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Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 4/17/19



Just as the then Archbishop of Canterbury refused to support the 1893 World Parliament of Religions, so in 1936 Archbishop Cosmo Lang advised King Edward VIII not to preside at the World Congress of Faiths, because Christianity was the only ‘true religion.’ Most of those who attended the Congress were scholars, such as Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, Yusuf Ali, and D. T. Suzuki. Religious leaders wanted to hold on to their followers.

Inspired by a sense of Oneness that transcends particular religions and inspires active service of others, members of WCF have continued to be gadflies urging faith communities to come together and to be more adventurous and socially concerned.

-- The World Congress of Faiths – An Overview, by Marcus Braybrooke

The same year, Humphreys founded the London Buddhist Lodge, which later changed its name to the Buddhist Society.[1] The impetus for founding the Lodge came from theosophists with whom Humphreys socialised. Both at his home and at the lodge, he played host for eminent spiritual authors such as Nicholas Roerich and Dr Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan, and for prominent Theosophists like Alice Bailey and far Eastern Buddhist authorities like D.T. Suzuki. Other regular visitors in the 1930s were the Russian singer Vladimir Rosing and the young philosopher Alan Watts,[3] and in 1931 Humphreys met the spiritual teacher Meher Baba.[4] The Buddhist Society of London is one of the oldest Buddhist organisations outside Asia.

-- Christmas Humphreys, by Wikipedia

Other Oxford colleges, notably Brasenose and Pembroke, were helped in many ways as a result of Spalding's generosity. However, the best known benefaction he and his wife made to Oxford must be the resources they provided for the establishment of the Spalding Chair in Eastern Religions and Ethics, the first occupant of which was Sir Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan. This unique position is associated with a fellowship at All Souls College....

In practical terms the task of promoting knowledge of this healing unity centred on Spalding's plans for the Union for the Study of the Great Religions ('the Union'). The Union was founded in Oxford in 1950/1951 by Sir Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, Canon Charles E. Raven, and H. N. Spalding. Radhakrishnan was the first scholar to be elected to the Spalding Chair of Eastern Religions and Ethics. In later life he was to become Vice-President and finally President of India. He and Spalding soon established a firm personal friendship that was to continue until the latter's death. Radhakrishnan was appointed to the Oxford Chair in 1936 after Spalding had made the necessary funds available to the University....

Spalding was not an apologist for any one or other of the great religions of the world. As his friend Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan observed, HN was a deeply religious man, whose religion 'was not confined to a code of conduct and respect for outward forms. These latter were experienced as opening the door to the truths of spirit. Man is not a finished creation. He is an experiment of which he can be partly the creator. Religion is essentially the art and theory of the re-making of man. It assumes man's ability to change himself.'

-- The Spalding Trust and the Union for the Study of the Great Religions: H.N. Spalding's Pioneering Vision, by Edward Hulmes

His Excellency
Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
Photograph of Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan presented to First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy in 1962.jpg
Radhakrishnan in 1962
2nd President of India
In office
14 May 1962 – 13 May 1967
Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru
Gulzarilal Nanda (Acting)
Lal Bahadur Shastri
Gulzarilal Nanda (Acting)
Indira Gandhi
Vice President Zakir Hussain
Preceded by Rajendra Prasad
Succeeded by Zakir Hussain
1st Vice President of India
In office
13 May 1952 – 12 May 1962
President Rajendra Prasad
Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru
Succeeded by Zakir Hussain
Personal details
Born 5 September 1888
Thiruttani , Madras Presidency, British India[1]
Died 17 April 1975 (aged 86)
Madras, Tamil Nadu, India
Political party Independent
Spouse(s) Sivakamu (Died 1956)
Children 5 (daughters) 1 (Son) Sarvepalli Gopal
Parents Father : Veerasamy
Mother : Seethammal
Alma mater University of Madras
Awards Bharat Ratna Ribbon.svg Bharat Ratna (1954)
Templeton Prize (1975)

Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan (5 September 1888 – 17 April 1975) was an Indian philosopher and statesman[2] who served as the first Vice President of India (1952–1962) and the second President of India (1962-1967).[web 1]

One of India's most distinguished twentieth-century scholars of comparative religion and philosophy,[3][web 2] after completing his education at Madras Christian College in 1911, he became Assistant Professor and later Professor of Philosophy at Madras Presidency College then subsequently Professor of Philosophy at the University of Mysore (1918-1921); the King George V Chair of Mental and Moral Science at the University of Calcutta (1921–1932) and Spalding Professor of Eastern Religion and Ethics at University of Oxford (1936–1952) by which he became the first Indian to hold a professorial chair at the University of Oxford. He was Upton Lecturer at Manchester College, Oxford in 1926, 1929, and 1930. In 1930 he was appointed Haskell lecturer in Comparative Religion at the University of Chicago.[4]

His philosophy was grounded in Advaita Vedanta, reinterpreting this tradition for a contemporary understanding.[web 2] He defended Hinduism against "uninformed Western criticism",[5] contributing to the formation of contemporary Hindu identity.[6] He has been influential in shaping the understanding of Hinduism, in both India and the west, and earned a reputation as a bridge-builder between India and the West.[7]

Radhakrishnan was awarded several high awards during his life, including a knighthood in 1931, the Bharat Ratna, the highest civilian award in India, in 1954, and honorary membership of the British Royal Order of Merit in 1963. He was also one of the founders of Helpage India, a non profit organisation for elderly underprivileged in India. Radhakrishnan believed that "teachers should be the best minds in the country". Since 1962, his birthday is being celebrated in India as Teachers' Day on 5th September.[web 3]


Early life

Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan was born in a Telugu-speaking[8] Niyogi Brahmin family, in Tiruttani in Madras Presidency.[9][10][11] His surname was Sarvepalli, for his forefathers were from Sarvepalli, a village fifteen miles from Nellore town of Andhra Pradesh. His grand father migrated to a village near Tiruttani in erstwhile Chittoor district of the Madras Presidency.[12][13][14] His father's name was Sarvepalli Veeraswami and his mother's name was Sarvepalli Sita (Sitamma). His early years were spent in Thiruttani and Tirupati. His father was a subordinate revenue official in the service of a local zamindar (local landlord). His primary education was at K.V High School at Thiruttani. In 1896 he moved to the Hermansburg Evangelical Lutheran Mission School in Tirupati and Government Higher Secondary School, Walajapet.[15]


Indian President Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan with US President John F. Kennedy in the Oval Office, 1963

Radhakrishnan was awarded scholarships throughout his academic life. He joined Voorhees College in Vellore but switched to the Madras Christian College at the age of 17. He graduated from there in 1906 with a Voorha master's degree in Philosophy, being one of its most distinguished alumni.[16]

Radhakrishnan studied philosophy by chance rather than choice. Being a financially constrained student, when a cousin who graduated from the same college passed on his philosophy textbooks in to Radhakrishnan, it automatically decided his academic course.[17][18]

Radhakrishnan wrote his thesis for the M.A. degree on "The Ethics of the Vedanta and its Metaphysical Presuppositions".[19] It "was intended to be a reply to the charge that the Vedanta system had no room for ethics."[20] He was afraid that this M.A. thesis would offend his philosophy professor, Dr. Alfred George Hogg. Instead, Hogg commended Radhakrishnan on having done most excellent work.[citation needed] Radhakrishnan's thesis was published when he was only twenty. According to Radhakrishnan himself, the criticism of Hogg and other Christian teachers of Indian culture "disturbed my faith and shook the traditional props on which I leaned."[20] Radhakrishnan himself describes how, as a student,

The challenge of Christian critics impelled me to make a study of Hinduism and find out what is living and what is dead in it. My pride as a Hindu, roused by the enterprise and eloquence of Swami Vivekananda, was deeply hurt by the treatment accorded to Hinduism in missionary institutions.[5]

This led him to his critical study of Indian philosophy and religion[20] and a lifelong defence of Hinduism against "uninformed Western criticism".[5]

Marriage and family

Radhakrishnan was married to Sivakamu,[note 1] a distant cousin, at the age of 16.[21] As per tradition the marriage was arranged by the family. The couple had five daughters and a son, Sarvepalli Gopal. Sarvepalli Gopal went on to a notable career as a historian. Sivakamu died in 1956. They were married for over 51 years.

Academic career

Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan drawn by Bujjai and signed by Radhakrishnan in Telugu as "Radhakrishnayya".

In April 1909, Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan was appointed to the Department of Philosophy at the Madras Presidency College. Thereafter, in 1918, he was selected as Professor of Philosophy by the University of Mysore, where he taught at its Maharaja's College, Mysore. [web 4][22] By that time he had written many articles for journals of repute like The Quest, Journal of Philosophy and the International Journal of Ethics. He also completed his first book, The Philosophy of Rabindranath Tagore. He believed Tagore's philosophy to be the "genuine manifestation of the Indian spirit". His second book, The Reign of Religion in Contemporary Philosophy was published in 1920.

In 1921 he was appointed as a professor in philosophy to occupy the King George V Chair of Mental and Moral Science at the University of Calcutta. He represented the University of Calcutta at the Congress of the Universities of the British Empire in June 1926 and the International Congress of Philosophy at Harvard University in September 1926. Another important academic event during this period was the invitation to deliver the Hibbert Lecture on the ideals of life which he delivered at Manchester College, Oxford in 1929 and which was subsequently published in book form as An Idealist View of Life.

In 1929 Radhakrishnan was invited to take the post vacated by Principal J. Estlin Carpenter at Manchester College. This gave him the opportunity to lecture to the students of the University of Oxford on Comparative Religion. For his services to education he was knighted by George V in the June 1931 Birthday Honours,[web 5] and formally invested with his honour by the Governor-General of India, the Earl of Willingdon, in April 1932.[web 6] However, he ceased to use the title after Indian independence,[23]:9 preferring instead his academic title of 'Doctor'.

He was the Vice-Chancellor of Andhra University from 1931 to 1936. In 1936 Radhakrishnan was named Spalding Professor of Eastern Religions and Ethics at the University of Oxford, and was elected a Fellow of All Souls College. That same year, and again in 1937, he was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature, although this nomination process, as for all laureates, was not public at the time. Further nominations for the award would continue steadily into the 1960s. In 1939 Pt. Madan Mohan Malaviya invited him to succeed him as the Vice-Chancellor of Banaras Hindu University (BHU).[24] He served as its Vice-Chancellor till January 1948.

Political career

See also: British Raj, Indian independence movement, and Indian Independence Act 1947

President of United States John F. Kennedy and President of India, Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan (left), depart the White House following a meeting. Minister of External Affairs of India, Lakshmi N. Menon, walks behind President Kennedy at West Wing Entrance, White House, Washington, D.C on 4 June 1963

Radhakrishnan started his political career "rather late in life", after his successful academic career.[5] His international authority preceded his political career. In 1931 he was nominated to the League of Nations Committee for Intellectual Cooperation, where after "in Western eyes he was the recognized Hindu authority on Indian ideas and a persuasive interpreter of the role of Eastern institutions in contemporary society."[5] When India became independent in 1947, Radhakrishnan represented India at UNESCO (1946–52) and was later Ambassador of India to the Soviet Union, from 1949 to 1952. He was also elected to the Constituent Assembly of India. Radhakrishnan was elected as the first Vice-President of India in 1952, and elected as the second President of India (1962–1967).

Radhakrishnan did not have a background in the Congress Party, nor was he active in the struggle against British rules. He was the politician in shadow. His motivation lay in his pride of Hindu culture, and the defence of Hinduism against "uninformed Western criticism".[5] According to Brown,

He had always defended Hindu culture against uninformed Western criticism and had symbolized the pride of Indians in their own intellectual traditions.[5]

Teachers' Day

When he became the President of India, some of his students and friends requested him to allow them to celebrate his birthday, on 5 September. He replied,

Instead of celebrating my birthday, it would be my proud privilege if September 5th is observed as Teachers' Day.[25]

His birthday has since been celebrated as Teachers' Day in India.[web 7]


Along with Ghanshyam Das Birla and some other social workers in the pre-independence era, Radhakrishnan formed the Krishnarpan Charity Trust.

As President of India, Radhakrishnan made 11 state visits including visits to both the US and the USSR.[web 8]

Role in Constituent Assembly[26]

He was against State institutions imparting denominational religious instruction as it was against the secular vision of the Indian State.[27]


Radhakrishnan tried to bridge eastern and western thought,[28] defending Hinduism against "uninformed Western criticism",[5] but also incorporating Western philosophical and religious thought.[29]

Advaita Vedanta

Radhakrishnan was one of the most prominent spokesmen of Neo-Vedanta.[30][31][32] His metaphysics was grounded in Advaita Vedanta, but he reinterpreted Advaita Vedanta for a contemporary understanding.[web 2] He acknowledged the reality and diversity of the world of experience, which he saw as grounded in and supported by the absolute or Brahman.[web 2][note 2] Radhakrishnan also reinterpreted Shankara's notion of maya. According to Radhakrishnan, maya is not a strict absolute idealism, but "a subjective misperception of the world as ultimately real."[web 2]

Intuition and religious experience

See also: Mystical experience and Religious experience
"Intuition", or anubhava,[web 2] synonymously called "religious experience",[web 2] has a central place in Radhakrishnan's philosophy as a source of knowledge which is not mediated by conscious thought.[29] His specific interest in experience can be traced back to the works of William James (1842–1910), Francis Herbert Bradley (1846–1924), Henri Bergson (1859–1941), and Friedrich von Hügel (1852–1925),[29] and to Vivekananda,[34] who had a strong influence on Radhakrisnan's thought.[35] According to Radhakrishnan, intuition is of a self-certifying character (svatassiddha), self-evidencing (svāsaṃvedya), and self-luminous (svayam-prakāsa).[web 2] In his book An Idealist View of Life, he made a powerful case for the importance of intuitive thinking as opposed to purely intellectual forms of thought.[web 9] According to Radhakrishnan, intuition plays a specific role in all kinds of experience.[web 2] Radhakrishnan discernes five sorts of experience:[web 2]

1. Cognitive Experience:
2. Sense Experience
3. Discursive Reasoning
4. Intuitive Apprehension
5. Psychic Experience
6. Aesthetic Experience
7. Ethical Experience
8. Religious Experience

Classification of religions

For Radhakrishnan, theology and creeds are intellectual formulations, and symbols of religious experience or "religious intuitions".[web 2] Radhakrishnan qualified the variety of religions hierarchically according to their apprehension of "religious experience", giving Advaita Vedanta the highest place:[web 2]{{refn|group=note|This qualification is not unique to Radhakrishnan. It was developed by nineteenth-century Indologists,[36][37] and was highly influential in the understanding of Hinduism, both in the west and in India.[30][38]

1. The worshipers of the Absolute
2. The worshipers of the personal God
3. The worshipers of the incarnations like Rama, Kṛiṣhṇa, Buddha
4. Those who worship ancestors, deities and sages
5. The worshipers of the petty forces and spirits

Radhakrishnan saw Hinduism as a scientific religion based on facts, apprehended via intuition or religious experience.[web 2] According to Radhakrishnan, "[ i]f philosophy of religion is to become scientific, it must become empirical and found itself on religious experience".[web 2] He saw this empiricism exemplified in the Vedas:

The truths of the ṛṣis are not evolved as the result of logical reasoning or systematic philosophy but are the products of spiritual intuition, dṛṣti or vision. The ṛṣis are not so much the authors of the truths recorded in the Vedas as the seers who were able to discern the eternal truths by raising their life-spirit to the plane of universal spirit. They are the pioneer researchers in the realm of the spirit who saw more in the world than their followers. Their utterances are not based on transitory vision but on a continuous experience of resident life and power. When the Vedas are regarded as the highest authority, all that is meant is that the most exacting of all authorities is the authority of facts.[web 2]

From his writings collected as The Hindu View of Life, Upton Lectures, Delivered at Manchester College, Oxford, 1926: "Hinduism insists on our working steadily upwards in improving our knowledge of God. The worshippers of the absolute are of the highest rank; second to them are the worshippers of the personal God; then come the worshippers of the incarnations of Rama, Krishna, Buddha; below them are those who worship deities, ancestors, and sages, and lowest of all are the worshippers of petty forces and spirits. The deities of some men are in water (i.e., bathing places), those of the most advanced are in the heavens, those of the children (in religion) are in the images of wood and stone, but the sage finds his God in his deeper self. The man of action finds his God in fire, the man of feeling in the heart, and the feeble minded in the idol, but the strong in spirit find God everywhere". The seers see the supreme in the self, and not the images."

To Radhakrishnan, Advaita Vedanta was the best representative of Hinduism, as being grounded in intuition, in contrast to the "intellectually mediated interpretations"[web 2] of other religions.[web 2]{{refn|group=note|Anubhava is a central term in Shankara's writings. According to several modern interpretators, especially Radakrishnan, Shankara emphasises the role of personal experience (anubhava) in ascertaining the validity of knowledge.[39] Yet, according to Rambacham himself, sruti, or textual authority, is the main source of knowledge for Shankara.[34] He objected against charges of "quietism"[note 3] and "world denial", instead stressing the need and ethic of social service, giving a modern interpretation of classical terms as tat-tvam-asi.[32] According to Radhakrishnan, Vedanta offers the most direct intuitive experience and inner realisation, which makes it the highest form of religion:

The Vedanta is not a religion, but religion itself in its most universal and deepest significance.[web 2]

Radhakrishnan saw other religions, "including what Radhakrishnan understands as lower forms of Hinduism,"[web 2] as interpretations of Advaita Vedanta, thereby Hinduising all religions.[web 2]

Although Radhakrishnan was well-acquainted with western culture and philosophy, he was also critical of them. He stated that Western philosophers, despite all claims to objectivity, were influenced by theological influences of their own culture.[40]

Controversy on Indian Philosophy book

In the issue of the Modern Review, January 1929 a certain Jadunath Sinha made a sensational claim that his own thesis was copied by his teacher Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan on Indian Philosophy book.[41][42] He said that none other than Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan had plagiarised from him. His Indian Philosophy Vol. II had lifted several passages from bangali philosopher Jadunath Sinha's thesis. [43][note 4][44] The controversy spilled over upto February, March and April issues of the magazine too.[45]

In August 1929, Sinha sued Radhakrishnan on this issue.[46][note 5] Radhakrishnan also counter-sued both Jadunath Sinha and the editor of Modern Review, Ramnath Chattopadhyay.[45]

Then without any conclusion the court hushed up this sensational issue as Radhakrishnan’s stature.[42][45]


Radhakrishnan was one of India's best and most influential twentieth-century scholars of comparative religion and philosophy.[3][web 2]

Radhakrishnan's defence of the Hindu traditions has been highly influential,[29] both in India and the western world. In India, Radhakrishnan's ideas contributed to the formation of India as a nation-state.[47] Radhakrishnan's writings contributed to the hegemonic status of Vedanta as "the essential worldview of Hinduism".[48] In the western world, Radhakrishnan's interpretations of the Hindu tradition, and his emphasis on "spiritual experience", made Hinduism more readily accessible for a western audience, and contributed to the influence Hinduism has on modern spirituality:

In figures such as Vivekananda and Radhakrishnan we witness Vedanta traveling to the West, where it nourished the spiritual hunger of Europeans and Americans in the early decades of the twentieth century.[48]


Radhakrishnan has been highly appraised. According to Paul Artur Schillp:

Nor would it be possible to find a more excellent example of a living "bridge" between the East and the West than Professor Radhakrishnan. Steeped, as Radhakrishnan has been since his childhood, in the life, traditions, and philosophical heritage of his native India, he has also struck deep roots in Western philosophy, which he has been studying tirelessly ever since his undergraduate college-days in Madras Christian College, and in which he is as thoroughly at home as any Western philosopher.[28]

And according to Hawley:

Radhakrishnan's concern for experience and his extensive knowledge of the Western philosophical and literary traditions has earned him the reputation of being a bridge-builder between India and the West. He often appears to feel at home in the Indian as well as the Western philosophical contexts, and draws from both Western and Indian sources throughout his writing. Because of this, Radhakrishnan has been held up in academic circles as a representative of Hinduism to the West. His lengthy writing career and his many published works have been influential in shaping the West's understanding of Hinduism, India, and the East.[web 2]

Criticism and context

Radhakrishnan's ideas have also received criticism and challenges, for their perennialist[30][49] and universalist claims,[50][51] and the use of an East-West dichotomy.[web 2]


Main article: Perennial philosophy

According to Radhakrishnan, there is not only an underlying "divine unity"[49] from the seers of the Upanishads up to modern Hindus like Tagore and Gandhi,[49] but also "an essential commonality between philosophical and religious traditions from widely disparate cultures."[30] This is also a major theme in the works of Rene Guenon, the Theosophical Society, and the contemporary popularity of eastern religions in modern spirituality.[30][29] Since the 1970s, the Perennialist position has been criticised for its essentialism. Social-constructionists give an alternative approach to religious experience, in which such "experiences" are seen as being determined and mediated by cultural determants:[29][52][note 6] As Michaels notes: {{quote|Religions, too, rely not so much on individual experiences or on innate feelings – like a sensus numinosus (Rudolf Otto) – but rather on behavioral patterns acquired and learned in childhood.[53]

Rinehart also points out that "perennialist claims notwithstanding, modern Hindu thought is a product of history",[49] which "has been worked out and expressed in a variety of historical contexts over the preceding two hundreds years."[49] This is also true for Radhakrishan, who was educated by missionaries[54] and, like other neo-Vedantins used the prevalent western understanding of India and its culture to present an alternative to the western critique.[30][55]

Universalism, communalism and Hindu nationalism

According to Richard King, the elevation of Vedanta as the essence of Hinduism, and Advaita Vedanta as the "paradigmatic example of the mystical nature of the Hindu religion"[56] by colonial Indologists but also neo-Vedantins served well for the Hindu nationalists, who further popularised this notion of Advaita Vedanta as the pinnacle of Indian religions.[57] It

...provided an opportunity for the construction of a nationalist ideology that could unite Hindus in their struggle against colonial oppression.[58]

This "opportunity" has been criticised. According to Sucheta Mazumdar and Vasant Kaiwar,

... Indian nationalist leaders continued to operate within the categorical field generated by politicized religion [...] Extravagant claims were made on behalf of Oriental civilization. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan's statement – "[t]he Vedanta is not a religion but religion itself in its "most universal and deepest significance" – is fairly typical.[50]

Rinehart also criticises the inclusivism of Radhakrishnan's approach, since it provides "a theological scheme for subsuming religious difference under the aegis of Vedantic truth."[51][note 7] According to Rinehart, the consequence of this line of reasoning is communalism,[51] the idea that "all people belonging to one religion have common economic, social and political interests and these interests are contrary to the interests of those belonging to another religion."[web 10] Rinehart notes that Hindu religiosity plays an important role in the nationalist movement,[51] and that "the neo-Hindu discource is the unintended consequence of the initial moves made by thinkers like Rammohan Roy and Vivekananda."[51] Yet Rinehart also points out that it is

{{quote|...clear that there isn't a neat line of causation that leads from the philosophies of Rammohan Roy, Vivekananda and Radhakrishnan to the agenda of [...] militant Hindus.[59]{{refn|group=note|Neither is Radhakrishnan's "use" of religion in the defence of Asian culture and society against colonialism unique for his person, or India in general. The complexities of Asian nationalism are to be seen and understood in the context of colonialism, modernisation and nation-building. See, for example, Anagarika Dharmapala, for the role of Theravada Buddhism in Sri Lankese struggle for independence,[60] and D.T. Suzuki, who conjuncted Zen to Japanese nationalism and militarism, in defence against both western hegemony and the pressure on Japanese Zen during the Meiji Restoration to conform to Shinbutsu Bunri.[61][62]


Main articles: Orientalism and Post-colonialism

Colonialism left deep traces in the hearts and minds of the Indian people, influencing the way they understood and represented themselves.[30] The influences of "colonialist forms of knowledge"[web 2] can also be found in the works of Radhakrishnan. According to Hawley, Radhakrishnan's division between East and West, the East being spiritual and mystical, and the West being rationt and colonialist forms of knowledge constructed during the 18th and 19th centuries. Arguably, these characterizations are "imagined" in the sense that they reflect the philosophical and religious realities of neither "East' nor West."[web 2]

Since the 1990s, the colonial influences on the 'construction' and 'representation' of Hinduism have been the topic of debate among scholars of Hinduism Western Indologists are trying to come to more neutral and better-informed representations of India and its culture, while Indian scholars are trying to establish forms of knowledge and understanding which are grounded in and informed by Indian traditions, instead of being dominated by western forms of knowledge and understanding.[37][note 8]

Plagiarism controversy

Radhakrishnan's student Jadunath Sinha alleged that Radhakrishnan copied text from his doctoral thesis, Indian Psychology of Perception published in 1925, into his book Indian Philosophy published in 1927. Sinha filed a case in the Calcutta High Court claiming damages for Rs 20,000. Radhakrishnan filed counter case for defamation of character demanding Rs 100,000 from Sinha. Though Sinha's case was strong as many of his articles were already published, the high cost of litigation along with intervention of Syama Prasad Mookerjee, who mediated between them made them, settle the issue out of court.[63][64][65]

Radhakrishnan on a 1967 stamp of India

Radhakrishnan on a 1989 stamp of India

Awards and honours

• 1931: appointed a Knight Bachelor in ,[web 5] although he ceased to use the title "Sir" after India attained independence.[66]
• 1933-37: Nominated five times for the Nobel Prize in Literature.
• 1938: elected Fellow of the British Academy.
• 1954: The Bharat Ratna, the highest civilian award in India.[web 3]
• 1954: Order Pour le Mérite for Arts and Sciences (Germany)[web 11]
• 1961: the Peace Prize of the German Book Trade.
• 1962: Institution of Teacher's Day in India, yearly celebrated at 5 September, Radhakrishnan's birthday, in honour of Radhakrishnan's belief that "teachers should be the best minds in the country".[web 3]
• 1963: the British Order of Merit.
• 1968: Sahitya Akademi fellowship, The highest honour conferred by the Sahitya Akademi on a writer (he is the first person to get this award)
• 1975: the Templeton Prize in 1975, a few months before his death, for advocating non-aggression and conveying "a universal reality of God that embraced love and wisdom for all people."[web 12][note 9] He donated the entire amount of the Templeton Prize to Oxford University.
• 1989: institution of the Radhakrishnan Scholarships by Oxford University in the memory of Radhakrishnan. The scholarships were later renamed the "Radhakrishnan Chevening Scholarships".[67]
• He was nominated sixteen times for the Nobel prize in literature, and eleven times for the Nobel Peace prize.[68][69]


• "It is not God that is worshipped but the authority that claims to speak in His name. Sin becomes disobedience to authority not violation of integrity."[70]
• "Reading a book gives us the habit of solitary reflection and true enjoyment."[71]
• "When we think we know, we cease to learn."[72]
• "A literary genius, it is said, resembles all, though no one resembles him."[73]
• "There is nothing wonderful in my saying that Jainism was in existence long before the Vedas were composed."[74]
• "A life of joy and happiness is possible only on the basis of knowledge .


Works by Radhakrishnan

• The philosophy of Rabindranath Tagore (1918), Macmillan, London, 294 pages
• Indian Philosophy (1923) Vol.1, 738 pages. (1927) Vol 2, 807 pages. Oxford University Press.
• The Hindu View of Life (1926), 92 pages
• An Idealist View of Life (1929), 351 pages
• Eastern Religions and Western Thought (1939), Oxford University Press, 396 pages
• Religion and Society (1947), George Allen and Unwin Ltd., London, 242 pages
• The Bhagavadgītā: with an introductory essay, Sanskrit text, English translation and notes (1948), 388 pages
• The Dhammapada (1950), 194 pages, Oxford University Press
• The Principal Upanishads (1953), 958 pages, HarperCollins Publishers Limited
• Recovery of Faith (1956), 205 pages
• A Source Book in Indian Philosophy (1957), 683 pages, Princeton University Press, with Charles A. Moore as co-editor.
• Religion, Science & Culture (1968), 121 pages

Biographies and monographs on Radhakrishnan

Several books have been published on Sarve Radhakrishnan:

• Murty, K. Satchidananda; Ashok Vohra (1990). Radhakrishnan: his life and ideas. SUNY Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-0343-3.
• Minor, Robert Neil (1987). Radhakrishnan: a religious biography. SUNY Press. ISBN 978-0-88706-554-5.
• Gopal, Sarvepalli (1989). Radhakrishnan: a biography. Unwin Hyman. ISBN 978-0-04-440449-1.
• Pappu, S.S. Rama Rao (1995). New Essays in the Philosophy of Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan. Delhi: South Asia Books. ISBN 978-81-7030-461-6.
• Parthasarathi, G.; Chattopadhyaya, Debi Prasad, eds. (1989). Radhakrishnan: centenary volume. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.

See also

• Postcolonialism


1. Radhakrishnan's wife's name is spelled differently in different sources. It is spelled Sivakamu by Sarvepalli Gopal (1989); Sivakamuamma by Mamta Anand (2006); and still differently by others.[citation needed]
2. Neo-Vedanta seems to be closer to Bhedabheda-Vedanta than to Shankara's Advaita Vedanta, with the acknowledgement of the reality of the world. Nicholas F. Gier: "Ramakrsna, Svami Vivekananda, and Aurobindo (I also include M.K. Gandhi) have been labeled "neo-Vedantists," a philosophy that rejects the Advaitins' claim that the world is illusory. Aurobindo, in his The Life Divine, declares that he has moved from Sankara's "universal illusionism" to his own "universal realism" (2005: 432), defined as metaphysical realism in the European philosophical sense of the term."[33]
3. Sweetman: "[T]he supposed quietist and conservative nature of Vedantic thought"[37]
4. Dr. Radhakrishnan had published another book titled "The Vedanta according to Sankara and Ramanuja" in 1928, which was actually a reprint of Chapters 8 & 9 of his book "Indian Philosophy Vol. II." That book also had extensive pirated paragraphs from Prof. Jadunath Sinha's Premchand Roychand Studentship thesis. Luckily for Prof. Jadunath Sinha, he had published extracts from those two parts of his Premchand Roychand Studentship thesis in the Meerut College Magazines of 1924 and 1926.
5. Then in the first half of the month of August 1929, Prof. Jadunath Sinha sued Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan in the Calcutta High Court for infringement of copyrights of his original literary works, claiming Rs.20,000/- as damages. Sometime in the first week of September 1929, Radhakrishnan filed a counter libel suit against Prof. Jadunath Sinha and Shri Ramananda Chattopadhyay demanding Rs.1,00,000/-. Probably Radhakrishnan thought that attack was the best defence!
6. See, especially, Steven T. Katz:
 Mysticism and Philosophical Analysis (Oxford University Press, 1978)
 Mysticism and Religious Traditions (Oxford University Press, 1983)
 Mysticism and Language (Oxford University Press, 1992)
 Mysticism and Sacred Scripture (Oxford University Press, 2000)
7. Rinehart: "Though neo-Hindu authors prefer the idiom of tolerance to that of inclusivism, it is clear that what is advocated is less a secular view of toleration than a theological scheme for subsuming religious difference under the aegis of Vedantic truth. Thus Radhakrishnan's view of experience as the core of religious truth effectively leads to harmony only when and if other religions are willing to assume a position under the umbrella of Vedanta. We might even say that the theme of neo-Hindu tolerance provided the Hindu not simply with a means to claiming the right to stand alongside the other world religions, but with a strategy for promoting Hinduism as the ultimate form of religion itself."[51]
8. Sweetman mentions:
 Wilhelm Halbfass (1988), India and Europe
 IXth European Conference on Modern Asian Studies in Heidelberg (1989), Hinduism Reconsidered
 Ronald Inden, Imagining India
 Carol Breckenridge and Peter van der Veer, Orientalism and the Postcolonial Predicament
 Vasudha Dalmia and Heinrich von Stietencron, Representing Hinduism
 S.N. Balagangadhara, The Heathen in his Blindness...
 Thomas Trautmann, Aryans and British India
 Richard King (1989), Orientalism and religion

See also Postcolonialism and Mrinal Kaud, The "Pizza Effect" in Indian Philosophy
9. "Sir Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan was President of India from 1962 to 1967. An Oxford Professor of Eastern Religions and Ethics, he consistently advocated non-aggression in India's conflicts with neighbouring Pakistan. His accessible writings underscored his country's religious heritage and sought to convey a universal reality of God that embraced love and wisdom for all people."[web 12]


1. "Radhakrishnan of India, Philosopher, Dead at 86". New York Times. 17 April 1975. Retrieved 2 September 2018.
2. Lawhead, William F. (2009). The philosophical Journey. An Interactive Approach. Fifth Edition (PDF). McGraw-Hill. p. 382.
3. Pollock, Sheldon (2011). "Crisis in the Classics" (PDF). Social Research. 78 (1): 21–48.
4. The Madras Mail, Saturday, 8 February 1936, page 9
5. Brown, Donald Mackenzie (1970). The Nationalist Movement: Indian Political Thought from Ranade to Bhave. University of California Press. pp. 152–153. ISBN 9780520001831.
6. Flood, Gavin D. (13 July 1996). An Introduction to Hinduism. Cambridge University Press. p. 249. ISBN 978-0-521-43878-0.
7. Hawley, Michael. "Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan (1888—1975)". Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
8. Anand, A. B. (20 May 2018), TENNETI HEMALATHA Interview By AB ANAND, retrieved 23 July 2018
9. Subramanian, Archana (2 September 2017). "On Teachers' Day, remembering an educator". The Hindu.
10. India. Parliament. Rajya Sabha (1988). Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan: a commemorative volume, 1888-1988 (PDF). Prentice-Hall of India. ISBN 978-0-87692-557-7.
11. "Teachers' Day: 10 things to know about India's 'philosopher President' Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan". Hindustan Times. 5 September 2017.
12. Sudarshan Agarwal (ed.). "Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan A Commemorative Volume" (PDF). Retrieved 7 July 2018.
13. Subramanian, Archana (2 September 2017). "On Teachers' Day, remembering an educator". The Hindu. Retrieved 29 July2018.
14. "The Great Indian Philosopher" (PDF). Internet Archive. Retrieved 7 July 2018.
15. Sarvepalli 1989, p. 11.
16. Sarvepalli 1989, p. 15.
17. Schillp, Paul Arthur (1992). The Philosophy of Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan. Motilall Banarsidass. p. 6. ISBN 9788120807921.
18. Sarvepalli 1989, p. 14.
19. Sarvepalli 1989, p. 17.
20. Murty & Vohra 1990, p. 112.
21. Sarvepalli 1989, p. 12.
22. Murty, Kotta Satchidananda; Vohra, Ashok (1990). "3. Professor at Mysore". Radhakrishnan: His Life and Ideas. SUNY Press. pp. 17–26. ISBN 978-1-4384-1401-0.
23. Banerji, Anjan Kumar (1991). Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, a centenary tribute. Varanasi, India: Banaras Hindu University. OCLC 28967355.. Page 9 states: "In 1931.... He was knighted that year, but ceased to use the title after Independence."
24. Murty & Vohra 1990, p. 90.
25. "Philosopher, teacher, president: Remembering Dr S Radhakrishnan". The Economic Times. 5 September 2017. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
26. "CADIndia". Retrieved 20 March 2018.
27. "CADIndia". Retrieved 20 March 2018.
28. Schillp, Paul Arthur (1992). The Philosophy of Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan. Motilall Banarsidass. p. ix. ISBN 9788120807921.
29. Sharf, Robert H. (1998). "Experience". In Mark C. Taylor. Critical Terms for Religious Studies. University of Chicago Press. p. 100. ISBN 9780226791562.
30. King 2001.
31. Hacker, Paul (1995). Philology and Confrontation: Paul Hacker on Traditional and Modern Vedanta. SUNY Press. p. 8. ISBN 9780791425817.
32. Fort, Andrew O. (1998). Jivanmukti in Transformation: Embodied Liberation in Advaita and Neo-Vedanta. SUNY Press. pp. 179–181. ISBN 9780791439043.
33. Gier, Nicholas F. (2012). "Overreaching to be different: A critique of Rajiv Malhotra's Being Different". International Journal of Hindu Studies. 16 (3): 259–285. doi:10.1007/s11407-012-9127-x.
34. Rambachan, Anatanand (1994). The Limits of Scripture: Vivekananda's Reinterpretation of the Vedas. University of Hawaii Press.
35. Murty & Vohra 1990, p. 179.
36. King 1999, p. 169.
37. Sweetman, Will (2004). "The prehistory of Orientalism: Colonialism and the Textual Basis for Bartholomaus Ziegenbalg's Account of Hinduism" (PDF). New Zealand Journal of Asian Studies. 6 (2): 12–38.
38. Nicholson, Andrew J. (2010). Unifying Hinduism: Philosophy and Identity in Indian Intellectual History. Columbia University Press.
39. Rambachan, Anantanand (1991). Accomplishing the accomplished: the Vedas as a source of valid knowledge in Śankara. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 1–14. ISBN 978-0-8248-1358-1.
40. Radhakrishnan, Sarvepalli and Moore, Charles (eds.) (1989) A Source Book in Indian Philosophy, Princeton: Princeton University Press, pp. 610–639. ISBN 0691019584
41. Bakhtiar, Idrees (14 August 2012). "Subcontinental plagiarism". DAWN.COM. Retrieved 9 September 2018.
42. "সম্পাদক সমীপেষু: জেনে রাখা ভাল". Retrieved 7 September 2018.
43. Aich, Utpal (5 September 2016). "Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan: The teacher who stole from his student's thesis". Round Table India.
44. "Why Teachers' Day in India is a sham". Retrieved 9 September 2018.
45. "S. Radhakrishnan: Philosopher, President, Plagiarizer? | Madras Courier". Madras Courier. 20 October 2016. Retrieved 8 September 2018.
46. "A Biography of Jadunath Sinha". Retrieved 7 September 2018.
47. Long 2007, p. 173.
48. Rinehart 2004, p. 199.
49. Rinehart 2004, p. 180.
50. Mazumdar & Kaiwar 2009, p. 36.
51. Rinehart 2004, p. 196-197.
52. Sharf, Robert H (2000). "The Rhetoric of Experience and the Study of Religion" (PDF). Journal of Consciousness Studies. 7(11–12): 267–87.
53. Michaels, Axel (2004). Hinduism: Past and Present. Princeton University Press. p. 100. ISBN 978-0-691-08953-9.
54. Rinehart 2004, p. 195.
55. Rinehart 2004.
56. King 2001, p. 128.
57. King 2001, pp. 129-130.
58. King 2001, p. 133.
59. Rinehart 2004, p. 198.
60. McMahan, David L. (2008). The Making of Buddhist Modernism. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195183276.
61. Sharf, Robert H. (August 1993). "The Zen of Japanese Nationalism". History of Religions. 33 (1): 1–43.
62. Sharf, Robert H. (1995). Whose Zen? Zen Nationalism Revisited (PDF).
63. Minor, Robert Neil (1987). Radhakrishnan: A Religious Biography. SUNY Press. pp. 35–. ISBN 978-0-88706-554-5.
64. "Why Teachers' Day in India is a sham". Dailyo. 6 September 2017. Retrieved 10 September 2017.
65. "Subcontinental plagiarism". Idrees Bakhtiar. Dawn. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 10 September 2017.
66. Kuttan, Mahadevan (2009). The Great Philosophers of India. Authorhouse 1663 Liberty Drive Suite 200 Bloomington, IN 47403. p. 169. ISBN 9781434377807.
67. Kuttan, Mahadevan (2009). The Great Philosophers of India. Authorhouse 1663 Liberty Drive Suite 200 Bloomington, IN 47403. p. 174. ISBN 9781434377807.
68. Nomination Database.
69. "Nomination Database". Retrieved 23 January 2017.
70. Quoted in Brown, J. A. C. (1963) Techniques of Persuasion, Ch. 11. Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0140206043
71. Sarvepalli, Radhakrishnan (1963). Occasional speeches and writings, Volume 3. Publications Division, Ministry of Information & Broadcasting, Govt. India. p. 77.
72. Philosophy East & West, Volume 5. University Press of Hawaii, 1955 – Philosophy. p. 83.
73. Sarvepalli, Radhakrishnan (1963). Occasional speeches and writings, Volume 3. Publications Division, Ministry of Information & Broadcasting, Govt. India. p. 63.
74. Jain, Lala (2002). Essays in Jaina Philosophy and Religion. Piotr Balcerowicz & Marek Mejor. p. 114. ISBN 978-8120819771.


Printed sources

• Barbour, Ian (1966), Issues in Science and Religion, Prentice-Hall
• Hori, Victor Sogen (1999), Translating the Zen Phrase Book. In: Nanzan Bulletin 23 (1999) (PDF)
• King, Richard (1999), Orientalism and Religion: Post-Colonial Theory, India and "The Mystic East", Routledge
• King, Richard (2001), Orientalism and Religion: Post-Colonial Theory, India and "The Mystic East", Taylor & Francis e-Library
• Long, Jeffery D. (2007), A Vision for Hinduism: Beyond Hindu Nationalism, A Vision for Hinduism: Beyond Hindu Nationalism, ISBN 9781845112738
• Mazumda, Srucheta; Kaiwar, Vasant (2009), From Orientalism to Postcolonialism, Routledge
• Murty, K. Satchidananda; Vohra, Ashok (1990), Radhakrishnan: His Life and Ideas, SUNY Press, ISBN 9780791403440
• Rinehart, Robin (2004), Contemporary Hinduism: Ritual, Culture, and Practice, ABC-CLIO
• Sarvepalli, Gopal (1989), Radhakrishnan: a biography, Unwin Hyman, ISBN 978-0-04-440449-1
• Versluis, Arthur (1993), American Transcendentalism and Asian Religions, Oxford University Press
• Versluis, Arthur (2001), The Esoteric Origins of the American Renaissance, Oxford University Press
• Wilber, Ken (1996), The Atman Project: A Transpersonal View of Human Development, Quest Books, ISBN 9780835607308

Online sources

1. Dr.Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan: The Philosopher President. Press Information Bureau, Government of India
2. Michael Hawley,Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan (1888—1975), Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
3. "Padma Awards Directory (1954–2007)" (PDF). Ministry of Home Affairs. Retrieved 26 November 2010.
4. "Maharaja's royal gift to Mysore". The Times of India. 25 July 2010. Retrieved 11 July 2013.
5. "No. 33722". The London Gazette (Supplement). 2 June 1931. p. 3624.
6. "No. 33816". The London Gazette. 12 April 1932. p. 2398.
7. "Teachers' Day". Retrieved 2 October2012.
8. "DETAILS OF MEDIA PERSONS ACCOMPANYING THE PRESIDENT IN HIS/HER VISITS ABROAD SINCE 1947 TO 2012" (PDF). The President's Secretariat. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 August 2013. Retrieved 5 June 2013.
9. "The Great Indian Philosopher : Dr. Radhakrishnan" (PDF). State Govt. Of Orissa.
10. Ram Puniyani, COMMUNALISM : Illustrated Primer, Chapter 5
11. Order pour le Merite for Arts and Science, List of Members from 1842 to 1998
12. The Templeton Prize – Previous Prize Winners, Sir Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan (1975)

External links

• Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan at the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
• Works by or about Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan at Internet Archive
• "The Legend of Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan"
• "Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan- The philosopher president", Press Information Bureau, Government of India
• "Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan (1888—1975)" by Michael Hawley, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
• S. Radhakrishnan materials in the South Asian American Digital Archive (SAADA)
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Thu Apr 18, 2019 10:16 pm

New World Alliance
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 4/18/19



Governing Council of the New World Alliance meets at a lodge in upstate New York, September 1980. Leonard Duhl of UC Berkeley is seated at the upper left, Michael Marien of the World Future Society is seated with legs crossed at the upper right, and spiritual-politics theorist and activist Corinne McLaughlin is sitting to Marien's right.

The New World Alliance was an American political organization that sought to articulate and implement what it called "transformational" political ideas. It was organized in the late 1970s and dissolved in 1983. It has been described as the first U.S. national political organization of its type[1] and as the first entity to articulate a comprehensive transformational political program.[2]

The Alliance maintained a national office two blocks from the White House. It established chapters across the U.S., produced a 98-page political platform, conducted "Political Awareness Seminars" to help participants learn to communicate across ideological and psychological divides, initiated national "Consultations with Elected Officials," and produced a national political newsletter whose sponsors included Ecotopia author Ernest Callenbach and psychologist Carl Rogers.

Over the decades, social scientists and others have sought to explain why the Alliance did not achieve a longer life. There is no agreement. Explanations have touched on history (the U.S. was not ready), culture (the Alliance was too counter-cultural), process (the commitment to near-unanimous consensus decision-making was too onerous), leadership (the people on the Governing Council did not have the personalities or skills to build a mass organization), transformational political assumptions and behaviors (said to be inappropriate, self-defeating, or cult-like), and more.[nb 1]

Following the dissolution of the organization, many former Governing Council members and other founders of the Alliance – many near the beginning of their careers[6] – took transformational ideas into a variety of organizational settings, including the early U.S. Green Party movement and the multinational corporate world. Their organizational efforts and published political writings extended into the 21st century.

A "transformational" politics

"The 10 Goals of the New World Alliance: 1. A politics of hope; 2. A politics of healing; 3. A politics of rediscovery; 4. A politics of human growth; 5. A politics of ecology; 6. A politics of participation; 7. A politics of appropriate scale; 8. A politics of globalism; 9. A politics of technological creativity; 10. A politics of spirituality."

–- New World Alliance, "Introductory Brochure," 1980.[7]

After the political turmoil of the 1960s, many writers and activists began searching for a new political perspective that would give special weight to such topics as consciousness change, ecology, decentralization of power, and global cooperation.[8][9] Some called the emerging new perspective "transformational."[10][11]

Naming the Alliance's politics

The New World Alliance has been described by many terms other than transformational – among them, new paradigm,[12]Aquarian Cconspiracy,[13][nb 2] New Age-oriented,[1][nb 3] postliberal,[20] post-socialist,[21] and Green.[22] A libertarian magazine found the Alliance's newsletter to be "surprisingly libertarian,"[23] and a book about radical centrism characterized the Alliance as radical centrist.[24]

However, "transformational" has been the term most frequently used to describe the Alliance's politics, both by political scientists[2][25] and by the Alliance itself. For example, an article from the Alliance's chairperson was entitled "The New World Alliance: Toward a Transformational Politics,"[13] and the Alliance's political platform is entitled "A Transformation Platform: The Dialogue Begins."[6]

Describing the Alliance's politics

Academic J. Gordon Melton said the Alliance attempted to combine left- and right-wing perspectives.

Many attempts have been made to describe the Alliance's approach to transformational politics. Cultural critic Annie Gottlieb interviewed an Alliance member who said its goal was "to embody a new holistic vision of politics in America."[26] Futurists Jessica Lipnack and Jeffrey Stamps said the Alliance was attempting to introduce values into politics that had traditionally been outside it.[27] British Green activist Sara Parkin named some of those values, including "healing," "rediscovery," and "spirituality."[22] Scholar J. Gordon Melton and his colleagues focused on the Alliance's commitment to combining supposed opposites – left and right, personal and political.[28] Citing the ancient Greek concept of Paideia, Alliance chair Bob Olson told an interviewer that the Alliance wanted to build a society where every institution was geared to developing people's abilities and potentials.[13]

Political theorists Corinne McLaughlin and Gordon Davidson identified what they felt was a defining passage in one Alliance document:

Politics is the way we live our lives. It is not just running for office. It is the way we treat each other, as individuals, as groups, as government. It is the way we treat our environment. It is the way we treat ourselves.[29]

Arthur Stein, a political scientist at University of Rhode Island, pointed to another passage in an Alliance document:

The NWA seeks to break away from the old quarrels of "left against right" and help create a new consensus based on our heartfelt needs. It emphasizes personal growth – and nurturing others – rather than indiscriminate material growth. It advocates "human scale" institutions that function with human consideration and social responsibilities. It draws on the social movements of the recent past for new values like ecological responsibility, self-realization and planetary cooperation and sharing. It draws on our conservative heritage for values such as personal responsibility, self-reliance, thrift, neighborliness and community. It draws from the liberal traditions a commitment to human and civil rights, economic equity and social justice. We call this synthesis "New World" politics.[30]

Author Kirkpatrick Sale observed that the Alliance's newsletter boiled its definition of transformational politics down to a phrase – "the reconceptualization of politics along human growth, decentralist, and world order lines."[31] "As sorry a mouthful of rhetoric as that is," Sale concluded, "that's roughly what this 'transformational' idea is all about."[31][nb 4]


The organizing tour

Mark Satin at the start on his 24-city organizing tour for the Alliance, Vancouver, Canada, 1978. (Photo by Erich Hoyt.)

Organizing for the Alliance began in 1978, when author Mark Satin embarked on a two-year tour of North America.[1][27] Although the tour was initially designed to promote one of his books at conferences and other events, it quickly expanded into an effort to locate those who wanted to start a new political organization with a new political perspective.[1] Satin told the authors of the book Networking that he traveled "systematically" to 24 cities and regions across the continent. He was especially interested in finding people committed enough to want to fill out an extensive questionnaire about the future organization.[27] According to one magazine, by the summer of 1979 Satin had traveled over 50,000 miles, mostly by Greyhound bus.[1] He stopped when he found 500 people that were willing to answer the questionnaire.[27]

The questionnaire

The questionnaire, when finally composed and sent out, came to 21 pages.[22] One political science text later compared it to a Delphi survey.[25] It consisted largely of multiple-choice questions[6] about what a transformation-oriented political organization should consist of.[13] Some questions dealt with policy; for example, "How can we make small family farming more of an option for Americans?" Others dealt with structure – "How large should the Board of Directors be?"[27]

Of the 500 people the questionnaire was sent to, 350 responded.[27] The author of the book Green Parties described the respondents as people involved in personal-growth work and social change.[22] The editors of a book on transformational politics described them as "academics, policy experts, and political activists interested in this emerging political perspective."[25]

While it is not clear how closely the organization followed the questionnaire in shaping itself, one political scientist thought it significant that the "overwhelming source" of U.S. political problems among questionnaire-answerers was found to be "our attitudes and values."[6]

"Governing Council"

GC chairperson Bob Olson (second from right) was a project director at the U.S. Office of Technology Assessment.[33] GC member Kirkpatrick Sale (center) was a Neo-Luddite theorist.[34]

The questionnaire determined that a 39-member board of directors, called the Governing Council (GC), should be chosen to run the Alliance. In addition, it determined that the GC should be chosen from among the questionnaire-answerers themselves. Eighty-nine of them volunteered to stand for the GC, and the first 39 GCers were chosen by a variety of means: 40% by mail ballot, 30% by lottery, 20% by Satin (who'd met the questionnaire-answerers during his bus tour), and 10% by four women.[27]

The selection process produced a diverse GC. A political scientist pointed to "teachers, feminists, think-tank members."[2] A journalist called attention to a Ronald Reagan speechwriter, a former Robert F. Kennedy speechwriter, a corporate vice-president, and a spiritual teacher.[35] A spokesperson for the Alliance touted "a co-author of the Pentagon Papers" as well as "several people from the erstwhile counterculture."[36]

In 1980, the 39 GC members included Jim Benson, Clement Bezold, Lex Hixon, John McClaughry, Corinne McLaughlin, Kirkpatrick Sale, Mark Satin, Eric Utne, Robert Buxbaum of the Office of the New York City Council President, Jeff Cox of the Rodale Institute, Leonard Duhl of UC Berkeley, Bethe Hagens of Governors State University, Miller Hudson of the Colorado legislature, Donald Keys of the World Federalists, James Ogilvy of SRI International, Bob Olson of the Office of Technology Assessment of the U.S. Congress, Gail Whitty of the NOW-Detroit board of directors, Malon Wilkus of the Federation of Egalitarian Communities, and Rarihokwats, founder of Akwesasne Notes newspaper from the Mohawk Nation at Akwesasne.[33][nb 5] Besides being on the GC, Olson served as chairperson of the Alliance.[13]

Structure and process

The Alliance's national office was two blocks from the White House, in the light brown building midway down the row of buildings here.[nb 6]

The Governing Council met semi-annually.[37] There was also a Coordinating Committee,[13] and a national office was established two blocks from the White House in Washington, D.C.[35]

But one of the Alliance's expressed goals was "a politics of participation,"[7] and the GC chose not to run the Alliance from the top down. The authors of the book Networking describe the organization as "nonhierarchically structured" and say decisions were made by decentralized committees.[27]

There were also local chapters. Belden Paulson, a political scientist at University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, says that in the early years the Alliance had "a kind of missionary zeal" to establish local chapters across the U.S. He reports that 50 people turned up at the initial chapter meeting in Milwaukee and that the group met for several years.[6]

The Alliance's processes emphasized consensus and even meditation. An encyclopedia from Gale Research reports that the Alliance expressed a "commitment to consensus building in all our groups and projects."[38] It also reports that Alliance chapters and projects claimed to use "short periods of silence [in order] to draw on our intuition in making decisions and solving conflicts."[38]


The Alliance sustained four principal projects.

Political platform

"The Transformation Platform of the New World Alliance is different from conventional political platforms in fundamental ways. ... It is an attempt to go beyond the polarity of left-against-right by integrating the highest values in our nation's conservative and liberal heritage with the learning that has taken place in recent social movements. ... It begins – but only just begins – a reconceptualization or paradigm change regarding the very nature of politics. We recognize that public policy is only one "face" of politics. Equally important political work takes place in the community, the workplace, and in personal development and interpersonal relationships."

–- New World Alliance, introduction to A Transformation Platform: The Dialogue Begins, 1981.[39]

The Alliance produced a 98-page political platform that achieved what one commentator claimed was wide circulation.[6] A Transformation Platform: The Dialogue Begins discussed crime and justice, economics, science and technology, health, the environment, global affairs, and more.[27] It made about 300 specific policy proposals.[2] But it sought to do more than provide good ideas. Bob Olson, chair of the Alliance, tried to explain to the Association for Humanistic Psychology why he felt the platform was unique:

... we call [it] a Living Platform. The platform offers concrete political proposals, but doesn't purport to offer final answers. It includes commentary and dissenting opinion, and it asks readers to criticize it and help improve it, so that over the years ahead it can serve as a focus for thousands of people to cooperate in thinking through the changes we need to make.[40]

"Political Awareness Seminars"

These were day-long or weekend experiences designed to make participants more deeply aware of the political process and their own potential for using it to heal society.[13] To some observers, the seminars functioned primarily to build self-confidence.[27] To Olson, they helped participants discover and merge their visions of a better society, and explore how to implement them.[13] To the authors of Spiritual Politics, the key part came when participants were asked to act out their feelings toward their political adversaries – and were then told to reverse roles. "Many deep insights resulted," the authors wrote, "with participants discovering [they] often had problems similar to the ones they accused their adversaries of having."[41]

"Consultations with Elected Officials"

California legislator John Vasconcellos invited people to the Alliance's first "Consultation with Elected Officials" and was a featured speaker there.

These were national conferences of "transformation-oriented" politicians,[13] Alliance GC members, and other interested parties. Political science professor Belden Paulson, who helped coordinate the first one, in Milwaukee, says he recruited California state legislator John Vasconcellos and Colorado state legislator Miller Hudson to invite people to the weekend event and be speakers there. Sixteen elected officials ended up attending. There were also eight Alliance GC members, six academics, spiritual writer David Spangler, and some residents of intentional communities.[6] According to a letter Paulson quotes from one of the intentional-community residents, there was great tension at the consultation between pragmatists and visionaries – until the last day, when "it all came together, starting with the politicians who, one by one, spoke of how this opened whole new horizons for them."[42]

National political newsletter

Renewal newsletter attempted to report on current affairs from a transformational perspective.[13] It also attempted to critically assess relevant groups and books and serve as a forum for activists.[2] It boasted nine founding sponsors – Ernest Callenbach, Willis Harman, Hazel Henderson, Karl Hess, Patricia Mische (co-author of Toward a Human World Order[43]), Jeremy Rifkin, James Robertson, Carl Rogers, and John Vasconcellos.[2] The newsletter's annual "Transformational Book Award" was voted upon by 70 hand-picked academics and think tank staffers from across the U.S.[31]

Restructuring and dissolution

The Alliance restructured itself in 1982. It decided to close its Washington, D.C. office but keep the Governing Council intact. Rather than running and funding projects and supporting an organizational infrastructure, it would seek to serve as a kind of umbrella for entrepreneurial, independently run projects.[2] It dissolved the next year.[44]


Prominent writer and activist Jeremy Rifkin was a founding sponsor of the Alliance's political newsletter.[2]

The Alliance raised many hopes in transformational circles. For example, New Realities, a glossy transformation-oriented magazine, devoted a 3,000-word article to the organizing effort,[1] and futurist Hazel Henderson pointed her readers beyond the U.S. Citizens Party to the "more visionary" movement incorporating as the New World Alliance.[45] Arthur Stein noted that each of the founding sponsors of the Alliance's political newsletter had distinguished themselves in their fields.[2]

To some observers, including some inside the organization, the Alliance fell short of its promise and potential. It was certainly "short-lived," as three political scientists put it.[25] To other observers, the Alliance was a valuable pioneer.

External critics

Some critics focused on history and culture. To political scientist Belden Paulson, the Alliance fell short partly because it was too far ahead of its cultural moment.[6] To Annie Gottlieb, author of a book about the mainstreaming of Sixties-generation attitudes and values, the Alliance fell short because it did not sufficiently root itself in the mainstream culture, and in the immediately practical and viable.[46]

Other explanations focused on the Alliance's processes. Scholar J. Gordon Melton's encyclopedia said the focus on consensus led to "extended meetings and minimal results" – which in turn led to dispirited participants.[28] Even Aquarian Conspiracy author Marilyn Ferguson commented that the GC meetings, full of "intoxicating rhetoric" but little else, took their toll on one GC member.[37]

Still other explanations focused on internal dysfunction. Belden Paulson noted ongoing "friction and personality struggles." He also found it incomprehensible that the Alliance always seemed to be without money. He finally concluded that the GCers with the most power were more interested in advancing their own organizations.[6]

Some critics were skeptical about, or hostile to, the Alliance's transformational ideology. Speaking on a panel with two Alliance GC members at an Association for Humanistic Psychology conference in 1982, political scientist Walter Truett Anderson rejected the concept of transformation. He argued that it had become a cliché and that society was not going to transform itself totally or quickly. He added that its advocates were on the verge of becoming "what I think can rightfully be called a cult."[47]

The Alliance generated opposition among conservative Christians who worried that New Age ideas were being spread under the banner of transformational politics. For example, in her book The Hidden Dangers of the Rainbow, attorney Constance Cumbey warned that New Age ideas were being "synergistically enhanced by the parallel operation of networking organizations such as New World Alliance."[48] In an anthology called The New Age Rage, religious philosopher Douglas Groothuis said transformational initiatives like the Alliance were slipping New Age ideas into U.S. Democratic Party politics.[49]

Internal critics

"Belief that a social transformation is happening serves to keep it from happening. Behaviors associated with the sandbox of political impotency include: pronouncement of actual or imminent success, confusion of goals and results, an acritical stance, hubris, an incapacitating dialect, pseudo holism, egalitarian blinders, and self-centeredness. Upward growth to escape the Sandbox Syndrome is a necessary ingredient of any serious social change."

– Alliance GC member Michael Marien, "The Transformation as Sandbox Syndrome," 1983.[50]

Both before and after the Alliance dissolved, GC members publicly criticized the Alliance. In 1987, former GC member Marc Sarkady told an interviewer that the Alliance was too immersed in the counter-culture.[26] In 1983, writing in a feminist quarterly, GCer Berhe Hagens said that – despite all the high-minded rhetoric and processes – the male GCers had been dismissive of the female GCers.[51] In 1982, Mark Satin complained to an audience of 400 that the Alliance could not decide on its mission.[52][nb 7] Later that decade Satin referred to his former colleagues as "beautiful losers,"[54] and even in the 2000s he was writing about what he saw as the Alliance's "ineptness" and its failure to understand and seize the moment.[24]

A more systemic critique by a GC member was Michael Marien's essay "The Transformation as Sandbox Syndrome," published in the Journal of Humanistic Psychology in 1983.[56] While Marien aimed his critique at transformational political organizations (and activists) in general, the introduction discusses Marien's involvement in just one such organization – the Alliance.[50] His targets in the essay include mistaking lofty goals for political significance, loving-kindness for effective action, and good intentions for actual results.[57]

Toward the end of its existence, Alliance chair Bob Olson wrote – in a spirit of acceptance rather than blame – that the GC did not have the "personalities and skills" to create the kind of dynamic mass-membership organization that had originally been envisioned.[58]

Positive views

Many observers have acknowledged the Alliance for what they see as pioneering contributions to the social change movement.

For example, the director of Self Determination, a California-wide transformational political organization co-founded by John Vasconcellos,[19] described the Alliance as "the first" national political organization of its kind.[1] Political scientist Arthur Stein claimed it made "the first attempt to take ecological, decentralist, globalist, and human-growth ideas and translate them into a detailed, practical political platform."[2]

A pair of futurists credited the Alliance with attempting to create a national political movement based on new values.[27] A pair of political theorists said the Alliance was one of the first groups attempting to create "a new synthesis" of left-wing and right-wing political ideas.[59] In a textbook, three political scientists identified the Alliance as a "precursor" of North American Greens.[25]


Alliance co-founder Gordon Feller later became "urban innovations" director at Cisco Systems in Silicon Valley.[60]

Many initial Governing Council members and other founders of the Alliance – often at the early stages of their careers[6] – engaged in transformation-oriented activities after the Alliance dissolved in 1983.[nb 8] Some of them contributed to transformational theory and practice for many decades.

In 1984, at least nine people associated with the Alliance were among the 62 people in attendance at the invitation-only founding meeting of the U.S. Green Party movement in St. Paul, Minnesota.[44] In addition, the Alliance's platform circulated there.[61] One former GCer, Mark Satin, was later credited with helping to initiate that meeting,[62] and in a scholarly book on the early U.S. Greens, ecofeminist author Greta Gaard concluded that Satin "played a significant role in facilitating the articulation of Green political thought," and that his political philosophy influenced the Greens' "ideological foundation."[63]

Other former Alliance members helped organize other transformation-oriented political initiatives. For example, GC members Corinne McLaughlin and Stephen Woolpert helped develop the Ecological and Transformational Politics Section (section #26) of the American Political Science Association,[25][59] Leonard Duhl helped initiate the Healthy Cities program at the World Health Organization,[64] and Alanna Hartzok co-founded the Earth Rights Institute.[65]

Some Alliance founders later ran for seats in the U.S. Congress, though none won. In 1986, Joseph Simonetta – co-founder of an Alliance chapter[66] – obtained the Democratic Party nomination for a House seat.[66][nb 9] Six years later, former GC member John McClaughry obtained the Republican Party nomination for a Senate seat.[67] In 2001, former GCer Alanna Hartzok obtained the Green Party nomination for a House seat,[68] and in 2014 she obtained the Democratic Party nomination for that same seat.[69]

Several Alliance founders later took transformational ideas into the multinational corporate world. James Ogilvy co-founded the Global Business Network to introduce futures thinking and scenario planning to multinational corporations.[70] Marc Sarkady became a global management consultant explicitly committed to "organizational transformation" and "visionary leadership";[71] one of his earliest challenges was trying to build teamwork among General Motors executives.[72] Malon Wilkus, an intentional community activist while on the GC,[33] eventually became head of American Capital Strategies and won praise in a book devoted to "creative inside reformers."[73] Richard B. Perl founded an international investment company helping Japanese investors do environmentally friendly real estate development in the U.S.[74] He also partnered with a French chocolate manufacturer.[74][nb 10] Jim Benson founded innovative computer and space firms, including SpaceDev.[76] Gordon Feller became director of "urban innovations" at Cisco Systems, a multinational technology company.[60]

One year after the Alliance dissolved, two former GC members launched transformation-oriented periodicals, Eric Utne with Utne Reader[77] and Mark Satin with New Options Newsletter.[78] One futurist described New Options as a "successor" to the Alliance's newsletter.[79] While these periodicals did not please some critics, such as conservative scholar George Weigel,[80] others found them rewarding.[nb 11]

Many Alliance founders wrote transformation-oriented political books after the Alliance dissolved.[nb 12] These addressed a variety of traditional and emerging subjects, including intentional communities,[82] bioregionalism,[83] the interconnectedness of global issues,[84] small-scale participatory democracy,[85] social entrepreneurship,[86] sustainable cities,[87] environmental technologies,[88] radical centrism,[89] land rights,[90] transpartisanship,[91] and spiritual politics.[92] One former GCer became lead editor of an academic textbook on transformational politics.[93]

Some former GCers' transformational books were more personal. Bob Dunsmore wrote about being an activist for 40 years,[94] James Ogilvy wrote about moving from goal-driven to soul-driven,[95] [url]Eric Utne[/url] exhorted readers to "Look Up, Look Out, Look In,"[96] and Norie Huddle wrote a book explaining transformational ideas to children and others entitled simply Butterfly.[97]

See also

• Futures studies
• Green politics
• Humanistic psychology
• Transformative social change


1. Many of these concerns were similar to those encountered by other organizations of the 1970s and 1980s that were seeking to develop alternatives to conventional political perspectives and processes. See, for example, Susan Brownmiller on the second-wave feminist movement,[3] Andrew Cornell on Movement for a New Society,[4] and John Rensenbrink on the early U.S. Green Party movement.[5]
2. The reference is to Marilyn Ferguson's book The Aquarian Conspiracy: Personal and Social Transformation in the 1980s.[14] Of the seven "Related books of interest" listed in Ferguson's chapter on politics,[15] two were by members of the Alliance's Governing Council,[16][17] and a third was by a founding sponsor of the Alliance's newsletter.[18]
3. Self Determination was characterized as an exemplary transformational political organization in Marilyn Ferguson's book The Aquarian Conspiracy. According to Ferguson, it was founded in 1976 by California state assemblyman John Vasconcellos and other politicians and citizens to encourage Californians to take responsibility for their lives.[19]
4. In an anthology from 1998, in an attempt to delineate the transformational politics concept, Auburn University political scientist Christa Slaton listed nine authors: Fritjof Capra (for The Tao of Physics and The Turning Point), Marilyn Ferguson (for The Aquarian Conspiracy), Betty Friedan (The Feminine Mystique), Hazel Henderson (The Politics of the Solar Age), John Naisbitt(Megatrends), Mark Satin (New Age Politics), E. F. Schumacher (Small Is Beautiful), and Alvin and Heidi Toffler (Future Shock and The Third Wave).[32]
5. This list of Governing Council members and their organizational affiliations is drawn entirely from the "Governing Council" page of the Alliance's political platform.[33] No other source was used. It is a selective list, consisting of all GC members that have biographies on Wikipedia, and most GCers whose then-current affiliations – clearly stated on the "Governing Council" page – were to organizations with articles now on Wikipedia. To be the subject of a Wikipedia article, individuals and organizations must meet certain criteria; see WP:Notability.
6. According to journalist Ted Cox, the address was 733 Fifteenth Street N.W., Washington, D.C.[35] The address is given in Wikimedia's description of this photograph; to read it, click on the photo and then scroll down. The description identifies 733 as the sixth building from the right, and viewers should note that three narrow buildings to its immediate left are difficult to distinguish from one another. The entire stretch of buildings constitutes part of what is now known as the Fifteenth Street Financial Historic District.
7. GC members had disparate visions for the organization. Some GCers wanted the Alliance to be or become a political party,[53] Satin wanted the Alliance to model itself on grassroots mobilization and lobbying groups such as Moral Majority,[54] and others – ultimately a majority – wanted the Alliance to play a less assertive, clearinghouse role.[55]
8. The names of 39 early GC members and five additional founding members are on the "Governing Council" page of the Alliance's political platform.[33]These are the only founders named in this section, except for Joseph Simonetta, who is identified as a founder in a reference below.
9. Simonetta ran on the slogan "The Heroes Are Us"; his campaign literature spoke of the dangers of "excessive consumption" and "immediate gratification." His campaign logo consisted of a world map crossed by two lines – "symbolic of the fact," he said, "that we live in an interrelated, interdependent world."[66]
10. Perl also became one of five key leaders of the Social Venture Network, an organization incubating socially responsible businesses.[75]
11. Cultural critic Annie Gottlieb stated in 1987 that Utne Reader and New Optionswere among "our generation's most characteristic creations right now, and the networks through which we talk to one another."[81]
12. This recitation of books is intended to be suggestive rather than complete. For that reason, it is limited to one post-1983, transformation-oriented book per Alliance founder. Because GCers Davidson and McLaughlin are joint authors, two of their books are given.


1. Alison Wells and Stanley Commons, "Moving Politics With Spirit (And Greyhound)," New Realities magazine, June–July 1979, pp. 23–25. The authors are identified as journal editor and executive director, respectively, of Self Determination, a California-wide organization advocating personal and political change.
2. Arthur Stein, Seeds of the Seventies: Values, Work, and Commitment in Post-Vietnam America, University Press of New England, 1985, pp. 134–38. ISBN 978-0-87451-343-1. The author is identified as a political scientist at University of Rhode Island.
3. Susan Brownmiller, In Our Time: Memoir of a Revolution, Delta Books / Dell Publishing Co., 1999, pp. 35–294. ISBN 978-0-385-31831-0.
4. Andrew Cornell, Oppose and Propose!: Lessons from Movement for a New Society, AK Press, 2011, pp. 1–126. ISBN 978-1-849350-66-2.
5. John Rensenbrink, Against All Odds: The Green Transformation of American Politics, Leopold Press, Inc., 1999, Parts III and IV. ISBN 978-0-9660629-1-5.
6. Belden Paulson, Odyssey of a Practical Visionary, Thistlefield Books, 2009, pp. 500–03. ISBN 978-0-9816906-1-2. The author is identified as a political scientist at University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee.
7. Mark Satin, New Age Politics: Our Only Real Alternative, Lorian Press, 2015, pp. 196–97 (quoting the Alliance's brochure). ISBN 978-0-936878-80-5.
8. Paul H. Ray and Sherry Ruth Anderson, The Cultural Creatives: How 50 Million People Are Changing the World, Harmony Books / Random House, 2000, chaps. 6–7. ISBN 978-0-609-60467-0.
9. Theodore Roszak, Person / Planet: The Creative Disintegration of Industrial Society, Anchor Press / Doubleday, 1978, chaps. 1–2. ISBN 978-0-385-00063-5.
10. Willis Harman, An Incomplete Guide to the Future, W. W. Norton & Company, 1979, chap. 2 ("A Transformation Ahead?"). ISBN 978-0-393-95006-9.
11. George Leonard, The Transformation: A Guide to the Inevitable Changes in Humankind, Delacorte Press / Dell Publishing Co., 1972. ISBN 978-0-385-29075-3
12. Corinne McLaughlin and Gordon Davidson, Spiritual Politics: Changing the World from the Inside Out, Ballantine Books, 1994, p. 70. ISBN 978-0-345-36983-3.
13. Bob Olson with Marilyn Saunders, interviewer, "The New World Alliance: Toward a Transformational Politics," AHP Newsletter, December 1980, pp. 14–16. A publication of the Association for Humanistic Psychology. Retrieved April 26, 2016.
14. Marilyn Ferguson, The Aquarian Conspiracy: Personal and Social Transformation in the 1980s, Jeremy P. Tarcher Inc., 1980. ISBN 978-0-87477-191-6.
15. Ferguson, Aquarian, p. 434.
16. James Ogilvy, Many Dimensional Man: Decentralizing Self, Society, and the Sacred, Oxford University Press, 1977. ISBN 978-0-19-502231-5.
17. Mark Satin, New Age Politics: Healing Self and Society, Delta Books / Dell Publishing Co., 1979. ISBN 978-0-440-55700-5.
18. John Vasconcellos, A Liberating Vision: Politics for Growing Humans, Impact Publishers, 1979. ISBN 978-0-915166-17-6.
19. Ferguson, Aquarian, pp. 232–35.
20. Mark Satin, New Options for America: The Second American Experiment Has Begun, The Press at California State University, Fresno, 1991, p. 6. ISBN 978-0-8093-1794-3.
21. Mark Satin, Radical Middle: The Politics We Need Now, Westview Press and Basic Books, 2004, p. 29. ISBN 978-0-8133-4190-3.
22. Sara Parkin, Green Parties: An International Guide, Heretic Books Ltd., 1989, p. 294. ISBN 978-0-946097-27-2.
23. Robert Poole, Jr. and Christine Dorffi, "New Age Budget Biting," Reason: Free Minds and Free Markets, November 1981, p. 20.
24. Satin, Radical, pp. 187–88.
25. "Preface: Paths to Transformational Politics," in Stephen Woolpert, Christa Daryl Slaton, and Edward W. Schwerin, eds., Transformational Politics: Theory, Study, and Practice, State University of New York Press, 1998, p. ix.ISBN 978-0-7914-3945-6. The lead editor is identified as a political scientist at Saint Mary's College of California.
26. Annie Gottlieb, Do You Believe in Magic?: Bringing the Sixties Back Home, Simon & Schuster, 1987, p. 153 (quoting Marc Sarkady). ISBN 978-0-671-66050-5. Note that the pagination in the Times Books / Random House edition of this book is different.
27. Jessica Lipnack and Jeffrey Stamps, Networking: The First Report and Directory, Doubleday, 1982, pp. 107–08. ISBN 978-0-385-18121-1.
28. J. Gordon Melton, Jerome Clark, and Aidan A. Kelly, New Age Encyclopedia, Gale Research, Inc., 1990, p. 324. ISSN 1047-2746. ISSN retrieved April 1, 2016.
29. McLaughlin, Spiritual, p. 70 (quoting a New World Alliance document).
30. Stein, Seeds, p. 135 (quoting a New World Alliance document).
31. Kirkpatrick Sale, "Kirkpatrick Sale's Letter from America," Resurgencemagazine, vol. 89, November–December 1981, p. 6.
32. Christa Daryl Slaton, "An Overview of the Emerging Political Paradigm: A Web of Transformational Theories," in Woolpert et al., eds., Transformational, cited above, p. 11.
33. "New World Alliance Governing Council, 1980–1981," in New World Alliance, A Transformation Platform: The Dialogue Begins, New World Alliance publication, 1981, p. 98. Booklet, no ISBN assigned.
34. Steven Jones, Against Technology: From the Luddites to Neo-Luddism, Routledge, 2006, pp. 23–24. ISBN 978-0-415-97868-2.
35. Ted Cox, "New Age People: Alternative to Militarism," The Churchman, August–September 1980, p. 7.
36. Olson, "New World," p. 14.
37. Marilyn Ferguson, "Foreword," in Mark Satin, New Options for America: The Second American Experiment Has Begun, The Press at California State University, Fresno, 1991, p. xiii. ISBN 978-0-8093-1794-3.
38. Melton et al., Encyclopedia, p. 324 (quoting the Alliance's newsletter).
39. Paulson, Odyssey, p. 501 (quoting the Alliance's platform, emphases in Paulson's quoted text).
40. Olson, "The New," p. 15.
41. McLaughlin, Spiritual, p. 109.
42. Paulson, Odyssey, p. 502 (quoting letter).
43. Gerald Mische and Patricia Mische, Toward a Human World Order: Beyond the National Security Straitjacket, Paulist Press, 1977. ISBN 978-0-8091-0216-7.
44. Mark Satin, "Miraculous Birth of the 'Ten Key Values' Statement," Green Horizon magazine, vol. 9, issue no. 26, Fall–Winter 2012, p. 19. A publication co-edited by John Rensenbrink, co-founder of the U.S. Green Party. Retrieved April 26, 2016.
45. Hazel Henderson, The Politics of the Solar Age: Alternatives to Economics, Anchor Press / Doubleday, 1981, p. 19. ISBN 978-0-385-17150-2.
46. Gottlieb, Do You Believe, pp. 153–54.
47. Stein, Seeds, p. 137 (quoting Anderson).
48. Constance E. Cumbey, The Hidden Dangers of the Rainbow: The New Age Movement and Our Coming Age of Barbarism, Huntington House, Inc., 1983, pp. 64–65. ISBN 978-0-910311-03-8.
49. Douglas Groothuis, "Politics: Building an International Platform," in Karen Hoyt and the Spiritual Counterfeits Project, eds., The New Age Rage, Fleming H. Revell Company / Baker Publishing Group, 1987, pp. 97–98. ISBN 978-0-8007-5257-6.
50. Michael Marien, "The Transformation as Sandbox Syndrome," Journal of Humanistic Psychology, vol. 23, no. 1, Winter 1983, p. 7.
51. Bethe Hagens, "The Goddess in the New World Alliance," The Creative Woman Quarterly, vol. 6, no. 4, Fall 1983, p. 19. A publication of Governors State University. The author is identified as an anthropologist. Retrieved August 7, 2016.
52. Stein, Seeds, pp. 136-37 (quoting Satin).
53. Bob Dunsmore, I Am: A Journey Through Times and Spaces, iUniverse Publishing, 2011, p. 65. ISBN 978-1-4620-2432-2.
54. Mark Satin and Kevin Kelly, interviewer, "Mark Satin," Whole Earth Review, issue no. 61, Winter 1988, p. 107.
55. Stein, Seeds, p. 138.
56. Marien, "The Transformation," cited above.
57. Marien, "The Transformation," pp. 7–10.
58. Melton, Encyclopedia, p. 324 (quoting Olson).
59. McLaughlin, Spiritual, p. 72–73.
60. Kim Chandler McDonald, Flat World Navigation: Collaboration and Networking in the Global Digital Economy, Kogan Page, 2015, p. xv. ISBN 978-0-7494-7393-8.
61. Howard Hawkins, "North American Greens Come of Age: Statism vs. Municipalism." Our Generation, vol. 23, no. 1, Winter 1992, p 74. Retrieved August 7, 2016.
62. John Ely, "Green Politics in the United States and Europe," in Margit Mayer and John Ely, eds., The German Greens: Paradox Between Movement and Party, Temple University Press, 1998, p. 200. ISBN 978-1-56639-516-8.
63. Greta Gaard, Ecological Politics: Ecofeminists and the Greens, Temple University Press, 1998, pp. 142–43. ISBN 978-1-56639-569-4.
64. Howard Frumkin et al., "Introduction," in Andrew L. Dannenberg, Howard Frumkin, and Richard J. Jackson, eds., Healthy Places: Designing and Building for Health, Well-being, and Sustainability, Island Press, 2011, p. 26. ISBN 978-1-59726-727-4.
65. Alanna Hartzok, The Earth Belongs to Everyone: Articles & Essays, Institute for Economic Democracy Press, 2008, p. 340. ISBN 978-1-933567-04-4.
66. Mark Satin, "Simonetta: The Heroes Are Us," New Options Newsletter, issue no. 29, June 30, 1986, pp. 3, 8. Retrieved March 25, 2016.
67. Michael Barone and Grant Ujifusa, The Almanac of American Politics 1994, National Journal, 1993, p. 1295. ISBN 978-0-89234-057-6.
68. Elly Spinweber, "Green Party Candidate Addresses 'Earth Rights'," The Daily Collegian (Pennsylvania State University), April 19, 2001, p. 2. Retrieved March 25, 2016.
69. Author unknown, "Alanna Hartzok," Ballotpedia: The Encyclopedia of American Politics, website, no fixed date. Retrieved March 25, 2016.
70. Peter Schwartz, The Art of the Long View: Planning for the Future in an Uncertain World, Currency Doubleday, 1996, pp. 92–95. ISBN 978-0-385-26732-8.
71. Gottlieb, Do You Believe, p. 340.
72. Paul Ingrassia and Joseph B. White, Comeback: The Fall and Rise of the American Automobile Industry, Touchstone / Simon & Schuster, 1994, pp. 173–74, 175. ISBN 978-0-671-79214-5.
73. AArthur B. Shostak, ed., For Labor's Sake: Gains and Pains as Told by 28 Creative Inside Reformers, University Press of America, 1994, p. 107.ISBN 978-0-8191-9775-7.
74. Dina Cheney, "Richard Perl '79: Saving the World, One Bonbon at a Time". Columbia College Today, January / February 2007, p. 63. A publication of Columbia University. Retrieved 17 February 2018.
75. Jeffrey Hollender and Bill Breen, The Responsibility Revolution: How the Next Generation of Businesses Will Win, Jossey-Bass, 2010, p. 203. ISBN 978-0-470-55842-3.
76. Patricia Sullivan, "Obituaries: James Benson; Inventor Led Computer, Space Firms", The Washington Post, October 16, 2008. Retrieved July 30, 2017.
77. Dan Chu and Margaret Nelson, "Eric Utne Created the Impossible," Peoplemagazine, vol. 34, no. 10, September 10, 1990, pp. 79, 81.
78. Jeff Rosenberg, "Mark's Ism: New Options' Editor Builds a New Body Politic," Washington City Paper, vol. 9, no. 11, March 17, 1989, pp. 6–8.
79. Michael Marien, "New Options for America," Future Survey, vol. 13, no. 7, July 1991, item 01-315. A publication of the World Future Society.
80. George Weigel, "No Options," American Purpose magazine, vol. 3, no. 3, March 1989, pp. 21–22.
81. Gottlieb, Do You Believe, p. 371.
82. Corinne McLaughlin and Gordon Davidson, Builders of the Dawn: Community Lifestyles in a Changing World, Stillpoint Publishing, 1985. ISBN 978-0-913299-20-3. Both authors were GC members.
83. Kirkpatrick Sale, Dwellers in the Land: The Bioregional Vision, Sierra Club Books, 1985. ISBN 978-0-87156-847-2.
84. Melvin Gurtov, Global Politics in the Human Interest, Lynne Rienner Publishers,1988. ISBN 978-1-58826-484-8.
85. Frank M. Bryan and John McClaughry, The Vermont Papers: Recreating Democracy on a Human Scale, Chelsea Green Publishing, 1989. ISBN 978-0-930031-19-0. McClaughry was the GC member.
86. Leonard J. Duhl, M.D., The Social Entrepreneurship of Change, Pace University Press, 1991. ISBN 978-0-925776-04-4.
87. Sarah James and Torbjörn Lahti, The Natural Step for Communities: How Cities and Towns Can Change to Sustainable Places, New Society Publishers, 2004. ISBN 978-0-86571-491-5. James was the GC member.
88. Robert Olson and David Rejeski, eds., Environmentalism & the Technologies of Tomorrow, Island Press, 2004. ISBN 978-1-55963-769-5. Olson was the GC member.
89. Satin, Radical, cited above.
90. Hartzok, The Earth Belongs, cited above.
91. A. Lawrence Chickering and James S. Turner, Voice of the People: The Transpartisan Imperative in American Life, daVinci Press, 2008. ISBN 978-0-615-21526-6. Turner was the GC member.
92. Corinne McLaughlin with Gordon Davidson, The Practical Visionary: A New World Guide to Spiritual Growth and Social Change, 2010, Unity House Publishers, 2010. ISBN 978-0-87159-340-5. Both authors were GC members.
93. Stephen Woolpert, Christa Daryl Slaton, and Edward W. Schwerin, eds., Transformational Politics: Theory, Study, and Practice, State University of New York Press, 1998. ISBN 978-0-7914-3945-6.
94. Dunsmore, I Am, cited above.
95. James Ogilvy, Living Without a Goal: Finding the Freedom to Live a Creative and Innovative Life, Currency Doubleday, 1995. ISBN 978-0-385-41799-0.
96. Eric Utne, Cosmo Doogood's Urban Almanac: Celebrating Nature & Her Rhythms in the City, Cosmo's Urban Almanac, 2004. ISBN 978-0-9761989-0-1. The quoted phrase appears on the front cover.
97. Norie Huddle, Butterfly, Huddle Books, 1990. Art by Charlene Madland.ISBN 978-1-878690-00-5. A frontspage states, "a tiny tale of great transformation."

External links

Primary sources

• "A Different Kind of Political Organization," c. 1980. Excerpts from the Alliance's introductory brochure. Retrieved April 26, 2016.
• A Transformation Platform: The Dialogue Begins, 1st ed., January 1981. Booklet, no ISBN assigned. The introduction claims that the document was reviewed by the entire Governing Council, and that nearly 200 additional people contributed to the individual subject areas. Retrieved April 26, 2016.
• "New World Alliance Update." Selected articles about the Alliance's goals, projects, and strategies from the Alliance's political newsletter. Retrieved April 26, 2016.
• Former Governing Council Members of the New World Alliance, "Participants Agonize Over (and Draw Lessons From) the Death and Life of the First Transpartisan Political Organization," Radical Middle Newsletter, issue no. 114, January 2008. A quarter century after the Alliance dissolved, 15 former GC members attempted to assess it. The titles of some of their contributions convey the range of their views – "We Had It Down 30 Years Ago" (Bob Olson), "We Blew It" (Mark Satin), "We Chose the Comfort of the Armchair" (Alanna Hartzok), "We Weren't Willing to Play the Right Game" (Miller Hudson), "We Had an Unprofessional Attitude, Especially About Money" (Neal H. Hurwitz), "We May Have Been Too Personally / Psychologically Diverse" (Melvin Gurtov), "We Never Found a Leader" (John McClaughry), "Some of Us Weren't Ready" (Sarah James), "The Larger Polity Was Not Ready" (Richard B. Perl), "We Are Nodes of a Life-Giving Net Now" (Bethe Hagens). Retrieved April 1, 2016.
• New World Alliance and New Options: Correspondence Files, 1977–1992, in the Contemporary Culture Collection at Temple University Libraries, Philadelphia. Includes hundreds of letters among Alliance members. Also contains the Alliance's founding documents, minutes of GC and regional meetings, and a complete set of Renewal newsletters. Retrieved April 1, 2016.

Other links

• "Special Issue: A Report on AHP's 12-Hour Political Party," AHP Newsletter, May 1980. Publication of the Association for Humanistic Psychology. GC member Mark Satin and four sponsors of the Alliance's newsletter were featured speakers at this event, and the ensuing manifesto by George Leonard, on pp. 5–7 of this issue, is an early and explicit statement of transformational politics. Retrieved April 1, 2016.
• Donald Keys, "Planetary Citizenship: The Next Big Step," AHP Newsletter, December 1980, pp. 18–19. A publication of the Association for Humanistic Psychology. Prominent GC members Donald Keys and Martha Keys were co-directors of the Planetary Citizens organization, the subject of this article.
• Frank Feather, ed., Through the '80s: Thinking Globally, Acting Locally, World Future Society (WFS) publication, 1980. ISBN 978-0-930242-11-4. According to a WFS booklet ("First Global Conference on the Future," 1980, items #3111 and 3711), six GC members spoke at the 1980 WFS conference where these papers, many of them transformation-oriented, were presented. Retrieved April 1, 2016.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Thu Apr 18, 2019 11:16 pm

World Future Council
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 4/18/19




The World Future Council (WFC) is an independent body formally founded in Hamburg, Germany on 10 May 2007.[1] "Formed to speak on behalf of policy solutions that serve the interests of future generations",[2] it includes members active in governmental bodies, civil society, business, science and the arts. The WFC's primary focus has been climate security,[3] promoting laws such as the renewable energy Feed-in tariff.[4] The World Future Council has special consultative status with the Economic and Social Council.[5]

Annual General Meeting 2011


The World Future Council was founded by the Swedish writer and activist Jakob von Uexkull.[6] The idea for a global council was first aired on German radio in 1998. In October 2004 the organisation began in London with funding from private donors in Germany, Switzerland, USA and the UK. Since 2006, the organisation headquarters is based in Hamburg, where the World Future Council is politically independent and operates and is registered as a charitable foundation. Further offices are located in London, Geneva and Windhoek.[7] The Council meets once a year at the Annual General Meeting.[8]

The Hamburg Call to Action

The Hamburg Call to Action was unanimously agreed upon by all Councillors present at the Founding Ceremony of the World Future Council, 9–13 May 2007.[1] It calls for the preservation of the environment and the health of communities, the promotion of "systems and institutions based on equity and justice", safeguarding traditional indigenous tribal rights, the protection of present and future generations from war crimes and crimes against humanity, a sustainable production, trade, financial and monetary system, the revival of local democracies and economies, and a universal ban on nuclear and depleted uranium weapons, cluster ammunition and landmines. It aims to generate governmental support for renewable energy technologies, the protection of forests and oceans, secure healthy food and water supplies, environmental security, healthcare, education and shelter, and a strengthened United Nations.[8]


Future Policy Award

The Future Policy Award (FPA) celebrates policies that create better living conditions for current and future generations. The aim of the award is to raise global awareness for these exemplary policies and speed up policy action towards just, sustainable and peaceful societies. The Future Policy Award is the first award that celebrates policies rather than people on an international level. Each year the World Future Council chooses one topic on which policy progress is particularly urgent. In 2009, the Future Policy Award highlighted exemplary policies for food security. In the International Year on Biodiversity, the Future Policy Award 2010 celebrated the world's best biodiversity policies.[9] In the International Year of Forests, the Future Policy Award 2011 celebrated successful policies that protect, enhance and sustainably utilize forests for people, and thus contribute to a better world.[10][11] In 2012, the Future Policy Award celebrated the world’s most inspiring, innovative and influential policies on the protection of oceans and coasts.[12] In 2013 the question was which existing disbarment policies contribute most effectively to the achievement of peace, sustainable development, and security? [13] In 2014the Future Policy Award was dedicated to policies that address one of the most pervasive human rights abuses that humanity is facing: violence against women and girls. [14] The Future Policy Award in 2015 committed to policies that contributed to protecting and strengthening the rights of boys and girls.[15]

The 2017 Future Policy Award was dedicated to policies that effectively addressed land and soil degradation, and the related risks to food security and livelihoods, and help secure a sustainable and just future for people living in the world's drylands.[16] In 2018, the FPA – often referred to as the "Oscar on best policies" celebrated the world's best policies scaling up Agroecolgy[17]; the Indian state Sikkim was awarded Gold.[18]

Future Policy Award

The website presents political solutions and assists decision-makers in developing and implementing future just policies. It is an online database designed for policy-makers to simplify the sharing of existing and proven policy solutions to tackle the world’s most fundamental and urgent problems. It now contains policies, for example on renewable energies, energy efficiency, sustainable cities and food production in the era of climate change, that have been promoted in WFC publications, films and hearings.[19]

Zanzibar International Children Rights Conference

From 28-30 November 2017, the World Future Council hosted an international child rights conference in Zanzibar to explore the positive impacts of Zanzibar's Children's Act and share success stories on child protection, children friendly justice and participation from around the world. The Zanzibar Children's Act had received the Gold Future Policy Award in 2015.[20] Across three days, over 100 participants took part in a varied schedule of workshops, presentations and field visits looking at how to translate child rights laws onto paper into national and location programmes that improve the experiences of children and young people on the ground and effectively tackle child abuse, neglect, and exploitation. The conference was convened with the support of Janina Özen-Otto, the JUA Foundation, and the Michael Otto Foundation. [21] The conference closed with the Zanzibar Declaration on Securing Children's Rights, signed by over 50 representatives and policymakers from Ghana, Indonesia, Liberia, Nigeria, Seychelles, Somaliland, South Africa, South Sudan, Sudan, Tanzania, Tunisia, Zanzibar, as well as experts on children’s rights and representatives from civil society, including Gertrude Mongella and Auma Obama.[22]

Global Policy Action Plan

The Global Policy Action Plan (GPACT) is a set of 22 interlinked, proven policy reforms that together, build sustainable, peaceful, and just societies and help to realise international commitments, including the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG). The "best" policies identified by the World Future Council are those that meet the seven Principles for Future-Just Law-Making. A coherent best policy guide that brings together working innovative policy solutions and forward-thinking practical tools. [23]

Implementation of Feed-in Tariff Laws

Feed-In Tariff (FIT) laws to speed up renewable energy production have been introduced in several countries e.g. the UK, Australia, several US states, among them California, as well as in Ontario (Canada), with the support of the World Future Council. In establishing the Alliance for Renewable Energy, the World Future Council has created a coalition to spread renewable energies and contributed to the implementation of Feed-in Tariffs in the United States.[citation needed] [24]

Campaign for Ombudspersons for Future Generations

The WFC has embarked on a Campaign for Ombudspersons for Future Generations on all governance levels. For the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, or ‘Rio+20’ in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in June 2012 the WFC was calling for the establishment of Ombudspersons for Future Generations, as a concrete solution under the second theme of the Summit ‘Institutional Framework for Sustainable Development’.[25]


The World Future Council (WFC) consists of 50 eminent global change-makers from governments, parliaments, civil societies, academia, the arts, and the business world. Together they form a voice for the rights of future generations on all five continents.

• Hafsat Abiola-Costello
• Ibrahim Abouleish (d. 2017)
• Helmy Abouleish
• Charlotte Aubin
• Maude Barlow
• Dipal Chandra Barua
• Ana Maria Cetto
• Shuaib Chalklen
• Tony Colman
• Marie-Claire Cordonier Segger
• Thais Corral
• Hans-Peter Dürr (d. 2014)
• Scilla Elworthy
• Maria Fernanda Espinosa (till 2018)
• Anda Filip
• Sándor Fülöp
• Rafia Ghubash
• Luc Gnacadja
• Neshan Gunasekera
• Hans R. Herren
• Ashok Khosla
• Rolf Kreibich
• Alexander Likhotal
• Rama Mani
• Julia Marton-Lefèvre
• Wanjira Mathai
• Jan McAlpine
• Frances Moore Lappé
• Cherie Nursalim
• Auma Obama
• Anna R. Oposa
• Katiana Orluc
• Ms. Sirpa Pietikäinen
• Vandana Shiva
• Victoria Tauli-Corpuz
• Alyn Ware
• Anders Wijkman

Honorary Councillors

• Patrus Ananias
• Walter Cronkite (d. 2009)
• Ahmed Djoghlaf
• Riane Eisler
• Olivier Giscard d'Estaing
• Prof. Herbert Girardet
• Jane Goodall
• Wangari Maathai (d. 2011)
• James R. Mancham (d. 2017)
• Gertrude Ibengwe Mongella
• Pauline Tangiora
• Michael Otto
• A. N. R. Robinson (d. 2014)
• Ernst Ulrich von Weizsäcker
• Christopher Weeramantry (d. 2017)
• Barbara Woschek

Research and publications

• Miguel Mendonça, David Jacobs and Benjamin K. Sovacool (2009). Powering the Green Economy: The Feed-In Tariff Handbook, Earthscan, ISBN 978-1-84407-858-5
• Herbert Girardet and Miguel Mendonça (2009). A Renewable World: Energy, Ecology, Equality, Green Books, ISBN 978-1-900322-49-2
• Herbert Girardet (editor) (2008). Surviving the Century: Facing Climate Chaos and Other Global Challenges, Earthscan, ISBN 978-1-84407-612-3
• Herbert Girardet (2008). Cities People Planet: Liveable Cities for a Sustainable World, Wiley, ISBN 0-470-85284-4
• Miguel Mendonça (2007). Feed-in Tariffs: Accelerating the deployment of renewable energy, Earthscan, ISBN 978-1-84407-788-5
• Jakob von Uexkull and Herbert Girardet (2005). Shaping our Future: Creating the World Future Council, Green Books / World Future Council Initiative, ISBN 1-903998-46-8


1. "Vandana Shiva elected to World Future Council",
2. ECI Congratulates the World Future Council
3. "WFC accuses industrial nations of putting brakes on climate talks", People's Daily Online, 8 December 2007
4. "Klimaschutzfinanzierung: IWF greift Vorschlag des World Future Council auf",, 2 June 2010
5. "Committee on Non-Governmental Organizations Recommends Status for Nine Entities, Defers 33",, 22 May 2014
6. "We are taxing the lives of future generations" Deutsche Welle, 5 October 2007
9. ... odiversity
10. ... owned.html
11. ... t-policies
12. ... and-coasts
14. ... nst-women/
15. ... ard-2015//
16. "2017: Desertification". World Future Council. Retrieved 2019-01-03.
17. "2018: Agroecology". World Future Council. Retrieved 2019-01-03.
18. DelhiOctober 16, India Today Web Desk New; October 16, 2018UPDATED:; Ist, 2018 18:19. "Sikkim becomes world's first organic state, wins Oscar for best policies by UN". India Today. Retrieved 2019-01-03.
20. "2015: The Rights of Children". World Future Council. Retrieved 2019-01-03.
21. ... -zanzibar/
22. "Zanzibar Declaration on Securing Children's Rights". World Future Council. 2017-11-30. Retrieved 2019-01-03.
24. ... te-crisis/
25. ... k-project/

External links

• World Future Council
• - Good Policies for Future Generations
• African Renewable Energy Alliance (AREA)
• Future Finance Blog
• Climate & Energy Commission Blog
• 2012 Future Policy Award Blog
• Renewable Energy World - Developing Nations Eye Renewable Energy
• Ghanaian village to watch World Cup on the big screen
• WFC Grades North American FIT Programs
• Giving our future a face: We need guardians for long-term well-being
• Global Challenges - Increased GDP in the short term can entail destruction of foundations of life in the long-term
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Fri Apr 19, 2019 1:46 am

Club of Rome
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 4/18/19



The Club of Rome
Founded 1968 by Aurelio Peccei, David Rockefeller and Alexander King
Co- Presidents: Sandrine Dixson-Declève and Dr. Mamphela Ramphele
Type Non-profit
Winterthur, Canton Zurich, Switzerland
Fields Global warming, Well-being, Humanitarian challenges
Founded in 1968 at Accademia dei Lincei in Rome, Italy, the Club of Rome consists of current and former heads of state, UN bureaucrats, high-level politicians and government officials, diplomats, scientists, economists, and business leaders from around the globe.[1] It stimulated considerable public attention in 1972 with the first report to the Club of Rome, The Limits to Growth. Since 1 July 2008 the organization has been based in Winterthur, Switzerland.


The Club of Rome was founded in April 1968 by Aurelio Peccei, an Italian industrialist, and Alexander King, a Scottish scientist. It was formed when a small international group of people from the fields of academia, civil society, diplomacy, and industry met at Villa Farnesina in Rome, hence the name.[2]

The problématique

Central to the formation of the club was Peccei's concept of the problematic. It was his opinion that viewing the problems of mankind—environmental deterioration, poverty, endemic ill-health, urban blight, criminality—individually, in isolation or as "problems capable of being solved in their own terms", was doomed to failure. All are interrelated. "It is this generalized meta-problem (or meta-system of problems) which we have called and shall continue to call the "problematic" that inheres in our situation."[3]:12-13

In 1970, Peccei's vision was laid out in a document written by Hasan Özbekhan, Erich Jantsch, and Alexander Christakis. Entitled, The Predicament of Mankind; Quest for Structured Responses to Growing Worldwide Complexities and Uncertainties: A PROPOSAL.[3] The document would serve as the roadmap for the LTG project.

The Limits to Growth

The Club of Rome stimulated considerable public attention with the first report to the club, The Limits to Growth.[4] Published in 1972, its computer simulations suggested that economic growth could not continue indefinitely because of resource depletion. The 1973 oil crisis increased public concern about this problem. The report went on to sell 30 million copies in more than 30 languages, making it the best-selling environmental book in history.[5]

Even before The Limits to Growth was published, Eduard Pestel and Mihajlo Mesarovic of Case Western Reserve University had begun work on a far more elaborate model (it distinguished ten world regions and involved 200,000 equations compared with 1,000 in the Meadows model). The research had the full support of the club and its final publication, Mankind at the Turning Point was accepted as the official "second report" to the Club of Rome in 1974.[6] In addition to providing a more refined regional breakdown, Pestel and Mesarovic had succeeded in integrating social as well as technical data. The second report revised the scenarios of the original Limits to Growth and gave a more optimistic prognosis for the future of the environment, noting that many of the factors involved were within human control and therefore that environmental and economic catastrophe were preventable or avoidable.

In 1991, the club published The First Global Revolution.[7] It analyses the problems of humanity, calling these collectively or in essence the "problematique". It notes that, historically, social or political unity has commonly been motivated by enemies in common: "The need for enemies seems to be a common historical factor. Some states have striven to overcome domestic failure and internal contradictions by blaming external enemies. The ploy of finding a scapegoat is as old as mankind itself—when things become too difficult at home, divert attention to adventure abroad. Bring the divided nation together to face an outside enemy, either a real one, or else one invented for the purpose. With the disappearance of the traditional enemy, the temptation is to use religious or ethnic minorities as scapegoats, especially those whose differences from the majority are disturbing."[8] "Every state has been so used to classifying its neighbours as friend or foe, that the sudden absence of traditional adversaries has left governments and public opinion with a great void to fill. New enemies have to be identified, new strategies imagined, and new weapons devised."[8] "In searching for a common enemy against whom we can unite, we came up with the idea that pollution, the threat of global warming, water shortages, famine and the like, would fit the bill. In their totality and their interactions these phenomena do constitute a common threat which must be confronted by everyone together. But in designating these dangers as the enemy, we fall into the trap, which we have already warned readers about, namely mistaking symptoms for causes. All these dangers are caused by human intervention in natural processes, and it is only through changed attitudes and behaviour that they can be overcome. The real enemy then is humanity itself."[9]

In 2001 the Club of Rome established a think tank, called tt30, consisting of about 30 men and women, ages 25–35. It aimed to identify and solve problems in the world, from the perspective of youth.[citation needed]

A study by Graham Turner of the research organisation CSIRO in Australia in 2008 found that "30 years of historical data compare favorably with key features of a business-as-usual scenario called the "standard run" scenario, which results in collapse of the global system midway through the 21st century."[10]


According to its website, the Club of Rome is composed of "scientists, economists, businessmen, international high civil servants, heads of state and former heads of state from all five continents who are convinced that the future of humankind is not determined once and for all and that each human being can contribute to the improvement of our societies."

The Club of Rome is a membership organization and has different membership categories.[11] Full members engage in the research activities, projects, and contribute to decision-making processes during the Club's annual general assembly. Of the full members, 12 are elected to form the executive committee, which sets the general direction and the agenda.[12] Of the executive committee, two are elected as co-presidents and two as vice-presidents. The secretary-general is elected from the members of the executive committee. The secretary-general is responsible for the day-to-day operation of the club from its headquarters in Winterthur, Switzerland. Aside from full members there are associate members, who participate in research and projects, but have no vote in the general assembly.[13]

The club also has honorary members. Notable honorary members include Princess Beatrix of the Netherlands, Orio Giarini, Fernando Henrique Cardoso, Mikhail Gorbachev, King Juan Carlos I of Spain, Horst Köhler, and Manmohan Singh.[14]

The annual general assembly of 2016 took place in Berlin on 10–11 November. Among the guest speakers were former German President Christian Wulff, German Minister for Economic Cooperation and Development Gerd Müller, as well as Nobel Laureate Muhammad Yunus.

National associations

The Club has national associations in 35 countries and territories.[15] The mission of the national associations is to spread the ideas and vision in their respective countries, to offer solutions and to lobby for a more sustainable and just economy in their nations, and to support the international secretariat of the Club with the organization of events, such as the annual general assembly.[16]

Current activities

As of 2017 there have been 43 reports to the club.[17] These are peer-reviewed studies commissioned by the executive committee, or suggested by a member or group of members, or by outside individuals and institutions. The most recent is Come On! Capitalism, Short-termism, Population and the Destruction of the Planet.[18]

In 2016, the club initiated a new youth project called "Reclaim Economics". With this project they support students, activists, intellectuals, artists, video-makers, teachers, professors and others to shift the teaching of economics away from the mathematical pseudo-science it has become.[19]

On 14 March 2019, the Club of Rome issued an official statement in support of Greta Thunberg and the school strikes for climate, urging governments across the world to respond to this call for action and cut global carbon emissions.[20]


Nobel prize-winning economist Robert Solow criticized The Limits to Growth as having "simplistic" scenarios. He has also been a vocal critic of the Club of Rome, ostensibly for amateurism. He has said that, "The one thing that really annoys me is amateurs making absurd statements about economics, and I thought that the Club of Rome was nonsense. Not because natural resources or environmental necessities might not at some time pose a limit, not on growth, but on the level of economic activity—I didn't think that was a nonsensical idea—but because the Club of Rome was doing amateur dynamics without a license, without a proper qualification. And they were doing it badly, so I got steamed up about that."[21]

An analysis of the world model used for The Limits to Growth by mathematicians Vermeulens and Jongh shown it to be "very sensitive to small parameter variations" and having "dubious assumptions and approximations".[22]

An interdisciplinary team at Sussex University's Science Policy Research Unit reviewed the structure and assumptions of the models used and published its finding in Models of Doom; showing that the forecasts of the world's future are very sensitive to a few unduly pessimistic key assumptions. The Sussex scientists also claim that the Meadows et Al. methods, data, and predictions are faulty, that their world models (and their Malthusian bias) do not accurately reflect reality.[23]

Notable members

• Hans-Peter Dürr (1929–2014)
• Mahdi Elmandjra (1933-2014)
• Călin Georgescu (born in 1962) - Chairman of the Board, European Support Centre for the Club of Rome, now European Research Center, Vienna and Konstanz (2010-)
• Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen (1906–1994), economist, author of The Entropy Law and the Economic Process
• Mikhail Gorbachev (born in 1931), last leader of the Soviet Union
• Dzhermen Gvishiani, son in law of Alexei Kosygin
• Václav Havel (1936–2011), last president of Czechoslovakia, first president of the Czech Republic
• Bohdan Hawrylyshyn (1926–2016) – Chairman International Management Institute – Kyiv (uk:IMI-Kyiv), Honorary Council of Ukraine
• Daisaku Ikeda
• Mugur Isărescu (born in 1949), the Governor of the National Bank of Romania in Bucharest
• Erich Jantsch, author of Technological Forecasting (1929–1980)
• Derrick de Kerckhove (born 1944)
• Alexander King (1909–2007) founding member[24]
• Max Kohnstamm (Netherlands), former Secretary General of the ECSC (1914–2010)
• David Korten
• Elisabeth Mann-Borgese - first female member since 1970
• Graeme Maxton
• Dennis Meadows (born 1942)
• Donella Meadows (1941–2001)
• Mihajlo D. Mesarovic
• George P. Mitchell (1919–2013)
• Mohan Munasinghe
• Aurelio Peccei (1908–1984) founding member [24]
• John R. Platt (1918–1992)
• Mamphela Ramphele
• Joseph Stiglitz (born 1943), Nobel prize-winning economist
• Ivo Šlaus
• Prince Hassan bin Talal
• Hugo Thiemann (1917–2012)
• Pierre Elliott Trudeau (1919–2000), former prime minister of Canada;
• Robert Uffen (1923–2009)
• Victor Urquidi (1919–2014)
• Frederic Vester (1925–2003)
• Ashok Khosla
• Fernando Henrique Cardoso

See also

• Club of Budapest
• Club of Madrid
• Club of Vienna
• Futures studies
• Global catastrophic risk
• Harlan Cleveland - DIKW
• Olduvai theory
• Peak Oil
• Survivalism
• The Revenge of Gaia
• The First Global Revolution


1. "The First Global Revolution". The Green Agenda. 19 November 2005. Retrieved 6 December 2012.
2. "History: 1968". Club of Rome. Retrieved 29 November 2017.
3. "The Predicament of Mankind" (PDF). 1970. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 February 2014. Retrieved 13 May 2016.
4. Meadows, Dennis. "30-Year Update of Limits to Growth finds global society in "Overshoot," Foresees social, economic, and environmental decline" (PDF). Club of Rome. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 May 2008. Retrieved 30 September 2016.
5. Simmons, Matthew R. (October 2000). "Revisiting The Limits to Growth: Could the Club of Rome Have Been Correct After All?" (PDF). Mud City Press. Retrieved 29 November 2017.
6. Mersarovic, Mihajlo; Pestel, Eduard (1975). Mankind at the Turning Point. Hutchinson. ISBN 0-09-123471-9.
7. "The First Global Revolution (Club of Rome) 1993 Edition". Scribd. 17 March 2008. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 6 December 2012.
8. Alexander King & Bertrand Schneider. The First Global Revolution (The Club of Rome), 1993. p. 70
9. King & Schneider, p. 115
10. Turner, Graham M. (2008). "A comparison of The Limits to Growth with 30 years of reality" (PDF). Global Environmental Change. 18: 397–411. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 September 2014. Retrieved 13 May 2016.
11. "Membership". Club of Rome. Retrieved 29 November 2017.
12. "Executive Committee". Club of Rome. Retrieved 29 November 2017.
13. "Associate Members". Club of Rome. Retrieved 29 November 2017.
14. "Honorary Members". Club of Rome. Retrieved 29 November 2017.
15. "National Associations". Club of Rome. Retrieved 29 November 2017.
16. "Annual Conference 2016". The Club of Rome. Retrieved 26 January 2018.
17. "Reports". Club of Rome. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
18. von Weizsaecker, Ernst; Wijkman, Anders (2018). Come On! Capitalism, Short-termism, Population and the Destruction of the Planet. New York: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-1-4939-7419-1. ISBN 978-1-4939-7418-4. Retrieved 29 November 2017.
19. "Reclaim Economics". Club of Rome. Retrieved 29 November 2017.
20. Alao, Sadikou Ayo; Alvarez-Pereira, Carlos; Andersen, Lene Rachel; AtKisson, Alan; Bamela Engo-Tjega, Ruth; Bardi, Ugo; Bastioli, Catia; Bateson, Nora; Benedikter, Roland; Berg, Christian; Bindé, Jérôme; Björkman, Tomas; Blom, Peter; Bologna, Gianfranco; Bozesan, Mariana; Brown, Peter G.; Chacón Domínguez, Susana Catalina; Cheng, Yi-Heng; Costanza, Robert; de Leeuw, Bas; Dixson-Declève, Sandrine; Dorsey, Michael K.; Dubee, Frederick C.; Dubrulle, Mark; Dunlop, Ian T.; Fainé Casas, Isidro; Fullerton, John B.; Gasparini, Alberto; Geier, Joerg; Georgescu, Călin; Gil-Valdivia, Gerardo; Giovannini, Enrico; Girardet, Herbert; Göpel, Maja; Güvenen, Orhan; Gurgulino de Souza, Heitor; Halonen, Tarja Kaarina; Hamilton, Carolyn; Hargroves, Karlson “Charlie”; Hayashi, Yoshitsugu; Heinonen, Sirkka; Hennicke, Peter; Hernández Colón, Rafael; Herren, Hans Rudolf; Higgs, Kerryn; Hoffman, Robert; Hudson, Cecil Ivan; Hughes, Barry B. (14 March 2019). "Statement in support of global student climate protests" (PDF). Winterthur, Switzerland: Club of Rome. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 March 2019. Retrieved 18 March 2019.
21. Clement, Douglas (1 September 2002). "Interview with Robert Solow". Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved 29 November 2017.
22. Vermeulen P, De Jongh D (29 June 1976). "Parameter sensitivity of the 'Limits to Growth' world model". Applied Mathematical Modelling. 1 (1): 29–32. doi:10.1016/0307-904X(76)90021-4. Retrieved 2018-07-23.
23. Cole, H.S.D. (1973). Models of doom; a critique of The limits to growth. USA: Universe Books. p. 244 p., illus. ISBN 0876631847.
24. "The story of the Club of Rome". Club of Rome. Archived from the original on 31 May 2013. Retrieved 27 May 2013.

External links

• Last Call, documentary about The Limits to Growth (trailer)
• Club of Rome Reports and Bifurcations, a 40-year overview 17 March 2010 / Draft
• Analysis of Limits to Growth by Australian Broadcasting Corporation from 1999
• Donella Meadows Institute
• Suter, K. (1999). "The Club of Rome: The Global Conscience". Contemporary Review, 275 (1602), 1–5
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Posts: 35790
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Fri Apr 19, 2019 1:53 am

Earth Charter
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 4/18/19



The Earth Charter is an international declaration of fundamental values and principles considered useful by its supporters for building a just, sustainable, and peaceful global society in the 21st century. Created by a global consultation process, and endorsed by organizations representing millions of people, the Charter "seeks to inspire in all peoples a sense of global interdependence and shared responsibility for the well-being of the human family, the greater community of life, and future generations."[1] It calls upon humanity to help create a global partnership at a critical juncture in history. The Earth Charter's ethical vision proposes that environmental protection, human rights, equitable human development, and peace are interdependent and indivisible. The Charter attempts to provide a new framework for thinking about and addressing these issues. The Earth Charter Initiative organization exists to promote the Charter.


The idea of the Earth Charter originated in 1987, by Maurice Strong and Mikhail Gorbachev as members of The Club of Rome, when the United Nations World Commission on Environment and Development [Brundtland Commission] called for a new charter to guide the transition to sustainable development. In 1992, the need for a charter was urged by then-Secretary General Boutros Boutros-Ghali at the Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit, but the time for such a declaration was not believed to be right. The Rio Declaration became the statement of the achievable consensus at that time. In 1994, Maurice Strong (Chairman of the Earth Summit) and Mikhail Gorbachev, working through organizations they each founded (the Earth Council and Green Cross International respectively), restarted the Earth Charter as a civil society initiative, with the help of the government of the Netherlands.[2]

Strong died in November 2015.[2]

"The Ark of Hope[3] was created for a celebration of the Earth Charter held at Shelburne Farms, Vermont on September 9, 2001."[4]


The drafting of the text was done during a six-year worldwide consultation process (1994–2000), overseen by the independent Earth Charter Commission, which was convened by Strong and Gorbachev with the purpose of developing a global consensus on values and principles for a sustainable future. The Commission continues to serve as the steward of the Earth Charter text.

One of the members of the Earth Charter Commission and Steering Committee was Steven Clark Rockefeller, who, among other things is professor emeritus of Religion at Middlebury College and an advisory trustee of the Rockefeller Brothers Fund.[5] According to a 2001 interview with Rockefeller,[6] he "chaired the Earth Charter international drafting committee". Other members included Amadou Toumani Touré (Mali), Princess Basma bint Talal (Jordan), Mohamed Sahnoun (Algeria), A. T. Ariyaratne (Sri Lanka), Wakako Hironaka (Japan), Erna Witoelar (Indonesia), Ruud Lubbers (The Netherlands), Federico Mayor (Spain), Mercedes Sosa (Argentina), Leonardo Boff (Brazil), Yolanda Kakabadse (Ecuador), Shridath Ramphal (Guyana), Elizabeth May (Canada), Severn Cullis-Suzuki (Canada), and others.[7]

The final text of the Earth Charter was approved at a meeting of the Earth Charter Commission at the UNESCO headquarters in Paris in March 2000. The official launch was on 29 June 2000 in a ceremony at The Peace Palace in The Hague, Netherlands. Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands attended the ceremony.


The approximately 2,400 word document is divided into sections (called pillars), which have sixteen main principles containing sixty-one supporting principles.[8] The document opens with a preamble and ends with a conclusion entitled “The Way Forward”.


“ We stand at a critical moment in Earth's history, a time when humanity must choose its future. As the world becomes increasingly interdependent and fragile, the future at once holds great peril and great promise. To move forward we must recognize that in the midst of a magnificent diversity of cultures and life forms we are one human family and one Earth community with a common destiny. We must join together to bring forth a sustainable global society founded on respect for nature, universal human rights, economic justice, and a culture of peace. Towards this end, it is imperative that we, the peoples of Earth, declare our responsibility to one another, to the greater community of life, and to future generations.[9] ”


The four pillars and sixteen principles of the Earth Charter are:[9]

I. Respect and Care for the Community of Life

1. Respect Earth and life in all its diversity.
2. Care for the community of life with understanding, compassion and love.
3. Build democratic societies that are just, participatory, sustainable and peaceful.
4. Secure Earth's bounty and beauty for present and future generations.

II. Ecological Integrity

5. Protect and restore the integrity of Earth's ecological systems, with special concern for biological diversity and the natural processes that sustain life.
6. Prevent harm as the best method of environmental protection and, when knowledge is limited, apply a precautionary approach.
7. Adopt patterns of production, consumption and reproduction that safeguard Earth's regenerative capacities, human rights and community well-being.
8. Advance the study of ecological sustainability and promote the open exchange and wide application of the knowledge acquired.

III. Social and Economic Justice

9. Eradicate poverty as an ethical, social and environmental imperative.
10. Ensure that economic activities and institutions at all levels promote human development in an equitable and sustainable manner.
11. Affirm gender equality and equity as prerequisites to sustainable development and ensure universal access to education, health care and economic opportunity.
12. Uphold the right of all, without discrimination, to a natural and social environment supportive of human dignity, bodily health and spiritual well-being, with special attention to the rights of indigenous peoples and minorities.

IV. Democracy, Nonviolence, and Peace

13. Strengthen democratic institutions at all levels, and provide transparency and accountability in governance, inclusive participation in decision-making, and access to justice.
14. Integrate into formal education and lifelong learning the knowledge, values and skills needed for a sustainable way of life.
15. Treat all living beings with respect and consideration.
16. Promote a culture of tolerance, nonviolence and peace.


The Charter has been formally endorsed by organizations representing millions of people, including the UNESCO,[10] over 250 universities around the world,[11] the World Conservation Union of IUCN, the Indian National Capital Territory of Delhi,[12] the 2001 U.S. Conference of Mayors,[13] and dozens of youth organizations.[14]

Various religious groups from a wide range of religions support the Earth Charter. The Soka Gakkai International, representing more than 12 million Buddhists worldwide, has supported the Earth Charter since its inception.[15] The Unitarian Universalist Association of Congregations representing over 1000 Unitarian Universalist congregations in the United States supports the measure.[16] The official body of the Baha'i Faith religion reacted by saying "While not officially endorsing the Earth Charter, the Baha'i International Community considers the effort toward drafting it and activities in support of its essential objectives to be highly commendable, and it will continue to participate in related activities, such as conferences, forums and the like."[17] The World Pantheist Movement, which supports a naturalistic view of religion, endorses the plan.[18] The Leadership Conference of Women Religious, a Catholic organization in the United States approved the measure in 2004.[19] The Episcopal Diocese of Newark (New Jersey), an Episcopalian Christian organization, endorsed the Earth Charter in 2009.[20]

In May 1992, more than 650 representatives of indigenous peoples adopted their own 109-point Indigenous Peoples Earth Charter.[21] Representatives of indigenous peoples also participated in the Earth Charter consultations in 1996.[22] In 2000, the Russian Association of the Indigenous Peoples of the North (RAIPON), representing 31 indigenous peoples living in Siberia and far eastern Russia, formally endorsed the Earth Charter.[23]

Mayor Hsu of Tainan, a city of 750,000 in Taiwan, endorsed the charter in 2007.[24] The cities of Corvallis (Oregon), Berkeley (California), Pickering (Canada) and 21 towns in Vermont have endorsed the measure.[25][26][27] Nine other towns in Vermont rejected measures endorsing the Earth Charter.[28]

Engineers Without Borders, an international association whose mission is to help its member groups assist poor communities in their respective countries and around the world, also endorses the Earth Charter.[29] The Green Party of Botswana supports the plan.[30] The African Conservation Foundation describes the Earth Charter movement as a "partner".[31]

In the UK, Bournemouth Borough Council endorsed the Charter in 2008.[citation needed]

The Charter has received opposition from several groups. For example, in the United States, members of religious groups, such as the Religious Right have objected to the document on the grounds that it is secular, and espouses socialism. In addition, some conservatives cite an informal comment by Mikhail Gorbachev that the document is "a kind of Ten Commandments" and point to the fact that at the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg, South Africa, a copy of the document was placed symbolically in an "Ark of Hope"[32] — an independent project by the American artist Sally Linder.

Earth Charter International, the organization responsible for promoting the Charter, states in its literature that the Earth Charter is respectful and inclusive of all religious traditions. They say that the Charter itself makes no statements to support claims of intent to supplant any of the world's religions or to create a world government. ECI asserts that the Charter is a statement of common ethical values towards sustainability, that recognizes humanity's shared responsibility to the Earth and to each other.[33]

See also

• Globalization portal
• Universal Declaration of Human Rights
• University for Peace
• Earth Day
• World Ocean Day
• World Water Day


1. Earth Charter Initiative: "What is the Earth Charter?".
2. Maurice Strong: "History of the Earth Charter".
4. "Welcome". Retrieved 17 April 2018.
5. "Steven C. Rockefeller". Retrieved 2018-05-31.
6. Schwarz, Sherry (2001). "Charting a New Course: An Interview with Steven Rockefeller". Archived from the original on 2 May 2008. Retrieved 17 April 2018.
7. "Commission". Retrieved 2018-05-31.
8. Nigel Dower, University of Aberdeen (2004): "The Earth Charter as a Global Ethic", p. 4.
9. Earth Charter Initiative: "Text of the Earth Charter".
10. United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization: "Records of the General Conference", 32nd Session, Vol. 1, p.35
11. Earth Charter Initiative (March 26, 2009): "Universities that have endorsed the Earth Charter".
12. "One million saplings to be planted by 2010", The Hindu, Apr 21, 2007
13. "Adopted Resolutions: Energy and Environment, Endorsement of Earth Charter", 69th Annual Conference of U.S. Mayors, June 22–26, 2001
14. Earth Charter Initiative (March 26, 2009): "Youth Organizations that have endorsed the Earth Charter".
15. "SGI and the Earth Charter", SGI Resources, May 3, 2000
16. "Endorse the Earth Charter, 2002 Action of Immediate Witness", Unitarian Universalist Association of Congregations
17. "Baha'is participate in interreligious dialogue on faith and ecology", Baha'i World News Service, September 6, 2001
18. "World Pantheist Movement’s Help Centre", World Pantheist Movement website, retrieved March 9, 2010.
19. Leadership Conference of Women Religious (August 24, 2004): "2004 Resolutions" (press release)
20. Diocese of Newark (January 31, 2009). "135th Annual Convention Resolutions" (PDF). p. 7. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-10-21.
21. Brechin, Steven R., ed. (2003). Contested nature: promoting international biodiversity with social justice in the twenty-first century. Albany: State University of New York Press. p. 29. ISBN 0791457753. OCLC 51330533.
22. Schulthess, Beatriz (1996). "Participation of Indigenous Peoples in the Earth Charter Consultations". Retrieved 2018-05-31.
23. RAIPON (2015). "Endorsement of the Russian Association of the Indigenous Peoples of the North (RAIPON)". Retrieved 2018-05-31.
24. "Mayor Hsu endorsed the Earth Charter with 15 Miss Globalcities", Tainan City Government news bulltetin, January 19, 2007
25. "Council passes Earth Charter", Rebecca Barrett, Corvallis Gazette-Times, April 17, 2006
26. "Resolution 61,007-NS", Berkeley City Council, March 27, 2001
27. "Committee of the Whole Meeting Minutes", City of Pickering, Canada, July 22, 2002
28. "Earth Charter Supported in Middlebury Meeting",, March 13, 2002
29. one page organization summary, Engineers Without Borders — International, 2009
30. Retrieved February 25, 2009.
31. Partnerships , African Conservation Foundation. Retrieved February 25, 2009.
33. Earth Charter Initiative. September 2008: The Earth Charter Initiative Handbook, p. 47.

External links

• Earth Charter Initiative official website
• Earth Charter Community Network
• Text of the Earth Charter
• Earth Charter Future-Actions & Perspectives of an Earth Child
• American chapter of the Earth Charter Initiative
• YES! Questions for Students: Earth Charter teaching materials for classrooms.
• Earth Charter Community Action Tool
Site Admin
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Fri Apr 19, 2019 1:59 am

University for Peace
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 4/18/19



University for Peace / Universidad para la Paz
Other name
Motto in English
"If you want Peace, work for Peace..."
Type Graduate School
Established 1980
Founder Rodrigo Carazo Odio
Rector Dr. Francisco Rojas Aravena
Dean Dr. Juan Carlos Sainz-Borgo
Students 196 (2018-2019)
Alumni 2,200
Address Calle U. Paz, El Rodeo de Mora, San Jose, Costa Rica, Ciudad Colón, Costa Rica
Campus Campus in nature (includes a protected forest reserve)

Peace Park at the University for Peace

The University for Peace (UPEACE) is an intergovernmental organization with university status, established by treaty at the United Nations General Assembly in 1980 and having its main campus in Costa Rica. Its stated mission is "to provide humanity with an international institution of higher education for peace with the aim of promoting among all human beings the spirit of understanding, tolerance and peaceful coexistence, to stimulate cooperation among peoples and to help lessen obstacles and threats to world peace and progress, in keeping with the noble aspirations proclaimed in the Charter of the United Nations."

The current Rector of UPEACE is Dr. Francisco Rojas Aravena.[1]


UPEACE Rodrigo Carazo Campus, Costa Rica

The creation of the University for Peace was set in motion by a treaty and endorsed by resolution 34/111 of 14 December 1979 of the United Nations General Assembly. By this Resolution, the UN General Assembly established an international commission which, in collaboration with the Government of Costa Rica, was requested to prepare the organization, structure and setting in motion of the University for Peace. Thereafter, by Resolution 35/55 of 5 December 1980,[2] the UN General Assembly endorsed the treaty establishing the University for Peace by adopting the International Agreement for the Establishment of the University for Peace (UPEACE) along with the Charter of the University for Peace.[3] The University has the unique status of not only being a dedicated institution for higher education in Peace and Conflict studies, but also an international treaty body organization mandated by the United Nations General Assembly.

It offers master's degree and doctoral programmes at its main headquarters in San José, Costa Rica, and carries out various activities related to the international peace and security objectives of the United Nations (UN) through centres and offices located in Addis Ababa, New York, Honduras, Geneva, Bonn, The Hague, Manila and Beijing, and through partnership arrangements with numerous other institutions worldwide (see Special Programmes below).

Relationship with United Nations

The University for Peace is part of the academic wing of the UN system, and has observer status at the UN General Assembly,[4] while maintaining its independence in academic, financial and management matters. The UN Secretary-General is the Honorary President of UPEACE. The UN General Assembly maintains a constant interest in the activities of UPEACE, and in periodic resolutions calls on the UN Secretary-General to report to it on its activities.[5] Accordingly, the UN Secretary-General reports to the General Assembly of the UN periodically on the progress of UPEACE.[6] The Council of the University for Peace is the supreme authority of the University. It is composed of five ex-officio members viz. the Rector, two representatives designated by the UN Secretary-General and by the Director-General of the UNESCO, the Rector of the United Nations University, two representatives designated by the Government of the host country and the Chancellor of UPEACE. In addition, the Council comprises ten representatives of the academic community or other persons eminent in the field of peace and security appointed by the Secretary-General of the UN in consultation with the Director-General of the UNESCO.


The University has "unique world-wide authorization to award academic degrees, recognized by all countries which are members of the General Assembly".[7] In addition, its MA programs in the Department of Environment, Peace and Development, received official accreditation from SINAES (the national Costa Rican accreditation body) in 2014.[8] Similarly, the MA programme in International Law and Human Rights, and the MA programme in International Law and the Settlement of Disputes received accreditation from SINAES in June 2016.[9]

Headquarters and main campus

The University for Peace (UPEACE) has its headquarters in Costa Rica, a country distinguished by a long tradition of democracy. Costa Rica abolished its army in 1948, the former President, H.E. Oscar Arias Sánchez was awarded The Nobel Peace Prize in 1987 and the country continues to develop strong efforts for natural conservation - not to mention the friendly locals. The main campus of the University - the Rodrigo Carazo Campus - is located 30 km Southwest of San Jose, within a natural reserve composed of a secondary forest and the last remnant of primary forest (200 ha) in the Central Valley of Costa Rica. Hence, this protected area is very rich in fauna. It shelters mammals such as monkeys and deer; reptiles; and over 300 species of birds, as well as approximately 100 varieties of trees. The University's installations and protected area make up 303 ha.[10]

The closest town to the mountain on which the University is perched, is Ciudad Colon. Most of the students, staff and faculty members of the University reside in Ciudad Colon, making it one of the most multi-cultural places in the world for its size.

The Rodrigo Carazo campus of the University for Peace is the principal location for the activities of the University. Most of its Masters programmes and its recently announced Doctoral programme are administered from this campus. Students coming from several countries study in a highly multi-cultural environment on the campus. The University boasts of a highly accomplished faculty, that comprises a mix of both resident and visiting faculty members. Because of the structure of the programmes and its unique global status, the University has an academic calendar that enables bringing on board the most highly acclaimed academicians and practitioners from around the world. The University has also started administering distance education courses, including an online Masters Programme from the main campus.

The University also carries out hands-on training beyond its Masters and Doctoral Programmes aimed at practitioners and policy makers rather than graduate students. The University has established two Centres for this purpose that are located on the main campus. The UPEACE Centre for Executive Education delivers dynamic training courses to leaders from around the world. The Centre reaches out to nonprofit leaders, business executives, educators at all levels, UN staff, students and other professional audiences. According to the Centre's website, the approach to all its courses is innovative, interactive, and participant-centered, using case-studies and field trips when appropriate. The Centre aims to develop key leadership skills by incorporating the crosscutting themes of Intercultural Communication, Negotiation and Conflict Resolution and Teambuilding.

The University has also established the UPEACE Human Rights Centre which was created within the contours of the broader mission of the University to provide humanity with an international institution of higher education for peace and with the aim of promoting among all human beings the spirit of understanding, tolerance and peaceful coexistence, to stimulate cooperation among peoples and to help lessen obstacles and threats to world peace and progress, in keeping with the noble aspirations proclaimed in the Charter of the United Nations. In particular, the work of the UPEACE Human Rights Centre seeks to promote understanding, respect and enjoyment of universal human rights. The Centre carries out this objective through human rights education, training, research, capacity building and awareness raising activities. The website of the UPEACE Human Rights Centre states that the Centre takes a practice based approach to the respect, protection and fulfillment of human rights and promotes the integration of theory and practice. The Centre also takes a multi-disciplinary approach to human rights and attaches equal importance to all human rights. Over the last few years, the UPEACE Human Rights Centre has conducted several training courses for policy makers, staff members of the UN and other inter-governmental organizations, non-governmental organizations, practitioners, academics and civil servants.

The Headquarters and main campus of UPEACE also hosts the International Secretariat of the Earth Charter Initiative, whose stated mission is "to promote the transition to sustainable ways of living and a global society founded on a shared ethical framework that includes respect and care for the community of life, ecological integrity, universal human rights, respect for diversity, economic justice, democracy, and a culture of peace." This mission is carried out using 'The Earth Charter' as the principal guiding framework. The Earth Charter is an international declaration of fundamental values and principles considered useful by its supporters for building a just, sustainable, and peaceful global society in the 21st century. In 2012, the Earth Charter Initiative and UPEACE were jointly awarded the UNESCO Chair on Education for Sustainable Development and the Earth Charter.[11] The work related to this UNESCO Chair will be carried out at the newly constructed 'Earth Charter Center for Education for Sustainable Development' at the UPEACE main campus.

In addition to the activities at the Costa Rica Headquarters Campus, UPEACE works with an increasing number of partners in various parts of the world to ensure that the UPEACE mission is extended to reach as many individuals and institutions as possible.

Around the world


As a result of extensive international consultations, which have underlined the importance of according a high priority to activities in Africa, the University for Peace (UPEACE) officially launched its Africa Programme in January 2002.

The University for Peace (UPEACE) established its Africa Programme in 2002 on the basis of extensive consultations in the continent which aimed at developing a programme that responded to the true needs, aspirations and obstacles for education for building peace in Africa. From its inception, the programme focused on the necessity to stimulate and strengthen the capacity in Africa to teach, train and conduct research in areas of peace and conflict studies.

The first five years of the programme focused on the development of curricula and teaching materials and the delivery of a range of short courses, workshops, conferences and seminars in various parts of Africa. Within this period, the programme attracted close to one thousand participants from Academia, Policy makers and civil society organisations.

In a second five-year plan, which came out of a consultative meeting held in March 2007 with partners, the programme will additionally, work with a number of Partner Universities to develop full-fledged master's degree programmes to be based at African Universities. The principal aim of this endeavour is to further strengthen the African capacity and build a wide expertise for a better understanding of conflicts in Africa, their prevention and the creation of the environment favourable to lasting peace and development in the region.


In January 2012, UPEACE created a new Centre at The Hague, Netherlands (UPEACE The Hague), which is housed at the Academy Building of the Peace Palace, next to The Hague Academy of International Law. UPEACE The Hague will focus on education and research at the forefront of peace studies, closely cooperating with academic and policy-oriented institutions in The Hague region. UPEACE The Hague will initially advance three fields where it can be innovative and complementary: Peace & Conflict Studies, Water & Peace, and Urban Peace & Security. In addition, UPEACE The Hague will strengthen peace education in The Hague region by organising professional trainings, lectures, seminars, and workshops. Educational and research programmes will be characterised by the interaction between theory and practice, also contributing to policy innovations, and will therefore be appealing to both academics and professionals.

The Geneva Office of UPEACE, established in 2001, has continued to support the development of the overall activities of the University, in particular its regional programmes in Africa and Central Asia. The key focus of work undertaken by the Geneva office is contributing to the development of programme activities of the University in Africa and the Middle East, engaging with the academic community in Geneva to establish joint teaching and training courses on issues of particular relevance to the expertise available within the international community in Geneva and facilitation of relations within Europe and with the United Nations system, national delegations, donor community and academic institutions.


The Asia Leaders Programme, a Dual Campus Master Programme, is a shared initiative between the Nippon Foundation and the University for Peace, in collaboration with Ateneo de Manila University, which aims to provide students from Japan and other Asian countries with an opportunity to pursue a peace studies post graduate degree with a content-based language-training module. This offers the support for individuals who do not have a proficient command of English to work in this increasingly common international language and to become comfortable in their professional abilities as they gain academic skills. As part of the programme, students also have the opportunity to apply their academic and practical knowledge through a four-month internship at the end of the Master courses.

Affiliated institutions

Article 4 of the Charter of the University for Peace reads: "the University may enter into association or conclude agreements with Governments and intergovernmental and other organizations and institutions in the field of education." The University for Peace signed agreements with the governments of Serbia (formerly Yugoslavia), Colombia and Uruguay to open centres in those three countries. These centres have the necessary legal status to enjoy autonomy and academic freedom, while keeping its humanistic purpose within the framework of both the Charter of the University for Peace and the Charter of the United Nations and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

The European Centre for Peace and Development (ECPD) in Belgrade, Serbia; the World Centre for Training and Research in Conflict Resolution (WCCR) in Bogotá, Colombia; and the World Centre for Research for Peace (CMIP) in Montevideo, Uruguay, have developed close links with their respective governments while being key UPEACE partners in areas of common interest. UPEACE keeps operational agreements with them and lends its logos when necessary in order to undertake joint activities within the framework of UPEACE's and the Centres’ mission. These activities, as with other partners, involve the cooperating parties working together at all stages of jointly agreed-upon projects.


UPEACE has been offering master's degree programmes at its Costa Rica campus for students from all parts of the world since its establishment. The following programmes are currently offered (academic year 2019-2020):

Regular programmes

• MA in International Law and the Settlement of Disputes
• MA in International Law and Human Rights
• MA in International Peace Studies
• MA in Gender and Peacebuilding
• MA in Peace Education
• MA in Media and Peace
• MA in Environment, Development and Peace
• MA in Responsible Management and Sustainable Economic Development
• Maestría en Resolución de Conflictos, Paz y Desarrollo (taught in Spanish)
• Maestría en Derecho Internacional de los Derechos Humanos (taught in Spanish)
• Online MA in Sustainable Peace in the Contemporary World

Special programmes

• Dual MA in Natural Resources and Sustainable Development (with American University, Washington DC)
• Asia Peacebuilders Scholarship, a dual-campus MA in International Peace Studies (with Ateneo de Manila University, The Philippines)
• Dual MA programmes with Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, Seoul, Korea
• Joint M.A. degree in Human Rights and a Culture for Peace (with Pontificia Universidad Javeriana de Cali, Colombia)
• LL.M in Transnational Crime and Justice (with UNICRI, Turin, Italy)
• M.A. in Conflict Resolution and Coexistence (Brandeis University, USA) and an M.A. in International Law and Human Rights (UPEACE, Costa Rica)
• Water Cooperation and Diplomacy (UPEACE, Costa Rica; IHE-DELFT Water Institute, The Netherlands; Oregon State University, USA)

Study abroad programmes

UPEACE offers graduate and advance undergraduate students from other institutions the opportunity to enrol in UPEACE's Study Abroad Programme (SAP) in three ways:

• Semester Abroad Programme
• Undergraduate Credit Building

Distance education courses

Apart from its online MA in Sustainable Peace in the Contemporary World, UPEACE offers a series of individual online courses that can be taken for academic credits or for certificates.

Doctoral programme

The university's "Doctoral Programme in Peace & Conflict Studies" commenced in fall of 2012. According to the website of the University for Peace, "this Doctoral Programme is designed to respond to a growing demand for academic and professional training that addresses the complex and multidimensional issues of peace and conflict in societies." The programme offers a broad range of research foci and specializations including, though not limited to, Environmental Security and Peace, Gender and Peace Building, International Law and Human Rights, International Law and the Settlement of Disputes, International Peace Studies, Media, Peace and Conflict Studies, Natural Resources and Peace, Peace Education, Responsible Management and Sustainable Development, and Sustainable Urban Governance and Peace. The programme offers two tracks for achieving the doctorate: a research track and a professional track.[12]

Students and alumni

Students at UPEACE receive a high quality education in a unique atmosphere with a focus on multicultural perspectives, rigorous theory and practical applications. Thousands of students from over 100 countries have received graduate degrees from UPEACE. UPEACE alumni are working in peace related activities in their home countries and internationally, often in the front lines of conflict situations, for non-governmental organizations, academic and intergovernmental institutions, including the UN system. The University maintains a strong alumni network, all of whom get equipped with the necessary skills to pursue their chosen career paths at UPEACE. UPEACE aims to instill in their students a ‘sense of hope’ that forever ‘changes their lives’ and world vision in order to transform conflicts and promote sustainable peace and security. Notable UPEACE alumni include: Suzanne Hunt (2004) of X-Prize Foundation and Carbon War Room; Dan Juma (2006) former Deputy Director of Kenya Human Rights Commission; Hovig Etyemezian (2005) Director of the UNHCR Office in Mauritania; and Nick Martin (2006) Founder and President of TechChange.


The Peace and Conflict Review[13] is a free, fully peer reviewed open source academic journal published by the University for Peace. Articles featured in the review cover aspects of peace and violent conflict with a view to informing students, policymakers, non-governmental organizations and other interested parties of relevant analysis, empirical findings, policy options, and areas for further research. A number of interdisciplinary and multicultural papers are published every year, as well as some review articles of books and conference proceedings. Submissions can be sent online.

The Peace & Conflict Monitor is an online forum for informed debate and peace journalism. Drawing on contributions from the students, researchers, and journalists who make up the majority of its wide readership, the PCM offers unique perspectives on current events from around the world.

Africa Peace and Conflict Journal is an academic journal focused on African issues related to peace and security and is published by the UPEACE Africa office. The aim of the APCJ peer review process is to be rigorous and free of bias, ensuring that only high-quality, innovative work is published. The interdisciplinary emphasis of APCJ seeks to encourage the building of the field, combining the disciplines of peace and conflict studies, development, and human and social security in Africa.


The U.S. Association for the University for Peace is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization established in 2006 to advance the University for Peace and the practice of education for peace in the United States. UPEACE/US projects include DCPEACE, an initiative to empower teachers, youth, and families with the skills and knowledge necessary to effectively serve as peacebuilders in their communities and PeaceRooms, a program that connect classrooms of middle school students from Costa Rica and Washington D.C. through the use of innovative virtual networking technology for the purpose of developing core concepts of global citizenship and peace education.UPEACE/US website

The UPEACE Sharing Knowledge for Peace Program (SKP) is a distance learning initiative which ensures that those unable to attend courses in Costa Rica or in one of the other UPEACE locations are reached through state-of-the-art dissemination methods.

View from Costa Rica Campus

In 2017 the ECPD appointed London-based music producer Danny Briottet (founder of the group Renegade Soundwave ) Director of Music Programmes, as the organisation extends its aim to involve young people in the Balkan region and elsewhere in its work.[14][15][16]

See also

• Earth Charter Initiative
• UPEACE The Hague
• University for Peace Model United Nations
• United Nations
• The U.S. Association for the University for Peace
• Peace and conflict studies
• Religion and peacebuilding


1. "Message from UPEACE Rector". Retrieved 10 December 2013.
2. "UN General Assembly Resolution A/RES/35/55 on the Establishment of UPEACE". United Nations Official Document. United Nations. Archived from the original on 2019-02-28.
3. "Charter of the University for Peace annexed to the International Agreement Establishing the University for Peace" (PDF).
4. "See 'Other Resources' at". United Nations.External link in |title= (help)
5. "UN General Assembly Resolution A/RES/64/83" (PDF). United Nations.
6. "Report of the UN Secretary General on the University for Peace, A/64/281, dated 11 August 2009" (PDF).
7. "University for Peace". Retrieved 26 February 2018.
8. "University for Peace". Retrieved 26 February 2018.
9. "Two programmes from the International Law Department receive Official Quality Accreditation". University for Peace. Retrieved 26 February 2018.
10. "About UPEACE". University for Peace. Retrieved 26 February 2018.
11. "UNESCO Chair on ESD and Earth Charter, awarded jointly to EC Initiative and UPEACE".
12. "UPEACE Doctoral Programme in Peace and Conflict Studies". University for Peace.
13. "Peace & Conflict Review". Retrieved 26 February2018.
14. Coletti, Paul (2008-12-09). "The spectacular setting of Costa Rica's University for Peace is not the only thing about it that is idyllic". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2019-02-26.
15. "Costa Rica: UN University for Peace". American University. Retrieved 2019-02-26.
16. "United Nations University for Peace". Youth Citizen Entrepreneurship Competition. Retrieved 2019-02-26.

External links

• University for Peace
• UPEACE Human Rights Centre
• UPEACE Centre for Executive Education
Site Admin
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Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sat Apr 20, 2019 12:01 am

World Resources Institute
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 4/19/19



World Resources Institute (WRI)
Formation 1982; 37 years ago
Founder James Gustave Speth
Headquarters Washington, D.C.
United States
President and CEO: Andrew Steer
Chairman of the Board: James Harmon
Revenue (2016): US$ 90 millions[1]:57
Expenses (2016) US$ 90 millions[1]:57

The World Resources Institute (WRI) is a global research non-profit organization that was established in 1982 with funding from the MacArthur Foundation[2] under the leadership of James Gustave Speth.[3]

James Gustave Speth
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 4/19/19

Gus Speth
James Gustave Speth in 2008.
Administrator of the United Nations Development Programme
In office: 1993–1999
Secretary General Boutros Boutros-Ghali
Kofi Annan
Preceded by William Henry Draper III
Succeeded by Mark Malloch-Brown
Personal details
Born James Gustave Speth
March 4, 1942 (age 77)
Orangeburg, South Carolina, U.S.
Political party Democratic
Education Yale University (BA, JD)
Balliol College, Oxford (BLitt)

James Gustave (Gus) Speth (born March 4, 1942 in Orangeburg, South Carolina) is an American environmental lawyer and advocate.


He was born in Orangeburg, South Carolina in 1942. He graduated summa cum laude from Yale University in 1964, attended Balliol College, Oxford as a Rhodes Scholar and graduated from Yale Law School, where he was a member of the Yale Law Journal, in 1969. He served in 1969 and 1970 as a law clerk to U.S. Supreme Court Justice Hugo L. Black.

Speth was a co-founder of the Natural Resources Defense Council
, where he served as senior attorney from 1970 to 1977.

He served from 1977 to 1981 as a Member and then for two years as Chairman of the Council on Environmental Quality in the Executive Office of the President. As Jimmy Carter's Council on Environmental Quality Chairman, he was a principal adviser on matters affecting the environment and had overall responsibility for developing and coordinating the President's environmental program. In 1981 and 1982, he was Professor of Law at Georgetown University Law Center, teaching environmental and constitutional law.

In 1982, he founded the World Resources Institute,[1] a Washington, D.C.-based environmental think tank; served as its president until January 1993. He was a senior adviser to President-elect Bill Clinton's transition team, heading the group that examined the U.S.'s role in natural resources, energy and the environment.

In 1991, he chaired a U.S. task force on international development and environmental security which produced the report Partnership for Sustainable Development: A New U.S. Agenda.

In 1990 he led the Western Hemisphere Dialogue on Environment and Development which produced the report Compact for a New World.

From 1993 to 1999, he served as Administrator of the United Nations Development Programme; he served as Special Coordinator for Economic and Social Affairs under Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali, piloted the United Nations Development Assistance Plan and also served as Chair of the United Nations Development Group.[2]

In 1999, he became the dean of the Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies at Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut. He served the school as the Carl W. Knobloch, Jr. Dean and Sara Shallenberger Brown Professor in the Practice of Environmental Policy when he retired from Yale in 2009 to assume a professorship at Vermont Law School in South Royalton, Vermont.[3] Speth was succeeded as Dean at Yale by Sir Peter Crane.[4]

In 2014 he published his memoir Angels by the River. In that year, he was also board member of the New Economy Coalition.[5]

Speth currently serves on the Advisory Council of Represent.Us, a nonpartisan anti-corruption organization.[6]

Environment work

Speth has been a leader or participant in many task forces and committees aimed at combating environmental degradation, including the President’s Task Force on Global Resources and Environment; the Western Hemisphere Dialogue on Environment and Development; and the National Commission on the Environment.


Among his awards are the National Wildlife Federation’s Resources Defense Award, the Natural Resources Council of America’s Barbara Swain Award of Honor, a 1997 Special Recognition Award from the Society for International Development, the Lifetime Achievement Award of the Environmental Law Institute, and the Blue Planet Prize. He holds honorary degrees from Clark University, the College of the Atlantic, Vermont Law School, Middlebury College, and the University of Massachusetts Boston.



• Globalization and the Environment (as an editor), Island Press (2003)
• Red Sky at Morning: America and the Crisis of the Global Environment (2004)
• Global Environmental Governance, Island Press (2006)
• The Bridge at the Edge of the World: Capitalism, the Environment, and Crossing from Crisis to Sustainability, Yale University Press (2008) ISBN 978-0-300-13611-1
• America the Possible: Manifesto for a New Economy, Yale University Press (2012) ISBN 978-0300180763
• Moral Ground: Ethical Action for a Planet in Peril (chapter), Nelson, Michael P. and Kathleen Dean Moore (eds.) Trinity University Press, (2010) ISBN 9781595340665
• Angels by the River, a memoir, Chelsea Green Publishing (2014)


• Beyond Reform Our Planet Magazine PDF
• America the Possible: A Manifesto, From decline to rebirth link
• America the Possible: A Manifesto, A new politics for a new dream link


1. World Resources Institute Biosketch of James Gustave Speth. Reuters. Retrieved March 27, 2012.
2. "Who we are & What we do". United Nations Development Programme. 2011. Archived from the original on 2011-08-26. Retrieved 2011-08-24.
3. "F&ES unearths new dean". Yale Daily News. Archived from the original on 2009-03-08. Retrieved 2009-03-05.
4. "Sir Peter Crane Appointed Dean of Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies". Yale Daily News. 2009-03-04. Archived from the original on 2011-07-24. Retrieved 2011-08-24.
5. "About the Author". Retrieved 8 February 2015.
6. "About | Represent.Us". End corruption. Defend the Republic. Retrieved 2016-11-02.

External links

• Angels by the River - book website
• Appearances on C-SPAN
• Works by or about James Gustave Speth in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
• James Gustave Speth home page at the Wayback Machine (archived July 1, 2007) Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies profile, Archived July 1, 2007
• Greenery and Justice for All - Jan 9, 2015, Pacific Standard interview


They maintain offices in the United States, China, India, Brazil, and Indonesia.[4] The organization's mission is to promote environmental sustainability, economic opportunity, and human health and well-being.[5] WRI partners with local and national governments, private companies, publicly held corporations, and other non-profits, and offers services including global climate change issues, sustainable markets, ecosystem protection, and environmental responsible governance services.[6][7][8]

In 2014, Stephen M. Ross, an American real estate developer, gave the organization 30 millions of dollars to establish WRI Ross Center for Sustainable Cities.[9]


WRI's activities are focused on seven areas: food, forests, water, energy,[10] cities, climate and ocean.

WRI initiatives include:

• The Access Initiative, a civil society network dedicated to ensuring that citizens have the right and ability to influence decisions about the natural resources that sustain their communities.[11]
• Aqueduct, an initiative to measure, map and understand water risks around the globe.[12]
• Champions 12.3, a coalition of executives to accelerate progress toward United Nations Sustainable Development Goal Target 12.3 to tackle food loss and waste.[13]
• Global Forest Watch, an online forest monitoring and alert system.
• The Greenhouse Gas Protocol provides standards, guidance, tools, and trainings for business and government to quantify and manage GHG emissions.[14]
• LandMark, a platform providing maps and information on lands that are collectively held and used by Indigenous peoples and local communities[15]
• Platform for Accelerating the Circular Economy (PACE), a public-private collaboration platform and project accelerating focusing on building the circular economy. PACE was launched during the 2018 World Economic Forum Annual meeting; from 2019, WRI is supporting the scale-up of PACE and establish an Action Hub in The Hague.[16]
• Renewable Energy Buyers Alliance, a partnership of NGOs, customers, suppliers and policymakers working to increase global use of clean and renewable energy.[17] It has 300 members including Google, GM, Facebook, Walmart, Disney and other large companies, and reached 6 GW capacity in 2018.[18]
• The Science Based Targets Initiative helps companies transition to a low-carbon economic profile by setting greenhouse gas emission reduction targets in line with climate science.[19]
• WRI Ross Center helps cities grow more sustainably and seeks to improve quality of life in developing countries around the world.[20]
• World Resources Report, WRI's flagship report series. Each report deals with a different topic.[21]


1. Rising to the Challenge; WRI Annual Report 2016–2017 (PDF). Washington DC: World Resources Institute (WRI). 2017. Retrieved 31 August2017.
2. Broder, John M. (March 14, 2012). "Climate Change Envoy to Lead Influential Institute". New York Times. Retrieved 6 August 2014.
3. "James Gustave Speth". World Resources Institute. Retrieved 6 August2014.
4. "Charity Navigator: World Resources Institute". Charity Navigator. Retrieved 11 October 2017.
5. "World Resources Institute Offices – Washington DC". Office Snapshots. Retrieved 11 October 2017.
6. Bloomberg (2017). "World Resources Institute". Retrieved 11 October 2017.
7. "Charitywatch: World Resources Institute". American Institute of Philanthropy. Retrieved 11 October 2017.
8. Bloomberg (2017). "World Resources Institute". Retrieved 11 October 2017.
9. Pogrebin, Robin. "Developer Gives $30 Million to Establish City Planning Center". New York Times. Retrieved 6 August 2014.
10. M.A. Siraj (September 15, 2017). "Powering cities with clean energy". Retrieved 9 October 2017.
11. The Access Initiative
12. Aqueduct
13. Champions 12.3
14. Greenhouse Gas Protocol
15. LandMark
17. Renewable Energy Buyers Alliance
18. Dzikiy, Phil (28 March 2019). "Google, GM, and more than 300 other companies launch Renewable Energy Buyers Alliance". Electrek. Retrieved 28 March 2019.
19. Science Based Targets Initiative
20. WRI Ross Center
21. World Resources Report

See also

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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

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Gestalt therapy
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 4/19/19



Gestalt therapy is an existential/experiential form of psychotherapy that emphasizes personal responsibility, and that focuses upon the individual's experience in the present moment, the therapist–client relationship, the environmental and social contexts of a person's life, and the self-regulating adjustments people make as a result of their overall situation.

Gestalt therapy was developed by Fritz Perls, Laura Perls and Paul Goodman in the 1940s and 1950s, and was first described in the 1951 book Gestalt Therapy.


Edwin Nevis, co-founder of the Gestalt Institute of Cleveland, founder of the Gestalt International Study Center, and faculty member at the MIT Sloan School of Management, described Gestalt therapy as "a conceptual and methodological base from which helping professionals can craft their practice".[1] In the same volume, Joel Latner stated that Gestalt therapy is built upon two central ideas: that the most helpful focus of psychotherapy is the experiential present moment, and that everyone is caught in webs of relationships; thus, it is only possible to know ourselves against the background of our relationships to others.[2] The historical development of Gestalt therapy (described below) discloses the influences that generated these two ideas. Expanded, they support the four chief theoretical constructs (explained in the theory and practice section) that comprise Gestalt theory, and that guide the practice and application of Gestalt therapy.

Gestalt therapy was forged from various influences upon the lives of its founders during the times in which they lived, including: the new physics, Eastern religion, existential phenomenology, Gestalt psychology, psychoanalysis, experimental theatre, as well as systems theory and field theory.[3] Gestalt therapy rose from its beginnings in the middle of the 20th century to rapid and widespread popularity during the decade of the 1960s and early 1970s. During the '70s and '80s Gestalt therapy training centers spread globally; but they were, for the most part, not aligned with formal academic settings. As the cognitive revolution eclipsed Gestalt theory in psychology, many came to believe Gestalt was an anachronism. Because Gestalt therapists disdained the positivism underlying what they perceived to be the concern of research, they largely ignored the need to use research to further develop Gestalt theory and Gestalt therapy practice (with a few exceptions like Les Greenberg, see the interview: "Validating Gestalt"[4]). However, the new century has seen a sea of change in attitudes toward research and Gestalt practice.

Gestalt therapy is not identical with Gestalt psychology but Gestalt psychology influenced the development of Gestalt therapy to a large extent.[5]

Gestalt therapy focuses on process (what is actually happening) over content (what is being talked about).[6] The emphasis is on what is being done, thought, and felt at the present moment (the phenomenality of both client and therapist), rather than on what was, might be, could be, or should have been. Gestalt therapy is a method of awareness practice (also called "mindfulness" in other clinical domains), by which perceiving, feeling, and acting are understood to be conducive to interpreting, explaining, and conceptualizing (the hermeneutics of experience).[7] This distinction between direct experience versus indirect or secondary interpretation is developed in the process of therapy. The client learns to become aware of what he or she is doing and that triggers the ability to risk a shift or change.[8]

The objective of Gestalt therapy is to enable the client to become more fully and creatively alive and to become free from the blocks and unfinished business that may diminish satisfaction, fulfillment, and growth, and to experiment with new ways of being.[9] For this reason Gestalt therapy falls within the category of humanistic psychotherapies. As Gestalt therapy includes perception and the meaning-making processes by which experience forms, it can also be considered a cognitive approach. Also, because Gestalt therapy relies on the contact between therapist and client, and because a relationship can be considered to be contact over time, Gestalt therapy can be considered a relational or interpersonal approach. As it appreciates the larger picture which is the complex situation involving multiple influences in a complex situation, it can also be considered a multi-systemic approach. In addition, the processes of Gestalt therapy are experimental, involving action, Gestalt therapy can be considered both a paradoxical and an experiential/experimental approach.[7]

When Gestalt therapy is compared to other clinical domains, a person can find many matches, or points of similarity. "Probably the clearest case of consilience is between gestalt therapy's field perspective and the various organismic and field theories that proliferated in neuroscience, medicine, and physics in the early and mid-20th century. Within social science there is a consilience between gestalt field theory and systems or ecological psychotherapy; between the concept of dialogical relationship and object relations, attachment theory, client-centered therapy and the transference-oriented approaches; between the existential, phenomenological, and hermeneutical aspects of gestalt therapy and the constructivist aspects of cognitive therapy; and between gestalt therapy's commitment to awareness and the natural processes of healing and mindfulness, acceptance and Buddhist techniques adopted by cognitive behavioral therapy."[10]

Contemporary theory and practice

The theoretical foundations of Gestalt therapy essentially rests atop four "load-bearing walls": phenomenological method, dialogical relationship, field-theoretical strategies, and experimental freedom.[11] Although all these tenets were present in the early formulation and practice of Gestalt therapy, as described in Ego, Hunger and Aggression (Perls, 1947) and in Gestalt Therapy, Excitement and Growth in the Human Personality (Perls, Hefferline, & Goodman, 1951), the early development of Gestalt therapy theory emphasized personal experience and the experiential episodes understood as "safe emergencies" or experiments. Indeed, half of the Perls, Hefferline, and Goodman book consists of such experiments. Later, through the influence of such people as Erving and Miriam Polster, a second theoretical emphasis emerged: namely, contact between self and other, and ultimately the dialogical relationship between therapist and client.[12] Later still, field theory emerged as an emphasis.[13] At various times over the decades, since Gestalt therapy first emerged, one or more of these tenets and the associated constructs that go with them have captured the imagination of those who have continued developing the contemporary theory of Gestalt therapy. Since 1990 the literature focused upon Gestalt therapy has flourished, including the development of several professional Gestalt journals. Along the way, Gestalt therapy theory has also been applied in Organizational Development and coaching work. And, more recently, Gestalt methods have been combined with meditation practices into a unified program of human development called Gestalt Practice, which is used by some practitioners.

Phenomenological method

The goal of a phenomenological exploration is awareness.[14] This exploration works systematically to reduce the effects of bias through repeated observations and inquiry.[15]

The phenomenological method comprises three steps: (1) the rule of epoché, (2) the rule of description, and (3) the rule of horizontalization.[16] Applying the rule of epoché one sets aside one's initial biases and prejudices in order to suspend expectations and assumptions. Applying the rule of description, one occupies oneself with describing instead of explaining. Applying the rule of horizontalization one treats each item of description as having equal value or significance.

The rule of epoché sets aside any initial theories with regard to what is presented in the meeting between therapist and client. The rule of description implies immediate and specific observations, abstaining from interpretations or explanations, especially those formed from the application of a clinical theory superimposed over the circumstances of experience. The rule of horizontalization avoids any hierarchical assignment of importance such that the data of experience become prioritized and categorized as they are received. A Gestalt therapist using the phenomenological method might say something like, “I notice a slight tension at the corners of your mouth when I say that, and I see you shifting on the couch and folding your arms across your chest ... and now I see you rolling your eyes back”. Of course, the therapist may make a clinically relevant evaluation, but when applying the phenomenological method, temporarily suspends the need to express it.[17]

Dialogical relationship

To create the conditions under which a dialogic moment might occur, the therapist attends to his or her own presence, creates the space for the client to enter in and become present as well (called inclusion), and commits him or herself to the dialogic process, surrendering to what takes place, as opposed to attempting to control it.[15] With presence, the therapist judiciously “shows up” as a whole and authentic person, instead of assuming a role, false self or persona. The word 'judicious' used above refers to the therapist's taking into account the specific strengths, weaknesses and values of the client. The only 'good' client is a 'live' client, so driving a client away by injudicious exposure of intolerable [to this client] experience of the therapist is obviously counter-productive. For example, for an atheistic therapist to tell a devout client that religion is myth would not be useful, especially in the early stages of the relationship. To practice inclusion is to accept however the client chooses to be present, whether in a defensive and obnoxious stance or a superficially cooperative one. To practice inclusion is to support the presence of the client, including his or her resistance, not as a gimmick but in full realization that this is how the client is actually present and is the best this client can do at this time. Finally, the Gestalt therapist is committed to the process, trusts in that process, and does not attempt to save him or herself from it (Brownell, in press, 2009, 2008)).

Field-theoretical strategies

Field theory is a concept borrowed from physics in which people and events are no longer considered discrete units but as parts of something larger, which are influenced by everything including the past, and observation itself. “The field” can be considered in two ways. There are ontological dimensions and there are phenomenological dimensions to one's field. The ontological dimensions are all those physical and environmental contexts in which we live and move. They might be the office in which one works, the house in which one lives, the city and country of which one is a citizen, and so forth. The ontological field is the objective reality that supports our physical existence. The phenomenological dimensions are all mental and physical dynamics that contribute to a person's sense of self, one's subjective experience—not merely elements of the environmental context. These might be the memory of an uncle's inappropriate affection, one's color blindness, one's sense of the social matrix in operation at the office in which one works, and so forth. The way that Gestalt therapists choose to work with field dynamics makes what they do strategic.[18] Gestalt therapy focuses upon character structure; according to Gestalt theory, the character structure is dynamic rather than fixed in nature. To become aware of one's character structure, the focus is upon the phenomenological dimensions in the context of the ontological dimensions.

Experimental freedom

Gestalt therapy is distinct because it moves toward action, away from mere talk therapy, and for this reason is considered an experiential approach.[19] Through experiments, the therapist supports the client's direct experience of something new, instead of merely talking about the possibility of something new. Indeed, the entire therapeutic relationship may be considered experimental, because at one level it is a corrective, relational experience for many clients, and it is a "safe emergency" that is free to turn out however it will. An experiment can also be conceived as a teaching method that creates an experience in which a client might learn something as part of their growth.[20] Examples might include: (1) Rather than talking about the client's critical parent, a Gestalt therapist might ask the client to imagine the parent is present, or that the therapist is the parent, and talk to that parent directly; (2) If a client is struggling with how to be assertive, a Gestalt therapist could either (a) have the client say some assertive things to the therapist or members of a therapy group, or (b) give a talk about how one should never be assertive; (3) A Gestalt therapist might notice something about the non-verbal behavior or tone of voice of the client; then the therapist might have the client exaggerate the non-verbal behavior and pay attention to that experience; (4) A Gestalt therapist might work with the breathing or posture of the client, and direct awareness to changes that might happen when the client talks about different content. With all these experiments the Gestalt therapist is working with process rather than content, the How rather than the What.

Noteworthy issues


In field theory, self is a phenomenological concept, existing in comparison with other. Without the other there is no self, and how one experiences the other is inseparable from how one experiences oneself. The continuity of selfhood (functioning personality) is something that is achieved in relationship, rather than something inherently "inside" the person. This can have its advantages and disadvantages. At one end of the spectrum, someone may not have enough self-continuity to be able to make meaningful relationships, or to have a workable sense of who she is. In the middle, her personality is a loose set of ways of being that work for her, including commitments to relationships, work, culture and outlook, always open to change where she needs to adapt to new circumstances or just want to try something new. At the other end, her personality is a rigid defensive denial of the new and spontaneous. She acts in stereotyped ways, and either induces other people to act in particular and fixed ways towards her, or she redefines their actions to fit with fixed stereotypes.

In Gestalt therapy, the process is not about the self of the client being helped or healed by the fixed self of the therapist; rather it is an exploration of the co-creation of self and other in the here-and-now of the therapy. There is no assumption that the client will act in all other circumstances as he or she does in the therapy situation. However, the areas that cause problems will be either the lack of self-definition leading to chaotic or psychotic behaviour, or the rigid self-definition in some area of functioning that denies spontaneity and makes dealing with particular situations impossible. Both of these conditions show up very clearly in the therapy, and can be worked with in the relationship with the therapist.

The experience of the therapist is also very much part of the therapy. Since we co-create our self-other experiences, the way a therapist experiences being with a client is significant information about how the client experiences themselves. The proviso here is that a therapist is not operating from their own fixed responses. This is why Gestalt therapists are required to undertake significant therapy of their own during training.

From the perspective of this theory of self, neurosis can be seen as fixed predictability—a fixed Gestalt—and the process of therapy can be seen as facilitating the client to become unpredictable: more responsive to what is in the client's present environment, rather than responding in a stuck way to past introjects or other learning. If the therapist has expectations of how the client should end up, this defeats the aim of therapy.


In what has now become a "classic" of Gestalt therapy literature, Arnold R. Beisser described Gestalt's paradoxical theory of change.[21] The paradox is that the more one attempts to be who one is not, the more one remains the same. Conversely, when people identify with their current experience, the conditions of wholeness and growth support change. Put another way, change comes about as a result of "full acceptance of what is, rather than a striving to be different."[22]

The empty chair technique

Empty chair technique or chairwork is typically used in Gestalt therapy when a patient might have deep-rooted emotional problems from someone or something in their life, such as relationships with themselves, with aspects of their personality, their concepts, ideas, feelings, etc., or other people in their lives. The purpose of this technique is to get the patient to think about their emotions and attitudes.[23] Common things the patient addresses in the empty chair are another person, aspects of their own personality, a certain feeling, etc., as if that thing were in that chair.[24] They may also move between chairs and act out two or more sides of a discussion, typically involving the patient and persons significant to them. It uses a passive approach to opening up the patient's emotions and pent-up feelings so they can let go of what they have been holding back. A form of role-playing, the technique focuses on exploration of self and is used by therapists to help patients self-adjust. Gestalt techniques were originally a form of psychotherapy, but are now often used in counseling, for instance, by encouraging clients to act out their feelings helping them prepare for a new job.[25] The purpose of the technique is so the patient will become more in touch with their feelings and have an emotional conversation that clears up any long-held feelings or reaction to the person or object in the chair.[26] When used effectively, it provides an emotional release and lets the client move forward in their life.

Historical development

Fritz Perls was a German-Jewish psychoanalyst who fled Europe with his wife Laura Perls to South Africa in order to escape Nazi oppression in 1933.[27] After World War II, the couple emigrated to New York City, which had become a center of intellectual, artistic and political experimentation by the late 1940s and early 1950s.

Early influences

Perls grew up on the bohemian scene in Berlin, participated in Expressionism and Dadaism, and experienced the turning of the artistic avant-garde toward the revolutionary left. Deployment to the front line, the trauma of war, anti-Semitism, intimidation, escape, and the Holocaust are further key sources of biographical influence.[27]

Perls served in the German Army during World War I, and was wounded in the conflict. After the war he was educated as a medical doctor. He became an assistant to Kurt Goldstein, who worked with brain-injured soldiers. Perls went through a psychoanalysis with Wilhelm Reich and became a psychiatrist. Perls assisted Goldstein at Frankfurt University where he met his wife Lore (Laura) Posner, who had earned a doctorate in Gestalt psychology.[28] They fled Nazi Germany in 1933 and settled in South Africa. Perls established a psychoanalytic training institute and joined the South African armed forces, serving as a military psychiatrist. During these years in South Africa, Perls was influenced by Jan Smuts and his ideas about "holism".

In 1936 Fritz Perls attended a psychoanalysts' conference in Marienbad, Czechoslovakia, where he presented a paper on oral resistances, mainly based on Laura Perls's notes on breastfeeding their children. Perls's paper was turned down. Perls did present his paper in 1936, but it met with "deep disapproval."[29] Perls wrote his first book, Ego, Hunger and Aggression (1942, 1947), in South Africa, based in part on the rejected paper. It was later re-published in the United States. Laura Perls wrote two chapters of this book, but she was not given adequate recognition for her work.

The seminal book

Perls's seminal work was Gestalt Therapy: Excitement and Growth in the Human Personality, published in 1951, co-authored by Fritz Perls, Paul Goodman, and Ralph Hefferline (a university psychology professor and sometime patient of Fritz Perls). Most of Part II of the book was written by Paul Goodman from Perls's notes, and it contains the core of Gestalt theory. This part was supposed to appear first, but the publishers decided that Part I, written by Hefferline, fit into the nascent self-help ethos of the day, and they made it an introduction to the theory. Isadore From, a leading early theorist of Gestalt therapy, taught Goodman's Part II for an entire year to his students, going through it phrase by phrase.

First instances of Gestalt therapy

Fritz and Laura founded the first Gestalt Institute in 1952, running it out of their Manhattan apartment. Isadore From became a patient, first of Fritz, and then of Laura. Fritz soon made From a trainer, and also gave him some patients. From lived in New York until his death, at age seventy-five, in 1993. He was known worldwide for his philosophical and intellectually rigorous take on Gestalt therapy. Acknowledged as a supremely gifted clinician, he was indisposed to writing, so what remains of his work is merely transcripts of interviews.[30]

Of great importance to understanding the development of Gestalt therapy is the early training which took place in experiential groups in the Perls's apartment, led by both Fritz and Laura before Fritz left for the West Coast, and after by Laura alone. These "trainings" were unstructured, with little didactic input from the leaders, although many of the principles were discussed in the monthly meetings of the institute, as well as at local bars after the sessions. Many notable Gestalt therapists emerged from these crucibles in addition to Isadore From, e.g., Richard Kitzler, Dan Bloom, Bud Feder, Carl Hodges, and Ruth Ronall. In these sessions, both Fritz and Laura used some variation of the "hot seat" method, in which the leader essentially works with one individual in front of an audience with little or no attention to group dynamics. In reaction to this omission emerged a more interactive approach in which Gestalt-therapy principles were blended with group dynamics; in 1980, the book Beyond the Hot Seat, edited by Feder and Ronall, was published, with contributions from members of both the New York and Cleveland Institutes, as well as others.

Fritz left Laura and New York in 1960, briefly lived in Miami, and ended up in California. Jim Simkin was a psychotherapist who became a client of Perls in New York and then a co-therapist with Perls in Los Angeles. Simkin was responsible for Perls's going to California, where Perls began a psychotherapy practice. Ultimately, the life of a peripatetic trainer and workshop leader was better suited to Fritz's personality—starting in 1963, Simkin and Perls co-led some of the early Gestalt workshops and training groups at Esalen Institute in Big Sur, California, where Perls eventually settled and built a home. Jim Simkin then purchased property next to Esalen and started his own training center, which he ran until his death in 1984. Simkin refined his precise version of Gestalt therapy, training psychologists, psychiatrists, counselors and social workers within a very rigorous, residential training model.

The schism

In the 1960s, Perls became infamous among the professional elite for his public workshops at Esalen Institute. Isadore From referred to some of Fritz's brief workshops as "hit-and-run" therapy, because of Perls's alleged emphasis on showmanship with little or no follow-through—but Perls never considered these workshops to be complete therapy; rather, he felt he was giving demonstrations of key points for a largely professional audience. Unfortunately, some films and tapes of his work were all that most graduate students were exposed to, along with the misperception that these represented the entirety of Perls's work.

When Fritz Perls left New York for California, there began to be a split with those who saw Gestalt therapy as a therapeutic approach similar to psychoanalysis. This view was represented by Isadore From, who practiced and taught mainly in New York, as well as by the members of the Cleveland Institute, which was co-founded by From. An entirely different approach was taken, primarily in California, by those who saw Gestalt therapy not just as a therapeutic modality, but as a way of life. The East Coast, New York–Cleveland axis was often appalled by the notion of Gestalt therapy leaving the consulting room and becoming a way of life on the West Coast in the 1960s (see the "Gestalt prayer").

An alternative view of this split saw Perls in his last years continuing to develop his a-theoretical and phenomenological methodology, while others, inspired by From, were inclined to theoretical rigor which verged on replacing experience with ideas.

The split continues between what has been called "East Coast Gestalt" and "West Coast Gestalt," at least from an Amerocentric point of view. While the communitarian form of Gestalt continues to flourish, Gestalt therapy was largely replaced in the United States by Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, and many Gestalt therapists in the U.S. drifted toward organizational management and coaching. At the same time, contemporary Gestalt Practice (to a large extent based upon Gestalt therapy theory and practice) was developed by Dick Price, the co-founder of Esalen Institute.[31] Price was one of Perls's students at Esalen.


In 1969, Fritz Perls left the United States to start a Gestalt community at Lake Cowichan on Vancouver Island, Canada. He died almost one year later, on 14 March 1970, in Chicago. One member of the Gestalt community was Barry Stevens. Her book about that phase of her life, Don't Push the River, became very popular. She developed her own form of Gestalt therapy body work, which is essentially a concentration on the awareness of body processes.[32]

The Polsters

Erving and Miriam Polster started a training center in La Jolla, California, which also became very well known, as did their book, Gestalt Therapy Integrated, in the 1970s.[33]

The Polsters played an influential role in advancing the concept of contact-boundary phenomena. The standard contact-boundary resistances in Gestalt theory were confluence, introjection, projection and retroflection. A disturbance described by Miriam and Erving Polster was deflection, which referred to a means of avoiding contact. Instances of boundary phenomena can have pathological or non-pathological aspects; for example, it is appropriate for an infant and mother to merge, or become "confluent," but inappropriate for a client and therapist to do so. If the latter do become confluent, there can be no growth, because there is no boundary at which one can contact the other: the client will not be able to learn anything new, because the therapist essentially becomes an extension of the client.

Influences upon Gestalt therapy

Some examples

There were a variety of psychological and philosophical influences upon the development of Gestalt therapy, not the least of which were the social forces at the time and place of its inception. Gestalt therapy is an approach that is holistic (including mind, body, and culture). It is present-centered and related to existential therapy in its emphasis on personal responsibility for action, and on the value of "I–thou" relationship in therapy. In fact, Perls considered calling Gestalt therapy existential-phenomenological therapy. "The I and thou in the Here and Now" was a semi-humorous shorthand mantra for Gestalt therapy, referring to the substantial influence of the work of Martin Buber—in particular his notion of the I–Thou relationship—on Perls and Gestalt. Buber's work emphasized immediacy, and required that any method or theory answer to the therapeutic situation, seen as a meeting between two people.[34] Any process or method that turns the patient into an object (the I–It) must be strictly secondary to the intimate, and spontaneous, I–Thou relation. This concept became important in much of Gestalt theory and practice.

Both Fritz and Laura Perls were students and admirers of the neuropsychiatrist Kurt Goldstein. Gestalt therapy was based in part on Goldstein's concept called Organismic theory. Goldstein viewed a person in terms of a holistic and unified experience; he encouraged a "big picture" perspective, taking into account the whole context of a person's experience. The word Gestalt means whole, or configuration. Laura Perls, in an interview, denotes the Organismic theory as the base of Gestalt therapy.[28]

There were additional influences on Gestalt therapy from existentialism, particularly the emphasis upon personal choice and responsibility.

The late 1950s–1960s movement toward personal growth and the human potential movement in California fed into, and was itself influenced by, Gestalt therapy. In this process Gestalt therapy somehow became a coherent Gestalt, which is the Gestalt psychology term for a perceptual unit that holds together and forms a unified whole.


Fritz Perls trained as a neurologist at major medical institutions and as a Freudian psychoanalyst in Berlin and Vienna, the most important international centers of the discipline in his day. He worked as a training analyst for several years with the official recognition of the International Psychoanalytic Association (IPA), and must be considered an experienced clinician.[27] Gestalt therapy was influenced by psychoanalysis: it was part of a continuum moving from the early work of Freud, to the later Freudian ego analysis, to Wilhelm Reich and his character analysis and notion of character armor, with attention to nonverbal behavior; this was consonant with Laura Perls's background in dance and movement therapy. To this was added the insights of academic Gestalt psychology, including perception, Gestalt formation, and the tendency of organisms to complete an incomplete Gestalt and to form "wholes" in experience.

Central to Fritz and Laura Perls's modifications of psychoanalysis was the concept of dental or oral aggression. In Ego, Hunger and Aggression (1947), Fritz Perls's first book, to which Laura Perls contributed[35] (ultimately without recognition), Perls suggested that when the infant develops teeth, he or she has the capacity to chew, to break food apart, and, by analogy, to experience, taste, accept, reject, or assimilate. This was opposed to Freud's notion that only introjection takes place in early experience. Thus Perls made assimilation, as opposed to introjection, a focal theme in his work, and the prime means by which growth occurs in therapy.

In contrast to the psychoanalytic stance, in which the "patient" introjects the (presumably more healthy) interpretations of the analyst, in Gestalt therapy the client must "taste" his or her own experience and either accept or reject it—but not introject or "swallow whole." Hence, the emphasis is on avoiding interpretation, and instead encouraging discovery. This is the key point in the divergence of Gestalt therapy from traditional psychoanalysis: growth occurs through gradual assimilation of experience in a natural way, rather than by accepting the interpretations of the analyst; thus, the therapist should not interpret, but lead the client to discover for him- or herself.

The Gestalt therapist contrives experiments that lead the client to greater awareness and fuller experience of his or her possibilities. Experiments can be focused on undoing projections or retroflections. The therapist can work to help the client with closure of unfinished Gestalts ("unfinished business" such as unexpressed emotions towards somebody in the client's life). There are many kinds of experiments that might be therapeutic, but the essence of the work is that it is experiential rather than interpretive, and in this way, Gestalt therapy distinguishes itself from psychoanalysis.

Principal influences: a summary list

• Otto Rank's invention of "here-and-now" therapy and Rank's post-Freudian book Art and Artist (1932), both of which strongly influenced Paul Goodman.
• Wilhelm Reich's psychoanalytic developments, especially his early character analysis, and the later concept of character armor and its focus on the body.
• Jacob Moreno's psychodrama, principally the development of enactment techniques for the resolution of psychological conflicts.
• Kurt Goldstein's holistic theory of the organism, based on Gestalt theory.
• Martin Buber's philosophy of relationship and dialogue ("I–Thou").
• Kurt Lewin's field theory as applied to the social sciences and group dynamics.
• European phenomenology of Franz Brentano, Edmund Husserl, Martin Heidegger, and Maurice Merleau-Ponty.
• The existentialism of Kierkegaard over that of Sartre, rejecting nihilism.
• Carl Jung's psychology, particularly the polarities concept.
• Some elements from Zen Buddhism.
• Differentiation between thing and concept from Zen and the works of Alfred Korzybski.
• The American pragmatism of William James, George Herbert Mead, and John Dewey.

Current status

Gestalt therapy reached a zenith in the United States in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Since then, it has influenced other fields like organizational development, coaching, and teaching. Many of its contributions have become assimilated into other current schools of therapy. In recent years, it has seen a resurgence in popularity as an active, psychodynamic form of therapy which has also incorporated some elements of recent developments in attachment theory. There are, for example, four Gestalt training institutes in the New York City metropolitan area alone, not to mention dozens of others worldwide.

Gestalt therapy continues to thrive as a widespread form of psychotherapy, especially throughout Europe, where there are many practitioners and training institutions. Dan Rosenblatt led Gestalt therapy training groups and public workshops at the Tokyo Psychotherapy Academy for seven years. Stewart Kiritz continued in this role from 1997 to 2006.

The form of Gestalt Practice initially developed at Esalen Institute by Dick Price has spawned numerous offshoots.

Training of Gestalt therapists

Pedagogical approach

Many Gestalt therapy training organizations exist worldwide. Ansel Woldt asserted that Gestalt teaching and training are built upon the belief that people are, by nature, health-seeking. Thus, such commitments as authenticity, optimism, holism, health, and trust become important principles to consider when engaged in the activity of teaching and learning—especially Gestalt therapy theory and practice.[36]


The Association for the Advancement of Gestalt Therapy (AAGT) holds a biennial international conference in various locations—the first was in New Orleans, in 1995. Subsequent conferences have been held in San Francisco, Cleveland, New York, Dallas, St. Pete's Beach, Vancouver (British Columbia), Manchester (England), and Philadelphia. In addition, the AAGT holds regional conferences, and its regional network has spawned regional conferences in Amsterdam, the Southwest and the Southeast of the United States, England, and Australia. Its Research Task Force generates and nurtures active research projects and an international conference on research.[37]

The European Association for Gestalt Therapy (EAGT), founded in 1985 to gather European individual Gestalt therapists, training institutes, and national associations from more than twenty European nations.[38]

Gestalt Australia and New Zealand (GANZ) was formally established at the first "Down Under" Gestalt Therapy Conference held in Perth in September 1998.[39]

See also

• Topdog vs. underdog
• Violet Oaklander


1. Nevis, E. (2000) Introduction, in Gestalt therapy: Perspectives and Applications. Edwin Nevis (ed.). Cambridge, MA: Gestalt Press. p. 3.
2. Latner, J. (2000) The Theory of Gestalt Therapy, in Gestalt therapy: Perspectives and Applications, Edwin Nevis (ed.) Cambridge, MA: Gestalt Press.
3. Mackewn, J. (1997) Developing Gestalt Counselling. London, UK: Sage publications; Bowman, C. & Brownell, P. (2000) Prelude to Contemporary Gestalt Therapy. Gestalt!, vol. 4, no. 3, available at Archived 6 February 2011 at the Wayback Machine
4. Validating Gestalt. An Interview with Researcher, Writer, and Psychotherapist Leslie Greenberg by Leslie Grennberg and Philip Brownell; in: Gestalt!, 1/1997.[1] Archived 8 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine
5. Some Gestalt psychologists distanced themselves strongly from Gestalt therapy, like Henle, M. (1978): Gestalt psychology and Gestalt therapy, in: Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences 14 (1), pg. 23-32. Henle, however, restricts herself explicitly to only three of Perls' books from 1969 and 1972, leaving out Perls' earlier work, and Gestalt therapy in general. See Barlow criticizing Henle: Allen R. Barlow: Gestalt Therapy and Gestalt Psychology. Gestalt – Antecedent Influence or Historical Accident, in: The Gestalt Journal, Volume IV, Number 2, Fall, 1981.
6. John Sommers-Flanagan; Rita Sommers-Flanagan (2012). Counseling and Psychotherapy Theories in Context and Practice: Skills, Strategies, and Techniques, 2nd edition. John Wiley & Sons. p. 199. ISBN 0470617934.
7. Brownell, P. (2010) Gestalt Therapy: A Guide to Contemporary Practice. New York, NY: Springer Publishing
8. Beisser, A. (1970) The Paradoxical Theory of Change. In J. Fagan & I. Shepherd (eds.) Gestalt Therapy Now: Theory, Techniques, and Applications, pp. 77-80. Palo Alto, CA: Science and Behavior Books
9. Joseph Zinker (1977). The Creative Process in Gestalt Therapy. New York, Vintage Books.
10. Brownell, P. (2010) Gestalt Therapy: A Guide to Contemporary Practice. New York, NY: Springer Publishing. p. 174.
11. Brownell, P., ed.(2008) Handbook for Theory, Research, and Practice in Gestalt Therapy, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
12. Polster, E. & Polster, M. (1973) Gestalt Therapy Integrated: Contours of theory and practice. New York, NY: Brunner-Mazel.
13. Wheeler, G. (1991) Gestalt : A new approach to contact and resistance. New York, NY: Gardner.
14. Yontef, G. (1993) Awareness, Dialogue, and Process, essays on Gestalt therapy. Highland, NY: The Gestalt Journal Press, Inc.
15. Yontef, G. (2005) Gestalt Therapy Theory of Change, in Gestalt Therapy, History, Theory, and Practice. Ansel Woldt & Sarah Toman (eds). London, UK: Sage Publications
16. Spinelli, E. (2005) The interpreted world, an introduction to phenomenological psychology, 2nd edition. London, UK: Sage Publications.
17. Brownell, P. (2009) Gestalt therapy in The Professional Counselor's Desk Reference, Mark A. Stebnicki, Ph.D. and Irmo Marini, Ph.D. (eds.), New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company.
18. Brownell, P. (2010) Gestalt Therapy: A Guide to Contemporary Practice, New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company.
19. Crocker, S. (1999) A well-lived life, essays in Gestalt therapy. Cambridge, MA: Gestalt Press.
20. Melnick, J., March Nevis, S. (2005) Gestalt Therapy Methodology in Gestalt Therapy, History, Theory, and Practice. Ansel Woldt & Sarah Toman (eds). London, UK: Sage Publications
21. Beisser, A. (1970) The paradoxical theory of change, in J.Fagan & I Shepherd (eds) Gestalt Therapy Now: Theory, Techniques, Applications. Palo Alto, CA: Science and Behavior Books.
22. Houston, G. (2003) Brief Gestalt Therapy. London, UK: Sage Publications.
23. gdh. "Chapter15 - page 21 of 108".
24. Nichol, M. P. & Schwartz, R. C. (2008). Family Therapy: Concepts and Methods (8th ed.). New York: Pearson Education. p. 227. ISBN 978-0-205-54320-5.
25. Daniel L. Schacter; Daniel T. Gilbert; Daniel M. Wegner (2011). Psychology(2nd ed.). New York, NY: Worth Publishers. p. 602–603. ISBN 1429237198.
26. "Cool Intervention #9: The Empty Chair". Psychology Today.
27. Bernd Bocian (2010). Fritz Perls in Berlin 1893 - 1933. Expressionism - Psychoanalysis - Judaism. EHP Verlag Andreas Kohlhage, Bergisch Gladbach.
28. For Goldstein's influence on the theory and practice of Gestalt therapy see: Allen R. Barlow: Gestalt Therapy and Gestalt Psychology. Gestalt-antecedent influence or historical accident, The Gestalt Journal, Volume IV, Number 2, (Fall, 1981)
29. Perls, F., (1969) In and Out the Garbage Pail Lafayette, CA: Real People Press.
30. "Oral Link".
31. "Esalen Founders - Esalen".
32. Stevens, B. (1970) Don't Push the River (It Flows by Itself), Lafaette, CA: Real People Press.
33. Gestalt therapy integrated : contours of theory and practice, by Erving Polster and Miriam Polster, New York : Vintage Books, 1974
34. Buber, Martin; Rogers, Carl Ransom; Anderson, Rob; Cissna, Kenneth N. (14 August 1997). "The Martin Buber - Carl Rogers Dialogue: A New Transcript With Commentary". SUNY Press – via Google Books.
35. "Oral Link".
36. Woldt, A. (2005) Pre-text: Gestalt pedagogy: Creating the field for teaching and learning, in Ansel Woldt & Sarah Toman (eds), Gestalt Therapy, History, Theory, and Practice. London, UK: Sage Publications.
37. "AAGT – Association for the Advancement of Gestalt Therapy".
38. ... "EAGT European Association for Gestalt Therapy".
39. GANZ Gestalt Australia & New Zealand

Further reading

• Perls, F. (1969) Ego, Hunger, and Aggression: The Beginning of Gestalt Therapy. New York, NY: Random House. (originally published in 1942, and re-published in 1947)
• Perls, F. (1969) Gestalt Therapy Verbatim[permanent dead link]. Moab, UT: Real People Press.
• Perls, F. (1969) In and Out the Garbage Pail. Lafayette, CA: Real People Press.
• Perls, F., Hefferline, R., & Goodman, P. (1951) Gestalt Therapy: Excitement and growth in the human personality. New York, NY: Julian.
• Perls, F. (1973) The Gestalt Approach & Eye Witness to Therapy. New York, NY: Bantam Books.
• Brownell, P. (2012) Gestalt Therapy for Addictive and Self-Medicating Behaviors. New York, NY: Springer Publishing.
• Levine, T.B-Y. (2011) Gestalt Therapy: Advances in Theory and Practice. New York, NY: Routledge.
• Bloom, D. & Brownell, P. (eds)(2011) Continuity and Change: Gestalt Therapy Now. Newcastle, UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing
• Mann, D. (2010) Gestalt Therapy: 100 Key Points & Techniques. London & New York: Routledge.
• Bocian, B. (2010): "Fritz Perls in Berlin 1893 - 1933. Expressionism - Psychonalysis - Judaism". Bergisch Gladbach: EHP Verlag Andreas Kohlhage. ISBN 978-3-89797-068-7
• Brownell, P. (2010) Gestalt Therapy: A Guide to Contemporary Practice. New York, NY, US: Springer Publishing
• Truscott, D. (2010) Gestalt therapy. In Derek Truscott, Becoming An Effective Psychotherapist: Adopting a Theory of Psychotherapy That's Right for You and Your Client, pp. 83–96. Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association.
• Brownell, P. (2009) Gestalt therapy. In Irmo Marini and Mark Stebnicki (eds) The Professional Counselor's Desk Reference, pp. 399–407. New York, NY, US: Springer Publishing Co.
• Staemmler, F-M. (2009) Aggression, Time, and Understanding: Contributions to the Evolution of Gestalt Therapy. New York, NY, US: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group; GestaltPress Book
• Brownell, P. (ed.) (2008) Handbook for Theory, Research, and Practice in Gestalt Therapy. Newcastle, UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing
• Polster, E. & Polster, M. (1973) Gestalt Therapy Integrated: Contours of theory and practice. New York, NY: Brunner-Mazel.
• Shorkey, C. & Uebel, M. (2008). Gestalt Therapy. In Terry Mizrahi and Larry Davis (eds) Encyclopedia of Social Work, 20th Edition. New York: Oxford University Press.
• Woldt, A. & Toman, S. (2005) "Gestalt Therapy: History, Theory and Practice." Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
• Bretz, HJ. (1994) "A Meta-Analysis of the Effectiveness of Gestalt Therapy" {Pub Med}
• Yontef, Gary (1993). Awareness, Dialogue, and Process (pbk. ed.). The Gestalt Journal Press. ISBN 0939266202.
• Crocker, Sylvia Fleming (1999). A Well-Lived Life, Essays in Gestalt Therapy (pbk. ed.). SAGE Publications. ISBN 0881632872.
• Toman, Sarah; Woldt, Ansel, eds. (2005). Gestalt Therapy History, Theory, and Practice (pbk. ed.). Gestalt Press. ISBN 0761927913.

External links

• Resources in your library
• Resources in other libraries
• Gestalt therapy at Curlie
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

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Paul R. Ehrlich
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 4/19/19



Paul R. Ehrlich
Ehrlich in 1974.
Born Paul Ralph Ehrlich
May 29, 1932 (age 86)
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
Residence Stanford, California, U.S.
Alma mater
University of Pennsylvania (AB)
University of Kansas (MA, PhD)
Known for The Population Bomb
Spouse(s) Anne Howland (m. 1954)
Children 1
Crafoord Prize (1990)
The Heinz Awards (1995, with Anne Ehrlich)
Tyler Prize for Environmental Achievement (1998)
Fellow of the Royal Society (2012)[1]
Scientific career
Population studies
Institutions Stanford University
Thesis The Morphology, Phylogeny and Higher Classification of the Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea) (1957)
Doctoral advisor C. D. Michener

Paul Ralph Ehrlich (born May 29, 1932) is an American biologist, best known for his warnings about the consequences of population growth and limited resources.[2] He is the Bing Professor of Population Studies of the Department of Biology of Stanford University and president of Stanford's Center for Conservation Biology.

Ehrlich became well known for his controversial 1968 book The Population Bomb, which asserted that the world's human population would soon increase to the point where mass starvation ensued.[3][4] Among the solutions he suggested in that book was population control, to be used in his opinion if voluntary methods were to fail. Ehrlich has been criticized for his opinions; for example, Ronald Bailey termed Ehrlich an "irrepressible doomster".[5] However, Carl Haub observed that Ehrlich's warnings had encouraged governments to change their policies to avert disaster.[6] Ehrlich has acknowledged that some of what he predicted has not occurred, but maintains that his predictions about disease and climate change were essentially correct, and that human overpopulation is a major problem.[7]

Early life, education, and academic career

Ehrlich circa 2010

Ehrlich was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the son of William Ehrlich and Ruth (Rosenberg) Ehrlich. His father was a shirt salesman, his mother a Greek and Latin scholar[8] and public school teacher.[3] Ehrlich's mother's Reform-Jewish German ancestors arrived in the United States in the 1840s, and his paternal grandparents immigrated there later from the Galician and Romanian part of the Austrian Empire.[9] During his childhood his family moved to Maplewood, New Jersey, where he attended high school.[3]

Ehrlich earned a bachelor's degree in zoology from the University of Pennsylvania in 1953, an M.A. from the University of Kansas in 1955, and a Ph.D. from the University of Kansas in 1957, supervised by the prominent bee researcher Charles Duncan Michener (the title of his dissertation: "The Morphology, Phylogeny and Higher Classification of the Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea)").[10] During his studies he participated with surveys of insects in the areas of the Bering Sea and Canadian Arctic, and then with a National Institutes of Health fellowship, investigated the genetics and behavior of parasitic mites. In 1959 he joined the faculty at Stanford University, being promoted to professor of biology in 1966. By training he is an entomologist specializing in Lepidoptera (butterflies); he published a major paper about the evolution of plants and insects.[11] He was appointed to the Bing Professorship in 1977.[12][13]

He is president of the Center for Conservation Biology at Stanford University.[14] He is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the United States National Academy of Sciences, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the American Philosophical Society.[12]

Overpopulation debate

Further information: Human overpopulation

The case for a population bomb: human population has dramatically increased.

The case against a population bomb: Since the 1950s population growth rate has decreased, and is projected to decline further.

A lecture that Ehrlich gave on the topic of overpopulation at the Commonwealth Club of California was broadcast by radio in April 1967.[15] The success of the lecture caused further publicity, and the suggestion from David Brower the executive director of the environmentalist Sierra Club, and Ian Ballantine of Ballantine Books to write a book concerning the topic. Ehrlich and his wife, Anne Ehrlich, collaborated on the book, The Population Bomb, but the publisher insisted that a single author be credited.[16]

Although Ehrlich was not the first to warn about population issues – concern had been widespread during the 1950s and 1960s – his charismatic and media-savvy methods helped publicize the topic.[17]


The Population Bomb (1968)

The original edition of The Population Bomb began with this statement: "The battle to feed all of humanity is over. In the 1970s hundreds of millions of people will starve to death in spite of any crash programs embarked upon now. At this late date nothing can prevent a substantial increase in the world death rate ..."[18] Ehrlich argued that the human population was too great, and that while the extent of disaster could be mitigated, humanity could not prevent severe famines, the spread of disease, social unrest, and other negative consequences of overpopulation. By the end of the 1970s, this prediction proved to be incorrect. However, he continued to argue that societies must take strong action to decrease population growth in order to mitigate future disasters, both ecological and social.

In the book Ehrlich presented a number of "scenarios" detailing possible future events, some of which have been used as examples of errors in the years since. Of these scenarios, Ehrlich has said that although, "we clearly stated that they were not predictions and that 'we can be sure that none of them will come true as stated,’ (p. 72) – their failure to occur is often cited as a failure of prediction. In honesty, the scenarios were way off, especially in their timing (we underestimated the resilience of the world system). But they did deal with future issues that people in 1968 should have been thinking about." Ehrlich further states that he still endorses the main thesis of the book, and that its message is as apt now as it was in 1968.[16]

Ehrlich's opinions have evolved over time, and he has proposed different solutions to the problem of overpopulation. In The Population Bomb he wrote, "We must have population control at home, hopefully through a system of incentives and penalties, but by compulsion if voluntary methods fail. We must use our political power to push other countries into programs which combine agricultural development and population control."[18] Voluntary measures he has endorsed include the easiest possible availability of birth control and abortion. In 1967 he had expressed his belief that aid should only be given to those countries that were not considered to be "hopeless" to feed their own populations.[19]

The Population Explosion (1990)

In their sequel to The Population Bomb, the Ehrlichs wrote about how the world's growing population dwarfs the Earth's capacity to sustain current living standards. The book calls for action to confront population growth and the ensuing crisis:[20]

When is an area overpopulated? When its population can't be maintained without rapidly depleting nonrenewable resources [39] (or converting renewable resources into nonrenewable ones) and without degrading the capacity of the environment to support the population. In short, if the long-term carrying capacity of an area is clearly being degraded by its current human occupants, that area is overpopulated.

Optimum Human Population Size (1994)

In this paper, the Ehrlichs discuss the 'optimal size' for human population, given current technological realities. They refer to establishing "social policies to influence fertility rates."[21]

Ehrlich speaking in 2008

After 2000

During a 2004 interview, Ehrlich answered questions about the predictions he made in The Population Bomb. He acknowledged that some of what he had published had not occurred, but reaffirmed his basic opinion that overpopulation is a major problem. He noted that, "Fifty-eight academies of science said that same thing in 1994, as did the world scientists' warning to humanity in the same year. My view has become depressingly mainline!"[7] Ehrlich also stated that 600 million people were very hungry, billions were under-nourished, and that his predictions about disease and climate change were essentially correct.[7] Retrospectively, Ehrlich believes that The Population Bomb was "way too optimistic".[15]

In a 2008 discussion hosted by the website Salon, Paul Ehrlich has become more critical of the United States specifically, claiming that it should control its population and consumption as an example to the rest of the world. He has disavowed some of what he said in The Population Bomb. He still thinks that governments should discourage people from having more than two children, suggesting, for example, a higher tax rate for larger families.[22]

In 2011, as the world's population passed the seven billion mark Ehrlich has argued that the next two billion people on Earth would cause more damage than the previous two billion because we are now increasingly having to resort to using more marginal and environmentally damaging resources.[23] As of 2013, Ehrlich continues to perform policy research concerning population and resource issues, with an emphasis upon endangered species, cultural evolution, environmental ethics, and the preservation of genetic resources. Along with Dr. Gretchen Daily, he has performed work in countryside biogeography; that is, the study of making human-disturbed areas hospitable to biodiversity. His research group at Stanford University examines extensively natural populations of the Bay checkerspot butterfly (Euphydryas editha bayensis).[24] The population-related disasters Ehrlich predicted have largely failed to materialize, with population growth rates slowing and new food production technologies increasing the food supply faster than the population.[25] Ehrlich endorses his general thesis that the human population is too large, posing a direct threat to human survival and the environment of the planet.[25]


Wheat yields have grown rapidly in least developed countries since 1961, however, they have recently levelled off.[26]

Critics have disputed Ehrlich's main thesis about overpopulation and its effects on the environment and human society, and his solutions, as well as some of his specific predictions made since the late 1960s. One criticism concerns Ehrlich's allegedly alarmist and sensational statements and inaccurate "predictions". Ronald Bailey of Reason Magazine has termed him an "irrepressible doomster ... who, as far as I can tell, has never been right in any of his forecasts of imminent catastrophe."[5] On the first Earth Day in 1970, he warned that "n ten years all important animal life in the sea will be extinct. Large areas of coastline will have to be evacuated because of the stench of dead fish."[5][27] In a 1971 speech, he predicted that: "By the year 2000 the United Kingdom will be simply a small group of impoverished islands, inhabited by some 70 million hungry people." "If I were a gambler," Professor Ehrlich concluded before boarding an airplane, " I would take even money that England will not exist in the year 2000."[5][27] When this scenario did not occur, he responded that "When you predict the future, you get things wrong. How wrong is another question. I would have lost if I had had taken the bet. However, if you look closely at England, what can I tell you? They're having all kinds of problems, just like everybody else."[5] Ehrlich wrote in The Population Bomb that, "India couldn't possibly feed two hundred million more people by 1980."[18]

Carl Haub of the Population Reference Bureau has replied that it was precisely the alarmist rhetoric that prevented the catastrophes of which Ehrlich warned. According to Haub, "It makes no sense that Ehrlich is now criticized as being alarmist because his dire warnings did not, in the main, come true. But it was because of such warnings from Ehrlich and others that countries took action to avoid potential disaster."[6] During the 1960s and 70s when Ehrlich made his most alarming warnings, there was a widespread belief among experts that population growth presented an extremely serious threat to the future of human civilization, although differences existed regarding the severity of the situation, and how to decrease it.[17][28]

[i]A large increase in global food production since the 1960s and a slowing of population growth have, within the current context of continued depletion of non-renewable resources, averted the scale of food shortage, famine and catastrophe foretold by the Ehrlichs.

Dan Gardner argues that Ehrlich has been insufficiently forthright in acknowledging errors he made, while being intellectually dishonest or evasive in taking credit for things he claims he got "right". For example, he rarely acknowledges the mistakes he made in predicting material shortages, massive death tolls from starvation (as many as one billion in the publication Age of Affluence) or regarding the disastrous effects on specific countries. Meanwhile, he is happy to claim credit for "predicting" the increase of AIDS or global warming. However, in the case of disease, Ehrlich had predicted the increase of a disease based on overcrowding, or the weakened immune systems of starving people, so it is "a stretch to see this as forecasting the emergence of AIDS in the 1980s." Similarly, global warming was one of the scenarios that Ehrlich described, so claiming credit for it, while disavowing responsibility for failed scenarios is a double standard. Gardner believes that Ehrlich is displaying classical signs of cognitive dissonance, and that his failure to acknowledge obvious errors of his own judgement render his current thinking suspect.[17]

Barry Commoner has criticized Ehrlich's 1970 statement that "When you reach a point where you realize further efforts will be futile, you may as well look after yourself and your friends and enjoy what little time you have left. That point for me is 1972."[29] Gardner has criticized Ehrlich for endorsing the strategies proposed by William and Paul Paddock in their book Famine 1975!. They had proposed a system of "triage" that would end food aid to "hopeless" countries such as India and Egypt. In Population Bomb, Ehrlich suggests that "there is no rational choice except to adopt some form of the Paddocks' strategy as far as food distribution is concerned." Had this strategy been implemented for countries such as India and Egypt, which were reliant on food aid at that time, they would almost certainly have suffered famines.[17] Instead, both Egypt and India have greatly increased their food production and now feed much larger populations without reliance on food aid.[19]

Left-wing critics

Another group of critics, generally of the political left, argues that Ehrlich emphasizes overpopulation too much as a problem in itself instead of distribution of resources.[16] Barry Commoner argued that Ehrlich emphasized overpopulation too much as the source of environmental problems, and that his proposed solutions were politically unacceptable because of the coercion that they implied, and because they would cost poor people disproportionately. He argued that technological, and above all social development would result in a natural decrease of both population growth and environmental damage.[30] Ehrlich denies any type of racism, and has argued that if his policy ideas were implemented properly they would not be repressive.[31]

In a 2018 interview with The Guardian, Ehrlich advocated for an "unprecedented redistribution of wealth" in order to mitigate the problem of overconsumption of resources by the wealthy, but said "the rich who now run the global system – that hold the annual ‘world destroyer’ meetings in Davos – are unlikely to let it happen."[32]

Simon–Ehrlich wager

Julian Simon, a cornucopian economist, argued that overpopulation is not a problem in itself, and that humanity will adapt to changing conditions. Simon argued that eventually human creativity will improve living standards, and that most resources were replaceable.[33] Simon stated that over hundreds of years, the prices of virtually all commodities have decreased significantly and persistently.[34] Ehrlich termed Simon the proponent of a "space-age cargo cult" of economists convinced that human creativity and ingenuity would create substitutes for scarce resources and reasserted the idea that population growth was outstripping the earth's supplies of food, fresh water and minerals.[4] This exchange resulted in the Simon–Ehrlich wager, a bet about the trend of prices for resources during a ten-year period that was made with Simon in 1980.[4] Ehrlich was allowed to choose ten commodities that he predicted would become scarce and thus increase in price. Ehrlich chose mostly metals, and lost the bet, as their average price decreased by about 30% in the next 10 years. Simon and Ehrlich could not agree about the terms of a second bet.

Ehrlich's response to critics

Ehrlich has argued that humanity has simply deferred the disaster by the use of more intensive agricultural techniques, such as those introduced during the Green Revolution. Ehrlich claims that increasing populations and affluence are increasingly stressing the global environment, due to such factors as loss of biodiversity, overfishing, global warming, urbanization, chemical pollution and competition for raw materials.[35] He maintains that due to growing global incomes, reducing consumption and human population is critical to protecting the environment and maintaining living standards, and that current rates of growth are still too great for a sustainable future.[36][37][38][39]

Other activities

Ehrlich was one of the initiators of the group Zero Population Growth (renamed Population Connection) in 1968, along with Richard Bowers and Charles Remington. In 1971, Ehrlich was elected to the Common Cause National Governing Board. He and his wife Anne were part of the board of advisers of the Federation for American Immigration Reform until 2003. He is currently a patron of Population Matters, (formerly known as the Optimum Population Trust).[40]

Consistent with his concern about the impact of pollution and in response to a doctoral dissertation by his student Edward Goth III, Ehrlich wrote in 1977 that, “Fluorides have been shown to concentrate in food chains, and evidence suggesting a potential for significant ecological effects is accumulating.”[41]

Ehrlich has spoken at conferences in Israel on the issue of desertification. He has argued that "True Zionists should have small families".[42]

Personal life

Ehrlich has been married to Anne H. Ehrlich (née Howland) since December 1954; they have one daughter, Lisa Marie.[43]

Ehrlich has said he has had a vasectomy.[44]

Awards and honors

• The John Muir Award of the Sierra Club
• The Gold Medal Award of the World Wildlife Fund International
• A MacArthur Prize Fellowship
• The Crafoord Prize, awarded by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences and considered the highest award given in the field of ecology
• ECI Prize winner in terrestrial ecology, 1993
• A World Ecology Award from the International Center for Tropical Ecology, University of Missouri, 1993
• The Volvo Environmental Prize, 1993
• The United Nations Sasakawa Environment Prize, 1994
• The 1st Annual Heinz Award in the Environment (with Anne Ehrlich), 1995[45]
• The Tyler Prize for Environmental Achievement, 1998
• The Dr A.H. Heineken Prize for Environmental Sciences, 1998
• The Blue Planet Prize, 1999
• The Eminent Ecologist Award of the Ecological Society of America, 2001
• The Distinguished Scientist Award of the American Institute of Biological Sciences, 2001
• Ramon Margalef Prize in Ecology and Environmental Sciences of the Generalitat of Catalonia, 2009.
• Fellow of the Royal Society of London 2012 [1]
• 2013 BBVA Foundation Frontiers of Knowledge Award in Ecology and Conservation Biology



• How to Know the Butterflies (1960)
• Process of Evolution (1963)
• Butterflies and Plants: A Study in Coevolution (1964)
• The Population Bomb (1968, revised 1971, updated 1978, re-issued 1988, 1998, 2008 and 2018)
• Population, Resources, Environments: Issues in Human Ecology (1970)
• How to Be a Survivor (1971)
• Man and the Ecosphere: Readings from Scientific American (1971)
• Population, Resources, Environments: Issues in Human Ecology Second Edition (1972)
• Human Ecology: Problems and Solutions (1973)
• Introductory Biology (1973)
• The End of Affluence (1975)
• Biology and Society (1976)
• Ecoscience: Population, Resources, Environment (1978)
• The Race Bomb (1978)
• Extinction (1981)
• The Golden Door: International Migration, Mexico, and the United States(1981)
• The Cold and the Dark: The World after Nuclear War (1984, with Carl Sagan, Donald Kennedy, and Walter Orr Roberts)
• The Machinery of Nature: The Living World Around Us and How it Works(1986)
• Earth (1987, co-authored with Anne Ehrlich)
• Science of Ecology (1987, with Joan Roughgarden)
• The Cassandra Conference: Resources and the Human Predicament(1988)
• The Birder's Handbook: A field Guide to the Natural History of North American Birds (1988, with David S. Dobkin and Darryl Wheye)
• New World, New Mind: Moving Towards Conscious Evolution (1988, co-authored with Robert Ornstein)[46]
• The Population Explosion (1990, with Anne Ehrlich)
• Healing the Planet: Strategies for Resolving the Environmental Crisis(1991, co-authored with Anne Ehrlich)
• Birds in Jeopardy: The Imperiled and Extinct Birds of the United States and Canada, Including Hawaii and Puerto Rico (1992, with David S. Dobkin and Darryl Wheye)
• The Stork and the Plow : The Equity Answer to the Human Dilemma (1995, with Anne Ehrlich and Gretchen C. Daily)
• A World of Wounds: Ecologists and the Human Dilemma (1997)
• Betrayal of Science and Reason: How Anti-Environment Rhetoric Threatens Our Future (1998, with Anne Ehrlich)
• Wild Solutions: How Biodiversity is Money in the Bank (2001, with Andrew Beattie)
• Human Natures: Genes, Cultures, and the Human Prospect (2002)
• One With Nineveh: Politics, Consumption, and the Human Future (2004, with Anne Ehrlich)
• On the Wings of Checkerspots: A Model System for Population Biology(2004, edited volume, co-edited with Ilkka Hanski)
• The Dominant Animal: Human Evolution and the Environment (2008, with Anne Ehrlich)
• Humanity on a Tightrope: Thoughts on Empathy, Family, and Big Changes for a Viable Future (2010, with Robert E. Ornstein)
• Conservation Biology for All (2010, edited volume, co-edited with Navjot S. Sodhi)
• Hope on Earth: A Conversation (2014, co-authored with Michael Charles Tobias) ISBN 978-0-226-11368-5
• Killing the Koala and Poisoning the Prairie: Australia, America and the Environment (2015, co-authored with Corey J. A. Bradshaw)
• The Annihilation of Nature: Human Extinction of Birds and Mammals(2015, with Anne Ehrlich and Gerardo Ceballos)


• Ehrlich, P. R. (2010). "The MAHB, the Culture Gap, and Some Really Inconvenient Truths". PLoS Biology. 8 (4): e1000330. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1000330. PMC 2850377. PMID 20386722.
• Ceballos, Gerardo; Ehrlich, Paul R.; Barnosky, Anthony D.; García, Andrés; Pringle, Robert M.; Palmer, Todd M. (2015). "Accelerated modern human–induced species losses: Entering the sixth mass extinction". Science Advances. 1 (5): e1400253. doi:10.1126/sciadv.1400253. PMC 4640606. PMID 26601195.
• Ceballos, Gerardo; Ehrlich, Paul R.; Dirzo, Rodolfo (23 May 2017). "Biological annihilation via the ongoing sixth mass extinction signaled by vertebrate population losses and declines". PNAS. 114 (30): E6089–E6096. doi:10.1073/pnas.1704949114. PMC 5544311. PMID 28696295.

See also

• Demography
• Passenger pigeon
• Population Connection
• Malthusianism
• Netherlands fallacy



1. Professor Paul R. Ehrlich ForMemRS, The Royal Society, retrieved September 26, 2012.
2. Mieszkowski, Katharine (2008-09-17). "Do we need population control?". Retrieved 2012-09-27.
3. Leaders from the 1960s: A Biographical Sourcebook of American Activism. Greenwood Press, 1994. 1994. p. 318. ISBN 9780313274145.
4. Tierney, John (December 2, 1990). "Betting on the Planet". The New York Times. Retrieved September 26, 2012.
5. Ronald Bailey (30 December 2010). "Cracked Crystal Ball: Environmental Catastrophe Edition". – Free minds and free markets. Reason Foundation. Retrieved 4 March 2013.
6. Haub, Carl (5 November 2008). "In Defense of Paul Ehrlich". Behind the Numbers: The PRB blog on population, health, and the environment. Retrieved 10 February 2011.
7. Ehrlich, Paul (13 August 2004). "When Paul's Said and Done". Grist Magazine. Archived from the original on 15 November 2004. Retrieved 24 Sep 2015. Some things I predicted have not come to pass.
8. Phillip Adams; Kate MacDonald (19 November 2009). "PAUL EHRLICH". Radio National. ABC. Retrieved 4 March 2013.
9. Inherit the Holy Mountain: Religion and the Rise of American Environmentalism. Oxford University Press, 2015. 2017-09-15. p. 260. ISBN 9780190697945.
10. Ehrlich, Paul R., "The Morphology, Phylogeny and Higher Classification of the Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea)," Ph.D. dissertation, University of Kansas, May 1957.
11. Ehrlich, Paul R.; Raven, Peter H. (1964). "Butterflies and Plants: A Study in Coevolution". Evolution. 18 (4): 586–608. doi:10.2307/2406212. JSTOR 2406212.
12. Paul R. Ehrlich (2001). "PAUL R. EHRLICH" (PDF). Paul R. Ehrlich Resume. Stanford University. Retrieved 4 March 2013.
13. Lewis, J. "Biologist Paul R. Ehrlich. Six billion and counting". Scientific American October 2000, pages 30, 32.
14. "Paul R. Ehrlich". Center for Conservation Biology – Department of Biology. Stanford University. 2013. Retrieved 4 March 2013.
15. Tom Turner (2011). "Story: Paul Ehrlich, the Vindication of a Public Scholar". (first published by The Earth Island Journal). American Public Media. Retrieved 4 March 2013.
16. Paul R. Ehrlich; Anne H. Ehrlich (2009). "The Population Bomb Revisited" (PDF). Electronic Journal of Sustainable Development. 1 (3): 63–71. Retrieved September 26, 2012.
17. Dan Gardner (2010). Future Babble: Why Expert Predictions Fail – and Why We Believe Them Anyway. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart.
18. Ehrlich, Paul R. (1968). The Population Bomb. Ballantine Books.
19. Lomborg, Bjørn (2002). The skeptical environmentalist : measuring the real state of the world. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press. p. 350. ISBN 978-0-521-01068-9. In 1967 Paul Ehrlich predicted that the world was headed for massive starvation. In order to limit the extent of this, he believed – reasonably enough given his point of view – that aid should be given only to those countries that would have a chance to make it through. According to Ehrlich, India was not among them. We must "announce that we will no longer send emergency aid to countries such as India where sober analysis shows a hopeless imbalance between food production and population . . . Our inadequate aid ought to be reserved for those which can survive."
20. Ehrlich, Paul R.; Ehrlich, Anne H. (1990). The population explosion. London: Hutchinson. pp. 39–40. ISBN 978-0091745516. Retrieved 20 July 2014.
21. Daily, Gretchen C.; Ehrlich, Anne H. and Ehrlich, Paul R. Optimum Human Population Size. Population and Environment: A Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies Volume 15, Number 6, July 1994 01994 Human Sciences Press.
22. Katharine Mieszkowski (17 Sep 2008). "Do we need population control?".
23. Hall, Eleanor (31 October 2011). "Population analyst warns of catastrophe". The World Today. Retrieved 31 October 2011.
24. "Longterm studies of the Bay checkerspot butterfly and feasibility of reintroduction". Archived from the original on 2006-09-02.
25. Haberman, Clyde (2015-05-31). "The Unrealized Horrors of Population Explosion". The New York Times. Retrieved 2015-05-31.
26. "Wheat yields are levelling off, even in some developing countries". June 25, 2012.
27. Maxim Lott (December 30, 2010). "Eight Botched Environmental Forecasts". FOX News. Retrieved 2015-10-31. Again, not totally accurate, but I never claimed to predict the future with full accuracy
28. Leonhardt, David (September 30, 2013). "Lessons From a Famous Bet". New York Times. Retrieved 24 October 2013.
29. Barry Commoner (May 1972). "A Bulletin Dialogue: on "The Closing Circle" — Response". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists: 17–56.
30. Barry Commoner (May 1972). "A Bulletin Dialogue: on "The Closing Circle" — Response". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists: 17–56. Population control (as distinct from voluntary, self-initiated control of fertility), no matter how disguised, involves some measure of political repression, and would burden the poor nations with the social cost of a situation — overpopulation — which is the current outcome of their previous exploitation, as colonies, by the wealthy nations.
31. Paul Ehrlich; Shirley Feldman (1978). The Race Bomb. Ballantine Books.
32. Carrington, Damian (March 22, 2018). "Paul Ehrlich: 'Collapse of civilisation is a near certainty within decades'". The Guardian. Retrieved April 4, 2018.
33. Simon, JL (June 27, 1980). "Resources, Population, Environment: An Oversupply of False Bad News". Science. 208 (4451): 1431–1437. doi:10.1126/science.7384784. JSTOR 1684670. PMID 7384784.
34. Ronald Bailey (2015). The End of Doom. St. Martin's Press. pp. 38, 59. ISBN 978-1-250-05767-9. ...nearly all resources in the past were much more expensive than they are today
35. Paul Ehrlich; Anne Ehrlich (2004). One with Nineveh:politics, consumption, and the human future. Island Press.
36. Patt Morrison (12 February 2011). "Paul R. Ehrlich: Saving Earth". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 4 March 2013. Consumption is equally important. I'd think the biggest problem is figuring out what to do on consumption. We don't have any consumption condoms.
37. Cristina Luiggi (1 December 2010). "Still Ticking". The Scientist. LabX Media Group. Retrieved 4 March 2013.
38. Ehrlich, Paul R.; Ehrlich, Anne H. (March 7, 2013). "Can a collapse of global civilization be avoided?". Proceedings of the Royal Society. B. 280 (1754): 20122845. doi:10.1098/rspb.2012.2845. PMC 3574335. PMID 23303549. Retrieved January 27, 2013. Also see: Comment by Prof. Michael Kelly, disagreeing with the paper by Ehrlich and Ehrlich; and response by the authors.
39. Colin Fraser (3 February 2008). "Green revolution could still blow up in our face". The Age. Fairfax Media. Retrieved 4 March 2013.
40. "Population Matters Patron". Archived from the original on 2014-06-25.
41. Zelko F. Optimizing nature: Invoking the “natural” in the struggle over water fluoridation. History of Science. 2018; 1–22.
42. "'True Zionists should have small families' suggests Paul Ehrlich, 40 years after writing 'The Population Bomb'".
43. "Whitney R. Harris World Ecology Center: Dr. Paul Ehrlich". Retrieved June 21, 2010.
44. Dowbiggen 2008, p. 168.
45. "The Heinz Awards, Paul and Anne Ehrlich profile". Retrieved 2012-05-20.
46. "New World New Mind - Pdf Edition". Archived from the original on 2012-02-05. Retrieved 2012-05-24.

Cited books

• Dowbiggin, Ian Robert (2008). The Sterilization Movement and Global Fertility in the Twentieth Century. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195188585.

Further reading

• Robertson, Thomas. (2012) The Malthusian Moment: Global Population Growth and the Birth of American Environmentalism, Rutgers University Press: New Brunswick, New Jersey. ISBN 0813552729.

External links

• Paul R. Ehrlich Papers
• Paul R. Ehrlich's faculty web page at Stanford University
• Biographical page at the International Center for Tropical Ecology, University of Missouri, St. Louis
• Paul R. Ehrlich on IMDb
• "The Population Bomb Revisited", Electronic Journal of Sustainable Development, 2009
• Several online Paul Ehrlich interviews
• "Plowboy Interview" of Paul Ehrlich, 1974 from The Mother Earth News
• Paul R. Ehrlich and the prophets of doom A look at Ehrlich's treatment of exponential growth.
• Paul Ehrlich, a prophet of global population doom who is gloomier than ever. The Guardian. October 2011.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sat Apr 20, 2019 1:05 am

Edward Cornish
Accessed: 4/19/19

Biographical Information

"Edward Cornish is the founder of the World Future Society and editor of its flagship publication, THE FUTURIST magazine.

"Mr. Cornish has been a student and proponent of futures studies for nearly five decades. He became interested in the impact of science and technology on human life while working as a National Geographic magazine science writer in the late 1950s. In 1966, he published a six-page newsletter consisting of brief reports on books and activities related to the future. Favorable response encouraged him to contemplate an association for people interested in forecasts and social and technological change. The World Future Society was officially launched in October 1966 with the support of comprehensive designer Buckminster Fuller, Nobel Prize winning chemist Glenn T. Seaborg, former U.S. Secretary of Agriculture Orville Freeman, and many other futurist thinkers. The first issue of THE FUTURIST appeared in early 1967.

"As a futurist, he has served as an advisor for three U.S. presidents, co-authored a report by the White House’s National Goals Research Staff, and served as chief investigator of future studies for the National Science Foundation and the Library of Congress. Mr. Cornish penned "Your Changing World," a weekly syndicated column, from 1984 to 1986.

"Mr. Cornish is the author of The Study of the Future: An Introduction to the Art and Science of Understanding and Shaping Tomorrow’s World (1977) and has written and edited many publications for the World Future Society. He lives in Bethesda, Maryland[1]


1. World Future Society Edward Cornish, organizational web page, accessed May 10, 2012.
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