angun Tenzin, who died at the age of 8, and he later adopted his nephew, Zingme Singhe Palbar Bista (b. 1957). The last heir is his nephew whom resides in the United States, the grandson of Raja Angun. He is married to a Bhutanese princess and they issue two children, a daughter and a son. They are believed to be residing in San Francisco. [3]


Nepalese Honours

• King Birendra Coronation Medal (24 February 1975).[3]
• King Gyanendra Coronation Medal (4 June 2001).[3]

See also

• Kingdom of Mustang


• Paul Raffaele, Il re del Mustang, <Le ultime tribù sulla Terra>, pp. 205–220, fbe edizioni, Trezzano sul Naviglio 2003.


1. Raffaele, p. 205
2. Presence and Absence: Mourning a Himalayan King
3. "MUSTANG2". Retrieved 2017-02-27.

External links

• Media related to Jigme Palbar Bista at Wikimedia Commons
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Mon Nov 25, 2019 3:38 am

Richard C. Blum
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 11/24/19



"Tai Situpa's camp was trying to follow our every move, and revised their story as we discovered one fact after the next in the interviews," Shimatsu told me. "Dalai Lama camp, ditto. Representatives of Chinese President Jiang Zemin were eager to get the video and were overjoyed at the fact that they could get the real story. They admitted the episode was mysterious, that the Tibet Autonomous Region was blocking the President's inquiries about the affair. But they also said that the video was much too explosive for broadcast in China." Many journalists requested copies and television stations in Hong Kong, Taiwan, and elsewhere in Asia aired excerpts from the film.

Shimatsu's team discovered that a helicopter that picked up Ogyen Trinley in Nepal was owned by a company that had previously done work for the United States CIA, Fishtail Air. Even more suspicious, the Fishtail Air office had lost all flight records tor the day of Ogyen Trinley's pickup. "When Susanna Chung and Prakash Khanal broke the story of the Mustang escape route and the Fishtail Air helicopter pickup at Thorang-La, I rushed the story and video to the South China Morning Post in Hong Kong Internet news department," Shimatsu told me. "Their news producers were very excited and promised me five thousand dollars."

"Then we had to clear the story through editors of the print version of the newspaper. We were greeted by three editors. They were female, and I suspect two of them were MI-6 (British intelligence) agents. They killed the story with totally bogus questions, all of which were proven on tape and in notes. They wanted to know who our key contact was in Mustang (a businessman) but I refused to disclose his identity, since he could easily be killed by the Manang smugglers involved with the Karmapa escape." So the South China Morning Post killed Shimatsu's story.

Outside of East Asia, Shimatsu's film got little attention, and he attributes some of that to government influence and some to media bias. He claims that the United States government had an interest in Ogyen Trinley, perhaps because of lobbying by Tibetan rights groups in Washington who support the Dalai Lama. Shimatsu singled out the American Himalayan Foundation in particular, funded by San Francisco real-estate billionaire Richard Blum, husband of Senator Dianne Feinstein from California.

"Plus, most Western journalists, including Chinese journalists in Hong Kong, are pretty brainwashed by the 'human rights' nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), since they wrongly assume that these NGOs are honest little guys fighting for truth and justice," rather than groups with their own biases -- often in favor of Western governments -- that cause them to paint a one-sided picture of alleged rights abuses. Shimatsu felt that by making his film, he was striking a blow for press freedom. "This media monopoly made it all the more important to produce an independent documentary using portable DV mini- cameras, so Flight of A Karmapa was one of the first documentaries using this new media."

-- Buddha's Not Smiling: Uncovering Corruption at the Heart of Tibetan Buddhism Today, by Erik D. Curren

Richard C. Blum
Blum at UC Berkeley in 2009
First Gentleman of San Francisco
In role
January 20, 1980 – January 8, 1988
Preceded by Gina Moscone (First Lady)
Succeeded by Sherry Agnos (First Lady)
Personal details
Born Richard Charles Blum
July 31, 1935 (age 84)
San Francisco, California, U.S.
Nationality American
Spouse(s) Dianne Feinstein (m. 1980)
Alma mater University of California, Berkeley (BS, MBA)
Occupation Investment banker

Richard Charles Blum (born July 31, 1935[1]) is an American investment banker and husband of United States Senator Dianne Feinstein. He is the chairman and president of Blum Capital, an equity investment management firm that acts as general partner for various investment partnerships and provides investment advisory services. Blum also serves in various boards of directors of several companies, including CB Richard Ellis, where until May 2009 he served as the chairman of that board. He has been a regent of the University of California since 2002.[2]

Personal life and education

Blum was born in San Francisco, California, to a Jewish family and attended San Francisco public schools.[3] He received his B.S. in business administration in 1958 and an M.B.A. in 1959 from the Haas School of Business of the University of California, Berkeley.[4]

In the 1970s, Blum supported then Mayor of San Francisco George Moscone. After Moscone's assassination, Blum supported the new mayor Dianne Feinstein; they married in 1980.[3]


Blum founded Blum Capital in 1975 and pioneered the firm’s hybrid Strategic Block/Private Equity investment strategy. Mr. Blum previously served as Chairman of the board of directors of CB Richard Ellis, as well as serving as director on the boards of directors of three other portfolio companies: Fairmont Raffles Holdings International Ltd., Current Media, L.L.C. and Myer Pty Ltd. in Australia. Mr. Blum co-founded Newbridge Capital in the early 1990s and is Co-Chairman of TPG Asia V, L.P. (the successor fund to the Newbridge franchise that has been incorporated into Texas Pacific Group).[citation needed]

Mr. Blum has served on the boards of many prominent companies, including Northwest Airlines Corporation, Glenborough Realty Trust, Inc., Korea First Bank, URS Corporation and National Education Corporation. In addition, Mr. Blum is active in numerous non-profit organizations. He is the founder and Chairman of the American Himalayan Foundation and is Honorary Consul to Mongolia and Nepal. Mr. Blum also serves as a member of the Advisory Board of the Haas School of Business at the University of California at Berkeley.

Blum joined investment brokerage Sutro & Co. at the age of 23, becoming a partner before age 30.[3] At Sutro, Blum led a partnership that acquired Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Circus for $8m, selling it to Mattel four years later for $40m.[3] On the back of this deal Blum started in business for himself in 1975, founding what is now Blum Capital Partners;[3] a stake in URS Corp. was one of its first investments.[3]

On April 25, 2009, Blum was honored with the Berkeley Medal by UC Berkeley Chancellor Robert Birgenau in front of the 14th Dalai Lama. The talk was sponsored by his American Himalayan Foundation and the Blum Center for Developing Economies at UC Berkeley.[5]


On March 12, 2002, Blum was appointed by California Governor Gray Davis to a 12-year term as one of the Regents of the University of California,[6] and he was nominated for re-appointment to another 12-year term in 2014. Blum also serves on the boards of the following companies:

• CB Richard Ellis (Chairman)
• Newbridge Capital (co-Chairman)
• Current TV
• Blum Capital

Blum is also the primary owner of Career Education Corporation.[7]


Blum has been a major contributor via the Blum Family Foundation to many charities and educational institutions. He has a strong interest in Tibet and Tibetan Buddhism and in 1981 he attempted to climb Mount Everest from the Tibetan side with Sir Edmund Hillary. He is the chairman and founder of the apolitical American Himalayan Foundation (AHF), which has given millions of dollars to build hospitals and schools in Tibet and Nepal but has refrained from political involvement with the Chinese control of Tibet. Other of Blum’s not-for-profit endeavors include service as Trustee of The Carter Center; former Co-Chairman of The World Conference of Religions for Peace; Member of Governing Council of The Wilderness Society;[8] member of the Board of Trustees of The Brookings Institution; member of the Board of Trustees of the American Cancer Society Foundation; member of the Board of Directors of the National Democratic Institute;[9] and is a Member of the Board of Trustees of the Richard C. Blum Center for Developing Economies at the University of California, Berkeley,to which he provided $15 million for the Center which is focused on finding solutions to address the crisis of extreme poverty and disease in the developing world.[10] He's given to the University of California at San Francisco (UCSF), Merced and Los Angeles (UCLA) and Sonoma State University, as well as Macalester College. He pledged $1.25 million to the University of San Francisco (USF) in 2007, and another $1.5 million to USF for "global education" in 2019.[11] He has served on many other boards including the Seva Foundation, as Chairman of the Himalayan Foundation, as a Trustee on Brookings Institute. He has also supported local charities including the San Francisco Food Bank and the John Burton Foundation for Children Without Homes. In the arts and culture, he has made grants to the Creative Visions Foundation, the Daniel Pearl Foundation, San Francisco's Asian Art Museum, the San Francisco Conservatory of Music, and the Geffen Playhouse in Los Angeles.[12]


Blum's wife, Senator Dianne Feinstein, has received scrutiny due to her husband's government contracts and extensive business dealings with China and her past votes on trade issues with the country. Blum has denied any wrongdoing.[13] URS Corp, which Blum had a substantial stake in, bought EG&G, a leading provider of technical services and management to the U.S. military, from The Carlyle Group in 2002; EG&G subsequently won a $600m defense contract.[3]

Blum and his wife have also received significant scrutiny and criticism due to his 75% stake in contractor Tutor Perini which received hundreds of millions to billions of dollars in military contracts in Iraq and Afghanistan during the US occupation of those countries.[14][15] Critics have argued that business contracts with the US government awarded to a company controlled by Blum raise a potential conflict-of-interest issue with the voting and policy activities of his wife.[16]

In 2009, Feinstein introduced legislation to provide $25 billion in taxpayer money to the Federal Deposit Insurance Corp, a government agency that had recently awarded her husband's real estate firm, CB Richard Ellis, what the Washington Times called "a lucrative contract to sell foreclosed properties at compensation rates higher than the industry norms."[17]

The United States Postal Service has entered into an exclusive contract with CB Richard Ellis to sell buildings that currently house post offices.[18]


1. "AHF Annual Dinner : Events | American Himalayan Foundation" Archived July 28, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.
2. Rone Tempest (November 18, 2005). "Deal-Maker's Worlds Mesh at Party in S.F." Los Angeles Times.
3. Abate, Tom. (May 11, 2003). The man behind URS, next to Sen. Feinstein, San Francisco Chronicle, pp. I1-I2 |Although Jewish, the deeply philosophical Blum has taken a keen interest in Buddhism and Eastern philosophy
4. "Regent Richard C. Blum". Regents of the University of California. Retrieved September 29, 2018.
5. Berkeley Welcomes Dalai Lama. The Daily Californian. April 29, 2009
6. Lederman, Doug (March 3, 2008) "At U. of California, a Systemic Governance Crisis".
7. CounterPunch, February 26, 2010, DiFi and Blum: a Marriage Marinated in Money
8. Blum Biography Archived December 13, 2005, at the Wayback Machine at the University of California
9. "NDI Board of Directors: Richard Blum". National Democratic Institute. Retrieved October 2, 2012.
10. Maclay, Kathleen (April 19, 2006) Blum Center to develop sustainable solutions to issues facing world's poor. University of Berkeley.
11. [Educating Global Learners and Leaders with a Gift of $1.5 Million], University of San Francisco, Ashleigh Hollowell, April 30, 2019. Retrieved August 9, 2019.
12. Inside Philanthropy. Retrieved August 7, 2019.
13. Paddock, Richard C. (March 27, 2007) "Feinstein's husband steps out of her shadow". Los Angeles Times
14. "Windfalls of War". Archived from the original on March 12, 2008. Retrieved December 7, 2008.
15. "Winning Contractors". 2003. Retrieved July 29, 2019.
16. Byrne, Peter (January 24, 2007) Senator Feinstein's Iraq Conflict: Feinstein voted for appropriations worth billions to her husband's firms. North Bay Bohemian.
17. Neubauer, Chuck (April 21, 2009) EXCLUSIVE: Senator's husband's firm cashes in on crisis. In fact, Dianne Feinstein wrote a memo to the FDIC on her Senate letterhead informing the FDIC that they should award the contract to her husband. That contract paid Feinstein's husband for selling and managing each house a foreclosed bank had on file. Those fees paid Blum over $2,000 per month for each property he managed. The couple made hundreds of millions off of this deal and have yet to be brought up on criminal charges.Washington Times
18. Romney, Lee (December 7, 2013). "Berkeley making the rounds to save its historic post office". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on December 9, 2013. Riling many here is the exclusive deal with CBRE Group, whose chairman, Richard Blum, is married to U.S. Sen. Dianne Feinstein (D-Calif.).

External links

• Blum Capital Partners, L.P.
• Blum's Plums: Conflicts of interest benefitted Blum's firms during his term as a UC Regent Peter Byrne, North Bay Bohemian, February 21, 2007.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Mon Nov 25, 2019 3:50 am

Tutor Perini
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 11/24/19



Tutor Perini Corporation
Traded as NYSE: TPC
Russell 2000 Component
Industry construction
Founded 1894
Headquarters Sylmar, California, United States
Key people
Ronald Tutor, CEO
Revenue DecreaseUS$4.76 billion (2017)[1]
Net income
IncreaseUS$154.5 million (2017) [1]
Total assets IncreaseUS$4.26 billion (2017) [1]
Number of employees
10,061[2] (2017)

Tutor Perini Corporation (formerly Perini Corporation) is one of the largest general contractors in the United States. At the end of 2013 it reported an annual revenue of approximately $4.2 billion. Tutor Perini is headquartered in Sylmar, California, and works on many construction projects throughout the United States and Canada. Specific areas of focus are civil infrastructure (bridges, highways, tunnels, airports, mass transit systems), building infrastructure (healthcare, education, municipal government, hospitality and gaming, multi-use, office towers, multi-unit residential towers, high-technology projects), and specialty contracting (electrical, mechanical, plumbing, heating, air conditioning and ventilation (HVAC), fire protection systems, concrete placement).


Albert G. Tutor began the A. G. Tutor Company Inc. in 1949 and the company grew throughout the century under Albert’s son, Ronald Tutor.[3] In 1972 the Tutor Company partnered with N.M. Saliba and became Tutor-Saliba.[3]

Perini Corporation was founded in 1894 in Ashland, Massachusetts by a stonemason named Bonfiglio Perini.[4] Under the direction of Bonfiglio's grandson, Lou Perini, the company moved into the real-estate business, developing 4,500 acres (1,800 ha) in Palm Beach County, Florida. Later real-estate ventures were less successful, leaving Perini deeply in debt by the mid-1990s. In 1997, Ron Tutor helped Perini Corp. recapitalize alongside investor Richard Blum.[5] Tutor became CEO of Perini in 2000 and merged Perini with Tutor-Saliba in 2008.[6]

Perini was listed on the NYSE on April 1, 2004.[7]

Richard Blum divested his Perini stock in 2005.[8]

Perini was headquartered in Framingham, Massachusetts until relocating to Sylmar, California in 2009.[9][10]

In May 2009, Perini shareholders voted to change the company's name to Tutor Perini Corporation.[11][12] Tutor Perini issued $300 million of Senior Notes in October 2010.[13] Tutor Perini proceeded to acquire six companies over the next nine months.


In 2003, Perini acquired Florida-based James A. Cummings.[14] In 2005, the company acquired Cherry Hill Construction, a Maryland-based contractor,[15][16] and California-based Rudolph & Sletten, Inc.[17] In January 2009, the corporation acquired Philadelphia-based building contractor Keating Building Corporation.[18]

November 1, 2010 - Superior Gunite, a structural concrete firm headquartered in Lakeview Terrace, CA.[19]

January 3, 2011 – Fisk Electric, a provider of electrical and technological services headquartered in Houston, TX[20]

April 4, 2011 – Anderson Companies, a general contractor headquartered in Gulfport, MS[21]

June 1, 2011 – Frontier-Kemper Constructors, a provider of numerous construction services including civil construction, mine development, drilling, tunneling, and electrical services headquartered in Evansville, IN[21]

July 1, 2011 – Lunda Construction Company, provider of various construction services such as the construction, rehabilitation, and maintenance of bridges, railroads, and other civil structures headquartered in Black River Falls, WI[19]

July 1, 2011 – GreenStar Services Corporation, an electrical and mechanical services provider that is composed of 3 operating entities: Five Star Electric Corporation, WDF, and Nagelbush[19]

Notable projects

March 17, 2016 - After several smaller contracts at the Hudson Yards, Manhattan site, the company has been awarded contracts worth roughly $1.2 billion for the construction of Tower D and The Shops & Restaurants retail complex at the development.[22]

Corruption Allegations

Tutor Perini has gained a reputation for low balling government contracts only to later increase prices at the expense of the taxpayer, along with other corrupt business practices:

Since 2000 Tutor Perini has costed the state of California $765 million in additional unexpected costs on 11 different projects. This is mostly due to California law which requires the lowest bid to be selected.[23]

In 2002, after an expansion at San Francisco International Airport went over budget by $360 million, City Attorney Dennis Herrera sued Tutor Perini for fraud and attempted to have it banned from bidding on city projects.[24]

In March 2011, after a four-week trial a federal jury in Brooklyn found Zohrab B. Marashlian, the former president of Perini Corp.’s Civil Division, guilty of fraud and conspiracy to launder money. Tutor Perini had paid Marashlian $14 million during the investigation and trial. However Marashlian committed suicide two days before he was to receive a prison sentence. A fellow employee is currently serving time in prison for the same case.[25]

In April 2018, Tutor Perini had deliberately substituted weaker rails than those specified in the San Francisco construction contract, so the city ordered Tutor Perini to rip out much of the steel track it had already laid down. The San Francisco Examiner reported that this is likely to delay the opening of the subway and that Tutor Perini may file additional claims to recoup their costs.[26]

Richard Blum, the husband of California Senator Dianne Feinstein, made large investments in Tutor Perini. Allegations of collusion between Feinstein and Richard Blum assert that Senator Feinstein used her government position to award contracts to companies Richard Blum had invested in which allowed the couple to personally profit from the deals.[27]


• Tutor-Saliba Corporation
• Perini Building Company
• Rudolph and Sletten, Inc.


1. "2017 Annual Report" (PDF). Tutor Perini. 2017. Retrieved 14 November 2018.
2. "Tutor Perini". Fortune. Retrieved 2019-01-14.
3. Jump up to:a b "Ron Tutor: The Lawsuits, Losses and Private Struggles of the Man Behind Miramax". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 2018-11-15.
4. "Bonfiglio Perini: The Good Son" (PDF). Retrieved February 1, 2018.
5. Peter J. Howe (2007-05-23). "Cashing in". Globe 100. The Boston Globe. pp. 26–28.
6. "Merger Pays Off Big For Perini CEO | Ron Tutor secures more than $500M". Worcester Business Journal. Retrieved 2018-11-15.
7. "Perini Corporation Annual Report 2004" (PDF).
8. Byrne, Peter. "Blum'e Plums". The Byrne Report. Retrieved 7 August 2017.
9. Ailworth, Erin; Wallack, Todd (2009-10-22). "Tutor Perini moving headquarters to LA". Retrieved 2018-06-20.
10. "Building giant Tutor Perini moves to Sylmar". Daily News. 2009-10-20. Retrieved 2018-06-20.
11. "Perini Shareholders Approve Name Change to Tutor Perini Corporation". Retrieved 2018-06-27.
12. "Perini Gone, Still Synonymous With Consequential Damages | Construction Law Today". Construction Law Today. 2009-06-01. Retrieved 2018-06-27.
13. "Tutor Perini buys Frontier-Kemper, to buy Lunda Construction". Retrieved 2018-06-27.
14. "James A. Cummings purchased for $20M". Retrieved 2018-06-20.
15. Milani, Kate (January 21, 2005). "Cherry Hill Construction bought for $20M". Retrieved 2018-06-20.
16. "Perini Corporation Completes Acquisition of Cherry Hill Construction, Inc". Retrieved 2018-06-20.
17. "Perini Corporation Completes Acquisition of Rudolph and Sletten, Inc". Retrieved 2018-06-20.
18. "CONFIRMED: Keating Building Co. sold to Perini Corp". Retrieved 2018-06-20.
19. "Tutor Perini Corporation Annual Report 2013" (PDF). Retrieved 14 November 2018.
20. "Tutor Perini Acquires Fisk Electric". For Construction Pros. Retrieved 2018-06-27.
21. Jump up to:a b "Tutor Perini Acquires Frontier-Kemper, To Buy Lunda". RTTNews. Retrieved 2018-11-14.
22. "Tutor Perini Wins Whopper of a Contract at NYC's Hudson Yards Project".
23. ... 780385.php
24. ... -bart-muni
25. ... e-1.117958
26. ... new-delay/
27. ... California

External links

• Tutor Perini Corporation
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Mon Nov 25, 2019 4:03 am

Seva Foundation
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 11/24/19



Another great Hog Farm adventure set the stage for Wavy's participation in the founding of Seva. Recruited by San Francisco underground radio pioneer Tom Donahue and Warner Brothers Records to travel around the country and be filmed for a movie called Cruising for Burgers, later renamed Medicine Ball Caravan, the Farmers bused themselves across America, setting up stages for mainstream rock and rollers. After one last concert with Pink Floyd in Bishopsbourne, England, the Farmers pooled their movie pay and some funds raised for them from a benefit staged by a London commune and continued their trek across Europe. "It was around the time of the great Pakistani flood," Wavy remembers, "and relief was pouring in so very, very slow. There was a line of Gandhi's that hit me at that time, it was something like, 'If God should appear to starving people, God would not dare to appear in any form other than food.’ We'd had so much attention from that free kitchen at Woodstock, we thought if we were in Pakistan with any kind of food, we could embarrass the large governments, and they would speed up the food relief. Then the Indo-Pakistani war broke out, and we hung a left into K-K-K-Kathmandu, distributing food and medical supplies to Tibetan refugee camps as we traveled. We fixed leaky roofs with rolls of plastic and built a playground in Kathmandu for impoverished kids. We also saw a tremendous number of blind people in Nepal."

With locally run sight programs in India, Nepal, and Tibet, Seva provides more than 80,000 eye surgeries a year.
It also establishes partnership in Native American communities to tackle the rising epidemic of diabetes, supports work for sustainable agriculture in Chiapas, Mexico, and monitors violence against refugees of the Guatemalan civil war. "What we do is find someone who is a blazing, shining example of doing a particular piece of service, and we just back them hook, line, and sinker," Wavy says of Seva’s strategy, "sometimes providing the flashlight to help them find the light switch.

-- A Clown For Our Time, by


Motto Compassion in Action
Formation 1978
Purpose Prevention of blindness.
Headquarters 1786 Fifth Street
Berkeley, California, United States
Region served
Executive Director
Kate Moynihan[1]

Seva Foundation is an international non-profit health organization based in Berkeley, California known for preventing and treating blindness and other visual impairments. It was co-founded in 1978 by Dr. Larry Brilliant, Ram Dass, Wavy Gravy, Nicole Grasset and Govindappa Venkataswamy. Steve Jobs served as an early adviser and major contributor.

Seva works with local communities in more than 20 countries around the world to develop locally-run, culturally appropriate, self-sustaining programs to increase access to eye care. Seva works with local eye health hospitals and clinics in central Asia, southeast Asia, Eastern Europe, Latin America, and throughout sub-Saharan Africa. The foundation also works with Native communities in North America through its American Indian Sight Initiative.


Seva Foundation, based in Berkeley, California, was founded in 1978 by public health expert Larry Brilliant,[2] spiritual leader Ram Dass and humanitarian activist Wavy Gravy.[3] Other co-founders include Dr. Govindappa Venkataswamy, founder of the Aravind Eye Foundation, and Nicole Grasset, the senior adviser for the World Health Organization smallpox eradication campaign.[4][5] Steve Jobs also participated as an adviser at early Seva meetings and provided the first significant cash donation along with an Apple II to enter and analyze eye care survey results in the original Nepal program.[6]

See also

• Himalayan Cataract Project, a similar charity


1. "Staff". Seva Foundation. Retrieved July 31, 2018.
2. Strom, Stephanie (January 29, 2011). "Google Finds It Hard to Reinvent Philanthropy". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved January 4, 2014.
3. "About Seva Foundation". Seva Foundation. Retrieved December 11, 2012.
4. "Celebrating 35 Years of Service: Seva Foundation's history of Compassion in Action". Seva Foundation. Archived from the original on January 6, 2014. Retrieved December 14, 2013.
5. "Programme d' éradication de la variole dans la République de Djibouti : évaluation de la situation actuelle et exécution des activités de surveillance : 6 novembre-30 décembre 1977 / par Nicole Grasset" (in French). World Health Organization. Retrieved December 14, 2013.
6. Wingfield, Nick (November 20, 2013). "A Gift From Steve Jobs Returns Home". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved January 4, 2013.

External links

• Official Website
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