Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Thu Nov 28, 2019 1:31 am

Part 2 of 2


Distribution of people by age:
00-04 Yrs. 864, 05-09 Yrs. 1,004, 10-14 Yrs. 1,148, 15-19 Yrs. 1,101, 20-24 Yrs. 1,112, 25-29 Yrs. 1,456, 30-34 Yrs. 1,086, 35-39 Yrs. 1,024, 40-44 Yrs. 942, 45-49 Yrs. 770, 50-54 Yrs. 750, 55-59 Yrs. 604, 60-64 Yrs. 519, 65-69 Yrs. 432, 70-74 Yrs. 353, 75-79 Yrs. 162, 80 Yrs.+ 125[67]

The district is divided into Upper and Lower Mustang. The northern two-thirds of the district (Upper Mustang or former Lo Kingdom), Tibetan language and culture prevails, is home to the Lopa, a Bhotiya people. The southern third or the Thak is the homeland of Thakali people who speak Thakali dialects and have a synthesis of Tibetan and Nepalese culture. The main languages spoken are Bhote, Sherpa, and Nepali.[7] The main caste/ ethnic groups are Gurung (45%) and Thakali (17%).[7]

As one moves southward, the Tibetan culture becomes less evident. Inhabitants of Lo in Upper Mustang are Tibetan in language and culture, whereas inhabitants from Panchgaon and Thak Satsae in Lower Mustang speak Thakali, a Tibeto-Burman language. Inhabitants of mid-Mustang of Baragaon speak both Tibetan and a language similar to Thakali.

There are 3,305 households in the district. The distribution of households by ethnic/caste group shows that about 59.3 percent are Gurung, 24.5 percent Thakali and 8.2 percent Kami/Damai. Magar, Thakuri and other account 3.1, 2.9 and 2.1 percent population respectively. Gurung and Thakali are the dominant ethnic groups in Mustang District's population.[16] In the district as a whole, Janajati population constitutes 86.8 percent of the total population whereas Dalit accounts for 8.2 percent and the remaining are 5.0 percent.[16]

According to demographic data published by Population and Housing Census 2011 (National Report),[67] 13,452 people lives in Mustang spread across an area of 3,573 km2 (1,380 sq mi). Which makes it the second least populated district, and with a population density of 4 per km2, also the second least densely populated district. 7,093 or them were male, and 6,359 were female. Age of first marriage for Mustang people are varied — 15–19 Years 1,603, 20–24 Years 3,016, 25–29 Years 1,677, and others 1,030 (Total married 7,326).[67] According to the 1992 Census, the total population of the district was 14,319, not including area residents such as government and army officials, police, development workers, and Tibetan refugees.[3]


At the time of the 2011 Nepal census 40.3% of the population in the district spoke Nepali, 21.7% Lhopa, 19.4% Gurung, 12.1% Thakali, 2.3% Magar, 1.0% Tamang, 0.6% Sherpa and 0.5% Rai as their first language.[68]


Among the Gurung, Thakkali and Bhote people, there also were 33 foreigners — 13 Indians, 3 Chinese, and 17 from other countries.


In 2011, The population of Mustang was divided between 60.17% Buddhists (8,095 people) and 37.46% Hindus (5,040 people). There also were 152 Christians, 98 Böns, 19 Kiratis, 5 animist or Prakritis and 3 Muslims.[67]

According to Aita Bahadur Thakali (District Livestock Service Office, Jomsom) 75 percent of the population is Buddhist and 25 percent is Hindu.[13]


Drying medicinal plants in Jharkot, Muktinath

For 14,981 people Mustang District had a total of 17 health posts, with a health post to population ration of 1:881. While that is better than the national average of 1:5663, these posts cannot be easily accessed because of the remoteness of locations and ruggedness of terrain.[66] There are 10 health posts and five sub health posts scattered throughout Lete, Kobang, Tukche, Marpha, Eklebhatti, Jarkot, Kagbeni and Chame. Jomsom has the only hospital.[7]

Because of low access to facilities and other socio-cultural factors, for most people in Mustang, traditional herbal medicines are the popular mode of medical care and Amchis (traditional Tibetan healers) are the local medical experts.[66] Local Amchis use 72 species of medicinal plants to treat 43 human ailments.[16] They use different forms of medication including pastes (60 species), powders (48), decoctions (35), tablets (7), pills (5), cold infusions (5), and others means, administered through oral, nasal, topical and other routes. Most people here have deep faith in the Amchis.[66]

Amchis have a unique method of maintaining quality of the medicine. They collect medicinal plants always on their own, because only they have experience extensive enough to identify the right plants. Also, only an Amchi knows when to collect the plants, as the timing, while very important in capturing active principles of the plants, varies by days, even months.[66]

Then they store their herbs in bags made from the skin of Moschus chrysogaster (Himalayan musk deer), tied twice with a thread. Tying a herb in musk deer skin helps it, according to Amchis, to remain effective for a couple of years. Horn and urine of musk deer and tortoise bones, as well as parts of other animal are also used along with plant parts.[66]

They use a stone slab to grind their medicine, because they believe the heat created by an electric grinder would degrade the active principles of the plant powder, reducing its quality. Powdered ingredients are then mixed with water. Sufficient amount of additives are also added. Plant parts are commonly prepared using water, hot or cold, as the solvent (100 species), but occasionally remedies are prepared with milk (14 species), honey (2), jaggery or Indian cane sugar (2), ghee or Indian clarified butter (2) and oil (1) in preparing pills in round or rectangular shapes. The mix is then boiled until water is completely evaporated making it easy to shape the pills.[66]


The literacy rate in Mustang District is high. The pace of development started late in Mustang District, including The communication and transportation.[16] Schools in the district are operated largely by non-government groups on private support, with negligible state involvement. Text books are transported by mules to reach remote villages, which as a result arrive late. Most teachers, hired on contract, are unable to hold a conversation in the supposed language of instruction, the mother tongue of the students. The curricula developed with European funding is largely unfamiliar to government teachers. The district school superintendent also does not visit these areas regularly because of their remoteness.[69] The total population aged 5 years & above in Mustang is 12,588, of whom 8,334 (66.20%) can read & write, 305 (2.42%) can read only 305, 3,945 (31.33%) can neither read nor write.[67]

Out of a total 8,451 literate people 275 were beginners, 3,650 primary (1-5), 1,631 lower secondary (6 -8), 721 secondary (9 -10), 836 SLC & equivalent, 509 intermediate & equivalent, graduate & equivalent 208, post graduate equivalent & above 51, Others 73, Non-formal education 471, Not stated 26.[67] In 2017, Most of the students in Mustang were not in an age-appropriate class and did not progress to higher education.[69] It is to be noted that education has improved dramatically in the past two decades in Upper Mustang, and some schools supported by international charities are better than many public schools in rural Nepal, although it is uncertain if the schools can sustainable.[69]

A total of 768 people had SLC or higher education in 2011. Of them 164 studied Humanities and Arts, 170 studied Business and Administration, 167 Education, 43 Social & Behavioral Science, 47 Science, 13 Engineering, Manufacturing and Construction, 12 Health, 11 Agriculture, Forestry & Fishery, 9 Mathematics and Statistics, 8 Law, 3 Computing, and 1 Journalism and Information. 120 did not state their academic stream in the 2011 census.[67] In 2017, Nepal Fine Arts Academy recently organised an art workshop for students of Mustang District in Jomsom.[70]


Goats in Marpha

Yaks in Mustang

Chaffing grain in Kagbeni

Loom in Muktinath

Pani ghatta in Jomsom

Mustang was an important route of crossing the Himalayas between Tibet and Nepal. Many salt caravans travelled through Mustang in the old times.[14] Once a major thoroughfare for the trade of salt and grain between Tibet and Nepal's southern hills, the Mustang District in Nepal's western Himalayas remains a trading route to this day.[3] For centuries, caravans travelled along the Kali Gandaki river trading salt, yak wool, cereals, dried meat spices and more in Tibet, China and India.[4] and the Kali Gandaki gorge was used as a trade route between India and Tibet for centuries.[71] The mountain pass of Kora La is one of the oldest routes between the two regions. It was historically used for salt trade between Tibet and Nepalese kingdoms.[31]

The border has been closed since the 1960s. However, there is a semiannual cross-border trade fair during which the border is open to local traders.[31] In 2012, Nepal and China agreed to open 6 more official border crossings, Kora La being one of them.[72] In July 2016, Nepalese government announced that they expected the border crossing to be open within and year to become the third most important crossing between the two countries.[73]

Kora La is currently being planned as vehicle border crossing between China and Nepal.[74] Nepal is expecting to regain some of the strategic importance of Mustang with the construction of the road to connect China with Nepal through Mustang. Once completed the road is expected to become a highly accessible Himalayan corridor and the district is expected to change significantly. There also is a fear of losing the culture and identity of the region.[4]

Agriculture is the dominant economic activity in the district in which 80.65 percent people are engaged in the district.[16] People of Mustang are engaged in a traditional form of agro-pastoralist economy common to the mountainous regions of Nepal.[49] Business (6.82%), government service (1.91%), house work (3.50%), foreign employment (3.97%) and others (3.14%) are others occupation types besides agriculture.[16]

Many people in Mustang depend on sheep and mountain goat rearing for livelihood. Some of the points of attraction of animal husbandry are: access to pastureland, proximity to the Kora La border pass, and favourable market prices, as well as and technical help and subsidy from District Livestock Services Office.[75] Yak-cow hybrids (called jhopa, or dzo) are employed as draft animals. Horses are reared largely for transport.[49] In 2016, Mustang earned Nepalese rupee 270 million by exporting 13,000 sheep and 9,000 mountain goats. In 2017, the district supplied at least 25,000 sheep and mountain goats to different markets of Nepal during the Dashain festival. An estimated number of 9,000 mountain goats assumed as imported from Tibet in 2017, though traditional Tibetan traders are increasingly prioritizing Chinese markets.[75]

In the summer, goats, cows and sheep are grazed daily in herds in local alpine meadows. During the winter they are stall-fed with leaves, grass and crop wastes, cut and stored in the growing season as preparation for winter. The livestock provides the manure essential to maintain soil fertility, and thus is an significant link in the local agro-pastoral farming-system. Inorganic fertilisers or pesticides are not used.[49]

Mustang Apple at Marpha

Mustang is sometimes called the capital of apples in Nepal. District Agriculture Development Office (DADO) reports that despite the fact that a total of 1,115 hectares of land is considered suitable for apple-farming in Mustang, apple is planted in only 415 hectares of land. Mustang produced 5,300 tons of apples in 2017, an increase by 800 tons over 2016. Price of apples also increased in 2017. In 2016, apples were sold at Nepalese rupee 80 which had reached रु 100 in 2017.[76] Barley, wheat and buckwheat are grown in terraced farms, while vegetables and fruits are grown in orchards.[49] At Mebrak and Phudzeling sites of Upper Mustang, there is evidence of cultivation of buckwheat, naked barley, cannabis, lentils and other crops dated between 1000 and 400 BCE. In Kohla, there is evidence of cultivation of barley, free-threshing wheat, foxtail millet, buckwheat and oats dated 1385–780 BCE.[77]

Though agro-pastoralism still provides the socio-economic backbone of Msutang,[78] alternative livelihood like tourism, transport and labour migration are now emerging along agro-pastoralism. As a result, many has abandoned agriculture or animal husbandry as source of livelihood generally in Mustang and neighbouring district of Manag, and specifically in Jharkot, over the last couple of decades.[79][78] Both number of people living in the district, their animal herds and the number of large households in a village are down from before. In Muktinath VDC the number of households came down to 169 from a high of 216 in 2001.[79] Though agro-pastoralism still provides the economic and social backbone of Msutang. Many of the terraced fields are now abandoned.[78]

Living and lifestyle

Building material

Building material

Following are distribution of households by building material:

• By foundation material: Mud bonded bricks/stone 3,097, Cement bonded bricks/stone 146, RCC with pillar 3, Wooden pillar 31, Others 7, Not stated 21
• By inner wall material: Mud bonded bricks/stone 2,366, Cement bonded bricks/stone 303, Wood/planks 29, Bamboo 9, Unbaked brick 565, Others 10, Not stated 23
• By roof material: Thatch/straw 31, Galvanized iron 192, Tile/slate 83, RCC 26, Wood/planks 20, Mud 2,902, Others 23, Not stated 28
• By toilet type: Without toilet 1,211, Flush toilet 1,382, Ordinary toilet 696, Not stated 16
National Population and Housing Census 2011 (National Report)

Tenancy and ownership

Following are distribution of households by amenities:

• By tenancy: Owned 2,278, Rented 706, Institutional 182, Others 139)
• By ownership: Both house & land 266, Land only 118, Neither house nor land 2,911
• By size: One person 465, Two persons 610, Three persons 744, Four persons 602, Five persons 434, Six persons 280, Seven/eight persons 120; Nine or more persons 99
National Population and Housing Census 2011 (National Report)

People in the district are mostly holds small housing units for dwelling.[16] According to demographic data published by Population and Housing Census 2011 (National Report), Mustang had 3,305 households in the district, second lowest in Nepal, with an average household size of 4.01.[67]

Improved transportation has brought many changes to Upper Mustang. According to GMA News Online, "Kerosene lamps have given way to solar panels, denim sneakers have replaced hand-stitched cowhide boots and satellite dishes are taking over the rooftops of homes," and the local Lopa people are "swapping handspun Tibetan robes for made-in-China jeans."[80]

When government-owned Nepal Television first came to Upper Mustang in 2007, people used to pay 20 rupees (18 cents) for a three-hour sitting in someone's house.[80] In 2011, 1,033 households had cable television, 1,237 households had radio, and 451 had television without a cable connection. 101 households had computers, 48 had internet, 240 had telephones, and 2,353 households had mobile phones. 89 households had motor vehicles, 224 had motorcycles, 9 had bicycles, and 455 had other vehicle (i.e. animal-drawn or human-drawn vehicles). 202 households had refrigerators.[67] There are seven police stations established in Nechung, Thinkar, Kagbeni, Phedi, Jomsom, Ghasa and Lete. Jharkot and Jhong has post offices, while there is a bank, an airport and Nepalese Army's High Altitude and Mountain Warfare School in Jomsom.[7]

More than 91.65 percent population of the district is benefited by secured drinking water supply whereas 8.35 percent population of the district is unsecured. Tap/pipe water are considered as secured system of water supply. In Mustang District 3029 households use tap/pipes, 174 using river/streams, 76 households use spout water, and 9 households using wells/kuwas.[67][16]


Mustang District is not much facilitated by the National Electricity Grid. So, alternate sources of energy are mostly used in this district. In the past, diyalo (heartwood) and pine wood were mostly used for illuminating homes, but now other methods like iron stoves, solar water heating systems, back-boilers, smoke water heaters, etc. have taken increasingly being popular. Fire wood, Cow dung, LP gas are the main fuel used as domestic source of energy in rural areas of Mustang District. About 54.01 percent households apply wood/firewood as the domestic energy for cooking purposes. Cow dung is used by 24.99 percent households. Most of the businesses and hotels of the district use LP gas (18.12%) as cooking fuel. Local people collect firewood mostly from the forest.[67][16]

1,785 households in Mustang use wood or firewood as cooking fuel, 52 households use kerosene, 599 households use LP gas, 826 households use cow dung, 24 use electricity, while cooking fuel of 19 households are unknown. As lighting fuel, 3,177 use electricity (including 824 solar electricity using households), 71 use kerosene, while 39 households did not report their lighting fuel.[67] The lower part of Mustang has recently been connected to the National Electricity Grid. This project is attempting to connect Upper Mustang too. Right now, most of the households of Upper Mustang benefit from micro-hydro projects. But, these projects can only be operated for about 6–7 months due to freezing of rivers in winter. The VDCs facilitated with electricity from National grid are Kunjo, Lete, Kobang, Tukuchhe, Marpha, Jomsom, Kagbeni, Mukthinath and Jhong. A sub-station of 504 Kilowatts has been established in Kobang.[16]

For lighting, hydro-electricity is widely used by the rural population. Nearly 71.20 percent households depend on electricity for light. Areas within southern VDCs - Kunjo, Lete, Kobang, Tukuche, Marpha and Jomsom- are connected with national grid for electricity supply. Still more than 25.48 percent household use solar systems for light, kerosene (2.15%) and other sources of energy (1.18%).[67][16] The Hydro Power Project of Chokhopani generates 744 KW of electrical energy. There are two micro-hydro plants currently working and two are under construction.[16] Despite significant potential, solar and wind power generation have not been met with much success in Mustang as of 2017,[81][82] though Alternative Energy Promotion Centre (AEPC) maintained that, together with neighboring Manang District, Mustang has a potential of 2500 MW of wind electricity.[83] 853 households have solar home systems for lighting in 10 VDCs.[16]

Transport and Himalayan trade

Jomsom Airport

Jeep going from Jomsom to Muktinath

Horse caravan in Upper Mustang

Upper Mustang of Nepal is on an ancient trade route between Nepal and Tibet exploiting the lowest 4,660 metres (15,300 ft) pass Kora La through the Himalaya west of Sikkim. This route remained in use until China's annexation of Tibet in 1950. China eventually decided to revitalize trade and in 2001 completed a 20 kilometres (12 mi) road from the international border to Lo Manthang.[84] Across the TAR border is Zhongba County of Shigatse Prefecture. China National Highway 219 follows the valley of the Yarlung Tsangpo River some 50 kilometres (31 mi) north of the border. Till today Manang and Humde are accessible only on feet or on horseback.[7]

Meanwhile, Nepal is building a road north along the Kali Gandaki River, to within 9 kilometres (6 mi) of Lo Manthang as of 2010. But, road-building from the south was inhibited by difficulties along the Kali Gandaki Gorge, and proceeded incrementally. In 2010, a 9 kilometres (6 mi) gap remained but the road was completed before 2015 and is suitable for high clearance and four-wheel drive vehicles. Currently, the easiest and only widely used road corridor, from Kathmandu to Lhasa—named Arniko Highway in Nepal and China National Highway 318 in the TAR—traverses a 5,125 metres (16,810 ft) pass. This is some 465 metres (1,530 ft) higher than Kora La. Lo Manthang is served 20 kilometres (12 mi) by unpaved road from a border crossing into Zhongba County of Shigatse Prefecture, TAR. This road continues about 50 kilometres (31 mi) from the border to China National Highway 219, which follows the valley of the Yarlung Tsangpo River.

Airlines / Destinations

Gorkha Airlines / Pokhara[85]
Nepal Airlines / Pokhara[86]
Simrik Airlines / Pokhara[87]
Sita Air / Kathmandu, Pokhara[88]
Tara Air / Pokhara[89]

Mustang is accessed by air through Jomsom Airport at Jomsom which is operating 50 kilometres (31 mi) south of China at the approximate boundary between the southern Thak and northern Lo sections of the valley since 1960s. Jomsom Airport is a STOL airport located on the bank of the Kali Gandaki River serving Jomsom and the Mustang District.[90][91][92] The airport resides at an elevation of 8,976 feet (2,736 m) above mean sea level.[90][92] It serves as the gateway to the Mustang District that includes Jomsom, Kagbeni, Tangbe, and Lo Manthang, and to Muktinath temple, which is a popular pilgrimage for Nepalis and Indians.[93]

The airport is capable of handling aircraft from the Nepalese Army Air Service. It has one asphalt paved runway designated 06/24 which measures 2,424 by 66 feet (739 m × 20 m).[91][92] There is a down slope of 1.75% up to about 418 feet (127 m) from the threshold of runway 06.[92] There are also scheduled flights from Kathmandu and daily flights between Pokhara and Jomsom during daylight hours in good weather.

The airport is available throughout the year but visibility is not adequate for visual flight rules (VFR) flight about 15% of the time. As the wind often prevents airport operation after midday, airlines schedule flights to Jomsom for the early morning when wind speeds are low.[94] In the 2013 movie Planes produced by DisneyToon Studios and released by Walt Disney Pictures one of the stops in Wings Across the World race is Nepal where the Planes land in Mustang. There also are 5 helipads in Muktinath, Thotong Phedi, Ghermu, and Bahundanda.[7]


The sign says, "Now you are entering the restricted area of “Upper Mustang”. It is not allowed to proceed further from here without holding special trekking permit issues by the department of immigration, Kathmandu. You must have to register yourself at ACAP’S check-post and visitor’s information centre. Illegal entry to Upper Mustang will be illegal. Thank you. -- NTNC/ACAP" (Kagbeni)

Guest House in Marpha

The kingdom was closed to foreigners, with rare exceptions, until 1992.[3] Professor David Snellgrove and Italian scholars Giuseppe Tucci and Michel Peissel travelled to Mustang in the 1950s. Their tales of a Tibetan kingdom in an arid and locked off from the rest of the world ignited the interest in Mustang District.[14] The first westerner in Mustang was Toni Hagen, Swiss explorer and geologist, who visited the Kingdom in 1952 during one of his travels across the Himalayas. French Michel Peissel is considered the first westerner to stay in Lo Manthang, during the first authorised exploration of Mustang in 1964.[95]

Lo was out-of-bounds for foreigners until 1992.[4] Although it is now open on a restricted basis to foreign travellers, tourism to the region is still strictly restricted and hard to access. The Nepalese government have introduced a surcharge for anyone trekking past Kagbeni, which marks the border of Upper Mustang.[14] Foreign tourists are required by the Nepalese Department of Immigration to acquire special permits, pay fairly steep fees of US$50 per day per person, and be accompanied by a liaison (guide) to protect local tradition and environment from outside influence.[4][3][96] Annapurna Conservation Area Project (ACAP) check post/info posts are spread along the trails in Jomsom, Muktinath, Kagbeni and Lo Manthang.[7]

The ancestral isolation of Mustang helped to retain its ancient culture largely unviolated, and it survives as one of the last bastion of traditional Tibetan life.[4] In this ancient forbidden kingdom traditions have survived longer than in Tibet proper following its annexation by China.[4] The lower Mustang areas (much of Baragaon, Panchgaon, and Thak Sat Sae along the Annapurna Circuit) are among the most heavily trekked routes in Nepal.[3] The scenery of the trail ranges from forests of bright rhododendron fields to rocky cliffs and desert. The culture along the trekk is a rich combination of Hindu and Tibetan Buddhism. The trail's highest point is Muktinath at 3800 m, (a popular Hindu and Buddhist pilgrimage site for centuries. The Kali Gandaki Gorge is part of the popular trekking route from Pokhara to Muktinath. The gorge is within the Annapurna Conservation Area.[71]

Drinks, smokes and food

Tea-house on Thorong La pass that serves butter tea

Brandy from Marpha

Canabis plants in Lete, in front of Dhaulagiri

Momo and local beer served at a guest house in Kagbeni

Some of the top tourist attractions are Lomanthang, Muktinath, the Mustangi royal palace, Tibetan art and culture, and trekking in the Annapurna Circuit.[97] In addition to trekking routes through the Lo Kingdom (Upper Mustang) and along the Annapurna Circuit (lower Mustang), the district is also famous for the springs and village of Muktinath (a popular Hindu and Buddhist pilgrimage site), apples, and Marpha brandy made from a variety of fruits (pear, apricot, apple) produced on a farm managed by the Pasang Sherpa. There are safe water stations in Ghasa, Near Lete at ACAP museum, Kobang, Tukche, Marpha, between Jomsom and Dhapus Peak, Kagbeni and Muktinath. Thorung, Phedi, Letdar, Manang, Humde, Pisang, Chame, Bagarchhap, and Tal has the most famous view points in the district.[7]

Most tourists travel by foot over largely the same trade route used in the 15th century. Over a thousand western trekkers now visit each year, with just over 2000 foreign tourists in 2008.[43] August and October are the peak visiting months. On August 27, 2010, local youth leaders in Mustang threatened to bar tourists beginning October 1, 2010 due to the refusal of the Nepalese government to provide any of the $50 per day fee to the local economy. Visitation, however, continued uninterrupted beyond that date.[98] Now that upper Mustang is open to foreigners on a restricted basis, the Lopa have increased the number of horses kept in the hopes of benefiting from tourism. Trekkers in this and other restricted areas of Nepal are required by government regulation to porter in all food and fuel, thereby minimising environmental impact.[3]

According to the Annapurna Conservation Area Project (ACAP), a total of 39,017 tourists visited Mustang District in 2016. According to Tulasi Dahal, the Jomsom Chief of ACAP, 15,478 of these visitors were from India alone. It shows a considerable rise in the number of tourists over the 23,272 who visited in the previous year. The highest number of tourists arrived in the month of May with 6,816 visitors and the lowest was recorded in January with 365.[97]

External links

• Traditional Political Systems of Mustang, Nepal
• Facts about mustang district
• Mustang - Central Bureau of Statistics
• Early travels & explorations in Mustang
• Last ruler of remote Buddhist kingdom dies in Nepal

Sky caves

• New Death Ritual Found in Himalaya—27 De-fleshed Humans
• The ancient mysteries of Mustang Caves
• A fortress in the sky, the last forbidden kingdom of Tibetan culture

Cultural transformation

• Modernizing Mustang: A Hidden Tibetan Kingdom Meets Its Future
• Mustang: A Kingdom on the Edge
• Road brings jeans, satellite TV to Himalayan Shangri-La
• Inside Nepal’s forgotten medieval kingdom


• Loke
• Bote
• Nepal Languages


2. "National Population and Housing Census 2011 (National Report)" (PDF). Central Bureau of Statistics. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-05-25.
3. Pasture Management, Indigenous Veterinary Care and the Role of the Horse in Mustang, Nepal
4. Mustang: The Last Lost Kingdom
5. Kaushik. "The mysterious caves of Mustang, Nepal". Amusing Planet. Retrieved 29 December2016.
6. Loba, Mustang in Nepal
7. Great Himalayan Trail: Preparatory Study
8. Principality of Mustang, Nepal
9. Xinhua News Agency. "Nepali deputy PM asks district "king" to step down". China View News. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
10. The Map of Potential Vegetation of Nepal - a forestry/agroecological/biodiversity classification system (PDF), Forest & Landscape Development and Environment Series 2-2005 and CFC-TIS Document Series, No.110., 2005, ISBN 87-7903-210-9, retrieved 22 November 2013
11. Shrestha, Mani R.; Rokaya, Maan B.; Ghimire, Suresh K. (2005). "Vegetation pattern of Trans-Himalayan zone in the North-West Nepal". Nepal Journal of Plant Sciences. 1: 129–135. Retrieved Feb 7, 2014.
12. Banerji, Gargi; Basu, Sejuti. "Climate Change and Himalayan Cold Deserts: Mapping vulnerability and threat to ecology and indigenous livelihoods" (PDF). Pragya. Gurgaon, Haryana, India. Retrieved February 7, 2014.
13. Transhumant Pastoralism in Yak Production in The Lower Mustang District of Nepal
14. Kingdom of Mustang
15. Peissel, Michel (October 1965). "Mustang, Nepal's Lost Kingdom". National Geographic. Retrieved 2017-02-10. high point of 4660 m at Kora La on the Mustang-TAR border, the lowest drivable corridor through the Himalayas linking the Tibetan Plateau via Nepal to the tropical Indian plains
16. Resource Mapping Report–2014, District Development Committee Mustang
17. Dilli Prasad Poudel, Livelihood and Common-Pool Resources, University of Bergen
18. Annapurna (1:100,000 map), Nepal-Kartenwerk der Arbeitgemeinschaft für vergleichende Hochgebirgsforschung Nr. 9, Nelles Verlag, Munich, 1993. Also see Google Earth
19. The Raja of La, for instance, continued to pay tithes to Lhasa until the 1950s. For more information about the historical connections between Tibet and Mustang, see Jackson 1978, Vinding 1988, and Ramble 1993 a and b.
20. Flagspot
21. Peissel, Michel (1992) [1967]. Mustang - A Lost TIbetan Kingdom (2nd ed.). Book Faith India, Delhi. pp. 227–31.
22. Sven Hedin's Transhimalaya (published 1909 by MacMillan & Co, Ltd, London), Vol II, pgs. 78-79 in the Chapter headed "A peep into Nepal"
23. Snellgrove, David (1989). Himalayan Pilgrimage, a Study of Tibetan Religion by a Traveller through Western Nepal (Second ed.). Boston & Shaftesbury: Shambhala.
24. Cowan, Sam (17 January 2016). "The curious case of the Mustang incident". The Record. Retrieved 2017-02-10.
25. "Chinese Troops Kill a Nepalese; 18 Captured in Reds' Raid Across Border -- 'Urgent' Protest Sent to Peiping". New York Times. 30 June 1960. Retrieved 2017-02-10.
26. Elleman, Bruce; Kotkin, Stephen; Schofield, Clive (2014). "China-Nepal Border". Beijing's Power and China's Borders: Twenty Neighbors in Asia. Routledge. p. 211. ISBN 9781317515654. Retrieved 2017-02-10.
27. 中华人民共和国和尼泊尔王国边界条约 [China-Nepal Border Agreement] (in Chinese). 1961-10-05 – via Wikisource.
28. China View news
29. "The Karmapa's Great Escape (December 28, 1999 – January 5, 2000)". Karmapa – The Official Website of the 17th Karmapa. Retrieved 2017-02-10. we were not discovered and arrived in Mustang, Nepal, on the morning of December 30, 1999
30. Crossette, Barbara (31 January 2000). "Buddhist's Escape From Tibet, by Car, Horse and Plane". New York Times. Retrieved 2017-02-10.
31. Murton, Galen (March 2016). "A Himalayan Border Trilogy: The Political Economies of Transport Infrastructure and Disaster Relief between China and Nepal". Cross-Currents E-Journal. ISSN 2158-9674. Retrieved 2017-02-09.
32. "中国边海防巡礼之昆木加哨所" [Tour of Chinese Border Guards and Coast Guards - Kunmuja Border Outpost]. (in Chinese). Retrieved 2017-02-11. 西藏军区最西边的哨所——昆木加哨所
33. Last ruler of remote Buddhist kingdom dies in Nepal, The Star Online
34. Wild, windy and harsh, yet stunningly beautiful; The Sunday Tribune; April 21, 2002
35. Royal Ark
36. Finkel, Michael. "Sky Caves of Nepal". National Geographic. Retrieved 27 August 2013.
37. Bond, Anthony. "Mystery of the ancient kingdom discovered in Nepal where thousands of caves are carved 155ft off the ground". Daily Mail. Retrieved 27 August 2013.
38. BBC. "The ancient mysteries of Mustang's caves". BBC. Retrieved 29 December 2016.
39. Sharma, Gopal. "Explorers find ancient caves and paintings in Nepal". Reuters. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
40. Rahman, Maseeh. "Shepherd leads experts to ancient Buddha cave paintings". The Guardian. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
41. Owen, James. ""Shangri-La" caves yield treasures, skeletons". National Geographic. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
42. Shepherd leads experts to ancient Buddha cave paintings; Guardian Unlimited; May 4, 2007.
43. Gopal Sharma, Explorers find ancient caves and paintings in Nepal, Reuters, May 3, 2007, Accessed October 28, 2012
44. "Final District 1-75 Corrected Last for RAJPATRA" (PDF). Ministry of Federal Affairs and Local Development. MoFALD. Retrieved 12 April 2017.
45. "हेर्नुहोस्, तपाईं कुन गाउँपालिका वा नगरपालिकामा पर्नुभयो?". Setopati. Retrieved 9 June 2017.
46. "यी हुन् थपिएका गाउँपालिका र नगरपालिका (सूचीसहित)". Online Khabar. Retrieved 2017-06-16.
47. "स्थानीय निकाय भङ्ग, अधिकारसम्पन्न ७४४ स्थानीय तह क्रियाशील". सेतोपाटी. २८ फाल्गुण २०७३. Retrieved २८ फाल्गुण २०७३. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (help)
48. "The Panchayat System under King Mahendra".
49. Flexibility of Scope, Type and Temporality in Mustang, Nepal. Opportunities for Adaptation in a Farming System Facing Climatic and Market Uncertainty
50. J. Dixon and A. Gulliver, Farming Systems and Poverty: Improving Farmers' Livelihoods in a Changing World, FAO and World Bank, Rome and Washington DC, Italy and USA, 2001
51. A farming system is defined as "any level of unit(s) engaged in agricultural production as it is wedded in a social, political, economic, and environmental context". Ref: B.L. Turner and S.B. Brush, Comparative Farming Systems, p. 13, The Guildford Press, New York, USA, 1987
52. Donald A Messerschmidt, The Thakkali of Nepal
53. Who are the Thakkali, Indigenous Voice
54. The Bem-chag Village Record and the Early History of Mustang
55. Michael Vinding, The Thakali: A Himalayan Ethnography, page 359, Serindia Publications, Inc., 1998, ISBN 0906026504
56. Mustang District, Caravan Himalaya Adventure
57. ... /0045.html
58. "General Information about Muktinath".
59. Mittal, Sushil (2004). The Hindu World. New York: Routledge. p. 499. ISBN 0-203-67414-6.
60. Zurick, David (2006). Illustrated Atlas of the Himalayas. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky. p. 153.
61. "Nepal Census 2001". Nepal's Village Development Committees. Digital Himalaya. Archived from the original on 12 October 2008. Retrieved 15 November 2009..
62. People of Nepal
63. Mustang: The Forbidden Kingdom Archived 2007-06-30 at the Wayback Machine, Royal Mountain Travel, 2004, Accessed May 3, 2007.
64. Upper Mustang Trek Archived 2013-06-02 at the Wayback Machine, Osho World Adventure Pvt. Ltd., Accessed June 2, 2013.
65. Rajan Kathet, Yarlung, Nepali Times
66.The use of medicinal plants in the trans-himalayan arid zone of Mustang district, Nepal, BioMed
67. National Population and Housing Census 2011 (National Report)
68. 2011 Nepal Census, Social Characteristics Tables
69. Pawan Dhakal, Education is the most neglected service in two of Nepal’s most neglected districts, Nepali Times, 28 April 2017
70. Nepali art could benefit from Mustang, The Kathmandu Post
71. Nepal Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation website Archived 2009-07-11 at the Wayback Machine
72. Prithvi Man Shrestha; Jaya Bahadur Rokaya (24 March 2016). "Nepal, China rush to open Hilsa border". Kathmandu Post. Retrieved 2017-02-10. Nepal has also given priority to opening this border point along with Kimathanka and Korala in Mustang.
73. Tripathi, Binod (8 July 2016). "'Korala border to open within a year'". Kathmandu Post. Retrieved 2017-02-10.
74. Tripathi, Binod (19 Jun 2016). "China extends road up to Korala border". Kathmandu Post. Retrieved 2017-02-10.
75. Mustang to supply 25,000 sheep and mountain goats for Dashain, my Republica
76. Apple production increases in Mustang, Republica
77. Report: September 2011, Tibet Archaeology
78. T.H. Aase, R.P. Chaudhary and O.R. Vetaas, Farming flexibility and food security under climatic uncertainty, Manang, Nepal Himalaya. Area 2010, 42, 228–238.
79. Sustainable Development Plan of Mustang, National Trust for Nature Conservation (NTNC)/Government of Nepal/United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP), Kathmandu, Nepal, 2008.
80. Ammu Kannampilly (AFP), Road brings jeans, satellite TV to Himalayan Shangri-La, GMA News Online,July 18, 2016
81. Santosh Pokharel, Mustang starts generating electricity from wind, My Rebuplica, August 16, 2017
82. Nepal is saving the planet but not its own citizens, Kathmandu Tribune
83. Sameer Pokhrel, Nepal is saving the planet but not its own citizens, Kathmandu Tribune, August 31, 2017
84. "New highway divides isolated Buddhist kingdom of Mustang". Taipei Times. Taipei, Taiwan. AFP. May 19, 2007. Retrieved Dec 14, 2013.
85. "Destinations". Gorkha Airlines. Archived from the original on March 28, 2010. Retrieved 8 June2010.
86. "Schedule Effective from 15 May, 2010 to 30 October, 2010". Nepal Airlines. Retrieved 7 June2010.
87. "Simrik Airlines Flight Schedule". Retrieved 15 August 2016.
88. "Destinations". Sita Air. Archived from the original on 16 August 2010. Retrieved 6 June 2010.
89. Tara Air Destinations Archived 2016-08-22 at the Wayback Machine
90. Airport information for Jomsom, Nepal (VNJS / JMO) at Great Circle Mapper.
91. Jomsom Airport at
92. Final Report on the Accident Investigation of 9N-ABO at Jomsom Airport, on 16 May 2013
93. "Nepal plane crash: 11 Indians among 15 dead, Times of India 14 May 2012". Retrieved 14 May2012.
94. "NATIONAL AIRPORTS PLAN Current Situation and Diagnostic" (PDF). Civil Aviation Authority of Nepal. Retrieved 27 June 2017.
95. Peissel, Michel [1967]. Mustang, a Lost Tibetan Kingdom, Books Faith, 2002
96. Nepal Trekking Permit Fees, TAAN Nepal, Accessed June 2, 2013.
97. Rastriya Samachar Samiti, 39,000 tourists visited Mustang in 2016, The Himalayan Times, January 12, 2017
98. Mustang to Bar Tourists
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sat Nov 30, 2019 12:18 am

Chen Li-an [Lu-an/Lu an]
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 11/29/19



The Taiwan Connection

Soon after leaving Rumtek, Situ found that his ambition would take him far. Outside of the stuffy atmosphere of the Karmapa's cloister, Situ made friends easily. In the days when Tibetan lamas were still considered exotic by outsiders, Situ connected on a human level with spiritual seekers from both East and West. Former Rumtek Abbot Thrangu became Situ's mentor after the two left the Karmapa's monastery. Thrangu introduced his protege to people such as Taiwanese minister Chen Lu An who would provide valuable support to Situ to achieve his vision for his own palatial monastery and later, for the Karma Kagyu.

During the 1980s, Thrangu made several visits to Taiwan, a Buddhist stronghold where interest in Tibetan teachers was growing as rapidly as this Asian Tiger's booming export economy. It was well known among Tibetan lamas that the best fund-raising was to be had in the overseas Chinese communities of East and Southeast Asia and North America.

"In 1984, Thrangu Rinpoche came up with an idea to get money in Taiwan," said Jigme Rinpoche, Shamar's brother, a lama in his own right and the director of two large monasteries in France since the mid-seventies. Like Shamar, Jigme lived at Rumtek in the sixties and seventies. Now in his late fifties, the soft-spoken, baby-faced Jigme exudes an air of motherly care that seems ill-suited to controversy; Yet, he has been the most outspoken of Shamar's supporters in criticizing Thrangu's role.

"Thrangu Rinpoche chose a monk, he was called Tendar," Jigme said. "He left Rumtek with Thrangu Rinpoche in 1975 and followed him to his retreat place Namo Buddha in Kathmandu. Thrangu Rinpoche had the idea to present this Tendar as a high lama."

With specific instructions from Thrangu, the new "Tendar Tulku Rinpoche" went to Taipei with the credentials of a spiritual master, in order to teach and raise funds for Thrangu's work in Nepal and elsewhere. Jigme told me that "Thrangu Rinpoche asked his own monks in Taiwan, who knew that Tendar was merely an ordinary monk, to keep his secret and pretend that Tendar was a high lama." The monks in Taiwan went along with Tendar's masquerade until the following year when Tendar himself, apparently fearful of discovery, backed out of the scheme, but not before raising enough money to demonstrate the potential of this approach to his boss Thrangu Rinpoche.

Thrangu later elaborated on this strategy and reportedly went on to promote dozens of undistinguished lamas to rinpoches. "These lamas owed their new status and loyalty to Thrangu Rinpoche personally," Jigme explained. "Later, Situ Rinpoche followed his lead, recognizing more than two hundred tulkus in just four months during 1991, as we learned from our contacts in Tibet."

In 1988, while traveling in Taiwan, Thrangu met with Chen Lu An. "Mr. Chen approached Thrangu Rinpoche with a plan to raise millions of dollars for the Karma Kagyu in Taiwan," explained Jigme Rinpoche. In exchange for a percentage of donations, a kind of sales commission that would go to his own Guomindang party, Chen offered to conduct a large-scale fund-raising campaign. Chen asked Thrangu to convey his proposal to the four high lamas of the Karma Kagyu: Shamar, Situ, Jamgon, and Gyaltsab Rinpoches.

Together, according to Jigme -- who said the Rumtek administration received reports from a dozen loyal monks in Taiwan who heard about this plan from their devotees and other Tibetans on the island -- Thrangu and Chen worked out the details of a plan to raise as much as one hundred million dollars by finding a Karmapa and then touring him around Taiwan.

Beforehand, they would create interest with a publicity campaign announcing the imminent arrival of a "Living Buddha" and promising that whoever had the chance to see the Karmapa and offer him donations would be enlightened in one lifetime. On his arrival, the tulku would perform the Black Crown ceremony at dozens of Tibetan Buddhist centers and other venues on the island.

"With such a plan," Jigme said, "according to our monks on Taiwan, Mr. Chen assured Thrangu Rinpoche that he would be able to get between fifty and a hundred people to donate one million dollars each, along with hundreds of others who would give smaller amounts."

According to Jigme's sources, Thrangu asked Chen to keep the plan to himself. He promised Chen he would personally inform the Karma Kagyu rinpoches of their plan and Chen's offer to carry it out. However, when Thrangu returned to India, he did not share the plan with Shamar, Jamgon, or Gyaltsab, but only with Tai Situ. Situ was reportedly excited by the plan. "Soon after," Jigme explained, "Thrangu Rinpoche took Situ Rinpoche on a secret trip to Taiwan to meet with Mr. Chen."

"Together, the three worked out the details of a fund-raising tour for their future Karmapa. The plan was worked out at least four years before they announced Ogyen Trinley. Situ Rinpoche and Thrangu Rinpoche wanted to bring Gyaltsab Rinpoche into their plans, but they didn't think they could trust Jamgon Kongtrul Rinpoche." In any event, they were apparently certain that Shamar would not agree to participate and would spoil the plan, probably exposing it as he had exposed an earlier idea of Thrangu's, to take over the Karmapa's Kaolung Temple in Bhutan.

By 1973, the dozens of monks that Thrangu had brought into exile in 1959 still lingered at a refugee camp in northern India, in uncomfortable conditions. Thrangu had long sought his own cloister in which to house them. He set his eye on one of the Karmapa's monasteries in Bhutan for this purpose. Originally a gift of the grandmother of the current king, the Kaolung Temple was located within the campus of a large secondary school in eastern Bhutan.

Abbot Thrangu must have known that the sixteenth Karmapa would not willingly grant him control of the temple. But Thrangu apparently thought that if he offered his monks as "caretakers," that he could quietly place more and more monks there, eventually making control of the temple a fait accompli. Thrangu shared the whole scheme with Shamar, asking for his help. Thrangu must have thought that he could trust his former student. But he was wrong in this. Shamar immediately shared his former teacher's plan with with Topga, who had no choice but to inform the sixteenth Karmapa, thus earning Thrangu a rebuke from the sixteenth Karmapa.

"Soon afterwards, the abbot resigned his duties at Rumtek," Jigme said. "Ever since that, Thrangu Rinpoche behaved coldly towards Shamar Rinpoche. Therefore, according to our monks in Taiwan, Thrangu told Mr. Chen that under no circumstances should Shamar Rinpoche hear of their dealings."

Khenpo Chodrak and other lamas who managed Rumtek before Situ and Gyaltsab took over the monastery in 1993 have confirmed that they received similar information from monks in Taiwan at the time. Of course, even if Chen and Thrangu were planning to tour the Karmapa around Taiwan as a fund-raiser, we cannot know what they would have done with the donations. It is possible that they would have subsidized expanded Buddhist missionary work. It is also possible, as Jigme has suggested, that the money would have been used to build support for Situ and his allies among local politicians in Sikkim and elsewhere.


By mid-morning, a total crowd of more than a thousand of Tai Situ's supporters had assembled in the monastery's courtyard. A tense standoff began outside the main temple. The Rumtek monks responsible for the shrine room locked the entrance and refused to hand over the keys. Situ and Gyaltsab led a crowd to the temple, and sat down in front of the locked doors. They held incense and chanted Karmapa chenno (Karmapa hear me), the mantra of the Karmapas. Their followers clamored for action from behind them.

The Rumtek monks began to lose control over the situation. Soon, officers sent by the Sikkim chief of police began to intervene on the side of the aggressors. "This was crossing the line between church and state, which broke India's constitution," Shamar said. "We can only guess that Mr. Bhandari must have had a very strong incentive to take such a risk." Bhandari knew that New Delhi could have taken strong measures against him for breaching the constitutional wall between church and state, up to dissolving his government and putting him in prison. As it turned out, after the Rumtek takeover, the central government did initiate an investigation into Bhandari's role to determine if his Sikkim administration had unlawfully interfered in religious affairs.

Shamar's supporters have claimed that Bhandari probably received a payment as high as one million dollars from Situ and Gyaltsab, to send state police and security forces into Rumtek in response to an incident that the two rinpoches would provoke. The money came, allegedly, from Situ's Taiwanese supporter, former government official Chen Lu An. But the only evidence for this payment, aside from hearsay. is inferential: Shamar's followers theorize that for Bhandari to openly defy India's constitution by invading a religious center, and thus risk punishment from New Delhi, the chief minister must have been well rewarded. However, both newspaper reports and government investigators have documented that Chen Lu An delivered a payment of $1.5 million to Bhandari a few weeks after the Rumtek takeover.

According to Indian journalist Anil Maheshwari, Chen visited India between November 28 and December 4, 1993 to attend a meeting organized by Karma Topden. As we have seen Topden was a leader of Situ's Joint Action Committee in Sikkim and the father of the would-be Gyathon Tulku, rejected by the Rumtek administration in the eighties. Situ Rinpoche was also present at this meeting, and Shamar's supporters claim that this meeting was connected to Bhandari receiving a second payment from Chen for the chief minister's role in the takeover of Rumtek four months earlier, in August.2 The Indian government launched an investigation, and in January 1994, the Ministry of External Affairs in New Delhi banned Chen from re-entering India. [3]


In November 1999, Thaye Dorje accepted an invitation to make a tour of Southeast Asia. This would be his first trip abroad. He met with thousands of devotees at dharma centers in Singapore and Malaysia. But he almost did not make it into Taiwan, according to Ngedon Tenzin. Earlier, we encountered him as the senior monk-official at Rumtek who had his monk's robe wrapped around his neck by angry local supporters of Situ when he and Gyaltsab took over the Karmapa's cloister in August 1993. Since 2004, as we have seen, Ngedon has served as the general secretary of Thaye Dorje's labrang, the post held by Topga Rinpoche until his death from cancer in 1997.

"Our staff obtained a Taiwanese visa for Gyalwa Karmapa Thaye Dorje weeks before he was supposed to enter Taiwan. We used the diplomatic passport issued to him by the Bhutanese government," Ngedon said. "But the day before he was due to fly into Taipei airport, officials in the Foreign Ministry tried to stop His Holiness Karmapa from coming in because of a technicality."

Immigration officials noticed that his passport said that Thaye Dorje was born in Tibet. As a result of its strained relations with Beijing, the Taiwanese government required travelers born in China to obtain a special permit to enter the island nation. Only the timely intervention of one of Thaye Dorje's supporters in Taipei saved the trip. This devotee used his influence in the Foreign Ministry to convince the manager of the relevant office to remain open after normal closing time at five o'clock to process an emergency permit for Thaye Dorje. The tulku was able to obtain clearance and fly into Taipei the next day.

Ngedon suspects that Chen Lu An, who by this time was a former government official but one who still enjoyed influence in the tight-knit administration of the island nation, tried to block Thaye Dorje's entry into Taiwan. "Through our devotees in Taiwan" we heard that Mr. Chen had already lined up perhaps fifty people willing to pay one million dollars each to carry the box for the Black Crown and hand it to Ogyen Trinley during the Black Crown ceremony," Ngedon said.

Here we might recall that Jigme Rinpoche accused former Rumtek Abbot Thrangu of planning with Chen to tour the next Karmapa around the island to raise funds, as we saw in chapter 8. Now, it appeared that Chen had started to put a similar plan into action with Tai Situ.

According to Ngedon, Chen had even more Taiwanese pledged to pay five hundred thousand dollars each to hand Ogyen Trinley the so-called Body, Speech, and Mind Objects during the ceremony -- a stupa or sacred pagoda, a statue of the Buddha, and a text of Buddhist scriptures. "Mr. Chen had made commitments to Karma Kagyu lamas in Taiwan, as well as monasteries around the world, from Kathmandu to New York, to distribute these funds. If His Holiness Thaye Dorje came to Taiwan, Mr. Chen's plan would be spoiled. We heard that he was practically sleeping in front of the Foreign Ministry office to stop Karmapa Thaye Dorje from getting into Taiwan."

-- Buddha's Not Smiling: Uncovering Corruption at the Heart of Tibetan Buddhism Today, by Erik D. Curren


Chen Li-an (Chinese: 陳履安; pinyin: Chén Lǚ'ān; born 22 June 1937 in Qingtian, Zhejiang, Republic of China), sometimes spelled Chen Lu-an, is an electrical engineer, mathematician and former Taiwanese politician.

Early life

The son of former Vice President Chen Tsyr-shiou, he earned his masters' and Ph.D. in mathematics from New York University. He had a close friendship with Wang Yung-ching, a respected businessman. Wang later appointed Chen the headmaster of the private Ming-chi Technology College which Wang owned; Chen held the position from July 1970 to February 1972.

Political career

Chen served as Minister of Economic Affairs from 1988 to 1991, Minister of National Defense from 1991 to 1993, and President of the Control Yuan from 1993 to 1995. He resigned his post, left the Kuomintang, and declared his candidacy for the presidency in September 1995 to express his open criticism of Lee Teng-hui's Mainland policy.

Lin Yang-kang originally considered Chen as his vice-presidential running-mate in the 1996 ROC presidential election. However, Chen chose to run for president himself (with Wang Ching-feng as his vice-presidential candidate). As Chen is a devoted convert to Tibetan Buddhism (he is ethnically Han), his campaign tour of the island featured a strong spiritual theme, projecting an image that some commented to be like an "ascetic monk". After losing his bid in the presidential election with the lowest vote among the four candidates, Chen announced that he would retire from politics.

1996 Republic of China Presidential Election Result
President Candidate / Vice President Candidate / Party / Votes / %
Lee Teng-hui / Lien Chan / Kuomintang / 5,813,699 / 54.0
Peng Ming-min / Frank Hsieh / Democratic Progressive Party / 2,274,586 / 21.1
Lin Yang-kang / Hau Pei-tsun / Independent / 1,603,790 / 14.9
Chen Li-an / /Wang Ching-feng / Independent / 1,074,044 / 9.9
Invalid/blank votes / 117,160
Total / 10,883,279 /100

Later, as part of his efforts to promote Tibetan Buddhism, he founded the Hwa-yu Foundation (化育基金會), of which he serves as president and his eldest son, Chen Yu-ting (陳宇廷), serves as director. Chen also organized charities to financially assist ethnic minorities in mainland China and Nepal. From 1996 to 1998, he visited the Mainland China three times, meeting once with Jiang Zemin, General Secretary of the Communist Party of China.

While he still considered the Kuomintang a "rotten party",[1] Chen endorsed the KMT candidate Lien Chan in the 2000 ROC presidential election, believing that Lien was unlike the rest of the Kuomintang.

In January 2001, Chen re-joined the Kuomintang, because he thought both the party and Taiwan needed him.
[2] Since 2002 Chen and his family have been investing and running various business in mainland China, Nepal and Macau.

Chen's last public appearance was in the Pan-Blue Coalition's protests shortly after the 2004 ROC presidential election. He showed his support for Lien Chan and James Soong.

Personal life

He is married to Tsao Chin (曹倩). His daughter, Chen Yu-hui, is a businesswoman (director of ABN AMRO) and wuxia novelist ("Duō qíng làng zǐ chī qíng xiá";多情浪子痴情侠).

See also

• Politics of the Republic of China


1. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 14 January 2004. Retrieved 6 December 2003.
2. Lin, Chieh-yu (4 January 2001). "KMT exodus could cost party its majority". Taipei Times. p. 3. Retrieved 29 January 2015.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sat Nov 30, 2019 4:35 am

The prince who wanted to save his kingdom: Jigme Singh Palbar Bista, Heir to a Himalayan dynasty
by Vanessa Dougnac
La Croix
November 29, 2917




For the villagers of Mustang, Nepal, Jigme Singhe Palbar Bista remains their king. It is heir to a lineage that goes back to the XIV th century, at a time when the former Buddhist kingdom opens to the world.

The Crown Prince Jigme Singhe Palbar Bista, whom the villagers call "the King", savored in his palace a cup of po Cha, Tibetan tea salted with yak butter. Wearing an anorak and cap screwed on his head, he is the direct descendant of the great warrior Ame Pal who founded the kingdom of Mustang in 1380 and erected the fortress of Lo Manthang, in this Nepalese enclave of the high Tibetan plateau.

Nestled in a grandiose labyrinth of desert mountains, the last fortified capital of the Himalayas has passed through the centuries out of sight. Annexed by Nepal in 1790 for 100 pieces of silver and a horse, the Mustang kept the right to keep its monarchy and remained banned from foreigners until 1992. Since then, only a few hundred tourists visit the legendary country each summer, subject to a permit of 500 dollars (420 €). The kingdom has emerged at the dawn of XXIth century as an open-air museum, a medieval unspoiled Tibetan culture.

Today, "Jigme" is a king without a crown, in a valley upset by modernity. In 2008, a democratic regime overthrew the monarchy in Kathmandu. In Mustang, his uncle and adoptive father, King Jigme Dorje Balpar [Palbar] Bista, had to abdicate to limit himself to play a cultural role. Added to this is the first road built from the Chinese border, which will soon close the Mustang to the rest of the world. In the villages, jeeps and motorcycles make their appearance and men's dresses are bartered for jeans "made in China".

With the broad smile that often illuminates his face, Jigme Singhe Palbar Bista defines himself as "a simple Mustang man". And he finishes his tea, in a kitchen with cracked walls, in the heart of a crumbling and deserted palace. His father, the last king, died last December at the age of 86, leaving him as a legacy his palaces in ruins. And the blows of the spell did not help. The earthquake that devastated Nepal in 2015 damaged Lo Manthang's palace, and the large herd of royal yaks was decimated in an avalanche.

Residing in Kathmandu, Jigme Singhe Palbar Bista embodies the transition. Father of two, he married a noble of Tibetan origin after completing studies in political science. Breaking with the paternal style, he became both entrepreneur and Mustang cultural spokesperson. It still does justice in inheritance cases or land disputes. Because if some communist graffiti are drawn on the walls of Lo Manthang, the villagers maintain a great respect towards the royalty, guardian of their traditions.

Jigme learned to ride at the age of 7, but he also willingly accompanies his guests by helicopter to try to attract investment. He has just built a beautiful hotel in Lo Manthang. "I see all the villagers leaving the Mustang looking for work," he says. I would like the hotel to help create local jobs. "

In the meantime, he tries to promote education among a poor and rural population. Thanks to donations, he has set up 16 reception centers and an institution that supports 65 children. "My dream would be to see the new generation in school," he says. He also hopes to save his palaces. Two of them are abandoned and that of Lo Manthang has been consolidated in extremis thanks to the intervention of a German foundation. As for the monasteries, archaeological treasures, their restoration is faithfully ensured by the American Himalayan Foundation.

"But since 1992, the government has collected a lot of money on our backs by taxing tourists," says Jigme Singhe Palbar Bista. Where are bridges, hospitals, schools? Finally, the authorities build a road. It's good for development, but it's not good. "

In the immediate future, foreign trekkers who crisscross the steep paths with impressive teams of mules, porters, tents and cooks, are a little confused by discovering bulldozers in the heart of the mythical kingdom. "We must rethink our future, while having the fear of seeing modernity crumble our culture, admits the king. But I want to try, until my death, to help the Mustang. "
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sun Dec 01, 2019 2:36 am

Guild of St Raphael
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 12/3/19



The Guild of St Raphael, founded in 1915, was a Christian organisation dedicated to promoting, supporting and practicing Christ's ministry of healing as an integral part of the life and worship of the Church. Originating from within the Anglican Communion, it expanded to include members from other Churches and became ecumenical in outlook. It was also international in scope with over one hundred branches throughout the world. The Guild took its name from the Book of Tobit, where Saint Raphael is the angel who helps Tobias find his way. In October 2015 the Guild merged with the Guild of Health - from which it had originally emerged - under the formal title of The Guild of Health and St. Raphael. The remainder of this article contains the text as it appeared before the merger. Information about membership and the publications Guild News and Chrism can now be found at

Origins and history

Some Internet sources [1] place the founding of the Guild by some of the members of the Stella Matutina, including Robert Felkin. There is little documentary evidence available to support this assertion outside of the book by Francis X. King, (1989), and he asserts that the Guild rapidly became completely separate from any of the practices of Stella Matutina. The available evidence suggests it never was connected.

Recent minutes (published in Chrism, 2006) show that the driving personalities behind the foundation of the Guild in 1915 were a Miss Caroline Biggs, recorded as Secretary of the newly formed Guild, with the Reverend Canon R. P. Roseveare of St Paul's Deptford, recorded as its first Warden.

25 July 1901.

The Temple seems Astral, i.e. Transparent and the building is self luminous. The walls of the chamber form the circle and the points of the Pentagram touch them. I face the [E]ast, (i.e., the Eastern point, the water angle). On [the] Eastern Point of [the] Pentagram I see a downward pointing triangle with [a] dot in the centre (apex of triangle down). The triangle expands into a luminous Angelic figure with the sign of the triangle upon its forehead (The part of the walls appears to have dissolves or become transparent as the vision proceeded.) Two sides of the triangle seem to be produced to the two corners of Heaven in two luminous rays which seem to embrace a fourth part of the Universe including the Astral and regions above it. The Rays become wider as they ascend. Influences like waves of light, which form Angels, descend to the point and then ascend from the apex up [as] waves of light. The Angle which stands on the point is the personification of the Influences and Lord of that Quarter of the Universe. The Influences descend from the point in the Heavens as wings and the undulating waves ascend – the latter are in 3 bands coloured Rose, White and Golden. The waves seem subdivided to 7 by bands of colours which intermingle. Starting from the foot of the Angel (where [the] apex now is) and forming itself inside the large triangle is a circle. I hear the words, “Raphael, Giver of Light.” Symbols of the nature of Libra [x] are round the triangle. One seems like a horse shoe thus. [x] [Mals] a horseshoe also with a bar across the horse. The symbols are in light in [the] centre of [the] circle just above the heads of the Angels....

Raphael seems to rule the right hand [or] N]orth]-E[ast] angle, Michael left [or] Western angle, Gabriel lower East angle, and Auriel at bottom lower angle to it. Each is an embodied essence of a manifestation of the Deity.

-- The Enochian Experiments of the Golden Dawn, Enochian Alphabet Clairvoyantly Examined (Golden Dawn Studies No. 7, part of Florence Farr, by Wikipedia

In 1910 the Community of the Resurrection at Mirfield sent a mission of help to New Zealand, preaching and conducting retreats. One of the visiting priests was a Father Fitzgerald, whom Miss McLean had met in Britain, and she arranged for him to meet members of the Havelock prayer group. He agreed to be the director of their spiritual work from Britain. After a period of instruction, focussing on an esoteric approach to Christianity, Father Fitzgerald told the group that they had reached a level where personal instruction would be necessary, and he recommended a Dr. Robert Felkin for the task, who was the head of the Stella Matutina. Within a week the group had cabled £300 passage, supplied by Maurice Chambers and his father, Mason, and his uncle John, for Felkin and his family to visit New Zealand for three months. During this visit in 1912 Dr Felkin established the Smaragdum Thalasses Temple of the Stella Matutina, and later emigrated permanently to NZ in 1916, when he took up the day-to-day running of the Temple until his death in 1926.

-- Havelock Work, by Wikipedia

Sacramentalists held a high view of the place of the sacraments in the ministry of healing. Their theology made them sensitive to the interpenetration of the spiritual and the material worlds, whereby spiritual reality finds expression in a tangible or visual form. The Incarnation is the most comprehensive expression of such interpenetration.84 The incarnational principle has its counterpart in the sacraments of the Eucharist (wine and bread) and Baptism (water) and Unction (oil), the benefits of which become available when approached in the right manner, and engaged in sincere intention. When such conditions are met, then the due performance of the act is deemed normally to convey divine grace. Such a view offers a framework for the continuation of divine activity in healing with the conveyance of divine succor through anointing with oil and the laying on of hands.85 Evelyn Frost in her classic study of Christian healing from this sacramental/liturgical angle, expressed it with precision: “The sacraments are the means by which the nature of the old order becomes interpenetrated and hence transformed by [the new order]… The church, then, in Holy Unction, has been entrusted with a sacrament which exists primarily for the sick in body and mind.”86 At the Anglican Conference on “Spiritual Healing,” Father J.G. FitzGerald, Community of the Resurrection, Mirfield, Yorkshire, expressed the view that healing is “the extension of the Incarnate Life in the Church.”87 With this understanding the body of Christ, the incarnational dimension of the Christian message, with its acute sense of divine “presence,” played a central role in the High Church understanding of spiritual healing.

The Guild of St. Raphael was formed in 1915, when the High Church members of Anson’s Guild of Health withdrew after it sought to expand beyond its Anglican roots. Another sticking point was the Guild of Health’s commitment to the alignment of religion with medicine and psychology, while less emphasis given to sacramental grace. The Guild of St. Raphael accentuated healing as mediated through the priesthood and the sacraments, without undue regard of the claims of modern psychology and, unlike the Emmanuel movement, did not limit itself to functional disorders. Its declared object was to forward a healing ministry both “by sacramental means and by intercessory prayer, until the Church, as a whole, accepts Divine Healing as part of its normal work.” The Guild started under the patronage of the two Archbishops and thirty English diocesan bishops as well as twenty-five overseas bishops. It adopted three measures: To prepare the sick for all ministries of healing by teaching the need for repentance and faith; to make use of the sacrament of Holy Unction and the rite of Laying on of Hands for healing; to bring to the aid of the Ministry of Healing the power of intercession, individual and corporate, and the other spiritual forces of Meditation and Silence.88 The administration of Holy Unction was confined to the priesthood, and then only after careful preparation of the patient that included teaching on the nature of repentance and faith. The Laying on of Hands, not being a sacrament, could be administered by lay members of the Guild under the direction of a priest or member of the Guild, and with the approval of the bishop of the diocese.

That the issue of unction was a pressing one for some readers of Confidence is hinted at in an article published in 1922. A letter writer wanted to know, with reference to Jas 5:14, what “form of procedure” Boddy used when anointing with oil.89 Boddy acknowledged that “it is admittedly a help with some to have their anointing in Church,” thinking perhaps of those from a High Church background. He made reference to a booklet that enclosed an order of service for healing that he considered some might find helpful. The booklet was written by Herbert Pakenham Walsh (1871-1951_, the first Bishop of Assam, India, to whom reference was made above. It is of some relevance that Walsh was the son of Bishop Willian Pakenham Walsh. The Bishop’s second wife was Annie Frances Hackett, the daughter of the vicar of St. James’s, Bray, Co. Dublin. The second Mrs. Walsh was the sister of Thomas Edmund Hackett (1850-1939), who followed his father as incumbent of St. James. Thomas Hackett retired in 1903 but his spiritual journey was not complete. After a Keswick-type experience c. 1906, he attended the first Pentecostal Sunderland Conference in 1907. It is likely that he received his Spirit-baptism in the classical Pentecostal understanding. It is eminently probable that with the friendship of Boddy and Hackett, the latter would have drawn attention to his nephew’s booklet. It carried the title Divine Healing (1921), and ended with the sixteen-page text of “A Service of Anointing.” Whether Boddy used Walsh’s liturgy is not clear, though possibly not, because he confessed that he felt it “rather long.” Despite that, he was prepared to recommend it to the writer of the letter.

Boddy made it clear that for individuals seeking healing it was preferable, if the sufferer was physically able, to meet in the Vicarage and not in the church. Ceremonial propriety was deliberately downplayed to keep faith with his evangelical churchmanship: “No robes[,]…[t]he sick one kneeling perhaps at the dining room table.” A tiny bottle of olive oil was ready, though he felt the need to explain that “only half a dozen drops or so were used,” as if to underscore evangelical minimalism. The ministration of the sick person began with family and friends kneeling, and the elder standing and seeking God “for the promised Presence.” The Jas 5:13=16 passage was then read, followed by the supplicant making confession of sins (v. 16). On one occasion a sufferer’s “trouble instantly disappeared” after his/her confession was made. In Boddy’s account, the elder then

rebukes the sickness, and all the evil powers behind the disease, (Luke 4:39), next placing the sufferer under the Precious Blood for cleansing…. Also [for] protection from all evil powers and for victory (Rev. 12:11). Thus the sick one is prepared to receive the Blessed Quickening Spirit, the Lord, and Giver of Life and Health, the Holy Ghost Himself. [Then], pouring a few drops of olive oil into his left palm, the Elder prays that God will graciously sanctify the oil, and that He will use it as a channel of spiritual blessing to the sufferer for Christ’s sake …. Then with a finger of his right hand dipped into the oil, he touches the forehead in the ‘Name of the Lord,’ and then in the full name of the Trinity, placing his left hand with the oil in it on the head of the sufferer, with such oil as remains. As in Mk. 16:18, he lays on both his hands, and asks that the hands of Christ – the Pierced Hands – may also rest on the sick one to impart His Life …. Then he asks the person to thank God and praise, and praise.90

The act concludes with the Aaronic Blessing, with the patient still kneeling the elder again placed his hands upon the head of the believer.

The whole procedure clearly was liturgically structured, sensitive to scriptural guidance and vindication, strongly affirming of the merits of the shed blood and the power of the Spirit, with an allusion to the sacramental efficacy of unction, expressed in the prayer that “God will graciously sanctify the oil, and He will use it as a channel of spiritual blessing.” The article was written in 1922, but he let it be known that the procedure outlined above had been followed since 1892. The more Pentecostal elements in the ceremony come out in the call for the patient “to thank God and praise and praise,” an act assuredly prolonged and volumetrically vibrant. Such was the sense of blessing on these occasions that he could report that “some at this service have received a Baptism of the Holy Ghost, when they came for healing.”

Two episodes in Boddy’s life are recorded in Confidence, where contact was made with healers with Anglo-Catholic sympathies, viz., John Maillard and Dorothy Kerin.

-- Divine Healing: The Years of Expansion, 1906–1930: Theological Variation in the Transatlantic World, by James Robinson

By 1920, under Canon Roseveare's Wardenship, the fourth Annual Report gives the membership as 19 priest members, 26 priest associates, 2 lay members and 248 lay associates. The Guild had already penetrated into Africa, Canada, New Zealand, India and China.

A letter to the Times, published in 1933 by Bishop W.W. Hough, Warden of the Guild, notes that "The movement has grown. There are now over 2,000 lay members, and 300 priest members who are practicing spiritual healing in most of the dioceses in the land."


Its main emphasis is on the actual practice of the healing ministry through its local branches, and this is where its strength lies. Its members observe a simple rule of prayer, study and work for this ministry. Their aim is always to promote Christ's ministry of healing - looking not just for physical healing, but for the healing of the whole person.

The Guild looks too for the healing of communities and of God's creation itself - taking into account those many social and political factors which cause 'dis-ease' in our broken and divided world.

Prayer for healing is at the heart of the Guild's work, as are the sacraments of healing - anointing and the sacramental act of the laying on of hands. But members make use of other healing actions as well - the ministry of listening and silence, counselling, informal liturgies and simple symbolic actions. The Guild has in the past gained a high-profile for its study and recognition of exorcism. In 1960, the Rev. Henry Cooper, Chaplain to the Guild, argued that successful exorcists are people who know something about psychiatry and work well with doctors. They resort to bell, book and candle only when psychiatrists have given up [2].

The Guild also engages in extensive theological education and research. In particular through its periodical, Chrism, mentioned below.

In this and in all its activities the Guild has always stood for the closest co-operation with members of the medical profession and others engaged in the work of healing.


The Guild publishes a half-yearly periodical, Chrism, in which it endeavours to explore different aspects of the healing scene. Past editions have dealt with diverse topics such as Children and Healing, Touch in a Fearful Society, Animals and Healing, A Theology of Health for Today, M.E. (Chronic Fatigue Syndrome), Dementia, Genetic Engineering and Healing, Alcohol and Substance Abuse.


• 1915 Reverend Canon R. P. Roseveare of St Paul's Deptford
• 1959 Reverend F. S. Sinker, Vicar of Offchurch, diocese of Coventry


• Guild of St. Raphael: The Ministry of Healing. Booklet, 2005
• Henry Cooper, Deliverance and Healing: The Place of Exorcism in the Healing Ministry, London: Guild of Health and Guild of St. Raphael, 1972
• The Priest's Vade Mecum. A Manual for the Visiting of the Sick, 1945, edited by Guild Warden Rev. T.W. Crafter, put forth by the Literature Committee of the Guild of St Raphael.
• Christian Healing: History and Hope by Mary Theresa Webb, 2002
• Psychology and Life by Leslie D. Weatherhead, 1935
• Guild News, March 2006

External links

• Guild Website
• Time Article on Exorcism, 1960
• Guild Website, St Brelade, Jersey
• A fresh look at a remarkable document: Exorcism: The report of a commission convened by the Bishop of Exeter
• The Bishop's Advisory Group on the Church's Ministry of Healing, Bristol
• Book review on Chrism Autumn 2002 number on Dementia
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sun Dec 01, 2019 2:41 am

Celebrating Asian Art, March 12-19, 2020
by Asia Week New York
Accessed: 11/30/19




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Vase. China. Qianlong period and mark, ca.1755. Philadelphia Museum of Art: Gift of Mrs. Henry W. Breyer, Sr., 1962, 1962-84-9.


A Complete Map of the World: The Eighteenth-century Convergence of China and Europe
This small, focused exhibition uses one of the rare prints of Ma Junliang’s map of the world, Jingban tianwen quantu, as a starting point to consider the interaction between China and Europe during the 18th century.

M.F. Husain: Art and the Nation
The twelve massive panels of Lightning, painted as the backdrop for Indira Gandhi's Congress Party public rally in 1975, each ten feet high and five feet wide, are littered with visual references to India and the 1970s, and though absent visually, to Indira Gandhi.

Reza Aramesh: 12 noon, Monday 5 August, 1963
The exhibition focuses on Aramesh’s series of limewood sculptures that were inspired by seventeenth-century Spanish Christian iconography of martyred saints.

Masterpieces of the Asia Society Museum Collection
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P.O. Box 2091, New York, NY 10021


A Celebration of Asia Week
by Asia Society, New York
Accessed: 11/30/19

Asia Society New York headquarters on Mar. 10, 2009. (Elsa Ruiz/Asia Society)

NEW YORK, March 10, 2009 - Asia Society inaugurated Asia Week in New York City with a lavish new gala benefit event, "A Celebration of Asia Week." Tony-Award winning actor BD Wong served as Honorary Chair for the evening, which featured chic cocktail receptions, an elegant Collectors' Dinner for patrons, and a festive "Bangkok Nights" supper club with dancing for young patrons and music curated by DJ Serebe.

Guests were treated to special performances by the innovative jazz saxophonist Rudresh Mahanthappa with guitar virtuoso Rez Abbasi and tabla star Dan Weiss, as well as Hao Jiang Tian, the world-renowned basso cantante and pioneer in the world of opera since the early 1990s. They also enjoyed private access to the Museum's exhibitions Asian Journeys: Collecting Art in Post-war America, Yang Fudong: Seven Intellectuals in a Bamboo Forest, and Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove. Sotheby's Henry Howard-Sneyd led a lively auction of several extraordinary journeys to exotic Asian locales, the highlight of which was the "Thailand Dream Excursion" crafted by longtime supporters Joan and Edward Marcus.

All guests of the Celebration received a Golden Pass, an exclusive insider's ticket to nearly 20 private gallery previews, curator-led tours, auction house viewings, lectures, and other exceptional events during Asia Week in New York City. Held March 11 through 20, 2009 Asia Week attracts top dealers and collectors of some of the most important Asian art on the market from around the globe.

Guests at the Celebration of Asia Week benefit included: Honorary Chair BD Wong, Co-chairs Janet Jacobs and Susan Shin, and Young Patrons co-chairs Laura Begley, Ida Liu, and Diana Sheng Hsu. Thai Consul General Piriya Khempon and his wife, Rattanprapa Disavantana, attended. Also in attendance were: Princess Yang Chen of Sikkim, Betsy and Edward Cohen, Lois Collier, Scott Delman, Inger McCabe Elliot, Pam Gale, James Lebenthal, Pooneh Mohazzabi, Cynthia Hazen Polsky and Leon Polsky, Janet Ross (Mrs. Arthur Ross), Paul Tagliabue, Vivienne Tam, and Marie-Helene Weill, Wesley Wang, Ali Weinberg, Arden Wohl, and Victoria Wyman. George Hu, Governor Pattersons' Assistant for Asian Affairs, attended and presented a proclamation of Asia Week from the Governor.

Attire for the evening was Asian chic/national dress. The Asia Society's Garden Court was transformed into a Bangkok Nights Supper Club, transporting guests with modern Thai décor including serpentine cushion benches and lounge furniture, illuminated end tables and highboys and an 84" round ottoman with leopard bottom and fuchsia top stationed in the lobby. The atrium's weeping podocarpus trees were festooned with hanging Thai tapestries, and luxurious woven Thai silk fabrics and masks were used as accent pieces throughout the space. The Thai-inspired cuisine included green curry dishes, pad thai, and green papaya with chili lime sauce. Guests also enjoyed Thai beer and Thai wines, made possible by referrals from the Tourist Authority of Thailand and Thai Consulate.

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Asia Week 2018 at Asia Society
A complete list of events

(Detail) Vajriputra Arhat. 17th century. Possibly Kham (East Tibet). Tradition: Gelug. Pigments on cloth. MU-CIV/MAO “Giuseppe Tucci,” inv. 926/759. Courtesy of the Museum of Civilisation-Museum of Oriental Art “Giuseppe Tucci,” Rome

Asia Week New York, March 15–24, 2018, is a collaboration among museums, galleries, auction houses, Asian art specialists, and enthusiasts hosting exhibitions, previews, and special programs throughout the city, attracting visitors from around the world.


Unknown Tibet: The Tucci Expeditions and Buddhist Painting
Through May 20, 2018
Recently restored Tibetan paintings collected by Giuseppe Tucci during his expeditions to Tibet on first-time view in the United States. Now in the collection of the Museum of Civilisation-Museum of Oriental Art “Giuseppe Tucci,” Rome.

In Focus: An Assembly of Gods
Through March 25, 2018
This exhibition features a large and marvelously detailed Chinese pantheon painting featuring a range of Buddhist, Daoist, Confucian, and popular Chinese deities.

Masterpieces from the Asia Society Museum Collection
Through March 25, 2018
A selection of the finest artworks from the renowned Asia Society Museum Collection.

AsiaStore Events

Scholars Rock From the Collection of Kemin Hu
Thursday, March 15 – Saturday, March 24; 11 a.m. – 6 p.m. and Fridays until 9 p.m.
Appearance by Kemin Hu on Friday, March 16 from 12 p.m to 4 p.m., discussion at 2 p.m.

AsiaStore presents newly acquired scholars’ rocks — cherished by the Chinese since the Tang Dynasty and sought after for generations — from the collection of Kemin Hu.
Asian Art Collector’s Book Review
Thursday, March 15 – Saturday, March 24; 11 a.m. – 6 p.m. and Fridays until 9 p.m.

For more information about Asia Week New York 2018, and details about other events throughout the city, visit:
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sun Dec 01, 2019 3:06 am

by Wikipedia
Accessed: 11/30/19



The Senate committee’s investigation into the use of journalists was supervised by William B. Bader, a former CIA intelligence officer who returned briefly to the Agency this year as deputy to CIA director Stansfield Turner and is now a high‑level intelligence official at the Defense Department. Bader was assisted by David Aaron, who now serves as the deputy to Zbigniew Brzezinski, President Carter’s national security adviser.

According to colleagues on the staff of the Senate inquiry, both Bader and Aaron were disturbed by the information contained in CIA files about journalists; they urged that further investigation he undertaken by the Senate’s new permanent CIA oversight committee. That committee, however, has spent its first year of existence writing a new charter for the CIA, and members say there has been little interest in delving further into the CIA’s use of the press.

Bader’s investigation was conducted under unusually difficult conditions. His first request for specific information on the use of journalists was turned down by the CIA on grounds that there had been no abuse of authority and that current intelligence operations might he compromised. Senators Walter Huddleston, Howard Baker, Gary Hart, Walter Mondale and Charles Mathias—who had expressed interest in the subject of the press and the CIA—shared Bader’s distress at the CIA’s reaction. In a series of phone calls and meetings with CIA director George Bush and other Agency officials, the senators insisted that the committee staff be provided information about the scope of CIA‑press activities. Finally, Bush agreed to order a search of the files and have those records pulled which deals with operations where journalists had been used. But the raw files could not he made available to Bader or the committee, Bush insisted. Instead, the director decided, his deputies would condense the material into one‑paragraph sum­maries describing in the most general terms the activities of each individual journalist. Most important, Bush decreed, the names of journalists and of the news organizations with which they were affiliated would be omitted from the summaries. However, there might be some indication of the region where the journalist had served and a general description of the type of news organization for which he worked.

Assembling the summaries was difficult, according to CIA officials who supervised the job. There were no “journalist files” per se and information had to be collected from divergent sources that reflect the highly compartmentalized character of the CIA. Case officers who had handled journalists supplied some names. Files were pulled on various undercover operations in which it seemed logical that journalists had been used. Significantly, all work by reporters for the Agency under the category of covert operations, not foreign intelligence.) Old station records were culled. “We really had to scramble,” said one official.

After several weeks, Bader began receiving the summaries, which numbered over 400 by the time the Agency said it had completed searching its files.

The Agency played an intriguing numbers game with the committee. Those who prepared the material say it was physically impossible to produce all of the Agency’s files on the use of journalists. “We gave them a broad, representative picture,” said one agency official. “We never pretended it was a total description of the range of activities over 25 years, or of the number of journalists who have done things for us.” A relatively small number of the summaries described the activities of foreign journalists—including those working as stringers for American publications. Those officials most knowledgeable about the subject say that a figure of 400 American journalists is on the low side of the actual number who maintained covert relationships and undertook clandestine tasks.

Bader and others to whom he described the contents of the summaries immediately reached some general conclusions: the sheer number of covert relationships with journalists was far greater than the CIA had ever hinted; and the Agency’s use of reporters and news executives was an intelligence asset of the first magnitude. Reporters had been involved in almost every conceivable kind of operation. Of the 400‑plus individuals whose activities were summarized, between 200 and 250 were “working journalists” in the usual sense of the term—reporters, editors, correspondents, photographers; the rest were employed at least nominally) by book publishers, trade publications and newsletters.

Still, the summaries were just that: compressed, vague, sketchy, incomplete. They could be subject to ambiguous interpretation. And they contained no suggestion that the CIA had abused its authority by manipulating the editorial content of American newspapers or broadcast reports.

Bader’s unease with what he had found led him to seek advice from several experienced hands in the fields of foreign relations and intelligence. They suggested that he press for more information and give those members of the committee in whom he had the most confidence a general idea of what the summaries revealed. Bader again went to Senators Huddleston, Baker, Hart, Mondale and Mathias. Meanwhile, he told the CIA that he wanted to see more—the full files on perhaps a hundred or so of the individuals whose activities had been summarized. The request was turned down outright. The Agency would provide no more information on the subject. Period.

The CIA’s intransigence led to an extraordinary dinner meeting at Agency headquarters in late March 1976. Those present included Senators Frank Church who had now been briefed by Bader), and John Tower, the vice‑chairman of the committee; Bader; William Miller, director of the committee staff; CIA director Bush; Agency counsel Rogovin; and Seymour Bolten, a high‑level CIA operative who for years had been a station chief in Germany and Willy Brandt’s case officer. Bolten had been deputized by Bush to deal with the committee’s requests for information on journalists and academics. At the dinner, the Agency held to its refusal to provide any full files. Nor would it give the committee the names of any individual journalists described in the 400 summaries or of the news organizations with whom they were affiliated. The discussion, according to participants, grew heated. The committee’s representatives said they could not honor their mandate—to determine if the CIA had abused its authority—without further information. The CIA maintained it could not protect its legitimate intelligence operations or its employees if further disclosures were made to the committee. Many of the journalists were contract employees of the Agency, Bush said at one point, and the CIA was no less obligated to them than to any other agents.

Finally, a highly unusual agreement was hammered out: Bader and Miller would be permitted to examine “sanitized” versions of the full files of twenty‑five journalists selected from the summaries; but the names of the journalists and the news organizations which employed them would be blanked out, as would the identities of other CIA employees mentioned in the files. Church and Tower would be permitted to examine the unsanitizedversions of five of the twenty‑five files—to attest that the CIA was not hiding anything except the names. The whole deal was contingent on an agreement that neither Bader, Miner, Tower nor Church would reveal the contents of the files to other members of the committee or staff.

Bader began reviewing the 400‑some summaries again. His object was to select twenty‑five that, on the basis of the sketchy information they contained, seemed to represent a cross section. Dates of CIA activity, general descriptions of news organizations, types of journalists and undercover operations all figured in his calculations.

From the twenty‑five files he got back, according to Senate sources and CIA officials, an unavoidable conclusion emerged: that to a degree never widely suspected, the CIA in the 1950s, ‘60s and even early ‘70s had concentrated its relationships with journalists in the most prominent sectors of the American press corps, including four or five of the largest newspapers in the country, the broadcast networks and the two major newsweekly magazines. Despite the omission of names and affiliations from the twenty‑five detailed files each was between three and eleven inches thick), the information was usually sufficient to tentatively identify either the newsman, his affiliation or both—particularly because so many of them were prominent in the profession.

“There is quite an incredible spread of relationships,” Bader reported to the senators. “You don’t need to manipulate Time magazine, for example, because there are Agency people at the management level.”

-- The CIA and the Media: How America's Most Powerful News Media Worked Hand in Glove with the Central Intelligence Agency and Why the Church Committee Covered It Up, by Carl Bernstein

Asiaweek magazine cover August 25 1993.jpg
cover August 25, 1993
Frequency Weekly
Company Time Inc.
Based in Hong Kong
Language English
ISSN 1012-6244

Asiaweek was an English-language news magazine focusing on Asia, published weekly by Asiaweek Limited, a subsidiary of Time Inc. Based in Hong Kong, it was established in 1975, and ceased publication with its 7 December 2001 issue due to a "downturn in the advertising market," according to Norman Pearlstine, editor in chief of Time Inc. The magazine had a circulation of 120,000 copies when it closed.[1]

The magazine was formerly associated with Yazhou Zhoukan (亞洲週刊), an international Chinese newsweekly, before Time Warner media acquired it.


Asiaweek was founded in 1975 by Michael O'Neill, a New Zealander, and T. J. S. George, an Indian, who had worked together at the Far Eastern Economic Review but had grown disenchanted with what they considered its ponderous style and perceived British stance.[2][3] Asiaweek's mission statement said it all: "To report accurately and fairly the affairs of Asia in all spheres of human activity, to see the world from an Asian perspective, to be Asia's voice in the world."[4]

Among the publication's many contributions to an understanding of the Asia-Pacific Rim region was the annual Asiaweek Short Story Competition, which ran from 1981 to 1988. Prizewinning Asian Fiction (edited and introduced by Leon Comber) was eventually published in book form in 1991 by Times Editions, Singapore, and Hong Kong University Press[5] In his Foreword, Asiaweek Managing Editor Salmon Wayne Morrison wrote: "The competition cast a body of writing that had not been given publicity before."[5]:viii

Asiaweek had only four editors during its 26 years period: co-founders T. J. S. George and Michael O'Neill, who conceived the magazine, Ann Morrison who succeeded O'Neill in 1994, and Dorinda Elliott, formerly Newsweek's Asia editor in Hong Kong, who took over in October 2000. The magazine had always moved with the times. As co-founder George wrote in an editorial statement in Asiaweek's first issue in December 1975: "Realities have changed, and so the values. It is now a new Asia, and this is a new magazine to report it."[6]

O'Neill was a founding Editor-in-Chief of Yazhou Zhoukan, which was launched by Asiaweek Limited in 1987, with Thomas Hon Wing Polin as its founding Managing Editor.[7]

In 1985, Time, Inc. (as it was then known) acquired 84% of Asiaweek, buying out Reader's Digest's 80% stake and 4% local interests. The remaining 16% was owned by Michael O'Neill.[8]

In 1994, Time ousted O'Neill and installed another editor, Ann Morrison, who came to Hong Kong from Fortune (a Time publication) based in New York.


George, who left Asiaweek before its troubles began, laments the death of the magazine after O'Neill was removed. With Asiaweek's demise, George said, his only regret was the way "the magazine was devalued by the very people who took it upon themselves to nurture it. That is why I shed no tears now as the concept itself was killed in 1994 when Mike was removed by the new management. Its closure [in 2001] is a mere burial."[4]

According to Time, the reason for the closure was due to an advertising slump. Executives at Time insist their decisions were based on economic, not editorial, considerations.[2]

The New York Times columnist Thomas Crampton writes, "Asiaweek and the Far Eastern Economic Review were the only weekly magazines with a strong Asia focus through the 1980s. But competition grew in the 1990s when global and local media companies expanded into regional editions. In addition to several small regionally financed magazines, The Economist, Fortune, BusinessWeek and Forbes all began aggressive expansions into Asia. These global titles could rely on skeletal staffs and economies of scale."[9]

According to Crampton, besides the "brutal competition for limited advertising revenue", another plausible reason for the shakeout was "the suffocating embrace of U.S.-based media giants with an American-centric perspective." For Asiaweek's founding editor, Time Warner's closure of the 26-year-old publication plays into Asian fears of a U.S.-centric world media. "The mandarins of Manhattan fully know Asia's potential," said T. J. S. George, who is now an editorial consultant for the New Indian Express Group. "They want a total monopoly for Time magazine."[9]

American involvement

'Asia through Asian eyes' was the slogan that helped Asiaweek rise. George is still nostalgic about the fresh and fearless style of the magazine during its heyday and is wary of American meddling in Asian affairs. He warns that "perhaps the most deep-going, subliminal – if also pernicious – mind control weapon at America's disposal is its news media."[3]

But Singapore-based Alejandro Reyes, long-time correspondent and contributing editor of Asiaweek, insists that the magazine retained its strongly Asian voice independent of whatever the bosses in New York might have wanted. He says the magazine's demise was due to the "failure of a pan-Asian marketing strategy impeded by limited resources and intense competition" and is hopeful of the revival of a niche market for media with an Asian perspective despite globalization trends.[4]

Reyes, who was educated in the United States, initially applauded the modern, business-oriented techniques and practices of AOL Time Warner. He was not too happy when he found out that Time deleted all Asiaweek articles from its online archives, including his. "This is all very tragic," says Reyes, "– misguided decisions by New York-centric media bureaucrats whose careers are probably soon to be deleted just as ruthlessly."[10]

M.G.G. Pillai, one of Asiaweek's casualties, says the magazine lost focus and became increasingly Americanised after Time took over. Unlike Reyes, he was not optimistic that it will be replaced because most magazines in Asia depend on the patronage of political rulers, and most financiers have an axe to grind.[11]

Philip Bowring, former editor of the Far Eastern Economic Review which was bought by Dow Jones in the late 1980s and merged with the Asian Wall Street Journal in 2001 and quartered into a monthly in 2004 before its final burial in 2009, commenting back in 2004 when the Review died as a weekly, said "there is a parallel here between Time and Asiaweek. Time bought locally born Asiaweek even though it appeared to be in direct competition for readers and advertising. Not so long afterwards, Time closed Asiaweek rather than its ailing Time Asia."[12]

T. J. S. George says, "In due course, Time Inc. killed Asiaweek and Dow Jones (now a Murdoch property) killed the Review. Murdoch-Dow's Wall Street Journal and Time Inc.'s Time magazine now fly the American flag over Asia, unchallenged by lesser flags."[3]


1. "Time shuts down Asiaweek magazine", Asian Economic News, 3 December 2001
2. Asian English-Language Journals Are Reeling as Advertising Slumps The New York Times, 3 December 2001
3. T. J. S. George, "Hail the all-American world!", 4 October 2009
4. Alejandro Reyes, "Epitaph for a magazine"Archived 8 September 2010 at the Wayback Machine, 24 February 2002
5. Comber, Leon (Ed.) Prizewinning Asian Fiction: an anthology of prizewinning short stories from Asiaweek 1981–1988, Hong Kong University Press and Times Editions, Singapore, 1991 – ISBN 9622092667 and ISBN 9812042830
6. "Opening a New Chapter for Asiaweek" Archived1 May 2001 at the Wayback Machine , Asiaweek, 27 October 2000 VOL. 26 NO. 42
7. CNN Asianow
8. Los Angeles Times, 23 September 1985
9. Thomas Crampton, The New York Times , 1 December 2001
10. Mainstream media: killing the past May 2009
11. M. G. G. Pillai, "The death of Asiaweek was one waiting to happen"[permanent dead link], 7 December 2001
12. Philip Bowring "Without Feer" October 2004.

External links

• The English magazine online archives can be searched
• Asiaweek archives at CNN: 2000 to 1995
• Yazhou Zhoukan (亞洲週刊), the Chinese edition of Asiaweek
Site Admin
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sun Dec 01, 2019 4:06 am

Voice of America
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 11/30/19



Declassified in Part -- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release

COUNTRY: Czechoslovakia
SUBJECT: Voice of America
DATE DISTR.: 16 Apr. 1952

1. Voice of America broadcasts are jammed so badly that many of the programs cannot be received; transmission on the 251 m band (medium ways) is jammed constantly. Because of this jamming [DELETE] unable to listen to either "American Calling Czechoslovakia" or "Report from America." It should be remembered that most Czechs do not have modern radio sets and therefore cannot receive shortwave transmissions during the day, or until about 2000 hours.

2. [DELETE] news items were well chosen and the presentation of the news by the announcers and newscasters was quite good. [DELETE] however, [DELETE] more attention should be devoted to the accuracy of the individual news items, particularly those originating in, or pertaining to, Czechoslovakia. [DELETE] such items arouse the greatest response among the Czechs.

3. [DELETE] the US presidential campaigns and elections will be of great interest in Czechoslovakia. The viewpoints and platforms of the various candidates regarding the USSR and, indirectly the CSR, should be emphasized.

4. Voice of America should give the greatest possible attention to the current purges in the CSR and within the Communist Party; this theme will be current and effective for some time to come. Since a large number of Czechs are affected by these purges, either directly or indirectly, a firm basis of confidence and a following of devoted listeners can be developed. Emphasis on purges will greatly damage the Communist Party within the CSR. VOA should be sure to give the background of each person purged, including the position he held. This should apply to individuals in minor positions as well as those in the more important ones. The facts leading up to the purge should be clearly stated. For example, a serious mistake in this connection would be to say of Bedrich Geminder, that he was "former party secretary general". Information on the background, job, etc. must be accurate. Anything but facts would destroy the confidence of the listeners who are dependent almost entirely on foreign news sources concerning purges within their own country.

5. To capture and hold the interest of the younger generation in Czechoslovakia, [DELETE] that the following points might well be covered by VOA:

(a) opportunities for American youth just out of school, such as complete freedom to study any subject or profession, and free choice of profession or vocation;

(b) comparative differences between wages and prices (cost of living) in the USA and the CSR. This subject has almost unlimited possibilities for expansion which have been unexploited;

(c) freedom of opinions and expression of ideas;

(d) freedom of movement and travel.


Voice of America
Type International public broadcaster
Country United States
Founded February 1, 1942; 77 years ago
Headquarters Wilbur J. Cohen Federal Building
Washington, D.C.
Official website

Voice of America headquarters in Washington, D.C.

Voice of America (VOA) is a U.S.[1] multimedia agency which serves as the United States non-government institution for non-military, external broadcasting. It is the largest U.S. international broadcaster. VOA produces digital, TV, and radio content in more than 40 languages which it distributes to affiliate stations around the globe. It is primarily viewed by foreign audiences, so VOA programming has an influence on public opinion abroad regarding the United States and its people.[2]

VOA was established in 1942,[1] and the VOA charter (Public Laws 94-350 and 103-415)[3] was signed into law in 1976 by President Gerald Ford. The charter contains its mission "to broadcast accurate, balanced, and comprehensive news and information to an international audience", and it defines the legally mandated standards in the VOA journalistic code.[4]

VOA is headquartered in Washington, D.C., and overseen by the U.S. Agency for Global Media, an independent agency of the U.S. government.[5] Funds are appropriated annually by Congress under the budget for embassies and consulates. In 2016, VOA broadcast an estimated 1,800 hours of radio and TV programming each week to approximately 236.6 million people worldwide with about 1,050 employees and a taxpayer-funded annual budget of US$218.5 million.[2][4]

Some commentators consider Voice of America to be a form of propaganda.[6][7] However, VOA's Best Practices Guide states that "The accuracy, quality and credibility of the Voice of America are its most important assets, and they rest on the audiences’ perception of VOA as an objective and reliable source of U.S., regional and world news and information."[8] Surveys show that 84% of VOA's audiences say they trust VOA to provide accurate and reliable information, and a similar percentage (84%) say that VOA helps them understand current events relevant to their lives.[9]

In response to the request of the United States Department of Justice that RT register as a foreign agent under the Foreign Agents Registration Act, Russia's Justice Ministry labeled Voice of America and Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty as foreign agents in December 2017.[10][11]

Current languages

The Voice of America website had five English language broadcasts as of 2014 (worldwide, Special English, Cambodia, Zimbabwe and Tibet). Additionally, the VOA website has versions in 46 foreign languages (radio programs are marked with an asterisk; TV programs with a plus symbol):

• Afan Oromo *
• Albanian * +
• Amharic *
• Armenian +
• Azerbaijani +
• Bambara *
• Bangla * +
• Bosnian +
• Burmese * +
• Cantonese * +
• Mandarin * +
• Dari Persian * +
• Filipino *
• French * +
• Georgian *
• Haitian Creole *
• Hausa *
• Indonesian * +
• Khmer * +
• Kinyarwanda *
• Kirundi *
• Korean *
• Kurdish *
• Lao *
• Lingala *
• Macedonian +
• Ndebele *
• Pashto +
• Persian * +
• Portuguese *
• Rohingya *
• Russian +
• Sango *
• Serbian +
• Shona *
• Somali *
• Spanish * +
• Swahili *
• Thai *
• Tibetan * +
• Tigrina *
• Turkish +
• Ukrainian +
• Urdu * +
• Uzbek * +
• Vietnamese * +
• Wolof
• English * +

The number of languages varies according to the priorities of the United States government and the world situation.[12][13]


American private shortwave broadcasting before World War II

Before World War II, all American shortwave stations were in private hands.[14] Privately controlled shortwave networks included the National Broadcasting Company's International Network (or White Network), which broadcast in six languages,[15] the Columbia Broadcasting System's Latin American international network, which consisted of 64 stations located in 18 different countries,[16] and the Crosley Broadcasting Corporation in Cincinnati, Ohio, all of which had shortwave transmitters. Experimental programming began in the 1930s, but there were fewer than 12 transmitters in operation.[17] In 1939, the Federal Communications Commission set the following policy:

A licensee of an international broadcast station shall render only an international broadcast service which will reflect the culture of this country and which will promote international goodwill, understanding and cooperation. Any program solely intended for, and directed to an audience in the continental United States does not meet the requirements for this service.[18]

This policy was intended to enforce the State Department's Good Neighbor Policy, but some broadcasters felt that it was an attempt to direct censorship.[19]

Shortwave signals to Latin America were regarded as vital to counter Nazi propaganda around 1940.[17] Initially, the Office of Coordination of Information sent releases to each station, but this was seen as an inefficient means of transmitting news.[14] The director of Latin American relations at the Columbia Broadcasting System was Edmund A. Chester, and he supervised the development of CBS's extensive "La Cadena de las Americas" radio network to improve broadcasting to South America during the 1940s.[20]

Also included among the cultural diplomacy programming on the Columbia Broadcasting System was the musical show Viva America (1942-1949) which featured the Pan American Orchestra and the artistry of several noted musicians from both North and South America, including Alfredo Antonini, Juan Arvizu, Eva Garza, Elsa Miranda, Nestor Mesta Chaires, Miguel Sandoval, John Serry Sr., and Terig Tucci.[21][22][23] By 1945, broadcasts of the show were carried by 114 stations on CBS's "La Cadena de las Americas" network in 20 Latin American nations. These broadcasts proved to be highly successful in supporting President Franklin Roosevelt's policy of Pan-Americanism throughout South America during World War II.[24]

World War II

Even before the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, the U.S. government's Office of the Coordinator of Information (COI, in Washington) had already begun providing war news and commentary to the commercial American shortwave radio stations for use on a voluntary basis through its Foreign Information Service (FIS, in New York) headed by playwright Robert E. Sherwood, the playwright who served as president Roosevelt’s speech writer and information advisor.[25] Direct programming began a week after the United States’ entry into World War II in December 1941, with the first broadcast from the San Francisco office of the FIS via a leased General Electric’s transmitter to the Philippines in English (other languages followed). The next step was to broadcast to Germany, which was called Stimmen aus Amerika ("Voices from America") and was transmitted on February 1, 1942. It was introduced by "The Battle Hymn of the Republic" and included the pledge: "Today, and every day from now on, we will be with you from America to talk about the war... The news may be good or bad for us – We will always tell you the truth."[26] Roosevelt approved this broadcast, which then-Colonel William J. Donovan (COI) and Sherwood (FIS) had recommended to him. It was Sherwood who actually coined the term "The Voice of America" to describe the shortwave network that began its transmissions on February 1, from 270 Madison Avenue in New York City.

The Office of War Information, when organized in the middle of 1942, officially took over VOA's operations. VOA reached an agreement with the British Broadcasting Corporation to share medium-wave transmitters in Britain, and expanded into Tunis in North Africa and Palermo and Bari, Italy as the Allies captured these territories. The OWI also set up the American Broadcasting Station in Europe.[27] Asian transmissions started with one transmitter in California in 1941; services were expanded by adding transmitters in Hawaii and, after recapture, the Philippines.[28]

By the end of the war, VOA had 39 transmitters and provided service in 40 languages.[28] Programming was broadcast from production centers in New York and San Francisco, with more than 1,000 programs originating from New York. Programming consisted of music, news, commentary, and relays of U.S. domestic programming, in addition to specialized VOA programming.[29]

About half of VOA's services, including the Arabic service, were discontinued in 1945.[30] In late 1945, VOA was transferred to the Department of State.

Cold War

In 1947, VOA started broadcasting to the Soviet citizens in Russia under the pretext of countering "more harmful instances of Soviet propaganda directed against American leaders and policies" on the part of the internal Soviet Russian-language media, according to John B. Whitton's treatise, Cold War Propaganda.[31] The Soviet Union responded by initiating electronic jamming of VOA broadcasts on April 24, 1949.[31]

Charles W. Thayer headed VOA in 1948–49.

Over the next few years, the U.S. government debated the best role of Voice of America. The decision was made to use VOA broadcasts as a part of its foreign policy to fight the propaganda of the Soviet Union and other countries.

The Arabic service resumed on January 1, 1950, with a half-hour program. This program grew to 14.5 hours daily during the Suez Crisis of 1956, and was six hours a day by 1958.[30]

In 1952, Voice of America installed a studio and relay facility aboard a converted U.S. Coast Guard cutter renamed Courier whose target audience was Soviet Union and other members of Warsaw Pact. The Courier was originally intended to become the first in a fleet of mobile, radio broadcasting ships (see offshore radio) that built upon U.S. Navy experience during WWII in using warships as floating broadcasting stations. However, the Courier eventually dropped anchor off the island of Rhodes, Greece with permission of the Greek government to avoid being branded as a pirate radio broadcasting ship. This VOA offshore station stayed on the air until the 1960s when facilities were eventually provided on land. The Courier supplied training to engineers who later worked on several of the European commercial offshore broadcasting stations of the 1950s and 1960s.

Control of VOA passed from the State Department to the U.S. Information Agency when the latter was established in 1953.[30] to transmit worldwide, including to the countries behind the Iron Curtain and to the People's Republic of China (PRC).

Starting in the 1950s, VOA broadcast American jazz, with Willis Conover hosting a daily program from 1955 until 1996, which was highly popular worldwide drawing 30 million listeners at its peak. A program aimed at South Africa in 1956 broadcast two hours nightly, and special programs such as The Newport Jazz Festival were also transmitted. This was done in association with tours by U.S. musicians, such as Dizzy Gillespie, Louis Armstrong, and Duke Ellington, sponsored by the State Department.[32] From August 1952 through May 1953, Billy Brown, a high school senior in Westchester County, New York, had a Monday night program in which he shared everyday happenings in Yorktown Heights, New York. Brown's program ended due to its popularity: his "chatty narratives" attracted so much fan mail, VOA couldn't afford the $500 a month in clerical and postage costs required to respond to listeners' letters.[33]

Throughout the Cold War, many of the targeted countries' governments sponsored jamming of VOA broadcasts, which sometimes led critics to question the broadcasts' actual impact. For example, in 1956, Polish People's Republic stopped jamming VOA transmissions[citation needed], but People's Republic of Bulgaria continued to jam the signal through the 1970s. Chinese language VOA broadcasts were jammed beginning in 1956 and extending through 1976.[34] However, after the collapse of the Warsaw Pact and the Soviet Union, interviews with participants in anti-Soviet movements verified the effectiveness of VOA broadcasts in transmitting information to socialist societies.[35] The People's Republic of China diligently jams VOA broadcasts.[36] Cuba has also been reported to interfere with VOA satellite transmissions to Iran from its Russian-built transmission site at Bejucal.[37] David Jackson, former director of Voice of America, noted: "The North Korean government doesn't jam us, but they try to keep people from listening through intimidation or worse. But people figure out ways to listen despite the odds. They're very resourceful."[38]

Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, VOA covered some of the era's most important news, including Martin Luther King, Jr.'s "I Have a Dream" speech and Neil Armstrong's first walk on the moon. During the Cuban missile crisis, VOA broadcast around-the-clock in Spanish.

In the early 1980s, VOA began a $1.3 billion rebuilding program to improve broadcast with better technical capabilities. Also in the 1980s, VOA also added a television service, as well as special regional programs to Cuba, Radio Martí and TV Martí. Cuba has consistently attempted to jam such broadcasts and has vociferously protested U.S. broadcasts directed at Cuba.

In September 1980, VOA started broadcasting to Afghanistan in Dari and in Pashto in 1982. At the same time, VOA started to broadcast U.S. government editorials, clearly separated from the programming by audio cues.

In 1985, VOA Europe was created as a special service in English that was relayed via satellite to AM, FM, and cable affiliates throughout Europe. With a contemporary format including live disc jockeys, the network presented top musical hits as well as VOA news and features of local interest (such as "EuroFax") 24 hours a day. VOA Europe was closed down without advance public notice in January 1997 as a cost-cutting measure.[39] It was followed by VOA Express, which from July 4, 1999 revamped into VOA Music Mix. Since November 1, 2014 stations are offered VOA1 (which is a rebranding of VOA Music Mix).

In 1989, Voice of America expanded its Mandarin and Cantonese programming to reach the millions of Chinese and inform the country about the pro-democracy movement within the country, including the demonstration in Tiananmen Square.

Starting in 1990, the U.S. consolidated its international broadcasting efforts, with the establishment of the Bureau of Broadcasting.

Post–Cold War

With the breakup of the Soviet bloc in Eastern Europe, VOA added many additional language services to reach those areas. This decade was marked by the additions of Tibetan, Kurdish (to Iran and Iraq), Croatian, Serbian, Bosnian, Macedonian, and Rwanda-Rundi language services.

In 1993, the Clinton administration advised cutting funding for Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty as it was felt post-Cold War information and influence was not needed in Europe. This plan was not well received, and he then proposed the compromise of the International Broadcasting Act. The Broadcasting Board of Governors was established and took control from the Board for International Broadcasters which previously oversaw funding for RFE/RL.[40]

In 1994, President Clinton signed the International Broadcasting Act into law. This law established the International Broadcasting Bureau as a part of the U.S. Information Agency and created the Broadcasting Board of Governors with oversight authority. In 1998, the Foreign Affairs Reform and Restructuring Act was signed into law and mandated that BBG become an independent federal agency as of October 1, 1999. This act also abolished the U.S.I.A. and merged most of its functions with those of the State Department.

In 1994, Voice of America became the first[41] broadcast-news organization to offer continuously updated programs on the Internet.

Cuts in services

The Arabic Service was abolished in 2002 and replaced by a new radio service, called the Middle East Radio Network or Radio Sawa, with an initial budget of $22 million. Radio Sawa offered mostly Western and Middle Eastern popular songs with periodic brief news bulletins. Today, the network has expanded to television with Alhurra and to various social media and websites.[42]

On May 16, 2004; Worldnet, a satellite television service, was merged into the VOA network.

Radio programs in Russian ended in July 2008.[43] In September 2008, VOA eliminated the Hindi language service after 53 years.[43] Broadcasts in Ukrainian, Serbian, Macedonian and Bosnian also ended.[44] These reductions were part of American efforts to concentrate more resources to broadcast to the Muslim world.[43][44]

In September 2010, VOA started radio broadcasts in Sudan. As U.S. interests in South Sudan have grown, there is a desire to provide people with free information.[45]

In 2013, VOA finished foreign language transmissions on shortwave and medium wave to Albania, Georgia, Iran and Latin America; as well as English language broadcasts to the Middle East and Afghanistan.[46] The movement was done due to budget cuts.[46]

On July 1, 2014, VOA cut most of its shortwave transmissions in English to Asia.[47] Shortwave broadcasts in Azerbaijani, Bengali, Khmer, Kurdish, Lao, and Uzbek were dropped too.[47] On August 11, 2014, the Greek service ended after 72 years on air.[48][49]

List of languages
Language[50] / from / to / Website / Remarks
/ --

English / 1942 / present /
Amoy / 1941 1951 / 1945 1963 / – / --
Cantonese / 1941 1949 1987 / 1945 1963 present / 美國之音 / see also Radio Free Asia
Mandarin Chinese / 1941 / present / 美国之音 / see also Radio Free Asia
Portuguese (to Latin America) / 1941 1946 1961 / 1945 1948 2001 / – / --
Spanish (to Latin America) / 1942 1946 1953 1961 / 1945 1948 1956 present / Voz de América / see also Radio y Televisión Martí
Tagalog / 1941 / 1946 / – / --
Afrikaans / 1942 / 1949 / – / --
Arabic / 1942 1950 / 1945 2002 / – / see also Radio Sawa and Alhurra
Bulgarian / 1942 / 2004 / – / see also Radio Free Europe
Czech / 1942 / 2004 / – / see also Radio Free Europe
Danish / 1942 / 1945 / – / --
Farsi / 1942 1949 1964 1979 / 1945 1960 1966 present / صدای آمریکا / see also Radio Farda
Finnish / 1942 1951 / 1945 1953 / – / --
Flemish / 1942 / 1945 / – / --
French (to France) / 1942 / 1961 / – / --
German / 1942 1991 / 1960 1993 / – / --
Greek / 1942 / 2014 / - / --
Hungarian / 1942 / 2004 / – / see also Radio Free Europe
Indonesian / 1942 / present / VOA Indonesia / --
Italian / 1942 1951 / 1945 1957 / – / --
Japanese / 1942 1951 / 1945 1962 / – / --
Korean / 1942 / present / VOA 한국어 / see also Radio Free Asia
Norwegian / 1942 / 1945 / – / --
Polish / 1942 / 2004 / – / see also Radio Free Europe
Portuguese (to Portugal) / 1942 1951 1976 1987 / 1945 1953 1987 1993 / – (for local radio stations) / --
Romanian / 1942 / 2004 / – / see also Radio Free Europe
Slovak / 1942 / 2004 / – / see also Radio Free Europe
Spanish (to Spain) / 1942 1955 / 1955 1993 / - (for local radio stations) / --
Thai / 1942 1962 1988 / 1958 1988 present / วอยซ์ ออฟ อเมริกา / --
Turkish / 1942 1948 / 1945 present A/ merika'nın Sesi / --
Albanian / 1943 1951 / 1945 present / Zëri i Amerikës / see also Radio Free Europe
Burmese / 1943 1951 / 1945 present / -- / see also Radio Free Asia
Croatian / 1943 / 2011 / – / see also Radio Free Europe
Serbian / 1943 / present / Glas Amerike / see also Radio Free Europe
Swedish / 1943 / 1945 / – / --
Vietnamese / 1943 1951 / 1946 present / Ðài Tiếng nói Hoa Kỳ / see also Radio Free Asia
Dutch / 1944 / 1945 / – / --
Icelandic / 1944 / 1944 / – / --
Wu Chinese (Shanghai) / 1944 / 1946 / – / --
Slovene / 1944 1949 / 1945 2004 / – / see also Radio Free Europe
Russian / 1947 / present / Голос Америки / see also Radio Liberty
Ukrainian / 1949 / present / Голос Америки / see also Radio Liberty
Tibetan / 1991 / present / ཨ་རིའི་རླུང་འཕྲིན་ཁང་། / see also Radio Free Asia
Armenian / 1951 / present (web) / Ամերիկայի Ձայն / see also Radio Liberty
Azerbaijani / 1951 1982 / 1953 present (web) / Amerikanın Səsi / see also Radio Liberty
Estonian / 1951 / 2004 / – / see also Radio Free Europe
Georgian / 1951 / present (web) / – / see also Radio Liberty
Hakka / 1951 / 1954 / – / --
Hebrew / 1951 / 1953 / – / --
Hindi / 1951 1954 / 1953 2008 / – / --
Latvian / 1951 / 2004 / – / see also Radio Free Europe
Lithuanian / 1951 / 2004 / – / see also Radio Free Europe
Malayan / 1951 / 1955 / – / --
Swatow / 1951 / 1953 / – / --
Tatar / 1951 / 1953 / – / see also Radio Liberty
Urdu / 1951 1954 / 1953 present / وائس آف امریک / --
Tamil / 1954 / 1970 / – / --
Khmer / 1955 1962 / 1957 present / វីអូអេ / /see also Radio Free Asia
Belarusian / 1956 / 1957 / – / see also Radio Liberty
Gujarati / 1956 / 1958 / – / --
Malayalam / 1956 / 1961 / – / --
Telegu / 1956 / 1958 / – / --
Bangla / 1958 / present / ভয়েস অফ আমেরিকা / --
Uzbek / 1972 / present / Amerika Ovozi / see also Radio Liberty
French (to Africa) / 1960 / present / VOA Afrique / --
Lao / 1962 / present / ສຽງອາເມຣິກາ ວີໂອເອ / see also Radio Free Asia
Swahili / 1962 / present / Sauti ya Amerika / --
English (to Africa) / 1963 / present / / --
Portuguese (to Africa) / 1976 / present / Voz da América / --
Hausa /1979 / present / Muryar Amurka / --
Dari / 1980 / present / صدای امریکا / --
Amharic / 1982 / present / የአሜሪካ ድምፅ / --
Pashto (to Afghanistan) / 1982 / present / اشنا راډیو / --
Creole / 1987 / present / Lavwadlamerik / --
Nepali / 1992 / 1993 / – / --
Somali / 1992 2007 / 1995 present / VOA Somali / --
Kurdish / 1992 / present / ده‌نگی ئه‌مه‌ریکا Dengê Amerîka / --
Afaan Oromo / 1996 / present / Sagalee Ameerikaa / --
Bosnian / 1996 / present / Glas Amerike / see also Radio Free Europe
Kinyarwanda/Kirundi / 1996 / present / Ijwi ry'Amerika / --
Tigrinya / 1996 / present / ድምፂ ረድዮ ኣሜሪካ / --
Macedonian / 1999 / 2008 / – / see also Radio Free Europe
Ndebele / 2003 / present / VOA Ndebele / --
Shona / 2003 / present / VOA Shona / --
Pashto (to Pakistan) / 2006 / present / ډیوه ریډیو / --
Bambara / 2013 / present / VOA Bambara / --

List of directors

• 1941–1942 Robert E. Sherwood (Foreign Information Service)
1. 1942–1943 John Houseman
2. 1943–1945 Louis G. Cowan
3. 1945–1946 John Ogilvie
4. 1948–1949 Charles W. Thayer
5. 1949–1952 Foy D. Kohler
6. 1952–1953 Alfred H. Morton
7. 1953–1954 Leonard Erikson
8. 1954–1956 John R. Poppele
9. 1956–1958 Robert E. Burton
10. 1958–1965 Henry Loomis
11. 1965–1967 John Chancellor
12. 1967–1968 John Charles Daly
13. 1969–1977 Kenneth R. Giddens
14. 1977–1979 R. Peter Straus
15. 1980–1981 Mary Bitterman
16. 1981–1982 James B. Conkling
17. 1982 John Hughes
18. 1982–1984 Kenneth Tomlinson
19. 1985 Gene Pell
20. 1986–1991 Dick Carlson
21. 1991–1993 Chase Untermeyer
22. 1994–1996 Geoffrey Cowan
23. 1997–1999 Evelyn S. Lieberman
24. 1999–2001 Sanford J. Ungar
25. 2001–2002 Robert R. Reilly
26. 2002–2006 David S. Jackson
27. 2006–2011 Danforth W. Austin
28. 2011–2015 David Ensor
29. 2016– Amanda Bennett


Voice of America has been a part of several agencies. From its founding in 1942 to 1945, it was part of the Office of War Information, and then from 1945 to 1953 as a function of the State Department. VOA was placed under the U.S. Information Agency in 1953. When the USIA was abolished in 1999, VOA was placed under the Broadcasting Board of Governors, or BBG, which is an autonomous U.S. government agency, with bipartisan membership. The Secretary of State has a seat on the BBG.[51] The BBG was established as a buffer to protect VOA and other U.S.-sponsored, non-military, international broadcasters from political interference. It replaced the Board for International Broadcasting (BIB) that oversaw the funding and operation of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, a branch of VOA.[40]


Smith–Mundt Act

From 1948 until its amendment in 2013, Voice of America was forbidden to broadcast directly to American citizens under § 501 of the Smith–Mundt Act.[6] The act was amended as a result of the passing of the Smith-Mundt Modernization Act provision of the National Defense Authorization Act for 2013.[7] The intent of the legislation in 1948 was to protect the American public from propaganda actions by their own government and to have no competition with private American companies.[52] The amendment had the intent of adapting to the Internet and allow American citizens to request access to VOA content.[53]

Internal policies

VOA charter

Under the Eisenhower administration in 1959, VOA Director Henry Loomis commissioned a formal statement of principles to protect the integrity of VOA programming and define the organization's mission, and was issued by Director George V. Allen as a directive in 1960 and was endorsed in 1962 by USIA director Edward R. Murrow.[54] The principles were signed into law on July 12, 1976, by President Gerald Ford. It reads:

The long-range interests of the United States are served by communicating directly with the peoples of the world by radio. To be effective, the Voice of America must win the attention and respect of listeners. These principles will therefore govern Voice of America (VOA) broadcasts. 1. VOA will serve as a consistently reliable and authoritative source of news. VOA news will be accurate, objective, and comprehensive. 2. VOA will represent America, not any single segment of American society, and will therefore present a balanced and comprehensive projection of significant American thought and institutions. 3. VOA will present the policies of the United States clearly and effectively, and will also present responsible discussions and opinion on these policies.[5]


The Voice of America Firewall was put in place with the 1976 VOA Charter and laws passed in 1994 and 2016 as a way of ensuring the integrity of VOA's journalism. This policy fights against propaganda and promotes unbiased and objective journalistic standards in the agency. The charter is one part of this firewall and the other laws assist in ensuring high standards of journalism.[55]

"Two-source rule"

According to former VOA correspondent Alan Heil, the internal policy of VOA News is that any story broadcast must have two independently corroborating sources or have a staff correspondent actually witness an event.[56]


Voice of America's central newsroom has hundreds of journalists and dozens of full-time domestic and overseas correspondents, who are employees of the U.S. government or paid contractors. They are augmented by hundreds of contract correspondents and stringers throughout the world, who file in English or in one of VOA's other radio and television broadcast languages.

In late 2005, VOA shifted some of its central-news operation to Hong Kong where contracted writers worked from a "virtual" office with counterparts on the overnight shift in Washington, D.C., but this operation was shut down in early 2008.

Shortwave frequencies

By December 2014, the number of transmitters and frequencies used by VOA had been greatly reduced. VOA still uses shortwave transmissions to cover some areas of Africa and Asia. Shortwave broadcasts still take place in these languages: Afaan Oromoo, Amharic, Bambara, Cantonese, Chinese, English, Indonesian, Korean and Swahili.

VOA Radiogram

VOA Radiogram was an experimental Voice of America program starting in March 2013 which transmitted digital text and images via shortwave radiograms.[57] There were 220 editions of the program, transmitted each weekend from the Edward R. Murrow transmitting station. The audio tones that comprised the bulk of each 30 minute program were transmitted via an analog transmitter, and could be decoded using a basic AM shortwave receiver with freely downloadable software of the Fldigi family. This software is available for Windows, Apple (OSX), Linux, and FreeBSD systems.

Broadcasts can also be decoded using the free TIVAR app from the Google Play store using any Android device.

The mode used most often on VOA Radiogram, for both text and images, was MFSK32, but other modes were also occasionally transmitted.

The final edition of VOA Radiogram was transmitted during the weekend of June 17–18, 2017, a week before the retirement of the program producer from VOA. An offer to continue the broadcasts on a contract basis was declined,[58] so a follow-on show called Shortwave Radiogram began transmission on June 25, 2017 from the WRMI transmitting site in Okeechobee, Florida.[59]

Shortwave Radiogram program schedule[60]
Day / Time (UTC) / Shortwave frequency (MHz) / Origin

Saturday / 1600–1630 / 9.4 / Space Line, Bulgaria
Sunday / 0600–0630 / 7.73 / WRMI, Florida
Sunday / 2030–2100 / 11.58 / WRMI, Florida
Sunday / 2330–2400 / 11.58 / WRMI, Florida

Transmission facilities

One of VOA's radio transmitter facilities was originally based on a 625-acre (2.53 km2) site in Union Township (now West Chester Township) in Butler County, Ohio, near Cincinnati. The site is now a recreational park with a lake, lodge, dog park, and Voice of America museum. The Bethany Relay Station operated from 1944 to 1994.[61] Other former sites include California (Dixon, Delano), Hawaii, Okinawa, (Monrovia) Liberia, Costa Rica, Belize, and at least two in Greece.[citation needed]

Between 1983 and 1990, VOA made significant upgrades to transmission facilities in Botswana, Morocco, Thailand, Kuwait, and Sao Tome.[62]

Currently, VOA and USAGM continue to operate shortwave radio transmitters and antenna farms at International Broadcasting Bureau Greenville Transmitting Station in the United States, close to Greenville, North Carolina, "Site B." They do not use FCC-issued callsigns, since they are overseen by the NTIA, which is the Federal Government equivalent of the FCC (which regulates state government and public & private communications) and they operate under different rules. The IBB also operates a transmission facility on São Tomé and (Tinang) Concepcion, Tarlac, Philippines for VOA.

Comparing VOA-RFE-RL-RM to other broadcasters

In 1996, the U.S.'s international radio output consisted of 992 hours per week by VOA, 667 by Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, and 162 by Radio Marti.


Mullah Omar interview

In late September 2001, VOA aired a report that contained brief excerpts of an interview with then Taliban leader Mullah Omar Mohammad, along with segments from President Bush's post-9/11 speech to Congress, an expert in Islam from Georgetown University,[who?] and comments by the foreign minister of Afghanistan's anti-Taliban Northern Alliance. State Department officials including Richard Armitage and others argued that the report amounted to giving terrorists a platform to express their views.In response, reporters and editors argued for the VOA's editorial independence from its governors. VOA received praise from press organizations for its protests, and the following year in 2002, it won the University of Oregon's Payne Award for Ethics in Journalism.[63]

Abdul Malik Rigi interview

On April 2, 2007, Abdul Malik Rigi, the leader of Jundullah, a militant group with possible links to al-Qaeda, appeared on Voice of America's Persian language service. VOA introduced Rigi as "the leader of popular Iranian resistance movement."[64] The interview resulted in public condemnation by the Iranian-American community, as well as the Iranian government.[65][66] Jundullah is a militant organization that has been linked to numerous attacks on civilians, such as the 2009 Zahedan explosion.[67][68]

Tibetan protester interview

In February 2013, a documentary released by China Central Television interviewed a Tibetan self-immolator who failed to kill himself. The interviewee said he was motivated by Voice of America's broadcasts of commemorations of people who committed suicide in political self-immolation. VOA denied any allegations of instigating self-immolations and demanded that the Chinese station retract its report.[69]

Trump presidency concerns

After the inauguration of US President Donald Trump, several tweets by Voice of America (one of which was later removed) seemed to support the widely criticized statements by White House press secretary Sean Spicer about the crowd size and biased media coverage. This first raised concerns over possible attempts by Trump to politicize the state-funded agency.[70][71][72][73] This amplified already growing propaganda concerns over the provisions in the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2017, signed into law by Barack Obama, which replaced the board of the Broadcasting Board of Governors with a CEO appointed by the president and to allow the VOA to broadcast to American audiences. Trump sent two of his political aides, Matthew Ciepielowski and Matthew Schuck, to the agency to aid its current CEO during the transition to the Trump administration. Criticism was raised over Trump's choice of aides; Schuck was a staff writer for right-wing website The Daily Surge until April 2015, while Ciepielowski was a field director at the conservative advocacy group Americans for Prosperity.[70] VOA officials responded with assurances that they would not become "Trump TV".[70] BBG head John F. Lansing told NPR that it would be illegal for the administration to tell VOA what to broadcast, while VOA director Amanda Bennett stressed that while "government-funded", the agency is not "government-run".[72]

Guo Wengui interview

On April 19, 2017, VOA interviewed the Chinese real estate tycoon Guo Wengui in a live broadcast. The whole interview was scheduled for 3 hours. After Guo Weigui alleged to own evidence of corruption among the members of the Politburo Standing Committee of China, the highest political authority of China, the interview was abruptly cut off, after only one hour and seventeen minutes of broadcasting. Guo's allegations involved Fu Zhenhua and Wang Qishan, the latter being a member of the Politburo Standing Committee and the leader of the massive anti-graft movement.[74] It was reported that Beijing warned VOA's representatives not to interview Guo for his "unsubstantiated allegations".[75] Four members of the U.S. Congress requested the Office of Inspector General to conduct an investigation into this interruption on August 27, 2017.[76] The OIG investigation concluded that the decision to curtail the Guo interview was based solely on journalistic best practices rather than any pressure from the Chinese government.[77]

Another investigation,[77] by Professor Mark Feldstein, Richard Eaton, Chair of Broadcast Journalism at the University of Maryland, College Park, and a journalist with decades of experiences as an award-winning television investigative reporter, concluded that "The failure to comply with leadership’s instructions during the Guo interview “was a colossal and unprecedented violation of journalistic professionalism and broadcast industry standards.” The report also said that "There had been “a grossly negligent approach” to pre-interview vetting and failure to “corroborate the authenticity of Guo’s evidence or interview other sources” in violation of industry standards. The interview team apparently “demonstrated greater loyalty to its source than to its employer — at the expense of basic journalistic standards of accuracy, verification, and fairness," the Feldstein report concluded.[77]

See also

• International broadcasting
o Alhurra
o BBC World Service
o France 24
o Propaganda in the United States
o State media
o Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty
o Radio Free Asia
o Russia Today TV
o Voice of America Indonesia
• VOA people
o Frank Shozo Baba
o Willis Conover
o George Kao


1. VOA Public Relations. "Mission and Values". Voice of America. Retrieved August 10, 2017.
2. Borchers, Callum (January 26, 2017). "Voice of America says it won't become Trump TV". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 11, 2017.
3. 90 Stat. 823, 108 Stat. 4299
4. VOA Public Relations (December 5, 2016). "The Largest U.S. International Broadcaster" (PDF). Voice of America. Retrieved August 11, 2017.
5. VOA Public Relations. "VOA Charter". Voice of America. Archived from the original on November 20, 2016.
6. Chuck, Elizabeth (July 20, 2013). "Taxpayer money at work: US-funded foreign broadcasts finally available in the US". NBC News.
7. Hudson, John (July 14, 2013). "U.S. Repeals Propaganda Ban, Spreads Government-Made News to Americans". Foreign Policy. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
8. "VOA Best Practices Guide". July 30, 2018.
9. "Broadcast Board of Governors Congressional Budget Justification, p. 21" (PDF).
10. Stahl, Lesley (January 7, 2018). "RT's editor-in-chief on election meddling, being labeled Russian propaganda". CBS News. Retrieved January 14, 2018.
11. Osborn, Andrew (January 14, 2018). "Russia designates Radio Free Europe and Voice of America as 'foreign agents'". Reuters. Retrieved January 14, 2018.
12. "FAQs, How do you make decisions to cut or add languages or programs?". Archived from the originalon December 1, 2014. Retrieved December 3, 2014.
13. ... 444dca.pdf
14. Berg, Jerome S. On the Short Waves, 1923–1945: Broadcast Listening in the Pioneer Days of Radio. 1999, McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-0506-6, 105
15. Library of Congress. "NBC Resources Held by the Recorded Sound Section." Library of Congress
16. Chamberlain, A.B. "CBS International Broadcast Facilities". Proceedings of the IRE, Volume 30, Issue 3, March 1942 pp. 118–29, abstract at IEEE
17. Dizard (2004), p. 24
18. Rose, Cornelia Bruère. National Policy for Radio Broadcasting. 1971, Ayer Publishing. ISBN 0-405-03580-2. p. 244
19. "NABusiness". Time Magazine.
20. Dissonant Divas In Chicana Music: The Limits of La Onda Deborah R. Vargas. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, 2012 ISBN 978-0-8166-7316-2 p. 152-153 Edmund Chester, CBS, Franklin Roosevelt and "La Cadena De Las Americas" on
21. A Pictorial History of Radio, Settel Irving Grosset & Dunlap Publishers, New York, 1960 & 1967, Pg. 146, Library of Congress #67-23789
22. Media Sound & Culture in Latin America. Editors: Bronfman, Alejanda & Wood, Andrew Grant. University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburg, PA, USA, 2012, Pg. 49 ISBN 978-0-8229-6187-1 See pg. 49
23. Anthony, Edwin D. Records of the Office of Inter-American Affairs. National Archives and Record Services - General Services Administration Washington D.C., 1937 p. 25-26 Library of Congress Catalog No. 73-600146 Records of the Office of Inter-American Affairs - Radio Division at the U.S. National Archive on
24. Dissonant Divas in Chicana Music: The Limits of La Onda Deborah R. Vargas. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, 2012 p. 152-155 ISBN 978-0-8166-7316-2 OCIAA (Office of the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs), FDR's Good Neighbor Policy, CBS, Viva America, La Cadena de las Americas on
25. Roberts, Walter R. "The Voice of America: Origins and Recollections". Archived from the original on April 26, 2018. Retrieved October 3, 2010.
26. Roberts, Walter R. See also: Kern, Chris. "A Belated Correction: The Real First Broadcast of the Voice of America". Retrieved October 3, 2010.
27. Dizard (2004), pp. 24–25
28. Dizard (2004), p. 25
29. Sterling, Christopher H.; Kittross, John Michael (2001). Stay Tuned: a History of American Broadcasting. LEA's Communication Series (3rd ed.). Lawernce Erlbaum Associates. p. 263. ISBN 978-0-8058-2624-1.
30. Rugh (2006), p. 13
31. John B. Whitton (1951). "Cold War propaganda". American Journal of International Law. 45 (1): 151–53. doi:10.2307/2194791. JSTOR 2194791.
32. Appy, Christian G. Cold War Constructions: The Political Culture of United States Imperialism. 2000, University of Massachusetts Press; ISBN 1-55849-218-6, p. 126.
33. Folsom, Merrill (May 28, 1953). "'Voice' to Drop Boy's Broadcasts; Can't Afford to Answer Fan Mail". The New York Times (Vol CII, No 34823, pg 1).
34. Broadcasting Yearbook, 1976 and 1979 editions.
35. Conference Report, Cold War Impact of VOA Broadcasts, Hoover Institution and the Cold War International History Project of the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Oct. 13–16, 2004
36. Bihlmayer, Ulrich (September 12, 2006). "Fighting the Chinese Government "Firedragon" – Music Jammer AND "Sound of Hope" Broadcasting (SOH), Taiwan" (PDF). IARU Region 1 Monitoring System. Retrieved January 15,2008.
37. "U.S.: Cuba Jamming TV Signals To Iran – Local News Story – WTVJ". Archived from the original on December 24, 2008. Retrieved January 15, 2008.
38. Jackson, David. "The Future of Radio II." World Radio TV Handbook, 2007 edition. 2007, Billboard Books. ISBN 0-8230-5997-9. p 38.
39. Holland, Bill (March 8, 1997). "VOA Europe: A Victim of Bureaucracy?". Billboard. 109 (10). Retrieved December 2,2017.
40. Raghavan, Sudarsan V., Stephen S. Johnson, and Kristi K. Bahrenburg. "Sending cross-border static: on the fate of Radio Free Europe and the influence of international broadcasting," Journal of International Affairs, Vol. 47, 1993, access on March 25, 2011.
41. Kern, Chris. "The Voice of America: First on the Internet". Retrieved January 15, 2008.
42. "USAGM".
43. Lakshmi, Rama (September 12, 2008). "India Set to Lose Voice of America". Washington Post. Retrieved December 3, 2014.
44. "Voice of America to Cut Language Services". July 3, 2008. Retrieved December 3, 2014.
45. Abedje, Ashenafi. "Voice of America Expands its Sudan Programming," Voice of America News, September 17, 2010. Retrieved on March 25, 2011
46. "VOA Reducing Radio Frequencies". March 26, 2013. Retrieved December 3, 2014.
47. "Voice of America Makes More Cuts to International Shortwave Broadcast Schedule". July 1, 2014. Retrieved December 3, 2014.
48. "Voice of America Ends Greek Broadcasts". August 11, 2014. Retrieved December 3, 2014.
49. "After 72 years on air, VOA's Greek Service goes silent". Kathimerini. August 12, 2014. Retrieved December 3,2014.
50. Voice of America History, VOA Language Service Fact Sheets
51. Rugh (2006), p. 14
52. Broderick, James F., and Darren W. Miller. Consider the Source: A Critical Guide to 100 prominent news and information sites on the Web. Medford, NJ: Information Today, 2007. ISBN 0-910965-77-3, ISBN 978-0-910965-77-4, p. 388.
53. "VOA Through the Years".
54. Rugh (2006), pp. 13–14
55. ... 1ae452.pdf
56. Columbia University Press. Interview with Alan Heil, author of Voice of America Archived July 6, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
57. "VOA Radiogram". VOA Radiogram. Retrieved April 15, 2014.
58. "VOA Radiogram, 20–21 May 2017: Special doomed edition". VOA Radiogram. Retrieved June 26, 2017.
59. Shortwave Radiogram, 25 June 2017: First show. Holding my breath. VOA Radiogram Official Site
60. "Shortwave Radiogram Tumblr Site". Retrieved June 27, 2017.
61. "Voice of America - Ohio History Central". Retrieved December 2, 2018.
62. "VOA Through the Years". VOA. Retrieved December 2, 2018.
63. "Ancil Payne Award for Ethics in Journalism". University of Oregon. Retrieved May 23, 2016.
64. "VoA interviews Iranian terrorist culprit in a sign of backing". PressTV. April 2, 2007. Archived from the original on October 21, 2012. Retrieved September 5, 2012.
65. "Iranian speaker says U.S. supports "terrorists"". swissinfo. Archived from the original on December 5, 2007. Retrieved January 15, 2008.
66. گفتوگوي صداي آمريکا با قاتل مردم بلوچستان! (in Persian). Archived from the original on April 10, 2007. Retrieved January 15, 2008.
67. "Preparing the Battlefield".
68. Massoud, Ansari (January 16, 2006). "Sunni Muslim group vows to behead Iranians". Washington Times. Retrieved April 5, 2007.
69. Flanagan, Ed (February 7, 2013). "Chinese documentary alleges US broadcaster incites Tibetan self-immolations". Behind the Wall. NBC News.
70. Voice of America says it won’t become Trump TV, Washington Post
71. Trump moves to put his own stamp on Voice of America, Politico
72. Can Donald Trump turn Voice of America into his own private megaphone?, LA Times
73. Donald Trump sends two aides to Voice of America studios, raising fears he’s going to politicize the outlet, Salon
74. China’s most wanted man is in the United States. Quartz.
75. "China says Interpol notice issued for outspoken tycoon Guo". Yahoo! News. Associated Press. Archived from the original on December 26, 2018.
76. "Members of Congress request OIG investigation of VOA and BBG handling of Guo Wengui interview EXCLUSIVE". BBG Watch. September 30, 2017.
77. "Internal VOA email published on Medium". April 5, 2019.


• Dizard, Wilson P. (2004). Inventing Public Diplomacy: The Story of the U.S. Information Agency. Lynne Rienner Publishers. ISBN 1-58826-288-X.
• Rugh, William A. (2006). American Encounters with Arabs: the "Soft Power" of U.S. Public Diplomacy in the Middle East. Praeger. ISBN 978-0-275-98817-3.

External links

• Official website
• Voice of America newscasts, science programs, editorials (Internet Archive)
Site Admin
Posts: 33222
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sun Dec 01, 2019 6:45 am

American Himalayan Foundation
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 11/30/19



American Himalayan Foundation
Founded: 1981
Founder: Richard C. Blum
Type: International organization
Focus" AHF works to bring life-changing education, healthcare, and opportunity for Tibetans, Sherpas, and Nepalis across the Himalaya.
Headquarters: San Francisco
Area served: Nepal

The American Himalayan Foundation (AHF) is a non-profit organization in the United States that helps Tibetans, Sherpas, and Nepalis living throughout the Himalayas. AHF builds schools, plants trees, trains doctors, funds hospitals, takes care of children and the elderly, and restores sacred sites. The San Francisco-based organization also helps Tibetans rebuild and maintain their culture both in exile and inside Tibet.

It was founded by Richard C. Blum. The late Sir Edmund Hillary was a Director of the foundation for more than 20 years.


The American Himalayan Foundation was established by San Francisco financier Richard Blum after his first trip through the mountains of Nepal in 1968. During this trip he developed an interest in the local people and the poverty in which they lived. Blum started helping Sherpa children informally, and in 1980 he set up the American Himalayan Foundation (AHF).[1] Because many people in Nepal and Tibet live without healthcare, education, clean water, or bridges connecting remote villages, Blum created the foundation to address these problems.

The foundation's first partner was Sir Edmund Hillary, assisting the Sherpas through his Himalayan Trust. Also in the early years, the 14th Dalai Lama requested that AHF help the growing number of Tibetan refugees in Nepal and India. AHF has provided education, healthcare, and basic assistance to Tibetans for over 20 years.[2] As AHF grew, the 501 (c)(3) charity continued to work with the Sherpas and Tibetans in exile, but expanded its geographic reach to people throughout Nepal, inside Tibet, and in Bhutan. The foundation helps the most vulnerable: poor children and the elderly, girls in remote villages at risk of being trafficked, disabled children, refugees, and people in need of medical care.

All AHF-supported projects involve community participation, in order to build local capacity and to ensure the foundation is responding to community needs. Funds are not used to pay for western volunteers. All the donations raised by the foundation go directly to helping Sherpas, Nepalis, and Tibetans inside Tibet and in exile.


AHF supports over 150 projects throughout the Himalayas and touches the lives of 300,000 people each year. The foundation provides healthcare through community clinics, the training of local healthcare workers, and the Hospital and Rehabilitation Center for Disabled Children in Banepa. AHF educates over fifteen thousand children a year, including ten thousand girls who would otherwise be vulnerable to being trafficked to brothels in India. The foundation developed the Tibetan Enterprise Fund to help Tibetan refugees in Nepal and India, who lack the same rights as citizens, start income generating businesses. AHF also supports orphanages, day care centers for the very young, care for the disabled, and clean water systems and bridges for nomads in Tibet. Beginning in 1995, the organization was involved with the restoration of 15th century Tibetan Buddhist monasteries in the former Kingdom of Mustang and is also extensively involved with humanitarian work in Mustang.[3]

See also

• Himalayan Trust


1. UC Berkeley. “The Blum Center: Q&A with Richard Blum.” ... m_qa.shtml University of California, Berkeley. 19 Apr. 2006. Web. 24 Mar. 2009
2. Coburn, Brot. Himalaya: Personal Stories of Grandeur, Challenge, and Hope. Washington D.C.: National Geographic, 2006.
3. NOVA | Transcripts | Lost Treasures of Tibet | PBS

External links

• Official website
Site Admin
Posts: 33222
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sun Dec 01, 2019 6:53 am

Edmund Hillary
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 11/30/19



The Aspen Institute and the Club of Rome

Part of the indoctrination process sought for through the Aquarian conspiracy was not only to degrade morals and immerse the public in numerous diversions, but also ]to inculcate the basic principles of the New Age cult, towards establishing a one-world-religion. The means of achieving this objective has been the Environmental movement. This movement was spearheaded by the Aspen Institute, who, together with the United Nations, the Club of Rome, the Tavistock, and other such organizations originating from the Round Table, began propagandizing around the issue of nuclear energy. [1] The reason being that proliferation of nuclear energy as an alternative posed a threat to the oil interests that were dominated by the Rockefellers and the Saudis. However, they claimed deceptively that it was the environment that was being destroyed, and therefore instead rallied against “industrialization” and for “limits to growth”.

The American oilman, Robert O. Anderson, was a central figure in this agenda. Anderson and his Atlantic Richfield Oil Co. funneled millions of dollars, through their Atlantic Richfield Foundation, into select organizations to confront nuclear energy. Robert O. Anderson’s major vehicle to spread his propaganda strategy among American and European establishment circles, was his Aspen Institute for Humanistic Studies. The Aspen Institute was founded in 1949, by Aldous Huxley, and John Maynard Hutchins, in commemoration of the 200th birthday of German philosopher and author of Faust, and a member of the Illuminati, Goethe.

Robert O. Anderson also contributed significant funds to a project initiated by the Rockefeller family, together with Aurelio Peccei and Alexander King, at the Rockefeller’s estate at Bellagio, Italy, called the Club of Rome. In 1972, this Club of Rome, and the U.S. Association of the Club of Rome, gave widespread publicity to their publication of the notorious “Limits to Growth.”. Supported by research done at MIT, this report concluded that industrialization had to be halted to save the planet from ecological catastrophe.

These organizations were exploiting the panic induced when Paul Ehrlich, a biologist at Stanford, and admirer of Bertrand Russell, in 1968, wrote his Malthusian projections in a best-selling book called The Population Bomb. In it, Ehrlich suggested, “a cancer is an uncontrolled multiplication of cells; the population explosion is an uncontrolled multiplication of people.... We must shift our efforts from the treatment of the symptoms to the cutting out of the cancer. The operation will demand many apparently brutal and heartless decisions.” [2] Ehrlich also advocated placing birth control chemicals into the world’s food supplies.

The chief individual in this agenda is director of the Aspen Institute, Canadian multi-millionaire Maurice Strong. Strong is being heralded as the “indispensable man” at the center of the U.N.’s global power. He has served as director of the World Future Society, trustee of the Rockefeller Foundation and Aspen Institute, and is a member of the Club of Rome. Strong is now Senior Advisor to UN Secretary General Kofi Annan, Senior Advisor to World Bank President James Wolfensohn, Chairman of the Earth Council, Chairman of the World Resources Institute, Co-Chairman of the Council of the World Economic Forum, and member of Toyota’s International Advisory Board.

However, Strong also now heads the Golden Dawn, operates an international drug ring, and is a top operative for British Intelligence. [3] He was a founding member of both the Planetary Citizens. Strong and other luminaries, like Queen Juliana of the Netherlands, Sir Edmund Hillary, Peter Ustinov, Linus Pauling, Kurt Vonnegut, Leonard Bernstein, John Updike, Isaac Asimov, Pete Seeger, are listed as original endorsers of Planetary Citizens. Founded by Donald Keys, a disciple of Alice Bailey and former UN consultant, and presided over for many years by the late Norman Cousins (CFR), the Planetary Citizens organization supports the expansion of UN power and institutions. In Earth At Omega, Keys maintains:

We have meditations at the United Nations a couple of times a week. The meditation leader is Sri Chinmoy, and this is what he said about this situation: “The United Nations is the chosen instrument of God; to be a chosen instrument means to be a divine messenger carrying the banner of God’s inner vision and outer manifestation. One day the world will ... treasure and cherish the soul of the United Nations as its very own with enormous pride, for this soul is all-loving, all-nourishing, and all-fulfilling”. [4]

Maurice Strong also sits on the board of directors, and serves as director of finance, for the Lindisfarne Center. Lindisfarne was founded by New Age philosopher William Irwin Thompson, a former professor of humanities from MIT and Syracuse University. Thompson said:

We have now a new spirituality, what has been called the New Age movement. The planetization of the esoteric has been going on for some time... This is now beginning to influence concepts of politics and community in ecology... This is the Gaia [Mother Earth] politique... planetary culture.” Thompson further stated that, the age of “the independent sovereign state, with the sovereign individual in his private property, [is] over, just as the Christian fundamentalist days are about to be over. [5]

-- Chapter Twenty-Two: One-World-Religion: The Aspen Institute and the Club of Rome, "Terrorism and the Illuminati," by David Livingston

Sir Edmund Hillary
c. 1953
Born: Edmund Percival Hillary, 20 July 1919, Auckland, New Zealand
Died: 11 January 2008 (aged 88), Auckland City Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand
Known for: With Tenzing Norgay, first to reach summit of Mount Everest
Spouse(s): Louise Mary Rose (m. 1953; died 1975)
June Mulgrew (m. 1989; his death 2008)
Children: Peter Sarah Belinda

Sir Edmund Percival Hillary KG ONZ KBE (20 July 1919 – 11 January 2008) was a New Zealand mountaineer, explorer, and philanthropist. On 29 May 1953, Hillary and Nepalese Sherpa mountaineer Tenzing Norgay became the first climbers confirmed to have reached the summit of Mount Everest. They were part of the ninth British expedition to Everest, led by John Hunt. From 1985 to 1988 he served as New Zealand's High Commissioner to India and Bangladesh and concurrently as Ambassador to Nepal.

Hillary became interested in mountaineering while in secondary school. He made his first major climb in 1939, reaching the summit of Mount Ollivier.[1] He served in the Royal New Zealand Air Force as a navigator during World War II. Prior to the Everest expedition, Hillary had been part of the British reconnaissance expedition to the mountain in 1951 as well as an unsuccessful attempt to climb Cho Oyu in 1952. As part of the Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition he reached the South Pole overland in 1958. He subsequently reached the North Pole, making him the first person to reach both poles and summit Everest.

Following his ascent of Everest, Hillary devoted himself to assisting the Sherpa people of Nepal through the Himalayan Trust, which he established.
His efforts are credited with the construction of many schools and hospitals in Nepal. Hillary had numerous honours conferred upon him, including the Order of the Garter in 1995. Upon his death in 2008, he was given a state funeral in New Zealand.

Early life

Hillary's mother Gertrude Clark, 1909

Hillary was born to Percival Augustus and Gertrude (née Clark) Hillary in Auckland, New Zealand, on 20 July 1919.[2][3] His father Percy had served at Gallipoli with the 15th (North Auckland) Regiment, and was discharged "medically unfit" from the Army in 1916; he had married Gertrude after his return to New Zealand. His grandparents had emigrated from Yorkshire to northern Wairoa in the mid-19th century.[4]

His family moved to Tuakau, south of Auckland, in 1920, after Percy was allocated eight acres (3.2 ha) of land there as a returned soldier.[3] Percy had been a journalist prewar, and soon became founding editor of the weekly Tuakau District News as well as an apiarist. Ed had a sister June (born 1917) and a brother Rex (born 1920).[5]

Hillary was educated at Tuakau Primary School and then Auckland Grammar School.[3] He finished primary school aged 11 or two years early, and at "Grammar" achieved average marks.[6] His mother wanted him to go to a "good school" and he commuted by train, cycling to Tuakau station before 7 am and returning after 6 pm for 3½ years (a one-hour and 40 minutes journey each way) until the family moved to Remuera, Auckland in 1935, his last of four years at "Grammar".[7]

He was initially smaller than his peers and shy, and did not enjoy "Grammar", where commuting barred him from after-school activities. He grew to be 6 feet 2 inches (188 cm)[8] and gained confidence after taking up boxing.

He became interested in climbing when he was 16 following a 1935 school trip to Mount Ruapehu, after which he showed more interest in tramping than in studying and said he "wanted to see the world".[9] He then attended Auckland University College, and joined the Tramping Club there. But in 1938 "after two notably unsuccessful years studying mathematics and science" he gave up on formal education.[10]

He then became an apiarist (beekeeper) with his father and brother Rex; with 1600 hives to attend, thousands of 90 lb (41 kg) boxes of honey comb to handle, and 12 to 100 bee-stings daily.[10][2][11] So he kept bees in summer, and concentrated on climbing in winter.[12] His father also edited the journal "The N.Z. Honeybee" and his mother Gertrude was famous for breeding and selling queen bees.[13][14][15]

In 1938 he went to hear Herbert Sutcliffe, the proponent of a life philosophy called "Radiant Living", with his family. The family all became foundation members, and his mother became its secretary in 1939. He went to Gisborne as Sutcliff's assistant, and in 1941 sat examinations to become a teacher of Radiant Living, getting a 100% pass mark. His test lecture was on "Inferiority – cause and cure". He said of his five-year association with the movement that "I learned to speak confidently from the platform; to think more freely on important topics; to mix more readily with a wide variety of people". Tenets included healthy eating (the salads that June took to university for lunch) and pacifism. He joined the Radiant Living Tramping Club, and further developed his love of the outdoors in the Waitakere Ranges.[16][17]

In 1939 he completed his first major climb, reaching the summit of Mount Ollivier, near Aoraki / Mount Cook in the Southern Alps.[3] Climbing brought new friends; Harry Ayres and George Lowe became "the first real friends I'd ever had".[18]

World War II

Hillary in Royal New Zealand Air Force uniform at Delta Camp, near Blenheim, New Zealand, during World War II

At the outbreak of World War II, Hillary applied to join the Royal New Zealand Air Force (RNZAF) but quickly withdrew the application, later writing that he was "harassed by [his] religious conscience".[19] In 1943, with the Japanese threat in the Pacific and the arrival of conscription, he joined the RNZAF as a navigator in No. 6 Squadron RNZAF and later No. 5 Squadron RNZAF on Catalina flying boats.[19][20] In 1945, he was sent to Fiji and to the Solomon Islands, where he was badly burnt in an accident.[19]


In January 1948, Hillary and others ascended the south ridge of Aoraki / Mount Cook, New Zealand's highest peak.[21] In 1951 he was part of a British reconnaissance expedition to Everest led by Eric Shipton,[22][a] before joining the successful British attempt of 1953. In 1952, Hillary and George Lowe were part of the British team led by Shipton, that attempted Cho Oyu.[23] After that attempt failed due to the lack of route from the Nepal side, Hillary and Lowe crossed the Nup La pass into Tibet and reached the old Camp II, on the northern side, where all the previous expeditions had camped.[24]

1953 Everest expedition

Main article: 1953 British Mount Everest expedition

In 1949, the long-standing climbing route to the summit of Everest was closed by Chinese-controlled Tibet. For the next several years, Nepal allowed only one or two expeditions per year.[26] A Swiss expedition (in which Tenzing took part) attempted to reach the summit in 1952, but was forced back by bad weather around 800 feet (240 m) below the summit.[27] In 1952 Hillary learned that he and Lowe had been invited by the Joint Himalayan Committee for the 1953 British attempt and immediately accepted.[28] Hunt wrote that Hillary's

testing in the Himalayas had shown that he would be a very strong contender, not only for Everest, but for an eventual summit party. When I met Shipton last autumn I well remember his prophesying this – and how right he was. Quite exceptionally strong and abounding in a restless energy, possessed of a thrusting mind which swept away all unproven obstacles, Ed Hillary's personality had made an imprint on my mind, through his Cho Oyu and Reconnaissance friends and through his letters to me.[29]

On the expedition, Hunt mentions several times discussing plans with Evans and Hillary.[30]

Shipton was named as leader but was replaced by Hunt. Hillary had objected but was immediately impressed by Hunt's energy and determination.[31] Hillary had intended to climb with Lowe, but Hunt named two teams for the ascent: Tom Bourdillon and Charles Evans; and Hillary and Tenzing.[32] Hillary, therefore, made a concerted effort to forge a working friendship with Tenzing.[31][33]

Tenzing and Hillary

The Hunt expedition totalled over 400 people, including 362 porters, 20 Sherpa guides, and 10,000 pounds (4,500 kg) of baggage.[34][35] Lowe supervised the preparation of the Lhotse Face, a huge and steep ice face, for climbing. Hillary forged a route through the treacherous Khumbu Icefall.[36][37]

The expedition set up base camp in March 1953 and, working slowly, set up its final camp at the South Col at 25,900 feet (7,890 m). On 26 May, Bourdillon and Evans attempted the climb but turned back when Evans' oxygen system failed. The pair had reached the South Summit, coming within 300 vertical feet (91 m) of the summit.[35][38] Hunt then directed Hillary and Tenzing to attempt the summit.[38]

Snow and wind delayed them at the South Col for two days. They set out on 28 May with the support of Lowe, Alfred Gregory, and Ang Nyima.[39] The two pitched a tent at 27,900 feet (8,500 m) on 28 May, while their support group returned down the mountain.[40] On the following morning Hillary discovered that his boots had frozen solid outside the tent. He spent two hours warming them over a stove before he and Tenzing, wearing 30-pound (14 kg) packs, attempted the final ascent.[41] The final obstacle was the 40-foot (12 m) rock face now called "Hillary Step"; Hillary later wrote:

I noticed a crack between the rock and the snow sticking to the East Face. I crawled inside and wriggled and jammed my way to the top ... Tenzing slowly joined me and we moved on. I chopped steps over bump after bump, wondering a little desperately where the top could be. Then I saw the ridge ahead dropped away to the north and above me on the right was a rounded snow dome. A few more whacks with my ice-axe and Tenzing and I stood on top of Everest.[42]

Hillary and Tenzing on return from the summit of Everest

Tenzing later wrote that Hillary took the first step onto the summit and he followed. They reached Everest's 29,028 ft (8,848 m) summit – the highest point on earth – at 11:30 am.[2][43]

They spent about 15 minutes at the summit. Hillary took a photo of Tenzing posing with his ice-axe, but there is no photo of Hillary. BBC News attributed this to Tenzing's having never used a camera;[44][45] Tenzing's autobiography says that Hillary simply declined to have his picture taken. They also took photos looking down the mountain.[45]

Hillary (left) and George Lowe (right) with Governor-General Sir Willoughby Norrie at Government House, Wellington, 20 August 1953

Tenzing left chocolates at the summit as an offering, and Hillary left a cross given to him by John Hunt.[46] Their descent was complicated by drifting snow which had covered their tracks. The first person they met was Lowe; Hillary said, "Well, George, we knocked the bastard off."[8]

They returned to Kathmandu a few days later and learned that Hillary had already been appointed a Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire and Hunt a Knight Bachelor.[47] News reached Britain on the day of Queen Elizabeth II's coronation, and the press called it a coronation gift.[48] The 37 members of the party later received the Queen Elizabeth II Coronation Medal with mount everest expedition engraved along the rim.[49] In addition to the knighting of Hillary and Hunt, Tenzing – ineligible for knighthood as a Nepalese citizen – received the George Medal.[50][51][52] Tenzing also received the Star of Nepal from King Tribhuvan.[53]

After Everest

In the cockpit of the Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition's DHC-2, 1956

Hillary climbed ten other peaks in the Himalayas on further visits in 1956, 1960–1961, and 1963–1965. He also reached the South Pole as part of the Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition, for which he led the New Zealand section, on 4 January 1958. His party was the first to reach the Pole overland since Amundsen in 1911 and Scott in 1912, and the first ever to do so using motor vehicles.[54]

In 1960 Hillary organized an expedition to search for the fabled abominable snowman.[55] Hillary was with the expedition for five months, although it lasted for ten.[56] No evidence of Yetis was found, instead footprints and tracks were proven to be from other causes. During the expedition, Hillary travelled to remote temples which contained "Yeti scalps"; however after bringing back three relics, two were shown to be from bears and one from a goat antelope.[57][58] Hillary said after the expedition: "The yeti is not a strange, superhuman creature as has been imagined. We have found rational explanations for most yeti phenomena".[59] In 1960-61 he was accompanied by Griffith Pugh in the Silver hut expedition, when Pugh showed that Mount Everest could be climbed without oxygen. An assault on Makalu, the world's fifth-highest mountain, was unsuccessful.

Hillary in 1957 after ac­com­pa­nying the first plane to land at the Marble Point ground air strip, Antarctica

In 1962 he was a guest on the television game show What's My Line?; he stumped the panel, comprising Dorothy Kilgallen, Arlene Francis, Bennett Cerf, and Merv Griffin.[60] In 1977, he led a jetboat expedition, titled "Ocean to Sky", from the mouth of the Ganges River to its source.[61] From 1977 to 1979 he commentated aboard Antarctic sightseeing flights operated by Air New Zealand.[62] In 1985, he accompanied Neil Armstrong in a small twin-engined ski plane over the Arctic Ocean and landed at the North Pole. Hillary thus became the first man to stand at both poles and on the summit of Everest.[63][64][65][66] This accomplishment inspired generations of explorers to compete over what later was defined as Three Poles Challenge. In January 2007, Hillary travelled to Antarctica as part of a delegation commemorating the 50th anniversary of the founding of Scott Base.[67][68][69]

Public recognition

Hillary on the New Zealand five-dollar note

On 6 June 1953, Hillary was appointed Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire, and he received the Queen Elizabeth II Coronation Medal the same year.[70] On 6 February 1987, he was the fourth appointee to the Order of New Zealand.[71] He was also awarded the Polar Medal in 1958 for his part in the Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition,[72][73] the Order of Gorkha Dakshina Bahu, 1st Class of the Kingdom of Nepal in 1953, and the Coronation Medal in 1975.[74] On 22 April 1995 Hillary was appointed Knight Companion of The Most Noble Order of the Garter.[75][76] On 17 June 2004 Hillary was awarded Commander's Cross of the Order of Merit of the Republic of Poland.[77] The Government of India conferred on him its second highest civilian award, the Padma Vibhushan, posthumously, in 2008.[78]

To mark the 50th anniversary of the first successful ascent of Everest, the Nepalese government conferred honorary citizenship upon Hillary at a special Golden Jubilee celebration in Kathmandu, Nepal. He was the first foreign national to receive that honour.[79][15]

Since 1992, New Zealand's $5 note has featured Hillary's portrait, making him the only living person not a current head of state ever to appear on a New Zealand banknote. In giving his permission, Hillary insisted that Aoraki / Mount Cook rather than Mount Everest be used as the backdrop.[80][81]

Statue of Hillary gazing towards Aoraki / Mount Cook, one of his favourite peaks[82]

Annual Reader's Digest polls from 2005 to 2007 named Hillary as "New Zealand's most trusted individual".[83][84]

Hillary's favoured New Zealand charity was the Sir Edmund Hillary Outdoor Pursuits Centre, of which he was patron for 35 years.[85] He was particularly keen on how this organisation introduced young New Zealanders to the outdoors in a very similar way to his first experience of a school trip to Mt Ruapehu at the age of 16. A 2.3-metre (7.5 ft) bronze statue of Hillary was erected outside The Hermitage Hotel at Mount Cook Village; it was unveiled by Hillary himself in 2003.[86] Various streets, institutions and organisations around New Zealand and abroad are named after him – for example, the Sir Edmund Hillary Collegiate in Otara, which was established by Hillary in 2001.[87]

Two Antarctic features are named after Hillary. The Hillary Coast is a section of coastline south of Ross Island and north of the Shackleton Coast.[88] The Hillary Canyon, an undersea feature in the Ross Sea, appears on the General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans, published by the International Hydrographic Organization.[89]

Personal life

Hillary, with first wife, Louise, and son, Peter, 1955

Sir Edmund with his second wife, Lady Hillary, 2000

Hillary married Louise Mary Rose on 3 September 1953, soon after the ascent of Everest; he admitted he was terrified of proposing to her and relied on her mother to propose on his behalf.[11][12][90] They had three children: Peter (born 1954), Sarah (born 1955) and Belinda (1959–1975).[2][38] In 1975 while en route to join Hillary in the village of Phaphlu, where he was helping to build a hospital, Louise and Belinda were killed in a plane crash near Kathmandu airport shortly after take-off.[11] In 1989 he married June Mulgrew, the widow of his close friend Peter Mulgrew, who died on Air New Zealand Flight 901 in 1979.[12][91]

His son Peter Hillary also became a climber, summiting Everest in 1990. In May 2002 Peter climbed Everest as part of a 50th anniversary celebration; Jamling Tenzing Norgay (son of Tenzing who had died in 1986) was also part of the expedition.[92]

Hillary's home for most of his life was a property on Remuera Road in Auckland City,[93] where he enjoyed reading adventure and science fiction novels in his retirement.[93] He also built a bach at Whites Beach,[94] one of Auckland's west coast beaches in the former Waitakere City, between Anawhata and North Piha;[95][96] a friend called it Hillary's place of solace, where he could escape media attention.[94]

The Hillary family has had a connection with the west coast of Auckland since 1925, when Louise's father built a bach at Anawhata.[97] The family donated land at Whites Beach that is now crossed by trampers on the Hillary Trail, named for Edmund.[98] Hillary said of the area: "That is the thing that international travel brings home to me – it's always good to be going home. This is the only place I want to live in; this is the place I want to see out my days."[99]


Following his ascent of Everest he devoted himself to assisting the Sherpa people of Nepal through the Himalayan Trust, which he established in 1960[100] and led until his death in 2008. His efforts are credited with the construction of many schools and hospitals in this remote region of the Himalayas. He was the Honorary President of the American Himalayan Foundation, a United States non-profit body that helps improve the ecology and living conditions in the Himalayas. He was also the Honorary President of Mountain Wilderness, an international NGO dedicated to the worldwide protection of mountains.[101]

Political involvement

Hillary supported the Labour Party in the 1975 New Zealand general election, as a member of the "Citizens for Rowling" campaign. His involvement in this campaign was seen as precluding his nomination as Governor-General;[102] the position was offered to Keith Holyoake in 1977. In 1985, Hillary was appointed New Zealand High Commissioner to India (concurrently High Commissioner to Bangladesh and Ambassador to Nepal) and spent four and a half years based in New Delhi.[103]

In 1975, Hillary served as a vice president for the Abortion Law Reform Association of New Zealand,[104] a national pro-choice advocacy group.[105] He was also a patron of REPEAL, an organization seeking repeal of the restrictive Contraception, Sterilisation, and Abortion Act 1977.[104]


People draped in the Flag of New Zealand as Hillary's hearse passes

On 22 April 2007, while on a trip to Kathmandu, Hillary suffered a fall, and was hospitalised after returning to New Zealand.[106] On 11 January 2008 he died of heart failure at Auckland City Hospital.[107] Flags were lowered to half-mast on New Zealand public buildings and at Scott Base in Antarctica,[108] and Prime Minister Helen Clark called Hillary's death a "profound loss to New Zealand".[109]

On 21 January, Hillary's casket was taken into Holy Trinity Cathedral, Auckland, to lie in state.[110] A state funeral was held on 22 January 2008,[111] after which his body was cremated. On 29 February 2008 most of his ashes were scattered in Auckland's Hauraki Gulf per his desire.[112] The remainder went to a Nepalese monastery near Everest; a plan to scatter them on the summit was cancelled in 2010.[113]

Posthumous tributes

In January 2008, Lukla Airport, in Lukla, Nepal, was renamed to Tenzing–Hillary Airport in recognition of their promotion of its construction.[114][115] On 2 April 2008, a service of thanksgiving in Hillary's honour at St George's Chapel at Windsor Castle was attended by Queen Elizabeth II, New Zealand dignitaries including Prime Minister Helen Clark, and members of Hillary's and Norgay's families; Gurkha soldiers from Nepal stood guard outside the ceremony.[116][117] In October 2008, it was announced that future rugby test matches between England and New Zealand would be played for the Hillary Shield.[118] In 2009 the Duke of Edinburgh's Award in New Zealand – formerly the Young New Zealanders' Challenge – was renamed "The Duke of Edinburgh's Hillary Award".[119] On 5 November 2008, a commemorative set of five stamps was issued by New Zealand Post.[120][121]

There have been many calls for lasting tributes to Hillary. The first major public tribute has been by way of the "Summits for Ed" tribute tour organised by the Sir Edmund Hillary Foundation.[122] This tribute tour went from Bluff at the bottom of the South Island to Cape Reinga at the tip of the North Island, visiting 39 towns and cities along the way. In each venue, school children and members of the public were invited to join together to climb a significant hill or site in their area to show their respect for Hillary. The public were also invited to bring small rocks or pebbles that had special significance to them, that would be included in a memorial to Hillary at the base of Mt Ruapehu, in the grounds of the Sir Edmund Hillary Outdoor Pursuits Centre. Funds donated during the tour are used by the foundation to sponsor young New Zealanders on outdoor courses. Over 8,000 persons attended these "Summit" climbs between March and May 2008.[123]

View from the Hillary Trail

The tribute song "Hillary 88", by the New Zealand duo The Kiwis, is the official world memorial song for Hillary, with the endorsement of Lady Hillary.[124]

A four-day track in the Waitakere Ranges, along Auckland's west coast, is named the Hillary Trail,[125] in honour of Hillary.[98] Hillary's father-in-law, Jim Rose, who had built a bach at Anawhata in 1925, wrote in his 1982 history of Anawhata Beach, "My family look forward to the time when we will be able to walk from Huia to Muriwai on public walking tracks like the old-time Maori could do".[97][126] Hillary loved the area, and had his own bach near Anawhata. The track was opened on 11 January 2010, the second anniversary of Hillary's death.[107][127] Rose Track, descending from Anawhata Road to Whites Beach, is named after the Rose family.[99][128]

The South Ridge of Aoraki / Mount Cook, New Zealand's highest mountain, was renamed Hillary Ridge on 18 August 2011. Hillary and three other climbers were the first party to successfully climb the ridge in 1948.[129] In September 2013 the Government of Nepal proposed naming a 7,681 metres (25,200 ft) mountain in Nepal Hillary Peak in his honour.[130] After the New Horizons mission discovered a mountain range on Pluto on 14 July 2015, it was informally named Hillary Montes (Hillary Mountains) by NASA.[131]

The Sir Edmund Hillary Mountain Legacy Medal, awarded by the Nepalese NGO Mountain Legacy "for remarkable service in the conservation of culture and nature in mountainous regions" was inaugurated in 2003, with the approval of Sir Edmund Hillary. A bronze bust of Hillary (circa 1953) by Ophelia Gordon Bell is in the Te Papa museum in Wellington, New Zealand.[132] The Sir Edmund Hillary Archive was added to the UNESCO Memory of the world archive in 2013,[133] it is currently held by Auckland War Memorial Museum.[134]


Coat of arms of Edmund Hillary

Crest: An azure kiwi grasping an ice axe.
Escutcheon: A stylised mountain range surrounded by three prayer wheels.
Supporters: A Fiordland crested penguin wearing a plain collar on either side.
Compartment: An iceflow proper.
Motto: Nothing venture, nothing win
Orders: The Order of the Garter ribbon.
Honi soit qui mal y pense
(Shame be to him who thinks evil of it)


Books written by Edmund Hillary

Title / Year / Publisher / ISBN/ASIN / Co-author / Ref

High Adventure[ b] 1955 Hodder & Stoughton[c] ISBN 1-932302-02-6[d] n/a [135][55]
East of Everest — An Account of the New Zealand Alpine Club Himalayan Expedition to the Barun Valley in 1954 1956 E. P. Dutton ASIN B000EW84UM George Lowe [135]
No Latitude for Error 1961 Hodder & Stoughton. ASIN B000H6UVP6 n/a [135][55]
The New Zealand Antarctic Expedition 1959 R.W. Stiles, printers. ASIN B0007K6D72 n/a
The Crossing of Antarctica: The Commonwealth Transantarctic Expedition, 1955–1958 1958 Cassell ASIN B000HJGZ08 Vivian Fuchs [135]
High in the thin cold air[e] 1962 Doubleday ASIN B00005W121 Desmond Doig [135]
Schoolhouse in the Clouds 1965 Hodder & Stoughton ASIN B00005WRBB n/a [135]
Nothing Venture, Nothing Win 1975 Hodder & Stoughton ISBN 0-340-21296-9 n/a [135]
From the Ocean to the Sky: Jet Boating Up the Ganges 1979 Viking ISBN 0-7089-0587-0 n/a [135]
Two Generations[f] 1984 Hodder & Stoughton ISBN 0-340-35420-8 Peter Hillary [g][135]
View from the Summit: The Remarkable Memoir by the First Person to Conquer Everest 2000 Pocket ISBN 0-7434-0067-4 n/a


1. Shipton had met Dan Bryant on the 1935 British Mount Everest reconnaissance expedition and had formed a positive view of New Zealand climbers
2. Also High Adventure: The True Story of the First Ascent of Everest
3. (reprinted Oxford University Press (paperback)
4. and ISBN 0-19-516734-1
5. the story of the Himalayan Expedition, led by Sir Edmund Hillary, sponsored by World Book Encyclopedia
6. reissued as Ascent: Two Lives Explored: The Autobiographies of Sir Edmund and Peter Hillary
7. (1992) Paragon House Publishers ISBN 1-55778-408-6.
1. "Sir Edmund Hillary Biography and Interview". American Academy of Achievement.
2. "Famous New Zealanders". Christchurch City Libraries. Retrieved 23 January 2007.
3. "Edmund Hillary". New Zealand History. Wellington, New Zealand: Research and Publishing Group of the New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 15 February 2018.
4. Tyler, Heather (8 October 2005). "Authorised Hillary biography reveals private touches". The New Zealand Herald. NZPA. Retrieved 29 September 2011.
5. Johnston 2005, p. 16.
6. Robinson, Simon (10 January 2008). "Sir Edmund Hillary: Top of the World". TIME Magazine. Retrieved 14 January 2008.
7. Johnston 2005, pp. 20,22,23.
8. "'We knocked the bastard off'". The Guardian. 13 March 2003. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
9. Hillary 1955, p. 1.
10. Johnston 2005, p. 25.
11. Robert Sullivan, Time Magazine, Sir Edmund Hillary—A visit with the world's greatest living adventurer, 12 September 2003. Retrieved 22 January 2007. Archived 25 July 2010 at the Wayback Machine
12. National Geographic, Everest: 50 Years and Counting. Retrieved 22 January 2007.
13. Johnston 2005, p. 23.
14. Hillary, Sir Edmund (Percival). (2017). In Encyclopaedia Britannica, Britannica concise encyclopedia. Chicago, IL: Britannica Digital Learning. Retrieved from ... tionId=292
15. "Sir Edmund Hillary." Britannica Academic, Encyclopædia Britannica, 5 September 2012. academic-eb-com/levels/collegiate/article/Sir-Edmund-Hillary/40469. Accessed 14 March 2018.
16. Johnston 2005, pp. 25-29.
17. Barnett, Shaun (30 October 2012). "Hillary, Edmund Percival – Early mountaineering". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 30 May 2013.
18. Johnston 2005, pp. 26-29.
19. Calder, Peter (11 January 2008). "Sir Edmund Hillary's life". The New Zealand Herald. APN Holdings NZ Limited. Retrieved 11 January 2008.
20. "Edmund Percival Hillary". Auckland War Memorial Museum. Retrieved 16 November 2015.
21. Langton, Graham (22 June 2007). "Ayres, Horace Henry 1912–1987". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 2 December 2009.
22. Isserman, Maurice; Weaver, Stewart (2008). Fallen Giants : A History of Himalayan Mountaineering from the Age of Empire to the Age of Extremes. New Haven: Yale University Press. p. 278.
23. Barnett, Shaun (7 December 2010). "Cho Oyu expedition team, 1952". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand.
24. Gordon, Harry (12 January 2008). "Hillary, deity of the high country", The Australian. Retrieved 19 June 2010.
25. "Sir Edmund Hillary scales the heights of literary society". WNYC. Retrieved 31 October 2016.
26. Isserman, Maurice; Weaver, Stewart (2008). Fallen Giants : A History of Himalayan Mountaineering from the Age of Empire to the Age of Extremes. New Haven: Yale University Press. p. 437.
27. Hillary 1955, pp. 48,235.
28. Hillary 1955, p. 117.
29. Hunt 1953, p. 28.
30. Hunt 1953, pp. 107,121,134,138.
31. Hillary 1955, p. 119.
32. Isserman, Maurice; Weaver, Stewart (2008). Fallen Giants : A History of Himalayan Mountaineering from the Age of Empire to the Age of Extremes. New Haven: Yale University Press. pp. 284–286.
33. Hunt 1953, pp. 138,139.
34. Hillary of New Zealand and Tenzing reach the top, Reuter (in The Guardian, 2 June 1953)
35. Reaching The Top Archived 16 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine Royal Geographical Society. Retrieved 13 January 2008.
36. Hillary 1955, p. 151.
37. Elish 2007, p. 30.
38. The New Zealand Edge, Sir Edmund Hillary—King Of The World Archived 27 November 2004 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 22 January 2007.
39. Hillary 1955, p. 197.
40. Isserman, Maurice; Weaver, Stewart (2008). Fallen Giants : A History of Himalayan Mountaineering from the Age of Empire to the Age of Extremes. New Haven: Yale University Press. p. 288.
41. Hillary 1955, p. 213.
42. Two Generations. pp. 27–28.
43. Everest not as tall as thought Agence France-Presse (on, 10 October 2005
44. Obituary: Sir Edmund Hillary BBC News, 11 January 2008
45. Joanna Wright (2003). "The Photographs Archived 5 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine", in Everest, Summit of Achievement, by the Royal Geographical Society. Simon & Schuster, New York. ISBN 0-7432-4386-2. Retrieved 11 January 2008.
46. Hillary 1955, p. 229.
47. Editorial Staff (12 June 1953). "(announcements)". The London Gazette. p. 3273. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
48. Reuters (2 June 1953), "2 of British Team Conquer Everest", New York Times, p. 1, retrieved 18 December 2009
49. Johnston & Larsen 2005, p. 76.
50. 'George Medal for Tensing – Award Approved by the Queen' in The Times (London), issue 52663 dated Thursday 2 July 1953, p. 6
51. Hansen, Peter H. (2004). "'Tenzing Norgay [Sherpa Tenzing] (1914–1986)'" ((subscription required)). Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 18 January2008.
52. Vallely, Paul (10 May 1986). "Man of the mountains Tenzing dies". The Times. UK.
53. McFadden, Robert D. (10 January 2008). "Edmund Hillary, First on Everest, Dies at 88". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 27 October 2017.
54. Ministry for Culture and Heritage (22 July 2014). "Edmund Hillary in Antarctica". New Zealand History online – Nga korero aipurangi o Aotearoa. Wellington, New Zealand. Retrieved 18 November2016.
55. Hillary, Sir Edmund Percival. (2017). In P. Lagasse, & Columbia University, The Columbia encyclopedia (7th ed.). New York, NY: Columbia University Press. Retrieved from ... tionId=292
56. "Sir Edmund Hillary, a Life in Pictures". Retrieved 14 March 2018.
57. "The Yeti: Asia's Abominable Snowman". Live Science. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
58. "Objects of Intrigue: Yeti Scalp". Atlas Obscura. 30 May 2013. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
59. "'Yeti scalp' fails to convince Hillary". Stars and Stripes. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
60. "What's My Line? – Sir Edmund Hillary; Diahann Carroll; Merv Griffin [panel] (May 20, 1962)". Retrieved 11 March 2018.
61. Ministry for Culture and Heritage (13 January 2016). "The end of the 'big mountain days' – Ed Hillary"". New Zealand History online – Nga korero aipurangi o Aotearoa. Wellington, New Zealand. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
62. The Antarctic experience – Erebus disaster New Zealand History online; retrieved 13 January 2008.
63. Attwooll, Jolyon. "Sixty fascinating Everest facts". Retrieved 22 July 2016.
64. TIME: The Greatest Adventures of All Time – The Race to the Pole (interview with Sir Edmund) Archived 25 July 2010 at the Wayback Machine
65. March 2003 interview with Hillary in The Guardian
66. "Video: Interview on HardTalk". BBC News. 11 January 2008. Retrieved 13 March 2010.
67. NDTV, Sir Edmund Hillary revisits Antarctica, 20 January 2007.[dead link]
68. Harvey, Claire (21 January 2007). "Claire Harvey on Ice: Mt Erebus sends chills of horror". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 29 September 2011.
69. Radio Network, PM and Sir Edmund Hillary off to Scott Base, 15 January 2007. Retrieved 20 January 2007. Archived 26 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine
70. "No. 39886". The London Gazette. 12 June 1953. p. 3273.
71. "The Order of New Zealand" (12 February 1987) 20 New Zealand Gazette 705 at 709.
72. "No. 41384". The London Gazette. 13 May 1958. p. 2997.
73. "medal, award". Auckland War Memorial Museum. Retrieved 16 November 2015.
74. O'Shea, Phillip. "The orders, decorations and medals of Sir Edmund Hillary, KG, ON Z, KBE (1919–2008)" (PDF). Reserve Bank Museum. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 November 2010. Retrieved 7 November 2010.
75. Editorial Staff (25 April 1995). "State Intelligence". the London Gazette. p. 6023. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
76. "The Most Noble Order of the Garter-K.G." (4 May 1995) 42 1071 at 1088.
77. "Zmarł Edmund Hillary, pierwszy zdobywca Mt Everest". Wiadomości (in Polish). Agora S.A. 10 January 2008. Archived from the original on 20 July 2014. Retrieved 15 November 2013.
78. "Pranab, Tendulkar, Asha Bhosle receive Padma Vibhushan". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 6 May 2008.
79. Mountaineering Great Edmund Hillary passes away 12 January 2008 The Rising Nepal Archived4 March 2008 at the Wayback Machine
80. "Sir Edmund Hillary – Commemorative $5 Bank Note". Retrieved 14 December 2017.
81. "Banknotes in circulation". Reserve Bank of New Zealand. Retrieved 16 March 2018.
82. Explaining Currency Archived 12 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine NZ Government
83. "Sir Ed tops NZ's most trusted list". Television New Zealand. 30 June 2005. Retrieved 12 June2010.
84. Rowan, Juliet (29 May 2007). "Parents trust firefighters, but want kids to be high-earning lawyers". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 12 June 2010.
85. "Our Uniqueness". Hillary Outdoors Education Centres|OPC. Archived from the original on 2 February 2017. Retrieved 2 February 2017.
86. "Sir Edmund Hillary at The Hermitage July 2003". Retrieved 17 November 2016.
87. "Collegiate Story". Sir Edmund Hillary Collegiate. Retrieved 10 December 2017.
88. "Hillary Coast". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 10 December 2017.
89. Booker, Jarrod (16 January 2008). "Hillary's first mountain could take name". The New Zealand Herald. Archived from the original on 7 September 2012. Retrieved 26 August 2008.
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92. National Geographic 50th Anniversary Everest Expedition Reaches Summit Archived 30 September 2013 at the Wayback Machine, National Geographic News, 25 May 2002. Retrieved 5 May 2011.
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135. i Hillary, Sir Edmund Percival. (2011). In L. Rodger, & J. Bakewell, Chambers Biographical Dictionary (9th ed.). London, UK: Chambers Harrap. Retrieved from ... tionId=292


• Elish, Dan (2007). Edmund Hillary: First to the Top. Marshall Cavendish. ISBN 978-0-761-42224-2.
• Hillary, Edmund (1955). High Adventure. 649. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-195-16734-4.
• Johnston, Alexa; Larsen, David (2005). Reaching the Summit: Sir Edmund Hillary's Life of Adventure. DK Publishing. ISBN 978-0-756-61527-7.
• Johnston, Alexa (2013). Sir Edmund Hillary: An Extraordinary Life. Penguin Random House New Zealand Limited. ISBN 978-0143006466.
• Little, Paul (2012). After Everest: Inside the private world of Edmund Hillary. Sydney, Australia: Allen & Unwin. ISBN 978-1-877505-20-1.
• McKinnon, Lyn (2016). Only Two for Everest. Dunedin: Otago University Press. ISBN 978-1-972322-40-6.
• Tuckey, Harriet (2013). Everest: The First Ascent — How a Champion of Science Helped to Conquer the Mountain. Lyons Press. p. 424. ISBN 978-0-762-79192-7.
• Hunt, John (1953). The Ascent of Everest. London: Hodder & Stoughton. (The Summit (Chapter 16, pp 197–209) is by Hillary)

External links

• Edmund Hillary biography from the Dictionary of New Zealand Biography
• On top of the world: Ed Hillary at
• Videos (10) at the New Zealand National Film Unit
• Obituary of Edmund Hillary at
• Interview with Sir Edmund Hillary: Mountain Climbing at Smithsonian Folkways
• Edmund Hillary on BBC Radio 4's Desert Island Discs, 17 April 1979
• Edmund Hillary's collection at Auckland War Memorial Museum Tāmaki Paenga Hira
• Edmund Hillary addressing The New York Herald Tribune Book and Author Luncheon, February 10, 1954 broadcast by WNYC
• "Obituary: Sir Edmund Hillary". The Telegraph. 11 January 2008. Retrieved 19 October 2018.
• Works by or about Edmund Hillary at Internet Archive
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

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School of Radiant Living
by Hilary Stace
New Zealand History
Accessed: 12/1/19




Radiant Living magazine
A spread from Radiant Living, October/November 1949.

The School of Radiant Living was a movement active in New Zealand from the late 1930s until the late 1980s. Founder Dr Herbert Sutcliffe taught a holistic philosophy of physical, psychological and spiritual health. The School of Radiant Living had its international headquarters at Peloha in Havelock North from the early 1940s.

Sutcliffe, an English-born psychologist, was involved with the internationally popular Radiant Health Club movement in Australia before founding the first School of Radiant Living in Providence, Rhode Island, USA, in 1931. During the Second World War he migrated to New Zealand. A total of 36 schools (24 overseas and 12 in New Zealand) were eventually established.

By Hilary Stace

Herbert Sutcliffe

Herbert Sutcliffe, 1886-1971
Herbert Sutcliffe, founder of the Radiant Living movement in New Zealand

Herbert Sutcliffe was born in Louth, Lincolnshire, England, on 19 October 1886, the son of Elizabeth Easter Allen and her husband, John James Sutcliffe, an engineer. A lifelong love of singing came from involvement in the local cathedral choir. He worked as a telegraph engineer before migrating to Australia, apparently to work on new telegraph cable projects. On 5 June 1915, at Brunswick, Melbourne, he married Hilda Gertrude Wilson; they were to have two children. He maintained his interest in singing by conducting choirs, and was also an active Freemason.

Fascinated by the 'new' psychology of Freud, Adler, and particularly Jung, Sutcliffe joined the Australian Psychological Society, editing its magazine and acting as president from 1925 to 1930. By 1931 he had gained a doctorate in psychology. He introduced the society to Jungian ideas on the importance of personal counselling incorporating a metaphysical element.

Radiant Health and the International New Thought Alliance

Sutcliffe also edited the Radiant Health Messenger, which had an international readership, and lectured on healthy living on behalf of Radiant Health Clubs. Through this magazine he came to the notice of the United States-based International New Thought Alliance (INTA) and was invited to their 1931 conference in Cleveland, Ohio. An umbrella group of those following alternative spirituality or liberal Christian paths, the INTA also had links to the American 19th-century transcendentalist writers and incorporated the latest psychological theories. After being well received at the conference Sutcliffe studied for his doctorate in divinity at an INTA-affiliated Divine Science Church in New York State.

Radiant Living

Throughout this time Sutcliffe was developing the philosophy that he was soon to teach in his Schools of Radiant Living. He argued that each person has a spirit or soul and for successful psychoanalysis the relationship between mind and soul must be considered: fear, hate and feelings of inferiority, the causes of personal suffering, could not be overcome without facing the invisible world of soul, spirituality and the afterlife. By considering people as threefold beings - body, mind and spirit - he believed individual health and happiness could be achieved by changing diet, physical habits, attitudes and spiritual awareness, and by following the 'laws of nature'.

The first Sutcliffe School of Radiant Living was founded in Providence, Rhode Island, in 1931. During the next two decades Sutcliffe set up 36 schools - 24 in the United States, Canada, Hong Kong and Australia, and 12 in New Zealand. As he spent much of his time on lecture tours he provided detailed organisational requirements for each school and trained students to become teachers, resulting in a uniform structure and format. Annual Christmas schools provided refresher courses and regular council meetings were also held. The organisation of the schools, and associated tasks such as editing the magazine and arranging Sutcliffe's lecture tours, were mostly done by dedicated women.

Sutcliffe in New Zealand

Sutcliffe visited New Zealand in 1938. His mentor, the American New Thought activist and Radiant Health Club publicist Phoebe Marie Holmes, had visited earlier. Lecture tours by alternative health advocates found a ready audience in New Zealand, and by 1938 there was a Radiant Theatre in Christchurch, apparently financed by the baker Thomas Edmond. The rising sun symbol used by Edmond's company was popular with such movements, and was also used by Sutcliffe. One of New Zealand's first Schools of Radiant Living was founded in Auckland in 1938, with Gertrude Hillary as secretary. Her son Edmund was briefly Sutcliffe's assistant and also trained as a Radiant Living teacher.

Havelock North and Peloha

By 1942 Sutcliffe had made Havelock North, with its history of alternative spirituality and pleasant climate, his home and the international headquarters of the movement. He bought the large Quaker-built house Swarthmoor and renamed it Peloha (for Peace, Love and Harmony). For the next four decades it hosted summer schools, conferences and Easter observances, and also functioned as a commercial health retreat. Hilda Sutcliffe died in Australia in 1944, and on 25 February 1955 Herbert married his secretary, Phyllis Evelyn Farley.

Radiant Living thrived in New Zealand from the 1940s to the 1970s. Many schools built or purchased their own premises, and annual banquets, often attended by mayors, MPs and other dignitaries, celebrated the founding of each school. At a meeting in Wellington in the 1940s Prime Minister Peter Fraser apparently suggested that if more people followed Radiant Living health principles he would be closing hospitals rather than opening them. Public events included fitness displays by members.

The Eliminating Diet

Nutrition took a prominent place in Sutcliffe's teachings. To remove toxins from the body and mind the Eliminating Diet was commonly prescribed for a variety of ailments. The dietary theories of Radiant Living, based on food-combining and a high intake of fresh fruit, vegetables and their juices, foreshadows much later mainstream dietary advice. Correct breathing, exercises to improve eyesight, and singing and music were also encouraged. All were an embodiment of the philosophy that by following 'laws of nature' ailments could be cured and quality of life improved.

A colourful personality

Herbert Sutcliffe, usually dressed in a white suit, was a charismatic platform speaker, even known to turn cartwheels on stage in his 60s. For formal occasions at Peloha he wore a Masonic-style royal-blue gown. He taught that dark colours had negative associations and encouraged members to bring bright colour into their lives. He gave personal consultations to thousands of people, pioneered the use of wire recordings, offered postal courses and ran a mail-order business in herbs and vitamins. He was interested in homoeopathy, vitamin therapy and motivational sports psychology, and took a personal interest in the achievements of local sportsmen and women.

Radiant Living after Sutcliffe

Sutcliffe died at Havelock North on 27 October 1971, survived by Phyllis and the children of his first marriage. Phyllis ran Peloha until her death in 1981, and it was sold in the late 1980s. A large endowment was made to Victoria University of Wellington to establish the Herbert Sutcliffe scholarships for disadvantaged students in 1989. Other educational institutions, such as the Hohepa homes, also benefited.

Although sometimes authoritarian and overbearing, Sutcliffe lived simply at Peloha with the staff. Even those who fell out with him over various issues still respected his teachings. In 1998 one of his earliest texts, How to re-make your life (1931), was republished by Sally Fallon and the Ascended Master Teaching Foundation. Although no formal schools remain, the holistic teachings of Herbert Sutcliffe are still followed by many in New Zealand and overseas.

A biography of Herbert Sutcliffe can be found on the DNZB website


The teachings of Radiant Living

The teachings of Radiant Living were complex and involved holistic psychological, physical and spiritual health. Several textbooks and a large series of taped lectures are held in the Beaglehole Room at the Victoria University of Wellington Library. The Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, also holds some of Sutcliffe's books as well as a run of the magazine Radiant Living which chronicles issues of importance.

According to Herbert Sutcliffe, good mental health was the key to better physical health. He taught that nature cures and can be assisted to cure not only with fresh, naturally grown food but with mental analysis. He advocated personal counselling and held individual sessions wherever he went. Disease could be the result of fear, feelings of inferiority or hate, products of the human mind which cause problems all over the world. But anyone could be assisted back to normal life and health, according to Sutcliffe, by understanding the psychosomatic (the power of the mind) and psycho-cosmology (the power of the spirit). Tools such as affirmations would eliminate fears and retrain the mind. Music, singing and public-speaking were also important.

Sutcliffe devised his own stages of human development and also identified physical body types. He was particularly influenced by Jung's belief in the importance of the soul. He believed that one must acknowledge the existence of the soul, 'the invisible which can be visualised as a (radiant) source for good within us all and which outlasts our physical life on earth'.

Diet was of particular importance and the cleansing Eliminating Diet was frequently advocated. To keep the body healthy the 16 cell elements had to be kept in harmony. He believed fruit and vegetables were 'alkaline forming' and should form 80% of the diet and the remaining 20% should be 'acid forming' proteins, carbohydrates and fats. Vitamins and minerals were also important. Food should be colourful as well as healthy and organic and a good salad (a mainstay of diet) should contain at least 6 colourful fruits and vegetables.

Physical fitness was an important tenet of Radiant Living and each school taught a variety of exercises including ones for better breathing and eyesight.
Displays by members were a feature of publicity drives.

Radiant Living's spirituality was based on a liberal Christianity and rituals such as the 'rebirth' at Easter were important celebrations. People were seen as part of God - with unlimited positive potential. Evil was 'man-made - a result of fear and anxiety' - and could therefore be overcome.

These teachings were practised and promoted by the hundreds of people who qualified as Accredited Teachers of Radiant Living and ran the 36 schools around the world. Radiant Living teaching foreshadowed much of what is now labelled [url]'new age'.[/url]


Peloha - the home of Radiant Living

'On yonder hill you will pitch your tent' prophesied the daughter of Golden Dawn founder Robert Felkin to Herbert Sutcliffe, as she pointed towards Te Mata Peak. It was about 1940 and Sutcliffe was staying at her home, Whare-Ra, in Havelock North. Within a couple of years he had bought a large house, Swarthmoor, on the slopes of Te Mata Peak and set about turning it into a health retreat and teaching centre. He named it Peloha for the first two letters of the words PEace, LOve, HArmony.

The house had a fascinating history. It was built in 1904 for John Holdsworth and his wife, Margaret Chambers. Margaret's family were major landholders in the area and prominent Quakers. The large two-storeyed house in extensive grounds was named Swarthmoor after the English Quaker headquarters. It later belonged to a relation by marriage, Walter McLean. Sutcliffe bought the house with 26 acres from McLean's estate. Peloha's grounds, with its large citrus orchards and organic gardens, made the property almost self-sufficient. Areas of the property were named after other Radiant Living schools, such as the Providence Lawn. Radiant Living Summer Schools, Easter services and October Council Conferences were held at Peloha and for additional income it also functioned as a health retreat.

By the late 1980s, after the deaths of Sutcliffe and his wife, Peloha was no longer economic to run and was sold to Weleda, makers of herbal and homeopathic medicines in the Steiner tradition. Proceeds went to Victoria University of Wellington for the Herbert Sutcliffe Scholarships and other educational groups such as the local Hohepa School for children with special educational needs.

The Havelock work

Havelock North and 'The Havelock work'

Havelock North has long been a centre of 'alternative thought' or liberal theology in New Zealand. Some 19th-century landowning families like that of John Chambers were Quakers (members of the Society of Friends). Quakers have a long history of challenging established religious traditions and promoting gender, race and class equity, and religious tolerance. Other families in the Havelock North area were liberal Anglicans who encouraged mysticism and ceremony in their rituals.

Into this setting came an English medical doctor and High Mason, Robert Felkin and his family. The Felkins were Theosophists and brought with them an English movement, the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn. They set up the Smaragdum Thalasses temple of Stella Matutina in their house, Whare-Ra (House of the Sun) which was specially built for them by architect J.W. Chapman-Taylor.

Theosophy, popularised in the late 19th century by Russian mystic Helena Blavatsky and others such as English feminist socialist Annie Besant (who visited New Zealand), was a philosophical belief system which incorporated Eastern ideas of karma, reincarnation and nirvana, and was commonly known as spiritualism. The Felkins also incorporated the colour therapy ideas of Rudolph Steiner (1861-1925) and other ideas of Anthroposophy which Steiner founded in 1913 when he broke with Theosophy.

This liberal philosophical/spiritual grouping of like-minded people was known as the 'Havelock Work'. Their journal The Forerunner, (1909-14), discusses philosophical questions and documents gentle rituals, village fetes and Shakespearean pageants. The Havelock Work involved a large number of Havelock North residents mainly from the wealthy, educated and powerful landowning class.

Bessie Spencer and Amy Hutchinson were involved with the Havelock Work.
They lived a few miles south at Rissington but probably attended meetings at the Quaker-owned home Swarthmoor (which many years later became Peloha). Originally intending to set up a school, they turned their attention instead to empowering rural women and are remembered as the founders of the Country Women's Institutes.

Steiner ideas were also popular. It is not surprising therefore that the first Steiner and Hohepa Schools in New Zealand, incorporating the educational philosophies of Steiner, began at Havelock North.

After Felkin's death, his wife and others decided to buy land at Taupo and the Tauhara Centre there is their legacy. However, the elderly Harriot Felkin and her step-daughter were still living in Whare-Ra when Herbert Sutcliffe came to stay with them about 1940.

Origins of Radiant Living

An international movement

Radiant Living emerged from the American-based philosophical movement New Thought, which gained popularity in the late 19th century. The 'father' of New Thought was Phineas Parkhurst Quimby (1802-1866) who practised what he believed was the healing method of Jesus. Other names associated with New Thought are Mary Baker Eddy (who founded Christian Science), the transcendentalist writers Henry David Thoreau and Ralph Waldo Emerson, the theologist Levi H. Dowling (who wrote about the Aquarian Age and the Gospels), and Ernest Shurtleff Holmes. There were also links with the new European psychological theories, particularly those of Carl Jung, and nutritional ideas later publicised by Gayelord Hauser and others.

The International New Thought Alliance was formed in 1914 as an umbrella organisation for the many parts of the New Thought movement and is still active today. It had a significant influence on the development of the 12-point plan now used in treating addictions.

New Thought activist Phoebe Holmes travelled the world lecturing about Radiant Health Clubs. She advocated an Eliminating Diet which in a later form was to become an essential part of Radiant Living. She apparently visited New Zealand in the 1920s and 1930s. Christchurch's Radiant Theatre was built at this time by Thomas Edmond of baking powder fame. In Australia Herbert Sutcliffe, who was also active in the Radiant Health Club movement, came to her attention. Through her influence he was invited to attend the 1931 New Thought Alliance conference in Ohio. He went from there to complete a doctorate of divinity at a Divine Science Church (part of New Thought) in New York State and later that year set up his first School of Radiant Living in Providence, Rhode Island.

Edmund Hillary

Edmund Hillary and Herbert Sutcliffe
Edmund Hillary (left) and Herbert Sutcliffe, 1940

Edmund Hillary and Radiant Living

The Auckland School of Radiant Living was founded in 1938, and this was one of the first of these schools established in New Zealand. Everyone in the Hillary family was a member. Gertrude, Edmund Hillary's mother, was the first secretary and reported the early progress of the school's hall in the international Radiant Living magazine.

The atmosphere of the hall was distinctly associated with beauty and peace. After the first meeting, the vibrations were wonderful, and now the effect on any member entering the Hall is instantly spiritual and uplifting.

The ladies' dressing room is furnished with a large, handsome mirror, a special large electric toilet light over the mirror; 120 nickel-plated coat-hooks, and a long seat. The windows are curtained similarly to those of the Hall. The men's dressing room is similarly furnished, but smaller, with 90 hooks. The kitchen is furnished with a large gas stove (a gift), 120 cups and saucers of excellent china, benches and shelves. A servery opens direct into the hall.

All members were thrilled with the rooms, and their care of them, and their supply of a plentitude of beautiful fresh flowers in glass vases testify to their happiness in their new home. The school programmes have been dynamic and have created wonderful impressions on members and visitors. We will write you a special note shortly when we reach our 200th member. The new members are not being especially sought by us, they seek the school as a result of the school teaching.

The Hillary family was involved until the mid-1940s. The Wellington school was started in 1942 after a summer school at Marsden College. Percy Hillary reported:


A Wonderful Success.

New Zealand Bright sunshine, tempered by cool sea breezes, extensive views of hills and valleys clothed with trees and colourful gardens in which were set a myriad of pretty homes, created a most attractive environment for the Radiant Living International Summer School of 1940–41. Marsden College, in which the school was held, comprised a group of large red brick buildings of the latest design, relieved with the greenery of creepers, and set in spacious grounds that glowed with the colours of flowering shrubs and plants, with the great splashes of red of the native tree (Pohutukawa), and with various shades of green of many lovely trees. The lawns were very attractive in their bright green, and a large swimming pool and tennis courts, with playing fields, provided opportunity for recreation.


The many students arrived full of eagerness and enthusiasm to be given a radiant, smiling greeting by the Founder, Dr Herbert Sutcliffe, and Miss Dorothy Law, International Secretary … The daily menus were a revelation (in catering) to the students, comprising wonderful salads and tempting dishes prepared from fresh fruits, vegetables, eggs, etc. delivered daily. There were oranges, lemons, peaches, apples, cherries, raspberries, plums, lettuce, watercress, parsley, spring onions, carrots, parsnips, radishes, red beets, string beans, broad beans, vegetable marrow, baked potatoes etc. The meals were served in a spacious dining hall and were enlivened by spontaneous outbursts of happy, rhythmic songs in which all joined, creating a bright atmosphere of happiness and good comradeship.

Doctor Sutcliffe … gave his complete course of lessons in four series: Health Course, Character Types, Mental Science, and Psycho-Cosmology. The thoroughness, patience, depth of knowledge, logic and soundness of the Founder were easily discernable in these marvellous instructional courses. The students had to work, and work hard, in their endeavour to assimilate this veritable feast of knowledge. In the Physical Culture Class nineteen of the students passed a test by touching their toes (from lying-on-back position) 150 times, amongst them being Mrs. G., a lady 72 years of age. She was given a great ovation.

One of the first New Zealand schools of Radiant Living was established in Auckland. Its secretary was Gertrude Hillary who reported progress early in 1939. For a few years the whole Hillary family was involved with Radiant Living. A son, Edmund, aged 19 in 1939, trained as an Accredited Teacher of Radiant Living and was briefly Herbert Sutcliffe's assistant.

From Radiant Living Aug/Sept 1953:

Radiant Living, Hillary and Mount Everest
By Herbert Sutcliffe, D.Sc.

As Edmund Hillary (now Sir Edmund) is inevitably linked with the top of Mount Everest, so is Radiant Living connected with Sir Edmund. We all know that the past assuredly qualifies the present and influences the future. Therefore a few records of his association with Radiant Living Teaching, will enable us to glimpse the influence it has had upon him and thus upon his subsequent exploits.

Enthusiastic Student

In 1938, when Sir Edmund was 19 years of age he attended my classes in Auckland. He became an inaugural member of the School formed in September of that year. In fact all the members of the Hillary family, his father, mother, sister and brother enrolled as members, became teachers and subsequently four of the family sat for and passed the examination for Associated Teacher of Radiant Living. (A.T.R.L. degree).

Sir Edmund threw himself wholeheartedly into the Radiant Living, studies and it is interesting to note his remarkable success by the gaining of the following marks in his 1941 A.T.R.L. examination:

• Health: : 98%
• Everyday Psychology: 98%
• Psycho-Cosmology: 100%
• Letters to Students: 100%
• Physical Exercises: 91%
• Lecturing Ability*: 100%

*Inferiority-cause and cure It seems to be a tribute to this man, now world renowned, and to the Teaching itself that he became so highly qualified as a Teacher and that the value of the Science and Philosophy came to him at a very important period of his life, when he was 19 years old. For five years, from 1938 to 1943, he was closely associated with the Auckland School, as also were the other members of his family. I am glad to have on record the many times they testified to the fact that Radiant Living came into their lives bringing harmony and understanding to each member of the family and the family as a whole just when it was most needed.

Campaign Assistant

Father Percy Hillary was so appreciative that he requested me to take Edmund with me on lecture campaigns because he could not think of anything better for Edmund's future. I readily agreed to this and Edmund commenced as my assistant during the Gisborne Campaign in 1940. A photograph of the two of us was taken at that time. This link was unfortunately interrupted by war service. Therefore, as Teacher, and for a time, Secretary of the Auckland School, and as my campaign assistant, it can he rightly said that Radiant Living fashioned his life during his 20s and gave him a physical, psychological and philosophical background which took him to the top of Mount Everest. These facts as to the influence Radiant Living had upon his life may not interest the man in the street, but Radiant Livers will surely be interested in the link between Radiant Living and Mount Everest.

I Can

You will note that in 1941 his test lecture was entitled "Inferiority Cause and Cure". I remember his closing exhortation theme was "I can!" The subject of his extempore lecture was "Intuition and Inspiration". His closing declaration was "Nothing can prevent us from reaching our desired goal". It is not difficult to imagine that when he subsequently interested himself in mountain climbing, the letter to Students in the booklet Series 5 entitled "Service from the Heights" which was a par of his studies gave him a vision, an ideal and an aim.

Sir Edmund Hillary describes his own experience

‘A Dr Herbert Sutcliffe was in town and he was talking about a new philosophy - Radiant Living. My family and I went along to his first lecture and were very impressed. It was a combination of Christianity, psychology and health and fitness and it just seemed to fit our needs at the time. We became members and when Dr Sutcliffe introduced training classes I qualified first in the course and became a Teacher of Radiant Living. I gained quite a lot from Radiant Living - I learned to speak confidently from the platform and even started thinking more freely on important topics. But finally my enthusiasm faded, as it always seemed to do. I developed the conviction that I was trying to escape from ordinary life, so I reluctantly withdrew from the organisation.’

From Hillary, E. View from the Summit, Doubleday, London, 1999

The eliminating diet

Two Eliminating Diets


As recommended by: Herbert Sutcliffe, D.Sc.,Ph.D., F.F.Sc. (Lond.)

To obtain physical fitness, it is of vital importance that the right mental attitude should accompany the food diet to enable the emotions, nerves and glands to co-operate with the healing processes of the body.

The following 'Mental Diet' will be found of wonderful benefit to ensure success.


General Instructions:

For ten days, make a resolution to eliminate all fears from your mind. Affirm the following three times each, for the said ten days:

• MORNING: 'Thank God I am alive. I harmonise myself with the foods that cleanse and heal the body. I fill my mind with LIFE, LOVE and POWER.'
• TEN AM: 'All anxiety is passing from me to the Infinite Life, and congested body-cells are being dispersed NOW.'
• NOON: 'I maintain my PEACE WITH THE UNIVERSE, and with the vitalising processes of RADIANT LIVING.'
• FOUR PM: 'I unfold all problems and place them in the hands of DIVINE WISDOM. They are no longer mine. Nature is adjusting my physical body for perfect health".


Commence the day with the following Mental and Physical exercise:

Feet apart, toes gripping the floor, inhale and hold breath; clench hands, stretch left hand above head at an angle to correspond with 1 on the clock, while right hand, clenched, is stretched down to correspond with 7 on the clock. Look up, with head leaning towards left hand. Affirm with positive voice: "Thank God I am ALIVE!!!" Exhale and relax.

Then reverse the position, and stretch the clenched right hand above the head to correspond with 11 on the clock, with left hand at an angle to correspond with 5 on the clock. Breathe and affirm as before, and relax.

Repeat the exercise three times



INSTRUCTIONS: Read carefully.

The following menu is a scientific method of eating abundantly of foods calculated to impregnate the blood with vital health. It frees the tissues of mucus, toxic poisons and congested cells. Cold, catarrh, asthma, bronchitis, liver troubles, intestinal and stomach troubles, constipation, blood pressure and many other diseases can be eradicated by taking this wonderful menu of vital foods.

SPECIAL NOTE: For the specified period (except where specially stated) entirely refrain from eating proteins, i.e. meats, fish, eggs, peas, beans, lentils, poultry, cheese and etc., and carbohydrates, such as bread, biscuits, scones, cakes, potatoes and all sweets. Do NOT drink tea, coffee, cocoa, milk or any makes of soft drinks.

Endeavour to drink 2 quarts of the potassium broth each day. This, together with the fruit juices, will supply the body with the liquids required.

Symptoms, such as dizziness and temporary weakness are food signs that the diet is assisting the blood to cleanse the body of uric acid, congestion and mucus. Persevere, and they will pass away. Eat all you can of the right foods.


This menu consists of TWELVE CITRUS FRUITS - 6 oranges, 3 grapefruit and 3 lemons - taken every day for ten days, (for special cases a longer period may be necessary), together with salads, VEGETABLES and other FRUITS. Remember, No Additions are to be made to the Eliminating Menu. This is not a process of elimination through starvation.

The time stated hereafter for meals is an approximate time and can be adjusted to suit each person's requirements.

It is advisable to keep these fruit juices separate.

Clean the teeth and rinse the mouth well.

Half an hour before breakfast. 2 glasses of warm lemon water, (juice of half a medium sized lemon to a tumbler full of water.)


• 8.30 a.m. Breakfast: Juice of 3 good sized oranges or substitute (see below). Add yolk of one egg on first and alternate days.
• 9.30 a.m. One hour later: One whole grapefruit, or ¼ pint cocktail as substitute
• 10.30 a.m One hour later: Drink 1 ½ pints hot potassium broth. Eat broth vegetables if possible for roughage. Include two teaspoonfuls wheatgerm and two teaspoonsful alfalfa (if available).
• 12.00 noon: Another lemon drink, as before.
• 12.30 p.m. Lunch: 1 pint potassium broth; a salad of 6 to 10 fresh raw vegetables (grate root vegetables finely). Dressing of lemon juice, honey and olive oil. Also 1 cubic inch cheese on second and alternate days. One apple or other sub-acid fruit.
• 2.00 p.m: Three oranges or ¼ pint cocktail as substitute.
• 3.00 p.m. one hour later: One whole grapefruit or ¼ pint cocktail as substitute.
• 4.00 p.m. one hour later: If feeling hungry, eat any of the following fruits - apples, apricots, cherries, pears, peaches or other sub-acid fruits. (Not bananas.)
• One half hour before dinner: Lemon drink, as before
• 6.30 p.m. Dinner: 1 ½ pints potassium broth, add wheatgerm and alfalfa. Also 3 or 4 steamed or 'wilted' vegetables (roots and greens, not potatoes). Dessert: four or five prunes and juice (no cream), or fresh fruit. No nuts.
• Supper: One whole grapefruit, or ¼ pint cocktail as substitute.
• Last thing at night: To ensure full bowel movements take one or two teaspoonsful of the cleansing food.

If salt is desired, use only vegetable or celery salt.

The vegetables to be used for lunch and dinner can be chosen from: celery, carrots, spinach, lettuce, cucumbers, cabbage, parsley, sorrel, onions, watercress, cauliflower, radishes, spring onions, asparagus and tomatoes either cooked or raw, but NEVER USE flour or milk gravies on any vegetable.


Take equal parts of the following vegetables finely chopped or put through the mincer: About 2 cupfuls each of spinach, onions, celery, carrots,tomatoes; one quarter cup of parsley. Add 2 quarts of cold water and place over a suitable flame to boil in 20 minutes, then simmer slowly for 20 minutes. Flavour with either asparagus, carrot tops, marmite, beet tops, turnip tops or green pepper. DO NOT USE cabbage. Season with vegetable salt or celery salt. (If fresh vegetables quite unobtainable, tinned goods may be substituted.)

ALTERNATIVE: Make 1 quart of Potassium Broth. Take 1 pint at morning period and 1 pint at evening period. For lunch drink half a pint of cocktail. (See substitute.)

SUBSTITUTES: Breakfast: 1 medium to large apple, mild, grated or 'snitzled', 3 prunes and 1 dessertspoonful wheat-germ. (Add one beaten egg yolk as directed.)

COCKTAIL: Two parts of carrot juice and one part each of the following, spinach, beetroot, tomatoes, celery with a little lemon or apple juice to flavour, and vegetable salt. Stir well.

Sour oranges may be substituted for grapefruit.


To ensure thorough elimination through the bowels, make up the under-mentioned cleansing food to take before retiring. The bowels must work at least twice a day or the poisons will be re-absorbed into the system. Take one or two teaspoonsful.

One half pound of the following:

Dates, prunes, seeds raisins, figs. Put the fruit through a mincer and mix. Add 3 tablespoonsful of senna powder, also 4 tablespoonsful of black molasses or treacle.

Mix all very thoroughly, adding more of the molasses if the mixture is too dry. Bottle in air-tight jars. A tablespoonful of glycerine will help keep it moist, but it is not essential.

AFTER having taken the ELIMINATING DIET be careful to gradually return to a balanced diet. Reduce the quantity of fruit, vegetables and broth, adding 2 pieces of whole-wheat bread, butter, honey, olive oil, cream and egg yolks. Then, in general, let proteins, carbohydrates and fats be 20% of the total dietary.


Salad recipes

Making radiant salads

From Radiant Living Dec/Jan 1958-59


Crisp, Rejuvenating and Radiant with Life

Colour, beauty, exquisite artistry find joyous expression in the Art of Salad Making. The homemaker who serves salads so deliciously and artistically tempting that the family cannot resist is thereby blessing all with the glorious gift of health.

Cheese and Carrot

Serve Cottage Cheese or Cream Cheese rolled in grated carrot, on nests of lettuce, or watercress with Radiant French Dressing.

Sutcliffe French Dressing-Equal parts lemon juice and olive oil, with honey and vegetable salt to taste.

Stuffed Tomato Salad

Scoop out as many tomatoes as servings. Place shell in a bed of tender spinach, and fill with finely chopped celery, shredded cabbage, chopped apples and nuts. Garnish with parsley and serve with dressing.

Apple and Cheese Salad

• 4 red sweet Apples (unpeeled)
• Cream Cheese

Core and cut apples in ½ inch slices. Spread cream cheese thick between slices, arrange on bed of lettuce or watercress, and garnish with shredded beet or carrot.

May Salad

• 6 slices Fresh Pineapple
• 6 Strawberries
• 1 large Orange
• Sprigs of fresh mint
• 1 Banana
• Honey Salad Dressing

Individual plates-Place slice of pineapple on sprigs of mint. On this place a slice of orange, then a layer of banana discs, and on top a strawberry. Pour over the salad dressing. Let stand in a cool place for an hour before serving.

Further information

This web feature was written by Hilary Stace and produced by the team.


The following biographies related to this topic can be found on the Dictionary of NZ Biography website,

• Herbert Sutcliffe
• John Chambers
• J.W. Chapman-Taylor
• Bessie Spencer
• Amy Hutchinson

Other links:

• New Thought
• International New Thought Alliance
• Divine Science


Ellwood, R., Islands of the dawn: the story of alternative spirituality in New Zealand, University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, 1993

Hillary, E. View from the Summit, Doubleday, London, 1999

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