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Society for Psychical Research
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 4/26/19



The second generation of the Cecil Bloc was famous at the time that it was growing up (and political power was still in the hands of the first generation) as "The Souls," a term applied to them partly in derision and partly in envy but used by themselves later. This group, flitting about from one great country house to another or from one spectacular social event to another in the town houses of their elders, has been preserved for posterity in the autobiographical volumes of Margot Tennant Asquith and has been caricatured in the writings of Oscar Wilde. The frivolity of this group can be seen in Margot Tennant's statement that she obtained for Milner his appointment to the chairmanship of the Board of Inland Revenue in 1892 merely by writing to Balfour and asking for it after she had a too brief romantic interlude with Milner in Egypt. As a respected scholar of my acquaintance has said, this group did everything in a frivolous fashion, including entering the Boer War and the First World War.

One of the enduring creations of the Cecil Bloc is the Society for Psychical Research, which holds a position in the history of the Cecil Bloc similar to that held by the Royal Institute of International Affairs in the Milner Group. The Society was founded in 1882 by the Balfour family and their in-laws, Lord Rayleigh and Professor Sidgwick. In the twentieth century it was dominated by those members of the Cecil Bloc who became most readily members of the Milner Group. Among these we might mention Gilbert Murray, who performed a notable series of experiments with his daughter, Mrs. Arnold J. Toynbee, in the years before 1914, and Dame Edith Lyttelton, herself a Balfour and widow of Arthur Balfour's closest friend, who was president of the Society in 1933-1934.

-- The Anglo-American Establishment: From Rhodes to Cliveden, by Carroll Quigley

Society for Psychical Research
Abbreviation SPR
Formation 1882; 137 years ago
Legal status Non-profit organisation
Purpose Parapsychology
1 Vernon Mews, West Kensington, London W14 0RL
Region served
Psi researchers
Prof Chris Roe
Main organ
SPR Council
Website SPR

The Society for Psychical Research (SPR) is a nonprofit organisation in the United Kingdom. Its stated purpose is to understand events and abilities commonly described as psychic or paranormal. It describes itself as the "first society to conduct organised scholarly research into human experiences that challenge contemporary scientific models."[1] It does not, however, since its inception in 1882, hold any corporate opinions: SPR members assert a variety of beliefs with regard to the nature of the phenomena studied.[2]


Henry Sidgwick, first president of the SPR

The Society for Psychical Research (SPR) originated from a discussion between journalist Edmund Rogers and the physicist William F. Barrett in autumn 1881. This led to a conference on the 5 and 6 January 1882 at the headquarters of the British National Association of Spiritualists which the foundation of the Society was proposed.[3] The committee included Barrett, Rogers, Stainton Moses, Charles Massey, Edmund Gurney, Hensleigh Wedgwood and Frederic W. H. Myers.[4] The SPR was formally constituted on the 20 February 1882 with philosopher Henry Sidgwick as its first president.[5][6][7]

The SPR was the first organisation of its kind in the world, its stated purpose being "to approach these varied problems without prejudice or prepossession of any kind, and in the same spirit of exact and unimpassioned enquiry which has enabled science to solve so many problems, once not less obscure nor less hotly debated."[8]

Other early members included the author Jane Barlow,[9] the renowned chemist Sir William Crookes, physicist Sir Oliver Lodge, Nobel laureate Charles Richet and psychologist William James.[10]

Members of the SPR initiated and organised the International Congresses of Physiological/Experimental psychology.[11][12]

Areas of study included hypnotism, dissociation, thought-transference, mediumship, Reichenbach phenomena, apparitions and haunted houses and the physical phenomena associated with séances.[11][13][14] The SPR were to introduce a number of neologisms which have entered the English language, such as 'telepathy', which was coined by Frederic Myers.[15]

The Society is run by a President and a Council of twenty members, and is open to interested members of the public to join. The organisation is based at 1 Vernon Mews, London, with a library and office open to members, and with large book and archival holdings in Cambridge University Library, Cambridgeshire, England.[16] It publishes the peer reviewed quarterly Journal of the Society for Psychical Research (JSPR), the irregular Proceedings and the magazine Paranormal Review. It holds an annual conference, regular lectures and two study days per year[1][17] and supports the LEXSCIEN on-line library project.[18]


Psychical research

Among the first important works was the two-volume publication in 1886, Phantasms of the Living, concerning telepathy and apparitions, co-authored by Gurney, Myers and Frank Podmore.[19] This text, and subsequent research in this area, was received negatively by the scientific mainstream,[12] though Gurney and Podmore provided a defense of the society's early work in this area in mainstream publications.[20][21][22][23][24]

The SPR "devised methodological innovations such as randomized study designs" and conducted "the first experiments investigating the psychology of eyewitness testimony (Hodgson and Davey, 1887), [and] empirical and conceptual studies illuminating mechanisms of dissociation and hypnotism"[11]

In 1894, the Census of Hallucinations was published which sampled 17,000 people. Out of these, 1, 684 persons reported having experienced a hallucination of an apparition.[25] Such efforts were claimed to have undermined "the notion of dissociation and hallucinations as intrinsically pathological phenomena"[11]

The SPR investigated many spiritualist mediums such as Eva Carrière and Eusapia Palladino.[26]

During the early twentieth century, the SPR studied a series of automatic scripts and trance utterances from a group of automatic writers, known as the cross-correspondences.[27]

Famous cases investigated by the Society include Borley Rectory and the Enfield Poltergeist.

In 1912 the Society extended a request for a contribution to a special medical edition of its Proceedings to Sigmund Freud. Though according to Ronald W. Clark (1980) "Freud surmised, no doubt correctly, that the existence of any link between the founding fathers of psychoanalysis and investigation of the paranormal would hamper acceptance of psychoanalysis" as would any perceived involvement with the occult. Nonetheless, Freud did respond, contributing an essay titled "A Note on the Unconscious in Psycho-Analysis"[28] to the Medical Supplement to the Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research.[29]

Exposures of fraud

Much of the early work involved investigating, exposing and in some cases duplicating fake phenomena. In the late 19th century, SPR investigations into séance phenomena led to the exposure of many fraudulent mediums.[30]

Richard Hodgson distinguished himself in that area. In 1884, Hodgson was sent by the SPR to India to investigate Helena Blavatsky and concluded that her claims of psychic power were fraudulent.[31]

In 1886 and 1887 a series of publications by S. J. Davey, Hodgson and Sidgwick in the SPR journal exposed the slate writing tricks of the medium William Eglinton.[32] Hodgson with his friend, S. J. Davey, had staged fake séances for educating the public (including SPR members). Davey gave sittings under an assumed name, duplicating the phenomena produced by Eglinton, and then proceeded to point out to the sitters the manner in which they had been deceived. Because of this, some spiritualist members such as Stainton Moses resigned from the SPR.[32]

In 1891, Alfred Russel Wallace requested for the Society to properly investigate spirit photography.[33] Eleanor Sidgwick responded with a critical paper in the SPR which cast doubt on the subject and discussed the fraudulent methods that spirit photographers such as Édouard Isidore Buguet, Frederic Hudson and William H. Mumler had utilised.[34]

Due to the exposure of William Hope and other fraudulent mediums, Arthur Conan Doyle led a mass resignation of eighty-four members of the Society for Psychical Research, as they believed the Society was opposed to spiritualism.[35] Science historian William Hodson Brock has noted that "By the 1900s most avowed spiritualists had left the SPR and gone back to the BNAS (the London Spiritualist Alliance since 1884), having become upset by the sceptical tone of most of the SPR's investigations."[36]

Criticism of the SPR

The Society has been criticised by both spiritualists and sceptics.

Criticism from spiritualists

Prominent spiritualists at first welcomed the SPR and cooperated fully. But relations soured when spiritualists discovered that the SPR would not accept outside testimony as proof, and the society accused some prominent mediums of fraud. Spiritualist Arthur Conan Doyle resigned from the SPR in 1930, to protest what he regarded as the SPR's overly restrictive standards of proof. Psychic investigator and believer in spiritualism Nandor Fodor criticised the SPR for its "strong bias" against physical manifestations of spiritualism.[37]

Criticism from sceptics

Trevor H. Hall, a critic of the SPR

Sceptics have criticised members of the SPR for having motives liable to impair scientific objectivity. According to SPR critics John Grant and Eric Dingwall (a member of the SPR), early SPR members such as Henry Sidgwick, Frederic W. H. Myers, and William Barrett hoped to cling to something spiritual through psychical research.[38][39] Myers stated that "[T]he Society for Psychical Research was founded, with the establishment of thought-transference--already rising within measurable distance of proof--as its primary aim."[40] Defenders of the SPR have stated in reply that "a ‘will to believe’ in post-mortem survival, telepathy and other scientifically unpopular notions, does not necessarily exclude a "will to know" and thus the capacity for thorough self-criticism, methodological rigour and relentless suspicion of errors."[41]

The sceptic and physicist Victor J. Stenger has written:

The SPR ... on occasion exposed blatant cases of fraud even their own credulous memberships could not swallow. But their journals have never succeeded in achieving a high level of credibility in the eyes of the rest of the scientific community. ... most articles usually begin with the assumption that psychic phenomena are demonstrated realities.[42]

Ivor Lloyd Tuckett an author of an early sceptical work on psychical research wrote that although the SPR have collected some valuable work, most of its active members have "no training in psychology fitting them for their task, and have been the victims of pronounced bias, as sometimes they themselves have admitted."[43] Trevor H. Hall, an ex-member of the Society for Psychical Research, criticised SPR members as "credulous and obsessive wish... to believe." Hall also claimed SPR members "lack knowledge of deceptive methods."[44]

Writer Edward Clodd asserted that the SPR members William F. Barrett and Oliver Lodge had insufficient competence for the detection of fraud and suggested that their spiritualist beliefs were based on magical thinking and primitive superstition.[45] Clodd described the SPR as offering "barbaric spiritual philosophy", and characterised the language of SPR members as using such terms as "subliminal consciousness" and "telepathic energy," as a disguise for "bastard supernaturalism."[46]

A 2004 psychological study involving 174 members of the Society for Psychical Research completed a delusional ideation questionnaire and a deductive reasoning task. As predicted, the study showed that "individuals who reported a strong belief in the paranormal made more errors and displayed more delusional ideation than sceptical individuals". There was also a reasoning bias which was limited to people who reported a belief in, rather than experience of, paranormal phenomena. The results suggested that reasoning abnormalities may have a causal role in the formation of paranormal belief.[47]

Some sceptical members have resigned from the SPR. Eric Dingwall resigned and wrote " After sixty years' experience and personal acquaintance with most of the leading parapsychologists of that period I do not think I could name half a dozen whom I could call objective students who honestly wished to discover the truth. The great majority wanted to prove something or other: They wanted the phenomena into which they were inquiring to serve some purpose in supporting preconceived theories of their own."[38]


The following is a list of presidents:

Society for Psychical Research

1882-1884 Henry Sidgwick (1838–1900), Professor, Trinity College, Cambridge; Philosopher and Economist
1885-1887 Balfour Stewart (1827–1887), Professor, Owenham College, Manchester; Physicist
1888-1892 Henry Sidgwick (→ 1882), Professor, Trinity College, Cambridge; Philosopher and Economist
1893 Arthur Balfour KG, OM, PC, DL (1848–1930), later Prime Minister, known for the Balfour Declaration
1894-1895 William James (1842–1910) Professor, Harvard University; American Psychologist, Philosopher and Physician
1896-1899 Sir William Crookes (1832–1919), Physical Chemist, discovered the element Thallium, invented the Crookes tube
1900 Frederic W. H. Myers (1843–1901), Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge; Classicist and Philosopher
1901-1903 Sir Oliver Lodge (1851–1940), Professor, University College, Liverpool; Physicist and Mathematician, developer of wireless telegraphy
1904 William F. Barrett FRS (1845–1926), Professor, Royal College of Science, Dublin; Experimental Physicist
1905 Charles Richet (1850–1935), Professor, Collège de France, Paris; French Physiologist, Nobel Prize in Medicine/Physiology 1913
1906-1907 Gerald Balfour (1853–1945), Politician, brother of Arthur Balfour; Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge
1908-1909 Eleanor Sidgwick (1845–1936), Principal, Newnham College, Cambridge; Physicist
1910 Henry Arthur Smith (1848–1922), Barrister-at-Law, Middle Temple, London; Lawyer and author of legal treatises
1911 Andrew Lang (1844–1912), Fellow, Merton College, Oxford; Classicist and writer on folklore, mythology, and religion
1912 William Boyd Carpenter KCVO (1841–1918), Pastoral Lecturer, Theology, Cambridge; Bishop of Ripon
1913 Henri Bergson (1859–1941) Professor, Collège de France, Paris; Chair of Modern Philosophy; Nobel Prize, Literature 1927
1914 F. C. S. Schiller (1864–1937), Fellow, Corpus Christi College, Oxford; Philosopher
1915-1916 Gilbert Murray (1866–1957), Regius Professor of Greek, University of Oxford; Classicist
1917-1918 Lawrence Pearsall Jacks (1860–1955), Professor, Manchester College, Oxford; Philosopher and Theologian
1919 John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh OM, PRS (1842–1919), Cavendish Professor, Trinity College, Cambridge; Physicist, Nobel Prize, Physics 1904
1920-1921 William McDougall FRS (1871–1938), Professor, Duke University; Psychologist, founder J B Rhine Parapsychology Lab
1922 Thomas Walker Mitchell (1869–1944), Physician and Psychologist, Publisher of the British Journal of Medical Psychology 1920-1935
1923 Camille Flammarion (1842–1925), founder and first president of the Société Astronomique de France, author of popular science and science fiction works
1924-1925 John George Piddington (1869–1952), Businessman, John George Smith & Co., London
1926-1927 Hans Driesch (1867–1941), Professor, Universitaet Leipzig; German Biologist and Natural Philosopher, performed first animal cloning 1885
1928-1929 Sir Lawrence Evelyn Jones (1885–1955) Honorary Fellow, Balliol College, Oxford; Author
1930-1931 Walter Franklin Prince (1863–1934), Clergyman
1932 Eleanor Sidgwick (→ 1908) and Oliver Lodge (→ 1901)
1933-1934 Edith Lyttelton (born as Edith Balfour; 1865–1948), Writer
1935-1936 C. D. Broad (1887–1971), Philosopher
1937-1938 Robert Strutt, 4th Baron Rayleigh (1875–1947), Physicist
1939-1941 H. H. Price (1899–1984), Philosopher
1942-1944 Robert Henry Thouless (1894–1984), Psychologist
1945-1946 George Nugent Merle Tyrrell (1879–1952), Mathematician
1947-1948 William Henry Salter (1880–1969), Lawyer
1949 Gardner Murphy (1895–1979), Director of Research, Menninger Foundation, Topeka, Kansas; Psychologist
1950-1951 Samuel Soal (1889–1975), Mathematician
1952 Gilbert Murray (→ 1915)
1953-1955 F. J. M. Stratton (1881–1960), Astrophysicist, Professor in Cambridge University
1956-1958 Guy William Lambert (1889–1984), Diplomat
1958-1960 C. D. Broad (→ 1935)
1960-1961 H. H. Price (→ 1939)
1960-1963 E. R. Dodds (1893–1979), Hellenist, Professor in Birmingham and Oxford
1963-1965 Donald J. West (born 1924), Psychiatrist and criminologist
1965-1969 Sir Alister Hardy (1896–1985), Zoologist
1969-1971 W. A. H. Rushton (1901–1980), Physiologist, Professor in Cambridge
1971-1974 Clement Mundle (1916–1989), Philosopher
1974-1976 John Beloff (1920–2006), Psychologist at the University of Edinburgh
1976-1979 Arthur J. Ellison (1920–2000), Engineer
1980 Joseph Banks Rhine (1895–1980), Biologist and Parapsychologist
1980 Louisa Ella Rhine (1891–1983), Parapsychologist, wife of Joseph Rhine
1981-1983 Arthur J. Ellison (→ 1976)
1984-1988 Donald J. West (→ 1963)
1988-1989 Ian Stevenson (1918–2007), Psychiatrist
1992-1993 Alan Gauld (born 1932), Psychologist
1993-1995 Archie Roy (1924–2012), Professor of Astronomy in Glasgow, founded the Scottish SPR in 1987
1995-1998 David Fontana (1934–2010), Professor of Psychology in Cardiff
1998-1999 Donald J. West (→ 1963, → 1984)
2000-2004 Bernard Carr, Professor of Mathematics and Astronomy in London
2004-2007 John Poynton, Professor Emeritus of Biology, University of Natal
2007-2011 Deborah Delanoy, Parapsychologist
2011-2015 Richard S. Broughton, senior lecturer in psychology at The University of Northampton, UK
2015-2018 John Poynton (→2004)
2018- Chris Roe, Professor of Psychology, University of Northampton


The Society publishes Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research, the Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, and the Paranormal Review, as well as the online Psi Encyclopedia.[48][49][50]

Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research

First published in 1882 as a public record of the activities of the SPR, the Proceedings are now reserved for longer pieces of work, such as Presidential Addresses, and are only occasionally published.[51] The current editor is Dr David Vernon.

Journal of the Society for Psychical Research

The Journal of the Society for Psychical Research has been published quarterly since 1884. It was introduced as a private, members-only periodical to supplement the Proceedings.[51] It now focuses on current laboratory and field research, but also includes theoretical, methodological and historical papers on parapsychology. It also publishes book reviews and correspondence. The current editor is Dr David Vernon.

Paranormal Review

The Paranormal Review is the magazine of the Society for Psychical Research. Formerly known as the Psi Researcher, it has been published since 1996. Previous editors have included Dr Nicola J. Holt.[52] The current editor is Dr Leo Ruickbie.[49]

Other societies

A number of other psychical research organisations use the term 'Society for Psychical Research' in their name.

• Australia - In 1977 the Australian Institute of Parapsychological Research was founded.[53]
• Austria - Founded in 1927 as the Austrian Society for Psychical Research, today the Austrian Society for Parapsychology.[54]
• Canada - From 1908 to 1916 the Canadian Society for Psychical Research existed in Toronto.[55]
• Denmark - Selskabet for Psykisk Forskning (The Danish Society for Psychical Research) was founded in 1905.[56]
• Finland - Sällskapet för Psykisk Forskning (The Finnish Society for Psychical Research) was formed in 1907 by Arvi Grotenfelt as a first chairman, and the society existed until 2002. A splinter group for Finnish speaking people, Suomen parapsykologinen tutkimusseura (Parapsychological research society of Finland), still exists today.
• France - In 1885, a society called the Société de Psychologie Physiologique (Society for Physiological Psychology) was formed by Charles Richet, Théodule-Armand Ribot and Léon Marillier. It existed until 1890 when it was abandoned due to lack of interest.[57][58]
• Iceland - Sálarrannsóknarfélag Íslands (Icelandic Society for Psychical Research) was formed in 1918. It has a predecessor called the Experimental Society, which was founded in 1905.[59][60]
• Netherlands - The Studievereniging voor Psychical Research (Dutch for Society for Psychical Research) was founded in 1917.[61]
• Poland - The Polish Society for Psychical Research was very active before the second world war.[62]
• Scotland - The Scottish Society for Psychical Research is active today.[63]
• Sweden - Sällskapet för Parapsykologisk Forskning (the Swedish Society for Parapsychological Research) was founded in 1948.[64]
• USA - An American branch of the Society was formed as the American Society for Psychical Research (ASPR) in 1885, which became independent in 1906.[65] A splinter group, the Boston Society for Psychical Research existed from May 1925 to 1941.[66]

See also

• American Society for Psychical Research
• Institut suisse des sciences noétiques
• List of parapsychology topics


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4. Luckhurst, Roger. (2002). The Invention of Telepathy, 1870-1901. Oxford University Press. p. 51. ISBN 978-0199249626
5. Schultz, Bart. (2004). Henry Sidgwick: Eye of the Universe: An Intellectual Biography. Cambridge University Press. p. 276. ISBN 978-0521829670
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8. Grattan-Guinness, Ivor. (1982). Psychical Research: A Guide to Its History, Principles and Practices: In Celebration of 100 Years of the Society for Psychical Research. Aquarian Press. p. 19. ISBN 0-85030-316-8.
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11. Sommer, Andreas (2012). "Psychical research and the origins of American psychology: Hugo Münsterberg, William James and Eusapia Palladino". History of the Human Sciences. 25 (2): 23–44. doi:10.1177/0952695112439376. PMC 3552602. PMID 23355763.
12. Sommer, Andreas (2011). "Professional Heresy: Edmund Gurney (1847–88) and the Study of Hallucinations and Hypnotism". Medical History. 55 (3): 383–388. doi:10.1017/S0025727300005445. PMC 3143882. PMID 21792265. Retrieved 17 December 2016.
13. Thurschwell, Pamela. (2004). Literature, Technology and Magical Thinking, 1880–1920. Cambridge University Press. p. 16. ISBN 0-521-80168-0
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20. Gurney, Edmund. (1887). Thought-transference. Science, 233-235.
21. Gurney, Edmund. (1887). Thought-transference. National Review, 9, 437-439
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23. Podmore, Frank. (1892). IN DEFENCE OF PHANTASMS. The National Review. Vol. 19, No. 110. pp. 234-251
24. Podmore, Frank. (1895). What Psychical Research Has Accomplished. The North American Review. Vol. 160, No. 460. pp. 331-344
25. Williams, William F. (2000). Encyclopedia of Pseudoscience: From Alien Abductions to Zone Therapy. Routledge. p. 49. ISBN 1-57958-207-9
26. Anderson, Rodger. (2006). Psychics, Sensitives and Somnambules: A Biographical Dictionary with Bibliographies. McFarland & Company. pp. 14-132. ISBN 978-0786427703
27. Edmunds, Simeon. (1966). Spiritualism: A Critical Survey. Aquarian Press. pp. 178-180. ISBN 978-0850300130
28. 1912 Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research, 26 (Part 66), 312-18.
29. Keeley, James P. "Subliminal Promptings: Psychoanalytic Theory and the Society for Psychical Research." American Imago, vol. 58 no. 4, 2001, pp. 767-791. Project MUSE, doi:10.1353/aim.2001.0021
30. Moreman, Christopher M. (2010). Beyond the Threshold: Afterlife Beliefs and Experiences in World Religions. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. p. 163. ISBN 978-0-7425-6228-8 "SPR investigators quickly found that many mediums were indeed, as skeptics had alleged, operating under cover of darkness in order to perpetrate scams. They used a number of tricks facilitated by darkness: sleight of hand was used to manipulate objects and touch people eager to make contact with deceased loved ones; flour or white lines would give the illusion of spectral white hands or faces; accomplices were even stashed under tables or in secret rooms to lent support in the plot... As the investigations of the SPR, and other skeptics, were made public, many fraudulent mediums saw their careers ruined and many unsuspecting clients were enraged at the deception perpetrated."
31. Oppenheim, Janet. (1988). The Other World: Spiritualism and Psychical Research in England, 1850-1914. pp. 175-176. ISBN 978-0521347679
32. Oppenheim, Janet. (1988). The Other World: Spiritualism and Psychical Research in England, 1850-1914. Cambridge University Press. pp. 139-140. ISBN 978-0521347679
33. "The Belief in Spirit Photography". Martyn Jolly.
34. Edmunds, Simeon. (1966). Spiritualism: A Critical Survey. Aquarian Press. p. 115. ISBN 978-0850300130 "The early history of spirit photography was reviewed by Mrs Henry Sidgwick in the Proceedings of the SPR in 1891. She showed clearly not only that Mumler, Hudson, Buguet and their ilk were fraudulent, but the way in which those who believed in them were deceived."
35. Nelson, G. K. (2013). Spiritualism and Society. Routledge. p. 159. ISBN 978-0415714624
36. Brock, William Hodson. (2008). William Crookes (1832–1919) and the Commercialization of Science. Ashgate Publishing. p. 206. ISBN 978-0754663225
37. Nandor Fodor, An Encyclopedia of Psychic Science (Secaucus, N.J.: Citadel, 1966) 350-352.
38. Dingwall, Eric. (1985). The Need for Responsibility in Parapsychology: My Sixty Years in Psychical Research. In Paul Kurtz. A Skeptic's Handbook of Parapsychology. Prometheus Books. pp. 161-174. ISBN 0-87975-300-5 Author John Grant stated that prominent member F. W. H. Myers held that telepathy, according to some speculative explanations, might, in demonstrating that mind could communicate with mind apart from recognised channels, provide evidence supporting the proposition that human personality could continue after the death of the body. "Thus the supernatural might be proved by science, and psychical research might become, in the words of Sir William Barrett, a handmaid to religion."
39. Grant, John. (2015). Spooky Science: Debunking the Pseudoscience of the Afterlife. Sterling Publishing. pp. 23-24. ISBN 978-1-4549-1654-3
40. Woerlee, G. M. (2011). "Review of Consciousness Beyond Life by Pim van Lommel". Retrieved 2016-12-19.
41. Sommer, Andreas (2011). "HamiltonTrevor, Immortal Longings: F.W.H. Myers and the Victorian Search for Life after Death (Exeter: Imprint Academic, 2009), pp. 359, £19.95, hardback". Medical History. 55 (3): 433–435. doi:10.1017/S0025727300005597. ISBN 978-1845-401238. Retrieved 17 December 2016.
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43. Tuckett, Ivor Lloyd. (1911). The Evidence for the Supernatural: A Critical Study Made with "Uncommon Sense". K. Paul, Trench, Trübner. pp. 8-9
44. Spangenburg, Ray; Moser, Diane. (2004). The Age of Synthesis: 1800-1895. Facts on File. p. 134. ISBN 978-0816048533
45. Clodd, Edward. (1917). The Question: A Brief History and Examination of Modern Spiritualism. Grant Richards, London. pp. 265-301
46. Luckhurst, Roger. (2002). The Invention of Telepathy: 1870-1901. Oxford University Press. p. 163. ISBN 978-0199249626
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Further reading

SPR histories

• Bennett, Edward T. (1903). The Society for Psychical Research: Its Rise & Progress & A Sketch of its Work. London: R. Brimley Johnson.
• Gauld, Alan. (1968). The Founders of Psychical Research. Routledge & Kegan Paul. ISBN 978-0710060679
• Haynes, Renee. (1982). The Society for Psychical Research 1882-1982: A History. London: MacDonald & Co. ISBN 978-0356078755
• Salter, William Henry. (1948). The Society for Psychical Research: An Outline of its History. Society for Psychical Research.
Scholarly studies
• Cerullo, John. (1982). Secularization of the Soul: Psychical Research in Modern Britain. Philadelphia: Institute for the Study of Human Issues. ISBN 978-0897270281
• Luckhurst, Roger. (2002). The Invention of Telepathy, 1870-1901. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0199249626
• McCorristine, Shane. (2010). Spectres of the Self: Thinking about Ghosts and Ghost-Seeing in England, 1750-1920. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521747967
• Oppenheim, Janet. (1988). The Other World: Spiritualism and Psychical Research in England, 1850-1914. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521347679
• McCabe, Joseph. (1920). Scientific Men and Spiritualism: A Skeptic's Analysis. The Living Age. June 12. pp. 652–657. A sceptical look at SPR members who had supported Spiritualism, concludes they were duped by fraudulent mediums.
• Brandon, Ruth. (1983). The Spiritualists: The Passion for the Occult in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 978-0394527406
• Hyman, Ray. (1989). The Elusive Quarry: A Scientific Appraisal of Psychical Research. Prometheus Books. ISBN 978-0879755041

External links

• SPR home page
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

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Albert Schweitzer
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 4/27/19



Albert Schweitzer
Schweitzer in 1955
Born 14 January 1875
Kaysersberg, Alsace-Lorraine, German Empire
Died 4 September 1965 (aged 90)
Lambaréné, Gabon
German (1875–1919)
French (1919–1965)
Alma mater University of Strasbourg
Known for
Spouse(s) Helene Bresslau, daughter of Harry Bresslau
Goethe Prize (1928)
Nobel Peace Prize (1952)
Scientific career
Doctoral advisor
Theobald Ziegler
Heinrich Julius Holtzmann
Robert Wollenberg [de][1]
Influences H. S. Reimarus

Albert Schweitzer, OM (14 January 1875 – 4 September 1965) was an Alsatian polymath. He was a theologian, organist, writer, humanitarian, philosopher, and physician. A Lutheran, Schweitzer challenged both the secular view of Jesus as depicted by the historical-critical method current at this time, as well as the traditional Christian view. His contributions to the interpretation of Pauline Christianity concern the role of Paul's mysticism of "being in Christ" as primary and the doctrine of Justification by Faith as secondary.

He received the 1952 Nobel Peace Prize for his philosophy of "Reverence for Life",[2] becoming the eighth Frenchman to be awarded that prize. His philosophy was expressed in many ways, but most famously in founding and sustaining the Albert Schweitzer Hospital in Lambaréné, in the part of French Equatorial Africa which is now Gabon. As a music scholar and organist, he studied the music of German composer Johann Sebastian Bach and influenced the Organ Reform Movement (Orgelbewegung).


Schweitzer was born in the province of Alsace, which was a part of the Holy Roman Empire up to the Thirty Year War. In 1648, with the Treaty of Westphalia, the Habsburgs renounced their claims to its territory, when it became a part of France for the first time. In 1871, through the Treaty of Frankfurt, Alsace became a part of the German Empire ("Reichsland"), becoming French a second time in 1919, after Germany's defeat during the First World War. Schweitzer considered himself French,[3][additional citation(s) needed] but wrote mostly in German. His mother-tongue was Alsatian, a Low Alemannic German dialect, although he was also fluent in French and High-German.


Albert Schweitzer's birthplace, Kaysersberg

Schweitzer was born in Kaysersberg, Haute Alsace, the son of Louis Schweitzer and Adèle Schillinger.[4][5] He spent his childhood in the Alsatian village of Gunsbach, where his father, the local Lutheran-Evangelical pastor of the EPCAAL, taught him how to play music.[6] The tiny village became home to the Association Internationale Albert Schweitzer (AIAS).[7] The medieval parish church of Gunsbach was shared by the Protestant and Catholic congregations, which held their prayers in different areas at different times on Sundays. This compromise arose after the Protestant Reformation and the Thirty Years' War. Schweitzer, the pastor's son, grew up in this exceptional environment of religious tolerance, and developed the belief that true Christianity should always work towards a unity of faith and purpose.[8]

Schweitzer's first language was the Alsatian dialect of German language. At the Mulhouse gymnasium he received his "Abitur" (the certificate at the end of secondary education) in 1893. He studied organ in Mulhouse from 1885 to 1893 with Eugène Munch, organist at the Protestant cathedral, who inspired Schweitzer with his profound enthusiasm for the music of German composer Richard Wagner.[9] In 1893 he played for the French organist Charles-Marie Widor (at Saint-Sulpice, Paris), for whom Johann Sebastian Bach's organ music contained a mystic sense of the eternal. Widor, deeply impressed, agreed to teach Schweitzer without fee, and a great and influential friendship thus began.[10]

From 1893 Schweitzer studied Protestant theology at the Kaiser Wilhelm University in Strasbourg. There he also received instruction in piano and counterpoint from professor Gustav Jacobsthal, and associated closely with Ernest Munch, the brother of his former teacher, organist of St William church, who was also a passionate admirer of J.S. Bach's music.[11] Schweitzer served his one-year compulsory military service in 1894. Schweitzer saw many operas of Richard Wagner in Strasbourg (under Otto Lohse) and in 1896 he managed to afford a visit to the Bayreuth Festival to see Wagner's Der Ring des Nibelungen and Parsifal, which deeply impressed him. In 1898 he went back to Paris to write a PhD dissertation on The Religious Philosophy of Kant at the Sorbonne, and to study in earnest with Widor. Here he often met with the elderly Aristide Cavaillé-Coll. He also studied piano at that time with Marie Jaëll.[12] In 1899, Schweitzer spent the summer semester at the University of Berlin and eventually obtained his theology degree in University of Strasbourg.[13][14][15][16] He published his PhD thesis at the University of Tübingen in 1899.[17]

In 1905, Schweitzer began his study of medicine at the University of Strasbourg, culminating in the degree of M.D. in 1913.[13][16]


Schweitzer rapidly gained prominence as a musical scholar and organist, dedicated also to the rescue, restoration and study of historic pipe organs. With theological insight, he interpreted the use of pictorial and symbolical representation in J. S. Bach's religious music. In 1899 he astonished Widor by explaining figures and motifs in Bach's Chorale Preludes as painter-like tonal and rhythmic imagery illustrating themes from the words of the hymns on which they were based. They were works of devotional contemplation in which the musical design corresponded to literary ideas, conceived visually. Widor had not grown up with knowledge of the old Lutheran hymns.[18]

The exposition of these ideas, encouraged by Widor and Munch, became Schweitzer's last task, and appeared in the masterly study J. S. Bach: Le Musicien-Poète, written in French and published in 1905. There was great demand for a German edition, but, instead of translating it, he decided to rewrite it.[19] The result was two volumes (J. S. Bach), which were published in 1908 and translated into English by Ernest Newman in 1911.[20] Ernst Cassirer, a contemporaneous German philosopher, called it "one of the best interpretations" of Bach.[21] During its preparation Schweitzer became a friend of Cosima Wagner, then resident in Strasbourg, with whom he had many theological and musical conversations, exploring his view of Bach's descriptive music, and playing the major Chorale Preludes for her at the Temple Neuf.[22] Schweitzer's interpretative approach greatly influenced the modern understanding of Bach's music. He became a welcome guest at the Wagners' home, Wahnfried.[23] He also corresponded with composer Clara Faisst, who became a good friend.[24]

The Choir Organ at St Thomas' Church, Strasbourg, designed in 1905 on principles defined by Albert Schweitzer

His pamphlet "The Art of Organ Building and Organ Playing in Germany and France" (1906,[25] republished with an appendix on the state of the organ-building industry in 1927) effectively launched the 20th-century Orgelbewegung, which turned away from romantic extremes and rediscovered baroque principles—although this sweeping reform movement in organ building eventually went further than Schweitzer had intended. In 1909 he addressed the Third Congress of the International Society of Music at Vienna on the subject. Having circulated a questionnaire among players and organ-builders in several European countries, he produced a very considered report.[26] This provided the basis for the International Regulations for Organ Building. He envisaged instruments in which the French late-romantic full-organ sound should work integrally with the English and German romantic reed pipes, and with the classical Alsace Silbermann organ resources and baroque flue pipes, all in registers regulated (by stops) to access distinct voices in fugue or counterpoint capable of combination without loss of distinctness: different voices singing the same music together.

Schweitzer also studied piano under Isidor Philipp, head of the piano department at the Paris Conservatory.

In 1905 Widor and Schweitzer were among the six musicians who founded the Paris Bach Society, a choir dedicated to performing J.S. Bach's music, for whose concerts Schweitzer took the organ part regularly until 1913. He was also appointed organist for the Bach Concerts of the Orféo Català at Barcelona, Spain, and often travelled there for that purpose.[18] He and Widor collaborated on a new edition of Bach's organ works, with detailed analysis of each work in three languages (English, French, German). Schweitzer, who insisted that the score should show Bach's notation with no additional markings, wrote the commentaries for the Preludes and Fugues, and Widor those for the Sonatas and Concertos: six volumes were published in 1912–14. Three more, to contain the Chorale Preludes with Schweitzer's analyses, were to be worked on in Africa, but these were never completed, perhaps because for him they were inseparable from his evolving theological thought.[27]

On departure for Lambaréné in 1913 he was presented with a pedal piano, a piano with pedal attachments to operate like an organ pedal-keyboard.[28] Built especially for the tropics, it was delivered by river in a huge dug-out canoe to Lambaréné, packed in a zinc-lined case. At first he regarded his new life as a renunciation of his art, and fell out of practice: but after some time he resolved to study and learn by heart the works of Bach, Mendelssohn, Widor, César Franck, and Max Reger systematically.[29] It became his custom to play during the lunch hour and on Sunday afternoons. Schweitzer's pedal piano was still in use at Lambaréné in 1946.[30] According to a visitor, Dr. Gaine Cannon, of Balsam Grove, N.C., the old, dilapidated piano-organ was still being played by Dr. Schweitzer in 1962, and stories told that "his fingers were still lively" on the old instrument at 88 years of age.

Sir Donald Tovey dedicated his conjectural completion of Bach's The Art of Fugue to Schweitzer.

Schweitzer's recordings of organ-music, and his innovative recording technique, are described below.

One of his notable pupils was conductor and composer Hans Münch.


Saint-Nicolas, Strasbourg

In 1899 Schweitzer became a deacon at the church of Saint Nicholas in Strasbourg. In 1900, with the completion of his licentiate in theology, he was ordained as curate, and that year he witnessed the Oberammergau Passion Play. In the following year he became provisional Principal of the Theological College of Saint Thomas, from which he had just graduated, and in 1903 his appointment was made permanent.[note 1]

In 1906 he published Geschichte der Leben-Jesu-Forschung ("History of Life-of-Jesus research"). This book, which established his reputation, was first published in English in 1910 as The Quest of the Historical Jesus. Under this title the book became famous in the English-speaking world. A second German edition was published in 1913, containing theologically significant revisions and expansions: but this revised edition did not appear in English until 2001. In 1931 he published Mystik des Apostels Paulus ("The Mysticism of Paul the Apostle"); a second edition was published in 1953.

The Quest of the Historical Jesus (1906)

In The Quest, Schweitzer reviewed all former work on the "historical Jesus" back to the late 18th century. He showed that the image of Jesus had changed with the times and outlooks of the various authors and gave his own synopsis and interpretation of the previous century's findings. He maintained that the life of Jesus must be interpreted in the light of Jesus' own convictions, which reflected late Jewish eschatology and apocalypticism. Schweitzer writes: The Jesus of Nazareth who came forward publicly as the Messiah, who preached the ethic of the kingdom of God, who founded the kingdom of heaven upon earth and died to give his work its final consecration never existed. He is a figure designed by rationalism, endowed with life by liberalism, and clothed by modern theology in a historical garb. This image has not been destroyed from outside; it has fallen to pieces...[36] He observes the many verses describing important events that never took place and technically, now, never can take place.

The concept that Christianity started as a Jewish apocalyptic movement is evidenced by the teachings of the historical Jesus concerning the end of days. Not only did he preach he would rise from the grave, but that he would also ascend to heaven and one day return to judge and rule over the world, saying that no one, including himself, knew the exact time of his return, but it would be before the end of the end of the first generation of followers. In The Quest of the Historical Jesus, Schweitzer verifies and cross-referenced the many New Testament verses declaring imminent fulfillment of the promise of the World's ending within the lifetime of Jesus's original followers.[37] He noted that in the gospel of Mark, Jesus speaks of a "tribulation", with his "coming in the clouds with great power and glory" (St. Mark), and states when it will happen: "This generation shall not pass, till all these things be fulfilled" (St. Matthew, 24:34) or, "have taken place" (Luke 21:32). Similarly, in 1st Peter 1:20, "Christ, who verily was foreordained before the foundation of the world but was manifest in these last times for you," as well as "But the end of all things is at hand," (1 Peter 4:7) and "Surely, I come quickly." (Revelation 22:20).

Schweitzer observes that Jesus very specifically states "not seal up the words of the prophecy" and promises that some of his listeners, as well as the high priest at his trial, would be alive to see him return to the Earth. He says, "Blessed is he who reads and those who hear the words of the prophecy and heed the things which are written in it; for the time is near" (Revelation 1:3). St. Paul spoke of the last times, "Brethren, the time is short, it remaineth, that both they that have wives be as though they had none," (1 Corinthians 7:29) and "God hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Son," (Hebrews 1:2). Also, "There be some standing here which shall not taste of death till they see the Son of man coming in his kingdom" (Matthew 16:28) as well as "until they see that the kingdom of God has come with power," (Mark 9:1) and "till they see the kingdom of God" (Luke 9:27) reinforce this prophecy. Schweitzer observes that St. Paul, urgently, believed in the immediacy of the Second Coming of Jesus.

Schweitzer insists that it is unreasonable for modern followers of Jesus to believe that "coming quickly", "near", and "soon" could mean hundreds, much less thousands, of years of the faithful waiting for a second coming. His evidence is verses "Blessed is he who reads and those who hear the words of the prophecy and heed the things which are written in it; for the time is near." (Revelation 1:3) "And he said to me, 'These words are faithful and true'; and the Lord, the God of the spirits of the prophets, sent His angel to show to His bond-servants the things which must soon take place." as well as "And behold, I am coming quickly. Blessed is he who heeds the words of the prophecy of this book." He references "And he said to me, "Do not seal up the words of the prophecy of this book, for the time is near" (Revelation 22:6, 7, 10, 12). "All these things shall come upon this generation" (Matthew 23:36) as well. Schweitzer's observations are in stark contrast to many modern variants of Christian belief, those ignoring these verses. Schweitzer concludes that 1st-century Christian theology; first belief, originating in the lifetimes of the very first followers of Jesus, is totally incompatible with modern theology.

The cover of Albert Schweitzer's The Mysticism of Paul the Apostle

The Mysticism of Paul the Apostle (1931)

In The Mysticism of Paul the Apostle, Schweitzer first distinguishes between two categories of mysticism: primitive and developed.[36] Primitive mysticism "has not yet risen to a conception of the universal, and is still confined to naive views of earthly and super-earthly, temporal and eternal." Additionally, he argues that this view of a "union with the divinity, brought about by efficacious ceremonies, is found even in quite primitive religions."[36]

On the other hand, a more developed form of mysticism can be found in the Greek mystery-cults that were popular in first-century A.D. society. These included the cults of Attis, Osiris, and Mithras. A developed form of mysticism is attained when the "conception of the universal is reached and a man reflects upon his relation to the totality of being and to Being in itself." Schweitzer claims that this form of mysticism is more intellectual and can be found "among the Brahmans and in the Buddha, in Platonism, in Stoicism, in Spinoza, Schopenhauer, and Hegel."[37]

Next, Schweitzer poses the question: "Of what precise kind then is the mysticism of Paul?" He locates Paul between the two extremes of primitive mysticism and developed mysticism. Paul stands high above primitive mysticism, due to his intellectual writings, but never speaks of being one with God or being in God. Instead, he conceives of sonship to God as "mediated and effected by means of the mystical union with Christ."[38] He summarizes Pauline mysticism as "being in Christ" rather than "being in God."

Paul's imminent eschatology (from his background in Jewish eschatology) causes him to believe that the kingdom of God has not yet come and that Christians are now living in the time of Christ. Christ-mysticism holds the field until God-mysticism becomes possible, which is in the near future.[39] Therefore, Schweitzer argues that Paul is the only theologian who does not claim that Christians can have an experience of "being-in-God." Rather, Paul uses the phrase "being-in-Christ" to illustrate how Jesus is a mediator between the Christian community and God. Additionally, Schweitzer explains how the experience of "being-in-Christ" is not a "static partaking in the spiritual being of Christ, but as the real co-experiencing of His dying and rising again." The "realistic" partaking in the mystery of Jesus is only possible within the solidarity of the Christian community.[39]

One of Schweitzer's major arguments in The Mysticism of Paul the Apostle is that Paul's mysticism, marked by his phrase "being in Christ", gives the clue to the whole of Pauline theology. Rather than reading justification by faith as the main topic of Pauline thought, which has been the most popular argument set forward by Martin Luther, Schweitzer argues that Paul's emphasis was on the mystical union with God by "being in Christ." Jaroslav Pelikan, in his Forward to The Mysticism of Paul the Apostle, points out that:

the relation between the two doctrines was quite the other way around: 'The doctrine of the redemption, which is mentally appropriated through faith, is only a fragment from the more comprehensive mystical redemption-doctrine, which Paul has broken off and polished to give him the particular refraction which he requires.[40]

Paul's "Realism" versus Hellenistic "Symbolism"

Schweitzer contrasts Paul's "realistic" dying and rising with Christ to the "symbolism" of Hellenism. Although Paul is widely influenced by Hellenistic thought, he is not controlled by it. Schweitzer explains that Paul focused on the idea of fellowship with the divine being through the "realistic" dying and rising with Christ rather than the "symbolic" Hellenistic act of becoming like Christ through deification.[41] After baptism, the Christian is continually renewed throughout their lifetime due to participation in the dying and rising with Christ (most notably through the Sacraments). On the other hand, the Hellenist "lives on the store of experience which he acquired in the initiation" and is not continually affected by a shared communal experience.[42]

Another major difference between Paul's "realism" and Hellenistic "symbolism" is the exclusive nature of the former and the inclusive nature of the latter. Schweitzer unabashedly emphasizes the fact that "Paul's thought follows predestinarian lines."[43] He explains, "only the man who is elected thereto can enter into relation with God."[44] Although every human being is invited to become a Christian, only those who have undergone the initiation into the Christian community through baptism can share in the "realistic" dying and rising with Christ.


At the age of 30, in 1905, Schweitzer answered the call of The Society of the Evangelist Missions of Paris, which was looking for a physician. However, the committee of this missionary society was not ready to accept his offer, considering his Lutheran theology to be "incorrect".[45] He could easily have obtained a place in a German evangelical mission, but wished to follow the original call despite the doctrinal difficulties. Amid a hail of protests from his friends, family and colleagues, he resigned his post and re-entered the university as a student in a three-year course towards the degree of Doctorate in Medicine, a subject in which he had little knowledge or previous aptitude. He planned to spread the Gospel by the example of his Christian labour of healing, rather than through the verbal process of preaching, and believed that this service should be acceptable within any branch of Christian teaching.

Even in his study of medicine, and through his clinical course, Schweitzer pursued the ideal of the philosopher-scientist. By extreme application and hard work, he completed his studies successfully at the end of 1911. His medical degree dissertation was another work on the historical Jesus, The Psychiatric Study of Jesus. He defended Jesus′ mental health in it. In June 1912, he married Helene Bresslau, municipal inspector for orphans and daughter of the Jewish pan-Germanist historian Harry Bresslau.[46]

In 1912, now armed with a medical degree, Schweitzer made a definite proposal to go as a physician to work at his own expense in the Paris Missionary Society's mission at Lambaréné on the Ogooué river, in what is now Gabon, in Africa (then a French colony). He refused to attend a committee to inquire into his doctrine, but met each committee member personally and was at last accepted. Through concerts and other fund-raising, he was ready to equip a small hospital.[47] In spring 1913, he and his wife set off to establish a hospital (Albert Schweitzer Hospital) near an existing mission post. The site was nearly 200 miles (14 days by raft[48]) upstream from the mouth of the Ogooué at Port Gentil (Cape Lopez) (and so accessible to external communications), but downstream of most tributaries, so that internal communications within Gabon converged towards Lambaréné.

The catchment area of the Ogooé occupies most of Gabon. Lambaréné is marked.

In the first nine months, he and his wife had about 2,000 patients to examine, some travelling many days and hundreds of kilometers to reach him. In addition to injuries, he was often treating severe sandflea and crawcraw sores, framboesia (yaws), tropical eating sores, heart disease, tropical dysentery, tropical malaria, sleeping sickness, leprosy, fevers, strangulated hernias, necrosis, abdominal tumours and chronic constipation and nicotine poisoning, while also attempting to deal with deliberate poisonings, fetishism and fear of cannibalism among the Mbahouin.

Schweitzer's wife, Helene Schweitzer, was an anaesthetist for surgical operations. After briefly occupying a shed formerly used as a chicken hut, in autumn 1913 they built their first hospital of corrugated iron, with two 13-foot rooms (consulting room and operating theatre) and with a dispensary and sterilising room in spaces below the broad eaves. The waiting room and dormitory (42 by 20 feet) were built, like native huts, of unhewn logs along a 30-yard path leading from the hospital to the landing-place. The Schweitzers had their own bungalow and employed as their assistant Joseph, a French-speaking Galoa (Mpongwe) who first came as a patient.[49][50]

After World War I broke out in July 1914, Schweitzer and his wife, German citizens in a French colony when the countries were at war, were put under supervision by the French military at Lambaréné, where Schweitzer continued his work.[51] In 1917, exhausted by over four years' work and by tropical anaemia, they were taken to Bordeaux and interned first in Garaison and then from March 1918 in Saint-Rémy-de-Provence. In July 1918, after being transferred to his home in Alsace, he was a free man again. At this time Schweitzer, born a German citizen, had his parents' former (pre-1871) French citizenship reinstated and became a French citizen. Then, working as medical assistant and assistant-pastor in Strasbourg, he advanced his project on the philosophy of civilization, which had occupied his mind since 1900. By 1920, his health recovering, he was giving organ recitals and doing other fund-raising work to repay borrowings and raise funds for returning to Gabon. In 1922, he delivered the Dale Memorial Lectures in Oxford University, and from these in the following year appeared Volumes I and II of his great work, The Decay and Restoration of Civilization and Civilization and Ethics. The two remaining volumes, on The World-View of Reverence for Life and a fourth on the Civilized State, were never completed.

In 1924 he returned without his wife, but with an Oxford undergraduate, Noel Gillespie, as assistant. Everything was heavily decayed, and building and doctoring progressed together for months. He now had salvarsan for treating syphilitic ulcers and framboesia. Additional medical staff, nurse (Miss) Kottmann and Dr. Victor Nessmann,[52] joined him in 1924, and Dr. Mark Lauterberg in 1925; the growing hospital was manned by native orderlies. Later Dr. Trensz replaced Nessmann, and Martha Lauterberg and Hans Muggenstorm joined them. Joseph also returned. In 1925–6, new hospital buildings were constructed, and also a ward for white patients, so that the site became like a village. The onset of famine and a dysentery epidemic created fresh problems. Much of the building work was carried out with the help of local people and patients. Drug advances for sleeping sickness included Germanin and tryparsamide. Trensz conducted experiments showing that the non-amoebic strain of dysentery was caused by a paracholera vibrion (facultative anaerobic bacteria). With the new hospital built and the medical team established, Schweitzer returned to Europe in 1927, this time leaving a functioning hospital at work.

He was there again from 1929 to 1932. Gradually his opinions and concepts became acknowledged, not only in Europe, but worldwide. There was a further period of work in 1935. In January 1937, he returned again to Lambaréné and continued working there throughout World War II.

Schweitzer's views


Schweitzer considered his work as a medical missionary in Africa to be his response to Jesus' call to become "fishers of men" but also as a small recompense for the historic guilt of European colonizers:[53]

Who can describe the injustice and cruelties that in the course of centuries they [the coloured peoples] have suffered at the hands of Europeans?... If a record could be compiled of all that has happened between the white and the coloured races, it would make a book containing numbers of pages which the reader would have to turn over unread because their contents would be too horrible.

Schweitzer was one of colonialism's harshest critics. In a sermon that he preached on 6 January 1905, before he had told anyone of his plans to dedicate the rest of his life to work as a physician in Africa, he said:[54]

Our culture divides people into two classes: civilized men, a title bestowed on the persons who do the classifying; and others, who have only the human form, who may perish or go to the dogs for all the 'civilized men' care.

Oh, this 'noble' culture of ours! It speaks so piously of human dignity and human rights and then disregards this dignity and these rights of countless millions and treads them underfoot, only because they live overseas or because their skins are of different color or because they cannot help themselves. This culture does not know how hollow and miserable and full of glib talk it is, how common it looks to those who follow it across the seas and see what it has done there, and this culture has no right to speak of personal dignity and human rights...

I will not enumerate all the crimes that have been committed under the pretext of justice. People robbed native inhabitants of their land, made slaves of them, let loose the scum of mankind upon them. Think of the atrocities that were perpetrated upon people made subservient to us, how systematically we have ruined them with our alcoholic 'gifts', and everything else we have done... We decimate them, and then, by the stroke of a pen, we take their land so they have nothing left at all...

If all this oppression and all this sin and shame are perpetrated under the eye of the German God, or the American God, or the British God, and if our states do not feel obliged first to lay aside their claim to be 'Christian'—then the name of Jesus is blasphemed and made a mockery. And the Christianity of our states is blasphemed and made a mockery before those poor people. The name of Jesus has become a curse, and our Christianity—yours and mine—has become a falsehood and a disgrace, if the crimes are not atoned for in the very place where they were instigated. For every person who committed an atrocity in Jesus' name, someone must step in to help in Jesus' name; for every person who robbed, someone must bring a replacement; for everyone who cursed, someone must bless.

And now, when you speak about missions, let this be your message: We must make atonement for all the terrible crimes we read of in the newspapers. We must make atonement for the still worse ones, which we do not read about in the papers, crimes that are shrouded in the silence of the jungle night ...


Schweitzer was nonetheless still sometimes accused of being paternalistic, colonialist, and racist in his attitude towards Africans, and in some ways his views did differ from that of many liberals and other critics of colonialism.[55] For instance, he thought that Gabonese independence came too early, without adequate education or accommodation to local circumstances. Edgar Berman quotes Schweitzer as having said in 1960, "No society can go from the primeval directly to an industrial state without losing the leavening that time and an agricultural period allow."[56] Schweitzer believed dignity and respect must be extended to blacks, while also sometimes characterizing them as children.[57] He summarized his views on European-African relations by saying "With regard to the negroes, then, I have coined the formula: 'I am your brother, it is true, but your elder brother.'"[57] Chinua Achebe has criticized him for this characterization, though Achebe acknowledges that Schweitzer's use of the word "brother" at all was, for a European of the early 20th century, an unusual expression of human solidarity between Europeans and Africans.[58] Schweitzer eventually emended and complicated this notion with his later statement that "The time for speaking of older and younger brothers has passed".[59] Later in life he became more convinced that "modern civilization" was actually inferior to or the same as previous cultures in terms of morality.[citation needed]

American journalist John Gunther visited Lambaréné in the 1950s and reported Schweitzer's patronizing attitude towards Africans. He also noted the lack of Africans trained to be skilled workers.[60] By comparison, his contemporary Sir Albert Cook in Uganda had been training nurses and midwives since the 1910s and had published a manual of midwifery in the local language of Luganda.[61] After three decades in Africa, Schweitzer still depended on Europe for nurses.[62]

Hospital conditions

The journalist James Cameron visited Lambaréné in 1953 (when Schweitzer was 78) and found significant flaws in the practices and attitudes of Schweitzer and his staff. The hospital suffered from squalor and was without modern amenities, and Schweitzer had little contact with the local people.[63] Cameron did not make public what he had seen at the time: according to a BBC dramatisation, he made the unusual journalistic decision to withhold the story, and resisted the expressed wish of his employers to publish an exposé.[64]

The poor conditions of the hospital in Lambaréné were also famously criticized by Nigerian professor and novelist Chinua Achebe in his essay on Joseph Conrad's novel Heart of Darkness: "In a comment which has often been quoted Schweitzer says: 'The African is indeed my brother but my junior brother.' And so he proceeded to build a hospital appropriate to the needs of junior brothers with standards of hygiene reminiscent of medical practice in the days before the germ theory of disease came into being."[58]

Reverence for life

Schweitzer in 1955

The keynote of Schweitzer's personal philosophy (which he considered to be his greatest contribution to mankind) was the idea of Reverence for Life ("Ehrfurcht vor dem Leben"). He thought that Western civilization was decaying because it had abandoned affirmation of life as its ethical foundation.

In the Preface to Civilization and Ethics (1923) he argued that Western philosophy from Descartes to Kant had set out to explain the objective world expecting that humanity would be found to have a special meaning within it. But no such meaning was found, and the rational, life-affirming optimism of the Age of Enlightenment began to evaporate. A rift opened between this world-view, as material knowledge, and the life-view, understood as Will, expressed in the pessimist philosophies from Schopenhauer onward. Scientific materialism (advanced by Herbert Spencer and Charles Darwin) portrayed an objective world process devoid of ethics, entirely an expression of the will-to-live.

Schweitzer wrote, "True philosophy must start from the most immediate and comprehensive fact of consciousness, and this may be formulated as follows: 'I am life which wills to live, and I exist in the midst of life which wills to live.'"[65] In nature one form of life must always prey upon another. However, human consciousness holds an awareness of, and sympathy for, the will of other beings to live. An ethical human strives to escape from this contradiction so far as possible.

Though we cannot perfect the endeavour we should strive for it: the will-to-live constantly renews itself, for it is both an evolutionary necessity and a spiritual phenomenon. Life and love are rooted in this same principle, in a personal spiritual relationship to the universe. Ethics themselves proceed from the need to respect the wish of other beings to exist as one does towards oneself. Even so, Schweitzer found many instances in world religions and philosophies in which the principle was denied, not least in the European Middle Ages, and in the Indian Brahminic philosophy.

For Schweitzer, mankind had to accept that objective reality is ethically neutral. It could then affirm a new Enlightenment through spiritual rationalism, by giving priority to volition or ethical will as the primary meaning of life. Mankind had to choose to create the moral structures of civilization: the world-view must derive from the life-view, not vice versa. Respect for life, overcoming coarser impulses and hollow doctrines, leads the individual to live in the service of other people and of every living creature. In contemplation of the will-to-life, respect for the life of others becomes the highest principle and the defining purpose of humanity.[66]

Such was the theory which Schweitzer sought to put into practice in his own life. According to some authors, Schweitzer's thought, and specifically his development of reverence for life, was influenced by Indian religious thought and in particular the Jain principle of ahimsa, or non-violence.[67] Albert Schweitzer noted the contribution of Indian influence in his book Indian Thought and Its Development:[68]

The laying down of the commandment to not kill and to not damage is one of the greatest events in the spiritual history of mankind. Starting from its principle, founded on world and life denial, of abstention from action, ancient Indian thought – and this is a period when in other respects ethics have not progressed very far – reaches the tremendous discovery that ethics know no bounds. So far as we know, this is for the first time clearly expressed by Jainism.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

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Part 2 of 2

Later life

The Schweitzer house and Museum at Königsfeld in the Black Forest

After the birth of their daughter (Rhena Schweitzer Miller), Albert's wife, Helene Schweitzer was no longer able to live in Lambaréné due to her health. In 1923 the family moved to Königsfeld im Schwarzwald, Baden-Württemberg, where he was building a house for the family. This house is now maintained as a Schweitzer museum.[69]

Albert Schweitzer's house at Gunsbach, now a museum and archive

Albert Schweitzer Memorial and Museum in Weimar (1984)

From 1939–48 he stayed in Lambaréné, unable to go back to Europe because of the war. Three years after the end of World War II, in 1948, he returned for the first time to Europe and kept traveling back and forth (and once to the US) as long as he was able. During his return visits to his home village of Gunsbach, Schweitzer continued to make use of the family house, which after his death became an archive and museum to his life and work. His life was portrayed in the 1952 movie Il est minuit, Docteur Schweitzer, starring Pierre Fresnay as Albert Schweitzer and Jeanne Moreau as his nurse Marie. Schweitzer inspired actor Hugh O'Brian when O'Brian visited in Africa. O'Brian returned to the United States and founded the Hugh O'Brian Youth Leadership Foundation (HOBY).

Albert Schweitzer Monument in Wagga Wagga, Australia

Schweitzer was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize of 1952,[70] accepting the prize with the speech, "The Problem of Peace".[71] From 1952 until his death he worked against nuclear tests and nuclear weapons with Albert Einstein, Otto Hahn and Bertrand Russell. In 1957 and 1958 he broadcast four speeches over Radio Oslo which were published in Peace or Atomic War. In 1957, Schweitzer was one of the founders of The Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy. On 23 April 1957, Schweitzer made his "Declaration of Conscience" speech; it was broadcast to the world over Radio Oslo, pleading for the abolition of nuclear weapons. His speech ended, "The end of further experiments with atom bombs would be like the early sunrays of hope which suffering humanity is longing for."[72]

Weeks prior to his death, an American film crew was allowed to visit Schweitzer and Drs. Muntz and Friedman, both Holocaust survivors, to record his work and daily life at the hospital. The film The Legacy of Albert Schweitzer, narrated by Henry Fonda, was produced by Warner Brothers and aired once. It resides in their vault today in deteriorating condition. Although several attempts have been made to restore and re-air the film, all access has been denied.[73]

In 1955 he was made an honorary member of the Order of Merit (OM) by Queen Elizabeth II.[74] He was also a chevalier of the Military and Hospitaller Order of Saint Lazarus of Jerusalem.

Schweitzer died on 4 September 1965 at his beloved hospital in Lambaréné, now in independent Gabon. His grave, on the banks of the Ogooué River, is marked by a cross he made himself.

His cousin Anne-Marie Schweitzer Sartre was the mother of Jean-Paul Sartre. Her father, Charles Schweitzer, was the older brother of Albert Schweitzer's father, Louis Théophile.[75]

Schweitzer was a vegetarian.[76][77][better source needed]However, in an account written by Dr. Edgar Berman, it is suggested that Schweitzer consumed fried liver at a Sunday dinner in Lambaréné.[78]

The Albert Schweitzer Fellowship was founded in 1940 by Schweitzer to unite US supporters in filling the gap in support for his Hospital when his European supply lines were cut off by war, and continues to support the Lambaréné Hospital today. Schweitzer, however, considered his ethic of Reverence for Life, not his Hospital, his most important legacy, saying that his Lambaréné Hospital was just "my own improvisation on the theme of Reverence for Life. Everyone can have their own Lambaréné." Today ASF helps large numbers of young Americans in health-related professional fields find or create "their own Lambaréné" in the US or internationally. ASF selects and supports nearly 250 new US and Africa Schweitzer Fellows each year from over 100 of the leading US schools of medicine, nursing, public health, and every other field with some relation to health (including music, law, and divinity). The peer-supporting lifelong network of "Schweitzer Fellows for Life" numbered over 2,000 members in 2008, and is growing by nearly 1,000 every four years. Nearly 150 of these Schweitzer Fellows have served at the Hospital in Lambaréné, for three-month periods during their last year of medical school.[79]

International Albert Schweitzer Prize

The prize was first awarded on 29 May 2011 to Eugen Drewermann and the physician couple Rolf and Raphaela Maibach in Königsfeld im Schwarzwald, where Schweitzer's former residence now houses the Albert Schweitzer Museum.[80]

Sound recordings

Recordings of Schweitzer playing the music of Bach are available on CD. During 1934 and 1935 he resided in Britain, delivering the Gifford Lectures at Edinburgh University, and those on Religion in Modern Civilization at Oxford and London. He had originally conducted trials for recordings for HMV on the organ of the old Queen's Hall in London. These records did not satisfy him, the instrument being too harsh. In mid-December 1935 he began to record for Columbia Records on the organ of All Hallows, Barking-by-the-Tower, London.[81] Then at his suggestion the sessions were transferred to the church of Ste Aurélie in Strasbourg, on a mid-18th-century organ by Johann Andreas Silbermann (brother of Gottfried), an organ-builder greatly revered by Bach, which had been restored by the Lorraine organ-builder Frédéric Härpfer shortly before the First World War. These recordings were made in the course of a fortnight in October 1936.[82]

The Schweitzer Technique

Schweitzer developed a technique for recording the performances of Bach's music. Known as "The Schweitzer Technique", it is a slight improvement on what is commonly known as mid-side. The mid-side sees a figure-8 microphone pointed off-axis, perpendicular to the sound source. Then a single cardioid microphone is placed on axis, bisecting the figure-8 pattern. The signal from the figure-8 is mult-ed, panned hard left and right, one of the signals being flipped out of polarity. In the Schweitzer method, the figure-8 is replaced by two small diaphragm condenser microphones pointed directly away from each other. The information that each capsule collects is unique, unlike the identical out-of-polarity information generated from the figure-8 in a regular mid-side. The on-axis microphone is often a large diaphragm condenser. The technique has since been used to record many modern instruments.[citation needed]

Columbia recordings

Altogether his early Columbia discs included 25 records of Bach and eight of César Franck. The Bach titles were mainly distributed as follows:

• Queen's Hall: Organ Prelude and Fugue in E minor (Edition Peters[83] Vol 3, 10); Herzlich thut mich verlangen (BWV 727); Wenn wir in höchsten Nöten sein (Vol 7, 58 (Leipzig 18)).[84]
• All Hallows: Prelude and Fugue in C major; Fantasia and Fugue in G minor (the Great); Prelude and Fugue in G major; Prelude and Fugue in F minor; Little Fugue in G minor; Toccata and Fugue in D minor.[85]
• Ste Aurélie: Prelude and Fugue in C minor; Prelude and Fugue in E minor; Toccata and Fugue in D minor. Chorale Preludes: Schmücke dich, O liebe Seele (Peters Vol 7, 49 (Leipzig 4)); O Mensch, bewein dein Sünde groß (Vol 5, 45); O Lamm Gottes, unschuldig (Vol 7, 48 (Leipzig 6)); Christus, der uns selig macht (Vol 5, 8); Da Jesus an dem Kreuze stand (Vol 5, 9); An Wasserflüssen Babylon (Vol 6, 12b); Christum wir wollen loben schon (Vol 5, 6); Liebster Jesu, wir sind hier (Vol 5, app 5); Mit Fried und Freud ich fahr dahin (Vol 5, 4); Sei gegrüßet, Jesu gütig (Var 11, Vol 5, app. 3); Jesus Christus, unser Heiland (Vol 6, 31 (Leipzig 15)); Christ lag in Todesbanden (Vol 5, 5); Erschienen ist der herrlich Tag (Vol 5, 15).[86][87]

Gunsbach parish church, where the later recordings were made

Later recordings were made at Parish church, Günsbach: These recordings were made by C. Robert Fine during the time Dr. Schweitzer was being filmed in Günsbach for the documentary "Albert Schweitzer." Fine originally self-released the recordings but later licensed the masters to Columbia.

• Fugue in A minor (Peters, Vol 2, 8); Fantasia and Fugue in G minor (Great) (Vol 2, 4); Toccata, Adagio and Fugue in C major (Vol 3, 8).[88]
• Prelude in C major (Vol 4, 1); Prelude in D major (Vol 4, 3); Canzona in D minor (Vol 4, 10) (with Mendelssohn, Sonata in D minor op 65.6).[89]
• Chorale-Preludes: O Mensch, bewein dein Sünde groß (1st and 2nd versions, Peters Vol 5, 45); Wenn wir in höchsten Nöten sein (Vor deinen Thron tret ich hiermit) (vol 7, 58 (Leipzig 18)); Ich ruf zu dir, Herr Jesu Christ (Vol 5, 30); Gelobet seist du, Jesu Christ (Vol 5, 17); Herzlich tut mich verlangen (Vol 5, 27); Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland (vol 7, 45 (BWV 659a)).[90]

The above were released in the United States as Columbia Masterworks boxed set SL-175.

Philips recordings

• J. S. Bach: Prelude and Fugue in A major, BWV 536; Prelude and Fugue in F minor, BWV 534; Prelude and Fugue in B minor, BWV 544; Toccata and Fugue in D minor, BWV 538.[91]
• J. S. Bach: Passacaglia in C minor, BWV 582; Prelude and Fugue in E minor, BWV 533; Prelude and Fugue in A minor, BWV 543; Prelude and Fugue in G major, BWV 541; Toccata and Fugue in D minor, BWV 565.[92]
• César Franck: Organ Chorales, no. 1 in E Major; no. 2 in B minor; no. 3 in A minor.[93]


Dramatisations of Schweitzer's life include:

• The 1952 biographical film Il est minuit, Docteur Schweitzer, with Pierre Fresnay as Schweitzer
• The 1957 biographical film Albert Schweitzer in which Schweitzer appears as himself and Phillip Eckert portrays him
• The 1962 TV remake of Il est minuit, Docteur Schweitzer, with Jean-Pierre Marielle as Schweitzer
• The 1990 biographical film The Light in the Jungle, with Malcolm McDowell as Schweitzer
• Two 1992 episodes of the television series The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles ("German East Africa, December 1916" and "Congo, January 1917"), with Friedrich von Thun as Schweitzer
• The 1995 biographical film Le Grand blanc de Lambaréné, with André Wilms as Schweitzer
• The 2006 TV biographical film Albert Schweitzer: Called to Africa, with Jeff McCarthy as Schweitzer
• The 2009 biographical film Albert Schweitzer – Ein Leben für Afrika, with Jeroen Krabbé as Schweitzer


• — (2001) [German, 1906. English edition, A. & C. Black, London 1910, 1911], The Quest of the Historical Jesus; A Critical Study of Its Progress From Reimarus To Wrede, translated by Montgomery, William, Augsburg Fortress Publishers, ISBN 978-0-8006-3288-5.
• — (1905), J. S. Bach, Le Musicien-Poète [JS Bach, the Poet Musician] (in French), introduction by C. M. Widor, Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel with P. Costellot. Fulltext scan.
• — (1908), J. S. Bach (in German) (enlarged ed.), Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel. English translation by Ernest Newman, with author's alterations and additions, London 1911. Fulltext scans (English): Vol. 1, Vol. 2.
• — (1906). Deutsche und französische Orgelbaukunst und Orgelkunst [German and French organbuilding and organ art] (in German). Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel. (first printed in Musik, vols 13 and 14 (5th year)).
• — (1948) [1911]. The Psychiatric Study of Jesus: Exposition and Criticism. Gloucester, Massachusetts: Peter Smith Publisher. ISBN 978-0-8446-2894-3.
• — (1912). Paul and His Interpreters, A Critical History. Translated by Montgomery, W. London: Adam & Charles Black.
• — (1985) [1914]. The Mystery of the Kingdom of God: The Secret of Jesus' Messiahship and Passion. Prometheus Books. ISBN 978-0-87975-294-1.
• — (1922). Zwischen Wasser und Urwald [On the Edge of the Primeval Forest]. Translated by Campion, C. T. London: A. & C. Black.
• The Decay and the Restoration of Civilization and Civilization and Ethics (The Philosophy of Civilization, Vols I & II of the projected but not completed four-volume work), A. & C. Black, London 1923. Material from these volumes is rearranged in a modern compilation, The Philosophy of Civilization (Prometheus Books, 1987), ISBN 0-87975-403-6
• — (1998) [1930, 1931], The Mysticism of Paul the Apostle, Johns Hopkins University Press, ISBN 978-0-8018-6098-0.
• — (1931). Mitteilungen aus Lambaréné [More from the Primeval Forest]. Translated by Campion, C. T. London: A. & C. Black.
• — (1931). Aus Meinem Leben und Denken. Leipzig: Felix Meiner Verlag. translated as — (1998) [1933]. Out of My Life and Thought: An Autobiography. Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-6097-3.
• — (1935). Indian Thought and Its Development. Boston, Massachusetts: Beacon Press. OCLC 8003381.
• Afrikanische Geschichten (Felix Meiner, Leipzig u. Hamburg 1938): tr. Mrs C. E. B. Russell as From My African Notebook (George Allen and Unwin, London 1938/Henry Holt, New York 1939). Modern edition with Foreword by L. Forrow (Syracuse University Press, 2002).
• — (4 November 1954). "The Problem of Peace". The Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 18 August 2017.
• — (1958). Peace or Atomic War?. New York: Henry Holt. ISBN 978-0-8046-1551-8.
• — & Neuenschwander, Ulrich (1968). The Kingdom of God and Primitive Christianity. New York: Seabury Press. OCLC 321874.
• — (2005). Brabazon, James (ed.). Albert Schweitzer: Essential Writings. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books. ISBN 978-1-57075-602-3.

See also

• List of peace activists
• Category:Cultural depictions of Albert Schweitzer


1. He officiated at the wedding of Theodor Heuss (later the first President of West Germany) in 1908.[31][32][33][34][35]



1. Philosophy Tree profile Albert Schweitzer
2. Schweitzer, Albert (10 December 1953), "Award Ceremony Speech", The Nobel Peace Prize 1952, The Nobel prize.
3. Olga La Marquise de St. Innocent; Kahler, Woodland (1974). Olga: The memoirs of Olga La Marquise de St. Innocent. New York, NY: Walker. qtd. in
4. Oermann 2016, p. 43.
5. Free 1988, p. 74.
6. Stammbaum – Genealogic tree Arbre généalogique de la famille Schweitze, Schweitzer, archived from the original on 26 April 2006.
7. Association Internationale Albert Schweitzer, retrieved 1 August 2012.
8. Seaver 1951, p. 3–9.
9. A. Schweitzer, Eugene Munch (J. Brinkmann, Mulhouse 1898).
10. Joy 1953, p. 23–24.
11. Joy 1953, p. 24.
12. George N. Marshall, David Poling, Schweitzer, JHU Press, 2000, ISBN 0-8018-6455-0
13. Cicovacki, Predrag (2 February 2009). Albert Schweitzer's Ethical Vision A Sourcebook. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199703326.
14. Schweitzer, Albert; Bresslau, Helene; Stewart, Nancy (2003). Albert Schweitzer-helene Bresslau: the Years Prior to Lambarene. Syracuse University Press. ISBN 9780815629948.
15. Brabazon, James (2000). Albert Schweitzer: A Biography. Syracuse University Press. ISBN 9780815606758.
16. "Albert Schweitzer - Biographical". Retrieved 10 March 2018.
17. Joy 1953, p. 24–25.
18. Seaver 1951, p. 20.
19. Schweitzer, My Life and Thought, pp 80–81; cf. Seaver 1951, pp. 231–232
20. Joy 1953, p. 58–62.
21. Cassirer, Ernst (1979). Verene, Donald Phillip (ed.). Symbol, Myth, and Culture: Essays and Lectures of Ernst Cassirer 1935-1945. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press. p. 230. ISBN 978-0-300-02666-5.
22. Schweitzer, in Joy 1953, pp. 53–57
23. Joy 1953, pp. 53–57, quoting from and translating A. Schweitzer, 'Mes Souvenirs sur Cosima Wagner', in L'Alsace Française, XXXV no. 7 (12 February 1933), p. 124ff.
24. Wedel, Gudrun (2010), Autobiographien von Frauen: ein Lexikon
25. Reproduced in Joy 1953, pp. 127–129, 129–165: cf. also Seaver 1951, pp. 29–36
26. Joy 1953, pp. 165–166: Text of 1909 Questionnaire and Report, pp. 235–269.
27. Seaver 1951, p. 44.
28. Given by the Paris Bach Society, Seaver 1951, p. 63; but Joy 1953, p. 177, says it was given by the Paris Missionary Society.
29. Seaver 1951, p. 63–64.
30. Joy 1953 plate facing p. 177.
31. Oermann 2016, p. 101-102.
32. Brabazon 2000, p. 422.
33. Pierhal 1956, p. 63.
34. Pierhal 1957, p. 63f.
35. The Bulletin, Bonn, West Germany: Press and Information Office, 9–10, p. 36, 1962, ISSN 0032-7794, retrieved 2 July2017 Missing or empty |title= (help)
36. Schweitzer 1931, p. 1.
37. Schweitzer 1931, p. 2.
38. Schweitzer 1931, p. 3.
39. Schweitzer 1931, p. 13.
40. Schweitzer 1931, p. xvi.
41. Schweitzer 1931, p. 16.
42. Schweitzer 1931, p. 17.
43. Schweitzer 1931, p. 103.
44. Schweitzer 1931, p. 9.
45. Seaver 1951, p. 40.
46. Marxsen, Patti M. Helene Schweitzer: A Life of Her Own. First Edition. Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Press, 2015.
47. From the Primeval Forest, Chapter 1.
48. From the Primeval Forest, Chapter 6.
49. Monfried, Walter (10 February 1947). "Admirers Call Dr. Schweitzer "Greatest Man in the World"". Milwaukee, Wisconsin. pp. 1, 3.
50. From the Primeval Forest, Chapters 3–5.
51. Albert Schweitzer 1875–1965 Archived 14 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine. (in German)
52. Nessmann worked with the French Resistance during the Second World War, was captured and executed by the Gestapo in Limoges in 1944. cf Guy Penaud, Dictionnaire Biographique de Périgord, p. 713. ISBN 978-2-86577-214-8
53. Schweitzer, Albert (1931), On the Edge of the Primeval Forest, New York: Macmillan, p. 115, OCLC 2097590.
54. Schweitzer 2005, p. 76–80.
55. Brabazon 2000, p. 253-256.
56. Berman, Edgar (1986), In Africa With Schweitzer, Far Hills, NJ: New Horizon Press, p. 139, ISBN 978-0-88282-025-5.
57. Schweitzer, Albert (1924) [1922]. "Social Problems in the Forest". On the Edge of the Primeval Forest. Translated by Ch. Th. Campion. p. 130.
58. Chinua Achebe. "An Image of Africa: Racism in Conrad's Heart of Darkness." Archived 18 January 2006 at the Wayback Machine – the Massachusetts Review. 1977. (c/o North Carolina State University)
59. Quoted by Forrow, Lachlan (2002). "Foreword". In Russell, C.E.B. (ed.). African Notebook. Albert Schweitzer library. Syracuse University Press. p. xiii. ISBN 978-0-8156-0743-4. Retrieved 23 June 2017.
60. Inside Africa. New York: Harper. 1955.
61. Amagezi Agokuzalisa. London: Sheldon Press.
62. Paget, James Carleton (2012). "Albert Schweitzer and Africa". Journal of Religion in Africa. 24 (3): 277–316. JSTOR 41725476.
63. Cameron, James (1966) [1978]. Point of Departure. Law Book Co of Australasia. pp. 154–74. ISBN 9780853621751.
64. On Monday 7 April 2008 ("The Walrus and the Terrier" – programme outline) BBC Radio 4 broadcast an Afternoon Play"The Walrus and the Terrier" by Christopher Ralling concerning Cameron's visit.
65. Civilization and Ethics, Chapter 21, p. 253: reprinted as A. Schweitzer, The Philosophy of Civilization, (Prometheus Books, Buffalo 1987), Chapter 26.
66. Civilization and Ethics, Preface and Chapter II, 'The Problem of the Optimistic World-View'.
67. Ara Paul Barsam (2002) "Albert Schweitzer, jainism and reverence for life" in:Reverence for life: the ethics of Albert Schweitzer for the twenty-first century Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, ISBN 978-0-8156-2977-1 pp. 207–08
68. Albert Schweitzer and Charles Rhind Joy (1947) Albert Schweitzer: an anthology Beacon Press
69. Schweitzer museum
70. "The Nobel Peace Prize 1952". The Nobel Foundation. 21 May 2014. Retrieved 18 August 2017.
71. Schweitzer 1954.
72. Declaration of Conscience speech Archived 16 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine – at Tennessee Players
73. "Albert Schweitzer and Henry Fonda's Lost Special". Culturedarm. 20 January 2015. Retrieved 26 April 2019.
74. "List of Members of the Order of Merit, past and present". British Monarchy. Retrieved 2 December 2008.
75. "Louis Théophile Schweitzer". Retrieved 18 October 2011.
76. "History of Vegetarianism – Dr Albert Schweitzer (1875–1965)". 4 September 1965. Archived from the original on 21 May 2011. Retrieved 1 July 2011.
77. "Dr. Albert Schweitzer – Take Heart – Christian Vegetarian Association". Retrieved 1 July 2011.
78. In Africa With Schweitzer, (New York: Harper & Row Publishers, 1986), page 165.
79. "The Albert Schweitzer Fellowship". 23 June 2011. Archived from the original on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 1 July 2011.
80. "Königsfeld feiert ?Schweitzer-Erben? | Südkurier Online". 30 May 2011. Retrieved 1 July 2011.
81. This fine 1909 Harrison and Harrison organ was blitzed in the War (cf W. Kent, The Lost Treasures of London (Phoenix House 1947), 94–95) but was rebuilt in 1957, see "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 5 July 2008. Retrieved 6 May2008..
82. Seaver 1951, p. 139–152.
83. Schweitzer's Bach recordings are usually identified with reference to the Peters Edition of the Organ-works in 9 volumes, edited by Friedrich Conrad Griepenkerl and Ferdinand Roitzsch, in the form revised by Hermann Keller.
84. (78 rpm HMV C 1532 and C 1543), cf R.D. Darrell, The Gramophone Shop Encyclopedia of Recorded Music (New York 1936).
85. (78 rpm Columbia ROX 146–52), cf. Darrell 1936.
86. Joy 1953, pp. 226–230. The 78s were issued in albums, with a specially designed record label (Columbia ROX 8020–8023, 8032–8035, etc.). Ste Aurélie recordings appeared also on LP as Columbia 33CX1249
87. E.M.I., A Complete List of EMI, Columbia, Parlophone and MGM Long Playing Records issued up to and including June 1955(London 1955) for this and discographical details following.
88. Columbia LP 33CX1074
89. Columbia LP 33CX1084
90. Columbia LP 33CX1081
91. E.M.G., The Art of Record Buying (London 1960), pp. 12–13. Philips ABL 3092, issued March 1956.
92. E.M.G., op. cit., Philips ABL 3134, issued September 1956. Other selections are on Philips GBL 5509.
93. Philips ABL 3221.


• Schweitzer, Albert (1931), The Mysticism of Paul the Apostle, Johns Hopkins University Press.
Further reading[edit]
• Erica Anderson/Eugene Exman The World of Albert Schweitzer Harper & Brothers New York 1955
• ——— (1965), The Schweitzer Album, New York: Harper & Row.
• Brabazon, J. (1975). Albert Schweitzer: A Biography. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. ISBN 978-0-399-11421-2.
• Brabazon, J. (2000). Albert Schweitzer: A Biography. Albert Schweitzer library. Syracuse University Press. ISBN 978-0-8156-0675-8. Retrieved 2 July 2017.
• Cousins, Norman "Albert Schweitzer's Mission Healing and Peace" W.W. Norton & Company 1985
• Free, A.C. (1988). Animals, Nature and Albert Schweitzer. Flying Fox Press. ISBN 978-0-9617225-4-8. Retrieved 2 July 2017.
• Joy, Charles R., ed. (1953). Music in the Life of Albert Schweitzer. London: A. & C. Black.
• Oermann, N. O. (2016). Albert Schweitzer: A Biography. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-108704-2. Retrieved 2 July 2017.
• Pierhal, J. (1956). Albert Schweitzer: the life of a great man. Lutterworth. Retrieved 2 July 2017.
• Pierhal, J. (1957). Albert Schweitzer: the story of his life. Philosophical Library. Retrieved 2 July 2017.
• Seaver, G. (1951). Albert Schweitzer: The Man and His Mind. London: A. & C. Black.
• Rud, A. G. Albert Schweitzer's Legacy for Education: Reverence for Life (Palgrave Macmillan; 2011) 173 pp.

External links

• Wikilivres has original media or text related to this article: Albert Schweitzer(in the public domain in New Zealand)
• Albert Schweitzer info
• Works by Albert Schweitzer at Project Gutenberg
• Works by or about Albert Schweitzer at Internet Archive
• Works by Albert Schweitzer at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
• Albert Schweitzer Papers at Syracuse University
• John D. Regester Collection on Albert Schweitzer
• The Helfferich Collection, collected by Reginald H. Helfferich on Albert Schweitzer, is at the Andover-Harvard Theological Library at Harvard Divinity School in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
• What Jesus was thinking An interpretation and restatement of Schweitzer's last book, The Kingdom of God and Primitive Christianity
• Newspaper clippings about Albert Schweitzer in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics (ZBW)
Site Admin
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Thu Jun 20, 2019 3:34 am

Part 1 of 2

Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies [The Geneva School of International Studies]
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 6/19/19

Not to be confused with the similarly-named Geneva School of Diplomacy and International Relations

Freda relished the camaraderie of college life. ‘We talked endlessly, mainly between nine and midnight over large cups of coca or Bourneville made in the College pantries. Everything from socialism to Karl Marx, Proust, D.H. Lawrence, the family, to the new fields of Birth Control and travel were the subjects of conversation.’ [16] Initially, she worked hard – the ‘first year was one of study,’ she recounted. But her enthusiasm for the course waned. ‘Suddenly, I couldn’t be bothered … I could speak French fluently already. I wanted to learn other languages, to understand the world.’ She was also concerned about what a modern languages degree would point her towards: ‘It was the flash of understanding which showed me French could only lead me to becoming a teacher or lecturer. And I passionately did not want to go back into the world of childhood that being a teacher meant.’ She was closing in on what she did wish to pursue as a career. ‘My eyes were on journalism, writing [and] interpreting that incredible international adult world that poured into magazine and newspaper.’ She even met the editor of the Derby Daily Telegraph who promised her an opening once she had her degree, but she never went back to her home city. She did eventually carve our a reputation as a journalist, and demonstrated curiosity and social concern as well as the ability to communicate, but only after several years in the line of work she had been so keen to avoid: teaching and lecturing.

Freda followed her friend Barbara Castle’s example and switched from French to Philosophy, Politics and Economics (PPE), also known at that time as ‘Modern Greats’. It may have been more congenial but she didn’t shine academically. Freda’s tutors’ reports paint a picture of a diligent student, but one who found the transition from being the outstanding pupil in a small secondary school to the more exacting environment of Oxford rather daunting. There were a few positive remarks about her work, particularly in her optional subject of international relations....

In the summer of 1932, perhaps while recuperating from her ill health, Freda travelled in northern Germany. She wrote articles for the Derby Evening Telegraph about German family life and about the merits of German men, their cheerfulness, domesticity and love of order. [50]

-- The Lives of Freda: The Political, Spiritual and Personal Journeys of Freda Bedi, by Andrew Whitehead

Freda married BPL on June 12, 1933, at the Oxford Registrar’s Office. She was twenty-two and he was twenty-six….

Their creative, radical Oxford days were over. Both Freda and BPL received their degrees and a whole new life beckoned. It was not what Freda had imagined. She had successfully lined up a job as a cub reporter on the Derby Telegraph, her first stepping stone to Fleet Street (as she had intended). Instead she went to Germany with her new husband, who had won a Humboldt scholarship at the Friedrich Wilhelm University in Berlin, to research a PHD in Political Science.

“Bedi was concerned about the rise of Hitler, but he thought that as long as he didn’t get a chance to rant in Parliament, it would be all right. He was going to keep a very keen eye on the situation,” she said. She was not to see her homeland again for fourteen years….

By the time Freda reached Berlin, she was pregnant, and delighted with the prospect of motherhood. BPL somewhat protectively decided that she should not work, but instead live quietly in the charming little cottage they had found on the bank of Lake Wannsee. “It was really a lovely place, with a beautiful garden, and we had some very happy months there preparing for the child,” she said. She busied herself with making baby clothes, but could not resist going to Berlin University to study Hindi with a Punjabi professor – a necessary preparation, she thought, for a life on the subcontinent, and to counteract the full-on domesticity she found herself in….

BPL refrained from any political activity in Germany, although he was keeping up-to-date with the Free India movement in India. A frequent visitor to their lakeside cottage was Subhas Chandra Bose, who went on to become one of the most prominent and controversial leaders of the independence movement. Bose was educated at Cambridge and also had a European wife – Emilie Schenkl, an Austrian. He made it a point to visit sympathetic Indian students living in Europe, and the couple had much in common with Freda and BPL Bedi.

“We came to know Bose intimately, and a deep friendship grew,” said BPL. Bose was a hard-core communist, a great admirer of the Soviet Union, who maintained that only an authoritarian state, not democracy, would be able to reshape India. (Later he was forced to resign as present of the Indian National Congress because his platform of violent resistance clashed with Gandhi’s peaceful pathway.)

In Germany, however, Bose, won the young BPL over completely. “Freda and I were both fired up with the patriotic zeal of liberating the motherland from British imperialism,” BPL said. “While we were in Berlin, an eminent journalist asked me what was my agenda for India. ‘Live dangerously,’ I replied. ‘Live dangerously for every form of exploitation of man by man. Live dangerously for every form of injustice. Live dangerously for any violation of human dignity.’”

On May 13, 1934, Freda gave birth to a son after just a four-hour labor….They named him Ranga after the Indian statesman who had defeated the political opposition to their marriage, ten months previously….

BPL had not joined any political club at Berlin University, nor was he taking part in any political activities, but he sensed that tension was mountain. He was friendly with many of the Indian students living in the International Houses, which were being increasingly dominated by Nazi representatives.

In August 1934, Hitler was made fuhrer. The morning the news broke, BPL put down his paper and announced, “Tomorrow we get on the train and go to Geneva. It’s not safe here anymore.”

“He knew that Hitler could swoop down on the Indian students, which was precisely what happened,” said Freda. The life of drama and danger that she pledged to share with Bedi had begun. “You can imagine the state I was in, having to pack up everything in one day, and with BPL having to get the visas for Switzerland. But the next morning we were on the train!” she said

After their hasty exit, they spent a few pleasant weeks staying in accommodations that had been arranged by their old Oxford professor, Alfred Zimmern [Professor Sir Alfred Eckhard Zimmern, whose name is associated with the founding of the League of Nations], who ran a school there. In October 1934, they finally made the decision to go to India and make it their permanent home. They sailed on the SS Conte Verde from northern Italy to Bombay, a journey of three weeks.....

The tulkus were learning English and their lessons on the modern world with varying degrees of success. Freda's star student, Trungpa Rinpoche, however, was making exceptional progress, and Freda's aspirations for him became increasingly ambitious. He had a natural aptitude for English and had taken to reading the poets that Freda presented him with, especially T.S. Eliot. He was keen on history and geography too. Freda decided that he was ready to try to get into Oxford, her own university, where he would receive the finest education the West had to offer. With such credentials he would be perfectly equipped and have the clout to bring the sacred Buddhist teachings to the outside world in a language it could understand.

With the help of John Driver, an Englishman who was also tutoring Trungpa, Freda set about getting a Spalding Scholarship for Trungpa, and succeeded.
In early 1963 Trungpa set sail for England accompanied by Akong Rinpoche, to enter into the arcane, privileged, and hallowed halls of Oxford University. It was another epic journey into the unknown, heralding as many adventures, pitfalls, and triumphs as they had met in their escape from Tibet.

-- The Revolutionary Life of Freda Bedi, by Vicki Mackenzie

Through the League of Nations, where the influence of the Milner Group was very great, the RIIA was able to extend its intellectual influence into countries outside the Commonwealth. This was done, for example, through the Intellectual Cooperation Organization of the League of Nations. This Organization consisted of two chief parts: (a) The International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation, an advisory body; and (b) The International Institute of Intellectual Cooperation, an executive organ of the Committee, with headquarters in Paris. The International Committee had about twenty members from various countries; Gilbert Murray was its chief founder and was chairman from 1928 to its disbandment in 1945. The International Institute was established by the French government and handed over to the League of Nations (1926). Its director was always a Frenchman, but its deputy director and guiding spirit was Alfred Zimmern from 1926 to 1930. It also had a board of directors of six persons; Gilbert Murray was one of these from 1926.

It is interesting to note that from 1931 to 1939 the Indian representative on the International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation was Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan. In 1931 he was George V Professor of Philosophy at Calcutta University. His subsequent career is interesting. He was knighted in 1931, became Spalding Professor of Eastern Religions and Ethics at Oxford in 1936, and became a Fellow of All Souls in 1944.

Beginning in 1928 at Berlin, Professor Zimmern organized annual round-table discussion meetings under the auspices of the International Institute of Intellectual Cooperation. These were called the International Studies Conferences and devoted themselves to an effort to obtain different national points of view on international problems.
The members of the Studies Conferences were twenty-five organizations. Twenty of these were Coordinating Committees created for the purpose in twenty different countries. The other five were the following international organizations: The Academy of International Law at The Hague; The European Center of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace; the Geneva School of International Studies; the Graduate Institute of International Studies at Geneva; the Institute of Pacific Relations. In two of these five, the influence of the Milner Group and its close allies was preponderant. In addition, the influence of the Group was decisive in the Coordinating Committees within the British Commonwealth, especially in the British Coordinating Committee for International Studies. The members of this committee were named by four agencies, three of which were controlled by the Milner Group. They were: (1) the RIIA, (2) the London School of Economics and Political Science, (3) the Department of International Politics at University College of Wales, Aberystwyth, and (4) the Montague Burton Chair of International Relations at Oxford. We have already indicated that the Montague Burton Chair was largely controlled by the Milner Group, since the Group always had a preponderance on the board of electors to that chair. This was apparently not assured by the original structure of this board, and it was changed in the middle 1930s. After the change, the board had seven electors: (1) the Vice-Chancellor of Oxford, ex officio; (2) the Master of Balliol, ex officio; (3) Viscount Cecil of Chelwood; (4) Gilbert Murray, for life; (5) B. H. Sumner; (6) Sir Arthur Salter; and (7) Sir. J. Fischer Williams of New College. Thus, at least four of this board were members of the Group. In 1947 the electoral board to the Montague Burton Professorship consisted of R. M. Barrington-Ward (editor of The Times); Miss Agnes Headlam-Morley (daughter of Sir James Headlam-Morley of the Group); Sir Arthur Salter; R. C. K. Ensor; and one vacancy, to be filled by Balliol College. It was this board, apparently, that named Miss Headlam-Morley to the Montague Burton Professorship when E. L. Woodward resigned in 1947. As can be seen, the Milner Group influence was predominant, with only one member out of five (Ensor) clearly not of the Group.

The RIIA had the right to name three persons to the Coordinating Committee. Two of these were usually of the Milner Group. In 1933, for example, the three were Lord Meston, Clement Jones, and Toynbee.

The meetings of the International Studies Conferences were organized in a fashion identical with that used in other meetings controlled by the Milner Group — for example, in the unofficial conferences on British Commonwealth relations — and the proceedings were published by the Institute of Intellectual Cooperation in a similar way to those of the unofficial conferences just mentioned, except that the various speakers were identified by name. As examples of the work which the International Studies Conferences handled, we might mention that at the fourth and fifth sessions (Copenhagen in 1931 and Milan in 1932), they examined the problem of "The State and Economic Life"; at the seventh and eighth session (Paris in 1934 and London in 1935), they examined the problem of "Collective Security"; and at the ninth and tenth sessions (Madrid in 1936 and Paris 1937) they examined the problem of "University Teaching of International Relations."

In all of these conferences the Milner Group played a certain part. They could have monopolized the British delegations at these meetings if they had wished, but, with typical Milner Group modesty they made no effort to do so. Their influence appeared most clearly at the London meeting of 1935. Thirty-nine delegates from fourteen countries assembled at Chatham House to discuss the problem of collective security. Great Britain had ten delegates. They were Dr. Hugh Dalton, Professor H. Lauterpacht, Captain Liddell Hart, Lord Lytton, Professor A. D. McNair, Professor C. A. W. Manning, Dr. David Mitrany, Rear Admiral H. G. Thursfield, Arnold J. Toynbee, and Professor C. K. Webster. In addition, the Geneva School of International Studies sent two delegates: J. H. Richardson and A. E. Zimmern. The British delegation presented three memoranda to the conference. The first, a study of "Sanctions," was prepared by the RIIA and has been published since. The second, a study of "British Opinion on Collective Security," was prepared by the British Coordinating Committee. The third, a collection of "British Views on Collective Security," was prepared by the delegates. It had an introduction by Meston and nine articles, of which one was by G. M. Gathorne-Hardy and one by H. V. Hodson. Zimmern also presented a memorandum on behalf of the Geneva School. Opening speeches were made by Austen Chamberlain, Allen W. Dulles (of the Council on Foreign Relations), and Louis Eisenmann of the University of Paris. Closing speeches were made by Lord Meston, Allen Dulles, and Gilbert Murray. Meston acted as president of the conference, and Dulles as chairman of the study meetings. The proceedings were edited and published by a committee of two Frenchmen and A. J. Toynbee.....

This brief sketch of the Royal Institute of International Affairs does not by any means indicate the very considerable influence which the organization exerts in English- speaking countries in the sphere to which it is devoted. The extent of that influence must be obvious. The purpose of this chapter has been something else: to show that the Milner Group controls the Institute. Once that is established, the picture changes. The influence of Chatham House appears in its true perspective, not as the influence of an autonomous body but as merely one of many instruments in the arsenal of another power. When the influence which the Institute wields is combined with that controlled by the Milner Group in other fields — in education, in administration, in newspapers and periodicals — a really terrifying picture begins to emerge.... The picture is terrifying because such power, whatever the goals at which it may be directed, is too much to be entrusted safely to any group. That it was too much to be safely entrusted to the Milner Group will appear quite clearly in Chapter 12. No country that values its safety should allow what the Milner Group accomplished in Britain — that is, that a small number of men should be able to wield such power in administration and politics, should be given almost complete control over the publication of the documents relating to their actions, should be able to exercise such influence over the avenues of information that create public opinion, and should be able to monopolize so completely the writing and the teaching of the history of their own period.

-- The Anglo-American Establishment: From Rhodes to Cliveden, by Carroll Quigley

Institut de hautes études internationales et du développement
Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies
Former names
The Graduate Institute of International Studies (1927–2007)
Type Semi-private, semi-public graduate school
Established 1927[1]
Director Philippe Burrin
Academic staff
70 professors, 13 lecturers, 38 visiting[2]
Students 838 (78% international)[2]
Location Geneva, Switzerland
Campus Urban
Working languages English and French
Nickname The Graduate Institute, IHEID, HEI
Affiliations Europaeum, APSIA, EUA, ECUR, EADI, AUF

The Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, or the Graduate Institute (in French: Institut de hautes études internationales et du développement (previously known as Institut (universitaire) de hautes études internationales), abbreviated IHEID (previously HEI, IHEI, or IUHEI) is a higher education institution located in Geneva, Switzerland, but not an officially recognised Swiss university.[3][4]

The institution counts one UN secretary-general (Kofi Annan), seven Nobel Prize recipients, one Pulitzer Prize winner, and numerous ambassadors, foreign ministers, and heads of state among its alumni and faculty.[5] Founded by two senior League of Nations officials, the Graduate Institute maintains strong links with that international organisation's successor, the United Nations, and many alumni have gone on to work at UN agencies. The school is a full member of the APSIA.[6]

Founded in 1927, the Graduate Institute of International Studies (IHEI or HEI) is continental Europe's oldest school of international relations and was the world's first university dedicated solely to the study of international affairs.[7] It offered one of the first doctoral programmes in international relations in the world. In 2008, the Graduate Institute absorbed the Graduate Institute of Development Studies, a smaller post-graduate institution also based in Geneva founded in 1961. The merger resulted in the current Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies.[8]

Today the school enrolls about 800 graduate students from over 100 countries. Foreign students make up nearly 80% of the student body and the school is officially a bilingual English-French institution, although the majority of classes are in English.[2] With Maison de la Paix acting as its primary seat of learning, the Institute's campuses are located blocks from the United Nations Office at Geneva, International Labour Organization, World Trade Organization, World Health Organization, International Committee of the Red Cross, World Intellectual Property Organization and many other international organizations.[9][10]

It runs joint degree programmes with universities such as Smith College and Yale University, and is Harvard Kennedy School's only partner university to co-deliver double degrees.[11][12]

one of the university's campus sites, the Maison de la paix

Maison de la paix, with the site of United Nations, the Palais des Nations in the background.

The Davis Library of the Maison de la paix


The Villa Barton campus on the shores of Lake Geneva.

The Graduate Institute of International Studies was co-founded in 1927 by two scholar–diplomats working for the League of Nations Secretariat: the Swiss William Rappard, director of the Mandates Section, and the Frenchman Paul Mantoux, director of the Political Section.[13] A bilingual institution like the League, it was to train personnel for the nascent international organization.[13] Its co-founder, Rappard, served as director from 1928 to 1955.[13]

The Institute's original mandate was based on a close working relationship with both the League of Nations and the International Labour Organization. It was agreed that in exchange for training staff and delegates, the Institute would receive intellectual resources and diplomatic expertise (guest lecturers, etc.) from the aforementioned organizations. According to its statutes, the Graduate Institute was "an institution intended to provide students of all nations the means of undertaking and pursuing international studies, most notably of a historic, judicial, economic, political and social nature."

The institute managed to attract a number of eminent faculty and lecturers, particularly from countries mired in oppressive Nazi regimes, e.g., Hans Wehberg [de] and Georges Scelle for law, Maurice Bourquin for diplomatic history, and the rising young Swiss jurist, Paul Guggenheim. Indeed, it is said that William Rappard had observed, ironically, that the two men to whom the Institute owed its greatest debt were Mussolini and Hitler. Subsequently, more noted scholars would join the Institute's faculty. Hans Kelsen, the well-known theorist and philosopher of law, Guglielmo Ferrero, Italian historian, and Carl Burckhardt, scholar and diplomat all called the Graduate Institute home. Other arrivals, similarly seeking refuge from dictatorships, included the eminent free market economy historian, Ludwig von Mises, and another economist, Wilhelm Ropke, who greatly influenced German postwar liberal economic policy as well as the development of the theory of a social market system.[14]

After a number of years, the Institute had developed a system whereby cours temporaires were given by prominent intellectuals on a week, semester, or yearlong basis. These cours temporaires were the intellectual showcase of the Institute, attracting such names as Raymond Aron, René Cassin, Luigi Einaudi, John Kenneth Galbraith, G. P. Gooch, Gottfried Haberler, Friedrich von Hayek, Hersch Lauterpacht, Lord McNair, Gunnar Myrdal,[15] Harold Nicolson, Philip Noel Baker, Pierre Renouvin, Lionel Robbins, Jean de Salis [fr], Count Carlo Sforza, Jacob Viner, and Martin Wight.

IHEID's later logo at Villa Barton's main gate.

Another cours temporaire professor, Montagu Burton Professor of International Relations at Oxford University, Sir Alfred Zimmern, left a particularly lasting mark on the Institute. As early as 1924, while serving on the staff of the International Council for intellectual Cooperation in Paris, Zimmern began organizing international affairs summer schools under the auspices of the University of Geneva, 'Zimmern schools', as they became known. The initiative operated in parallel with the early planning for the launch of the Graduate Institute and the experience acquired by the former helped to shape the latter.[14]

Despite its small size, (before the 1980s the faculty never exceeded 25 members), the Institute boasts four faculty members who have received Nobel Prizes for economics – Gunnar Myrdal, Friedrich von Hayek, Maurice Allais, and Robert Mundell. Three alumni have been Nobel laureates.

For a period of almost thirty years (1927–1954) the school was funded predominantly through the support of the Rockefeller Foundation. Since then the Canton of Geneva and the Swiss Federal Council bear most of the costs associated with the Institute. This transfer of financial responsibility coincided with the 1955 arrival of William Rappard's successor as director of the institute, Lausanne historian Jacques Freymond. Freymond inaugurated a period of great expansion, increasing the range of subjects taught and the number of both students and faculty, a process that continued well after his retirement in 1978. Under Freymond's tenure, the Graduate Institute hosted many international colloquia that discussed preconditions for east-west negotiations, relations with China and its rising influence in world affairs, European integration, techniques and results of politico-socioeconomic forecasting (the famous early Club of Rome reports, and the Futuribles project led by Bertrand de Jouvenel), the causes and possible antidotes to terrorism, Pugwash Conference concerns and much more. Freymond's term also saw many landmark publications, including the Treatise on international law by Professor Paul Guggenheim and the six-volume compilation of historical documents relating to the Communist International.[14]

The parallel history of the Graduate Institute of Development Studies (French: Institut universitaire d’études du développement, IUED) also involves Freymond, who founded the institution in 1961 as the Institut Africain de Genève, or African Institute of Geneva. The Graduate Institute of Development Studies was among the pioneer institutions in Europe to develop the scholarly field of sustainable development. The school was also known for the critical view of many of its professors on development aid, as well as for its journal, the Cahiers de l'IUED[16] It was at the center of a huge international network.

Recent merger

In 2008, the Graduate Institute of International Studies (HEI [fr]), absorbed the Graduate Institute of Development Studies (IUED [fr]), to create the current Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies (IHEID).


Admission to the Graduate Institute's study programmes is highly competitive, with only 14% of applicants attending the Graduate Institute in 2014.[17] The Institute awards its own degrees.[18] It does not award undergraduate degrees.


As a small institution offering exclusively master's and PhD programmes, the institute does not participate in popular university ranking.[19]

In Foreign Policy's 2014[20] Inside the Ivory Tower ranking of best international relations schools in the world, the Graduate Institute's master's program was ranked 24st among Master's Programs for Policy Career in International Relations. In 2012, The Graduate Institute was listed among the Foreign Policy Association's "Top 50 International Affairs Graduate Programs." [21] The LLM in international dispute settlement, offered jointly with the University of Geneva, was ranked second worldwide according to a 2012 survey of law firms conducted by the Global Arbitration Review.[22]

Degree programmes

Master of Arts in International Affairs (MIA)

The MIA is an intensive two-year interdisciplinary Master programme which begins with a rigorous foundation in quantitative and qualitative methods and in all the disciplines of the Institute. Courses follow in three thematic tracks: Trade & International Finance; Global Security; and Environment, Resources & Sustainability.[23] All students undertake independent interdisciplinary research towards a dissertation. Applied Research Seminars expose them to stakeholders beyond academia and develop skills to design and execute research projects in partnership with them. Specialized, interactive, hands-on workshops help enhance professional skills, while internships for credit allow students to develop work skills and experience.

Master of Arts in Development Studies (MDEV)

Disciplinary Master's degree (MA/MPhil equivalent)

An advanced disciplinary two-year master's programme is offered by each of the Graduate Institute's five academic departments: International Relations & Political Science, International History, International Law, International Economics, and Anthropology & Sociology. The programme includes a significant taught portion and students dedicate a full semester on their master's thesis under supervision during the programme. In addition, a number of students transition during the MPhil to PhD status by way of the Fast Track programme.[24]

Master of Laws in International Law (LLM)

The LLM was introduced in 2012. Students have the opportunity to discuss legal problems in tutorials, develop their professional skills in practical workshops and write an LLM paper on a topic within their specialty stream. Moreover, LLM participants undertake real legal work for a client as part of a law clinic.

Doctorate (PhD)

PhD students specialize in one disciplinary field. PhD candidates who wish to carry out bi-disciplinary research choose a main discipline (a major) and a second discipline (a minor).

Executive masters

Executive education programmes include masters in International Negotiation and Policy-Making, Development Policies and Practices, International Oil and Gas Leadership.


The Graduate Institute has established joint or dual degree programmes with: the MPA programme at Harvard University's John F. Kennedy School of Government; the LLM in Global Health Law programme at the Georgetown University's Law Center; the BA programme at Yale University's Jackson Institute for Global Affairs; the BA programme at Peking University; the BA programme at Smith College; the BA programme at the University of Hong Kong, and with the University of Geneva's LLM in International Dispute Settlement, LLM in International Humanitarian Law, Master's in Transational Justice, Master's of Advanced Studies in Humanitarian Action, Master's in Global Health, and Master's in Asian Studies.

Apart from the dual/joint degree programmes, students also have the option to spend an exchange semester at Georgetown Law School, Harvard Law School, Michigan Law School, UCLA School of Law, Boston University School of Law, Yale University, the Elliott School of International Affairs at George Washington University, the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University, School of International Service at American University in Washington D.C., Northwestern University, University of Toronto, Sciences Po Paris – Institut d'Études Politiques de Paris, the Hertie School of Governance in Berlin, Bocconi University in Italy, Libera Università Internazionale degli Studi Sociali Guido Carli in Italy, the Graduate School of International Studies at Seoul National University, the Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy at the National University of Singapore, the Graduate School of Asia-Pacific Studies at Waseda University, University of Hong Kong, Tsinghua University, Fudan University, Peking University, KIMEP University, Gadjah Mada University, the School of International Studies at Jawaharlal Nehru University, University of Malaya, the American University in Cairo, Boğaziçi University in Turkey, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro, Pontifical Catholic University of Peru, El Colegio de México, the University of Ghana, Cheikh Anta Diop University, Stellenbosch University, as well as the University of St. Gallen and ETH Zürich in Switzerland.

Furthermore, the Graduate Institute is an active member of the following associations and academic networks:

• APSIA – Association of Professional Schools of International Affairs: The world’s main academic institutions specialising in international relations and international public policy are represented among APSIA’s thirty-odd members.
• European University Association: Represents and supports more than 850 institutions of higher education in 46 countries, providing them with a forum for cooperation and exchange of information on higher education and research policies.
• Europaeum: Created at the initiative of the University of Oxford, the Europaeum is composed of ten leading European institutions of higher education and research.
• European Consortium for Political Research: The ECPR is an independent scholarly association that supports the training, research and cross-national cooperation of many thousands of academics and graduate students specialising in political science and all its sub-disciplines.
• European Association of Development Research and Training Institutes: The EADI is the largest existing network of research and training institutes active in the field of development studies.
• Agence Universitaire de la Francophonie: The AUF supports the build-up a French-language research area between French-speaking universities. The Institute is one of 536 members belonging to the AUF and takes part in its exchange programmes in the fields of teaching and research.
• Swiss University Conference: The SUC is a governmental organization tasked with accrediting officially recognized Swiss universities.


Maison de la paix ("House of Peace").

The Villa Moynier campus

The Campus de la paix is a network of buildings extending from Place des Nations (the United Nations Headquarters in Geneva) to the shores of Lake Geneva, spanning two public parks – Parc Barton [fr] and Parc Moynier [fr].

Maison de la paix

The Graduate Institute's main campus is the Maison de la paix ("House of Peace"), which opened in 2013.[25] The Maison de la Paix is a 38,000 meter-square glass building distributed into six connected sections. It contains the Davis Library, which holds 350,000 books about social sciences, journals and annual publications, making it one of Europe's richest libraries in the fields of development and international relations. It is named after two Institute alumni—Ambassador Shelby Cullom Davis and his wife Kathryn Davis, following the Davis' $10 million donation to the Institute.[26] The neighboring Picciotto Student Residence was completed in 2012 and provides 135 apartments for students and visiting professors.

In addition to serving as the Institute's main campus, the Maison de la paix also houses policy centres and advocacy groups with close ties to the Institute such as the Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF), the Geneva Centre for Security Policy (GCSP) the Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining, Interpeace, the International Institute of Humanitarian Law and the World Business Council for Sustainable Development.[25]

Historic villas

Another section of the campus are two historic villas situated by Lake Geneva, Villa Barton and Villa Moynier. Villa Barton served as the Institute's main campus for most of the school's history. It now mostly houses administrative staff. Villa Moynier, created in 2001 and which opened in October 2009, houses the Institute-based Geneva Academy of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights. The building holds a symbolic significance as it was originally owned by Gustave Moynier, co-founder of the International Committee of the Red Cross, and subsequently used by the League of Nations and as the headquarters of the ICRC between 1933 and 1946.

Campus expansion

Expansion projects include the construction of the Portail des Nations (or Gate of Nations) near the Palace of Nations. The new building will house a series of conference rooms for students and host exhibitions on the role of Geneva in world affairs.[27] The school has also partnered with the University of Geneva to open a center for international cooperation at the historic Castle of Penthes [fr].[28] And in 2017, the school announced it had retained the services of Japanese architect Kengo Kuma to build a 700-bed student housing building. [29]


The Institute's research activities are conducted both at fundamental and applied levels with the objective of bringing analysis to international actors, private or public, of main contemporary issues. These research activities are conducted by the faculty of the Institute, as part of their individual work, or by interdisciplinary teams within centres and programmes whose activity focus on these main fields:

• Conflict, security, and peacebuilding
• Development policies and practices
• Culture, religion, and identity
• Environment and natural resources
• Finance and Development
• Gender
• Globalisation
• Governance
• Migration and refugees
• Non-state actors and civil society
• Rural development
• Trade, regionalism, and integration
• Dispute settlement
• Humanitarian action

Furthermore, IHEID is home to the Swiss Chair of Human Rights, the Curt Gasteyger Chair in International Security and Conflict Studies, the André Hoffmann Chair in Environmental Economics, the Pictet Chair in Environmental International Law, the Pictet Chair in Finance and Development, the Yves Oltramare Chair on Politics and Religion, the Swiss Chair of International Humanitarian Law, and the Pierre du Bois Chair Europe and the World.

Programmes and research centres

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The centres and programmes of the Institute distribute analysis and research that contributes to the analysis of international organisations headquartered in Geneva:

• The Centre on Conflict, Development and Peacebuilding is the Graduate Institute’s focal point for research in the areas of conflict analysis, peacebuilding, and the complex relationships between security and development.
• The Centre for International Environmental Studies was established in 2010 for the purpose of developing political, legal and economic discourse on problems related to the global environment. It is dedicated to the better understanding of the social, economic and political facets of global problems related to the environment.
• The Centre for Trade and Economic Integration brings together the research activities of eminent professors of economics, law and political science in the area of trade, economic integration and globalization. The Centre provides a forum for discussion and dialogue between the global research community, including the Institute's student body and research centres in the developing world, and the international business community, as well as international organisations and NGOs.
• The Centre for Finance and Development's research deals with finance and development at three levels: international finance, and development finance in particular, including the role played by the international financial institutions such as the IMF and the World Bank; financial development, including banking and financial sector development in emerging and developing countries, both from contemporary and historical perspectives; microeconomics of finance and development.
• The Global Governance Centre provides a forum for scholars of governance and international organisations to interact with practitioners from the policy world in order to analyse global governance arrangements across a variety of issues.
• The Global Health Programme's activities focus on two pillars, namely global health governance and global health diplomacy.
• The Global Migration Centre focus on the transnational dimensions of migration and its interdisciplinary orientation. It combines inputs from lawyers, political scientists, economists, historians, anthropologists and sociologists.
• The Albert Hirschman Centre on Democracy explores the "plurality of democratic experiences and aspirations in an interdisciplinary and comparative perspective".
• The Programme on Gender and Global Change produces research on the workings of gender in development and international relations and serves as a channel for the dissemination of such knowledge in both the anglophone and the francophone worlds.
• The Small Arms Survey is an independent research project that serves as the principal international source of public information on all aspects of small arms and armed violence and as a resource for governments, policy-makers, researchers, and activists.


• Refugee Survey Quarterly – Published by Oxford University Press and based at the Graduate Institute, the Refugee Survey Quarterly is a peer-reviewed journal focusing on the challenges of forced migration from multidisciplinary and policy-oriented perspectives.
• Journal of International Dispute Settlement – Established by the Graduate Institute and the University of Geneva in 2010, the JIDS is dedicated to international law with commercial, economic and financial implications. It is published by Oxford University Press.
• International Development Policy – A peer-reviewed e-journal that promotes cutting-edge research and policy debates on global development.
• European Journal of Development Research – The European Journal of Development Research is a co-publication of the Graduate Institute and the European Association of Development Research and Training Institutes with a multi-disciplinary focus.
• Medicine Anthropology Theory – Medicine Anthropology Theory is an open-access journal that publishes scholarly articles, essays, reviews, and reports related to medical anthropology and science and technology studies.
• Relations Internationales – Relations Internationales publishes research on international relations history ranging from the end of the 19th century to recent history.


Legal status

Historian Philippe Burrin, director of the Graduate Institute since 2004

IHEID is constituted as a Swiss private law foundation, Fondation pour les hautes études internationales et du développement, sharing a convention with the University of Geneva.[30] This is a particular organizational form, because IHEID is constituted as a foundation of private law fulfilling a public purpose. In addition, the political responsibility for the Institute shared between the Swiss Confederation and the Canton of Geneva. Usually in Switzerland, it is the responsibility of the Cantons to run public universities, except for the Federal Institutes of Technology (ETHZ and EPFL). IHEID is therefore something like a hybrid institution, in-between the two standard categories.[31]

Foundation Board

The Foundation Board is the administrative body of the Institute. It assembles academics, politicians, people of public life and practitioners. It includes among others: Carlos Lopes, currently UN under secretary general and executive secretary of the Economic Commission for Africa, Julia Marton-Lefèvre (former director general of the International Union for Conservation of Nature), Joëlle Kuntz [fr] (journalist), and Tamar Manuelyan Atinc, (a former World Bank vice president).[8]


The Institute is headed by Philippe Burrin and his deputy Elisabeth Prügl.

Notable alumni

Main article: List of alumni of the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies

The Graduate Institute has more than 18,000 alumni working around the world.

• Kofi Annan – former secretary-general of the United Nations and 2001 Nobel Peace Prize recipient
• Mohamed ElBaradei – Egyptian jurist and diplomat, former director general of the International Atomic Energy Agency and 2005 Nobel Peace Prize recipient
• Leonid Hurwicz – Polish-American economist and mathematician, Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics in 2007
• Micheline Calmy-Rey – former president of the Swiss Confederation
• Kurt Furgler – former president of the Swiss Confederation
• Michel Kafando – interim president of Burkina Faso
• Alpha Oumar Konaré – ex-president of Mali
• Henri, Grand Duke of Luxembourg
• Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete – fourth president of Tanzania


• Kofi Annan, former UN secretary-general, 1997–2006 and Nobel Peace prize recipient
• Mohamed ElBaradei, IAEA director-general, 1997–2009, former vice-president of Egypt and Nobel Peace Prize recipient
• Micheline Calmy-Rey, former Swiss foreign minister and president of the Swiss Federal Council, 2007 and 2011
• Philipp Hildebrand, head of the Swiss National Bank, 2010–2012, currently vice-chairman of BlackRock
• Leonid Hurwicz, Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences co-recipient
• Jakob Kellenberger, president of the ICRC(2000–2012), and current professor at the institute
• Brad Smith, president and chief legal officer at Microsoft, non-executive director at Netflix
• Patricia Espinosa, Mexican secretary of foreign affairs, 2006–2012, diplomat and executive secretary of the UNFCCC, 2016–present
• Saul Friedländer, Israeli historian and Pulitzer Prize winner
• Henri, Grand Duke of Luxembourg, 2000–present
• Hans-Gert Pöttering, president of the European Parliament, 2007–2009
• Jakaya Kikwete, the fourth president of Tanzania(2005-2015) and the Minister of Foreign Affairs (1995-2005) of Tanzania
• Alpha Oumar Konaré, the president of Mali(1992 to 2002), and chairperson of the African Union Commission (2003 to 2008)
• Michel Kafando, the president of Burkina Faso (2014 to 2015),[32]and minister of foreign affairs (1982 to 1983), the permanent representative of Burkina Faso to the United Nations (1998 to 2011)[33]
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Nobel laureates

• Kofi Annan (DEA 1962), former secretary-general of the United Nations and 2001 Nobel Peace Prize winner[34]
• Mohamed ElBaradei (DEA 1964), Egyptian jurist and diplomat, former director general of the International Atomic Energy Agency, 1997–2009, and 2005 Nobel Peace Prize winner
• Leonid Hurwicz (1940), Polish-American economist and mathematician, 2007 winner of the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics[35]


• Ralph D. Crosby Jr. (DEA 1976), chairman and CEO of Airbus Group, Inc.(formerly EADS North America), 2002–2009[36]
• Jean-Marc Duvoisin (DEA 1985), CEO of Nespresso[37]
• Nobuyuki Idei, founder and CEO of Quantum Leaps Corporation; chairman and group CEO of Sony Corporation, 1999–2005[35]
• Daniel Jaeggi, co-founder of Mercuria Energy Group[38]
• Martin Kupka, chief economist of Československá obchodní banka.
• Rick Gilmore (PhD 1971), president and CEO of the GIC Group and Council on Foreign Relations scholar
• Philipp Hildebrand (DEA 1990), vice-president of BlackRock, former president of the Swiss National Bank[38]
• Baron Léon Lambert, Belgian banker and art collector,[38] whose bank was merged into the powerhouse Drexel Burnham Lambert
• Lynn Forester de Rothschild (fellow 1978–1979), CEO of E.L. Rothschild
• Yan Lan (PhD 1993), managing director of Lazard China[38]
• Frank Melloul (licence 1999), CEO of i24news
• Christopher Murphy-Ives (DES 1990), vice-president and deputy general counsel for Europe, Middle East and Africa, Latin America and Canada at Hewlett-Packard[38]
• Muriel Schwab, Chief financial officer of the Gunvor (company) Group.
• Brad Smith (DEA 1984), president and chief legal officer, Microsoft[39]
• Rafael Tiago Juk Benke, global head of corporate affairs of Brazilian multinational Vale
• G. Richard Thoman, American businessman and former president and CEO of Xerox Corporation[40]
• Bernard Zen-Ruffinen, president of Europe, Middle East and Africa at Korn Ferry International[38]
• Carl Zimmerer, founder and CEO of InterFinanz[38]


• Rubén González Sosa (DEA), ambassador, under-secretary of foreign affairs, 1971–1976, and acting foreign minister of Mexico, 1970–1975[41]
• Walid Abdel Nasser, ambassador of Egypt to the United Nations Office in Geneva
• Imran N. Hosein, Islamic scholar-specialist in Islamic Eschatology; foreign service officer in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Government of Trinidad and Tobago
• Ochieng’ Adala, Ambassador of Kenya, executive director of the Africa Peace Forum
• Félix Baumann (DEA 1995), ambassador of Switzerland to the United Nations in Geneva
• William M. Bellamy (Certificate), Ret. US ambassador
• Térence Billeter (DEA), ambassador of Switzerland to China
• Jean-Marc Boulgaris (1970), former Swiss ambassador to Colombia and Denmark
• Linus von Castelmur (1992), ambassador of Switzerland to India
• Shelby Cullom Davis (PhD 1934), US ambassador to Switzerland, 1969–1975; philanthropist[42]
• Elyes Ghariani, Tunisian ambassador to Germany
• Erwin Hofer (1976), Swiss ambassador to Russia
• María Teresa Infante (PhD 1980), Chilean ambassador to the Netherlands
• Claude Heller (DEA), ambassador of Mexico to the United Nations
• Tamara Kunanayakam (DEA 1982), ambassador of Sri Lanka to the United Nations Office in Geneva; chairperson-rapporteur of the United Nations Open-ended Intergovernmental Working Group on the Right to Development, Human Rights Council
• A.H.M. Moniruzzaman (certificate '89), ambassador of Bangladesh to Belgium, Switzerland, and Luxembourg
• Robert G. Neumann (1937), American ambassador and politician
• François Nordmann (DEA 1972), Swiss ambassador to France
• Assad Omer, ambassador of Afghanistan to France
• Marcial Perez Chiriboga (PhD 1965), former ambassador of Venezuela to the US
• Michael Reiterer (1985), ambassador of the European Commission to Switzerland
• Oswaldo de Rivero, permanent representative of Peru to the United Nations in New York
• Zalman Shoval (DEA), former Israeli ambassador to the US
• Luis Solari Tudela, ambassador of Peru to the United Kingdom
• Mohamed Ibrahim Shaker (PhD 1975), Egyptian amabassador
• Nikolaos Vamvounakis (Diploma 1975), Greek ambassador in Bangkok and non-resident ambassador to Singapore, Cambodia, Laos and Myanmar
• Christian Wenaweser, ambassador of Liechtenstein to the United Nations

Law, politics and government

Heads of state

• Micheline Calmy-Rey (Licence 1968), former president of the Swiss Confederation[35]
• Kurt Furgler (1948), former president of the Swiss Confederation and member of the Swiss Federal Council
• Michel Kafando (1972), interim president of Burkina Faso, 2014–2015
• Alpha Oumar Konaré, former president of Mali, 1992–2002; chairperson of the African Union Commission, 2003–2008
• Henri, Grand Duke of Luxembourg (1980)[43]

Cabinet ministers

• Delia Albert, former secretary of foreign affairs of the Philippines
• Lourdes Aranda Bezaury, Undersecretary of Foreign Affairs of Mexico
• Youssouf Bakayoko (Certificate 1971), Foreign Minister of Côte d'Ivoireand ambassador[38]
• Davit Bakradze (1998), chairman of the Georgian Parliament and former foreign affairs minister
• Sibusiso Bengu (PhD 1974), former minister of education of South Africa; first black vice-chancellor of a South African university (Fort Hare University)[35]
• István Bibó (PhD 1935), former minister of state of Hungary
• Martin Coiteux (PhD), minister responsible for Government Administration of Quebec; chair of the Treasury Board of Quebec
• Joseph Cuthbert, Minister of Education, Culture, External Affairs of Trinidad and Tobago, 1971–1986
• Patricia Espinosa (DEA 1987), Secretary of Foreign Affairs of Mexico[35]
• Abul Fateh (Fellow 1962–1963), first Foreign Minister of Bangladesh
• He Yafei (DEA 1987), Assistant Foreign Minister of China
• Manouchehr Ganji (PhD 1960), Iranian human rights activist and former education minister
• Bonaya Godana (PhD 1982), Foreign Minister of Kenya, 1998–2001
• Parker T. Hart (Certificate 1936), former U.S. Assistant Secretary of State for Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs
• Jafar Hassan (PhD 2000), Jordanian Minister of Planning and International Cooperation, 2009–2013
• Annemarie Huber-Hotz (1975), former federal chancellor of Switzerland, 2000–2007
• Sandra Kalniete (1995), Minister of Foreign Affairs of Latvia, 2002–2004, current Member of the European Parliament
• Patti Londono Jaramillo, deputy foreign minister of Colombia, vice-minister of multilateral affairs, 2010–2013[38]
• Paul Martin Sr., former foreign minister of Canada, 1963–1968
• Yōichi Masuzoe, former governor of Tokyo, former Japanese Minister of Health, Labor and Welfare, 2007–2009, former member of the Japanese House of Councillors[38]
• Omer Tshiunza Mbiye (DEA 1967), former minister of economy of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
• Robert McFarlane (Licence), United States National Security Advisor, 1983–1985
• Teodor Meleșcanu (PhD 1973), Minister of Foreign Affairs of Romania, former director of the Foreign Intelligence Service and former minister of defense
• Ram Niwas Mirdha, former cabinet minister in India
• Kamel Morjane(DEA 1976), former defence minister and foreign minister of Tunisia, 2005–2011
• Saïd Ben Mustapha, former foreign minister of Tunisia, 1997–1999
• Kristiina Ojuland (1992), former foreign minister of Estonia and current Member of the European Parliament
• Andrzej Olechowski, former minister of finance and minister of foreign affairs of Poland
• Marco Piccinini, former minister of finance and economy of Monaco
• Francisco Rivadeneira (1995), Minister of Foreign Trade and Economic Integration of Ecuador
• Haroldo Rodas (DEA), former foreign minister of Guatemala[38]
• Shri Shumsher K. Sheriff, secretary-general of the upper house of the Parliament of India
• André Simonazzi (Licence 1992), vice-chancellor of the Swiss Federal Council
• Albert Tévoédjrè, former minister of information of Benin
• Tôn Thất Thiện (PhD 1963), former cabinet minister and public intellectual in Vietnam
• Omar Touray (DEA 1992, PhD 1995), former secretary of foreign affairs of the Gambia[38]
• Joseph Tsang Mang Kin, former minister of arts and culture of Mauritius; poet


• Ann Aldrich, United States federal judge
• Marc Bossuyt (PhD 1975), member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration
• Giorgio Malinverni (PhD 1974), judge at the European Court of Human Rights
• Fatsah Ouguergouz (PhD 1991), judge at the African Court on Human and Peoples' Rights
• Christos Rozakis (visiting scholar 1985–1986), first vice-president of the European Court of Human Rights
• Max Sørensen (PhD 1946), former judge at the European Court of Justice, 1973–1979, and the European Court of Human Rights, 1980–1981
• Nina Vajić (DEA), judge at the European Court of Human Rights
• Abdulqawi Yusuf (PhD 1980), president of the International Court of Justice[38]

Members of Parliament

• Rep. Michael D. Barnes (DEA 1966), US Congressman, 1979–1987
• Tarcísio Burity, former governor of Paraíba, Brazil
• Jacques-Simon Eggly, Swiss Member of Parliament
• Mauricio Mulder (DEA 1985), member of Peruvian Congress
• Jacques Myard (PhD), member of the National Assembly of France
• Hans-Gert Pöttering (PhD), former president of the European Parliament, 2007–2009[44]
• Meta Ramsay, Baroness Ramsay of Cartvale, former British intelligence officer and member of House of Lords[45]
• Emrys Roberts, president of the British Liberal Party, 1963–1964[46]
• Alexandra Thein, German politician and Member of the European Parliament

Public officials

• Luis Marco Aguiriano Nalda (Licence), Secretary of State for the European Union
• Shara L. Aranoff (Fulbright 1984–1985), chairman of the U.S. International Trade Commission[35]
• Tennent H. Bagley (PhD 1950), Deputy Chief of the CIA's Soviet Bloc Division during the 1960s; author
• Signe Krogstrup (PhD), assistant governor and head of economics and monetary policy at Danmarks Nationalbank.
• Andréa Maechler (DEA 1994), Swiss National Bank's first female board member; Deputy Division Chief in the International Monetary Fund's Monetary and Capital Markets Department
• Jean-Pierre Roth (PhD 1975), former chairman of the Swiss National Bank[38]
• Robert-Jan Smits, director-general for research at the European Commission[35]
• Marcelo Zabalaga (1977), president of the Central Bank of Bolivia

United Nations and international organisations

• Arnauld Antoine Akodjènou (PhD '88), head of the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA)
• Catarina de Albuquerque, UN Special Rapporteur on the human right to safe drinking water and sanitation
• Hédi Annabi, former special representative of the United Nations Secretary-General for Haiti
• Anthony Banbury (DEA 1993), United Nations assistant secretary-general for field support, deputy ebola coordinator and operation crisis manager[38]
• Marcel André Boisard (PhD), under-secretary general to the United Nations and former executive director of United Nations Institute for Training and Research
• Arthur E. Dewey, former assistant UN secretary-general[38]
• Arthur Dunkel, director-general of General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade(GATT), 1980–1993[38]
• Kamil Idris (PhD 1964), director-general of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), 1997–2008[38]
• C. Wilfred Jenks, director-general of the International Labour Organization, 1970–1973
• Jakob Kellenberger (1974–1975), president of the ICRC, 2000–2012[35]
• Pierre Krähenbühl, commissioner-general of the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA)
• Olivier Long (PhD 1943), director-general of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, 1968–1980[38]
• Carlos Lopes (DEA), UN under secretary-general and executive secretary of the Economic Commission for Africa[35]
• Jonathan Lucas (PhD 1998), head of the International Narcotics Control Board
• Jacques Moreillon (PhD 1971), former director-general of the ICRC
• Cornelio Sommaruga (PED 1961), former president of the ICRC from 1987 to 1999.
• Eric Suy, UN under secretary-general for legal affairs and director-general of the European Office of the United Nations in Geneva[38]
• Mervat Tallawy, Egyptian politician, former UN under-secretary and executive secretary of ESCWA
• Laura Thompson Chacón (DEA), deputy director-general of the International Organization for Migration and Costa Rican Ambassador
• Sérgio Vieira de Mello, former United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights
• René-Jean Wilhelm (PhD 1983), co-author of the Geneva Conventions
• Ralph Zacklin, UN assistant secretary-general for legal affairs



• Victoria Curzon-Price (PhD), economist and former director of the Mont Pelerin Society
• Paul Demeny (1957), economist who pioneered the concept of Demeny voting
• Paul Dembinski, scholar specialized on finance and ethics
• Rüdiger Dornbusch (Licence 1966), international economics scholar at MIT[47]
• Marcus Fleming, Scottish economist, former deputy director of the research department of the International Monetary Fund
• Rikard Forslid (PhD 1994), professor of economics at Stockholm University[48]
• Asher Hobson (PhD 1931), agricultural economist
• Urban Jermann (PhD 1994), professor of international finance at the Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania
• Lewis Webster Jones, president of the University of Arkansas, 1947–1951; president of Rutgers University, 1951–1958
• Karl William Kapp (PhD 1936), founding father of ecological economics and a leading institutional economist
• Gianmarco Ottaviano (Diploma 1994), professor of economics at the London School of Economics and Political Science
• Smita Srinivas, economics development professor at Columbia University


• Norma Breda Dos Santos, professor of history at the Institute of International Relations at the University of Brasilia
• Cary Fraser, historian of international relations; president of the University of Guyana
• Saul Friedländer (PhD 1963), Israeli historian of Germany and Jewish history at UCLA, winner of the 2008 Pulitzer Prize for General Non-Fiction[35]
• Piero Gleijeses (PhD 1972), Italian historian of U.S. foreign relations at the Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies(SAIS), best known for his scholarly studies of Cuban foreign policy under Fidel Castro[49]
• Robert A. Graham (PhD 1952), Jesuit, church historian and authority on papal diplomacy[50]
• Peter Hruby (PhD 1978), historian of central and eastern Europe
• William Lazonick (PhD 1975), business historian, winner of the 2010 Schumpeter Prize
• John Joseph Mathews, historian who became one of the Osage Nation's most important spokespeople and writers
• Arno J. Mayer, Luxembourg-born American Marxist historian, Dayton-Stockton Professor Emeritus of History at Princeton University
• Gerhard Menk (1969), German historian and honorary professor at the University of Giessen
• Miklós Molnár (PhD 1963), Hungarian historian
• Boris Mouravieff (PhD 1951), Russian historian
• André Reszler (Licence 1958, PhD 1966), scholar of the history of ideas
• Davide Rodogno (PhD 2001), professor of international history and head of the International History Department at the Graduate Institute[51]

International law

• Georges Abi-Saab (PhD), Egyptian international law specialist[52]
• Jean Allain (PhD), professor of international law and associate dean, Monash University's faculty of law.
• Bartram S. Brown (PhD), professor of international law, member of the Council on Foreign Relations and member of the board of directors of Amnesty International, USA
• Laurence Boisson de Chazournes (PhD 1991), professor of international law at the University of Geneva
• Michael Bothe (diploma 1966), professor of public law, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, and chair of the Commission for International Humanitarian Law
• Ion Diaconu, professor of international law at the University of Bucharest
• Cleopatra Doumbia-Henry, president of the World Maritime University
• Willem Thomas Eijsbouts (DEA 1971), professor of European law at Leiden University
• Ossip K. Flechtheim, German jurist credited with coining the term "Futurology"
• Robert Kolb (PhD 1998), professor of international law at the University of Geneva
• Frédéric Mégret, professor of international law at McGill University, Canada Research Chair in the Law of Human Rights and Legal Pluralism
• Steven Ratner (DEA), professor of international law at the University of Michigan's International Institute
• Lyal S. Sunga (PhD 1991), ex-OHCHR official; affiliated professor, Raoul Wallenberg Institute of Human Rights and Humanitarian Law; special advisor on human rights and humanitarian law, International Development Law Organization; Head, Rule of Law programme, The Hague Institute for Global Justice; human rights, humanitarian law, and international criminal law expert
• Jorge E. Viñuales (Licence and DEA), Harold Samuel Professor of Law and Environmental Policy at the University of Cambridge[53]
• Patricia K. Wouters, founding director of the Dundee UNESCO Centre for Water Law, Policy and Science and professor of international law at the University of Dundee

International relations and political science

• Pontus Braunerhjelm (PhD 1994), professor of economics at the Royal Institute of Technology
• Andrew W. Cordier (1930–1931), former president of Columbia University, 1968–1970[38]
• Wolfgang F. Danspeckgruber (PhD 1994), Austrian political scientist at Princeton University, expert on self-determination
• Marwa Daoudy (PhD), assistant professor of international relations specializing in the Middle East at Georgetown University
• André Donneur (PhD 1967), Canadian political scientist
• Osita C. Eze (PhD 1975), former director-general of the Nigerian Institute of International Affairs[35]
• A.J.R. Groom (PhD), professor emeritus of international relations, University of Kent at Canterbury
• Sieglinde Gstöhl (PhD 1988), director of the department of EU international relations at the College of Europe in Bruges
• Thierry Hentsch (PhD 1967), Swiss-Canadian political philosopher
• John H. Herz (Diploma 1938), American scholar of international relations and law
• Shireen Hunter (PhD 1983), research professor at Georgetown University, member of the Council on Foreign Relations and scholar on Iran
• Dimitri Kitsikis (1962), Greek Turkologist
• Bahgat Korany (PhD 1974), fellow of the Royal Society of Canada and professor at the American University in Cairo; winner of the International Studies Association's 2015 Distinguished Scholar Award
• Urs Luterbacher (PhD 1974), political scientist specializing in game theory
• Zidane Meriboute (PhD 1983), SOAS scholar specializing in Islam
• Kristen Monroe (junior year), American political scientist specializing in political psychology and ethics
• Hans Joachim Morgenthau (post-graduate work 1932), leading political scientist of international relations[54]
• Philippe Regnier (PhD 1986), professor at the School of International Development and Global Studies, University of Ottawa
• Philippe C. Schmitter (Licence 1961), emeritus professor of the Department of Political and Social Sciences at the European University Institute
• Pierre de Senarclens (PhD 1973), international relations theorist
• Hsueh Shou-sheng (Licence, PhD 1953), vice-chancellor of Nanyang University in Singapore, 1972–1975 and founding rector of the University of Macau[35]
• Peter Uvin, professor of government at Claremont McKenna College
• Thomas G. Weiss, international relations scholar recognized as an authority on the United Nations system
• Francis O. Wilcox, former dean of the Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies[38]
• Andrew Williams, British professor of international relations, University of St Andrews


• George W. Grace (Licence 1948), linguist specializing in Oceanic languages of Melanesia

Broadcasting, journalism and literature

• Frédéric Bastien (PhD), Canadian author and historian
• Robert Albert Bauer (1931), anti-Nazi radio broadcaster with Voice of America
• René Cruse, French public intellectual, writer
• Carlos Fuentes (1950), Mexican novelist, essayist and former diplomat[35]
• Eric Hoesli, Swiss journalist
• Michel Jeanneret (Licence), editor-in-chief of L'Illustré
• Elizabeth Jensen (DES '83), ombudsman and public editor of NPR
• Beat Kappeler (PhD 1970), Swiss journalist
• Helen Kirkpatrick (DEA), American war correspondent during the Second World War
• Esther Mamarbachi (DEA 1992), Swiss broadcast journalist
• Selim Matar, Iraqi novelist and sociologist
• Derek B. Miller (PhD 2004), American novelist
• Malika Nedir (Diploma), Swiss news anchor
• Jean-Pierre Péroncel-Hugoz (PhD 1974), French journalist and essayist
• Nicolas Rossier (1995), American filmmaker and reporter
• Pierre Ruetschi (Licence '83), Swiss journalist
• Jon Woronoff (Licence 1965), American writer and East Asian specialist


• Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza and pretender to the throne of Portugal
• Princess Nora of Liechtenstein[55]
• Maria Teresa, Grand Duchess of Luxembourg[56]

Public policy

• Allison Anderson (DEA), former director of the Inter-Agency Network for Education in Emergencies
• Antony Alcock (PhD 1968), Ulster Unionist politician
• Svein Andresen (PhD), secretary-general of the Financial Stability Board
• James Bevan (MA), founder of Conflict Armament Research
• Jennifer Blanke (PhD 2005), Chief Economist, World Economic Forum
• Pontus Braunerhjelm (PhD 1994), secretary-general of the Swedish government's Globalization Council
• Julius E. Coles, former president of Africare
• Laurent Goetschel, director of swisspeace
• Stephanie T. Kleine-Ahlbrandt (DEA), Asia-Pacific director at United States Institute of Peace and Council on Foreign Relations scholar
• Edward Kossoy (PhD 1975), Polish lawyer and activist for victims of Nazism
• Gerhart M. Riegner, secretary-general of the World Jewish Congress, 1965–1983; in 1942, he sent the so-called Riegner Telegram
• Riadh Sidaoui, Tunisian political scientist and director of Geneva's Centre Arabe de Recherches et d'Analyses Politiques et Sociales
• Hernando de Soto, Peruvian economist and president of the Institute for Liberty and Democracy[35]
• Matthias Stiefel, founder of Interpeace
• Fred Tanner (Licence), ambassador and former director of the Geneva Centre for Security Policy
• John Ulanga (DPP 2013), executive director of the Foundation for Civil Society, Tanzania
• Tek Vannara (DPP 2007), executive director of the NGO Forum on Cambodia
• Scott Vaughan (IEP 2014), president and chief executive officer of the International Institute for Sustainable Development
• Willem de Vogel (Licence), chairman of The Jamestown Foundation
• René Wadlow, president and representative to the UN of the Association of World Citizens
• Laure Waridel CM, Canadian social activist, writer and executive director of the Centre interdisciplinaire de recherche en opérationnalisation du développement durable (CIRODD)
• Leicester Chisholm Webb, Australian political scientist, public servant and journalist
• Béatrice Wertli (licence), secretary-general of the Christian Democratic People's Party of Switzerland
• Theodor H. Winkler (Licence 1977, PhD 1981), director of the Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces[57]
• Samuel A. Worthington (Fulbright 1985), CEO of InterAction[58]
• Saadia Zahidi, head of Gender Parity and Human Capital of the World Economic Forum


• Jack Fahy, US government official and suspected spy during World War II
• Jacques Piccard, deep-sea explorer and inventor
• Kathryn Wasserman Davis, American philanthropist

Notable faculty

Former Faculty

• Georges Abi-Saab – International law specialist, currently chairman of the Appellate Body of the World Trade Organization.
• Maurice Allais – French economist and recipient of the 1988 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics.
• Lucius Caflisch – Swiss international law specialist, member of the United Nations International Law Commission.
• Kemal Dervis – professor of economics, former head of the United Nations Development Programme and former minister of economic affairs of Turkey.
• Saul Friedländer – Israeli historian of Germany and Jewish history at UCLA, 2008 Pulitzer Prize recipient.
• Harry Gordon Johnson – Canadian economist who made many contributions to the development of Hecksher-Ohlin theory.
• Friedrich von Hayek – Prominent Austrian school economist, co-recipient of the 1974 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics.
• Hans Kelsen – Noted international jurist and legal philosopher.
• Dimitri Kitsikis – Noted Greek Turkologist.
• Olivier Long – Swiss international law specialist and former director-general of the GATT (1968–80).
• Patrick Low – Chief Economist at the World Trade Organization.
• Theodor Meron – Former president of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY)
• Ludwig von Mises – Prominent Austrian school economist, philosopher, and classical liberal.
• Robert Mundell – Canadian international economist and recipient of the 1999 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics.
• Gunnar Myrdal – Swedish economist and co-recipient of the 1974 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics.[15]
• William Rappard – economic historian, director of the League of NationsMandate Section (1920–1925), and Swiss delegate to the ILO (1945–1956).
• Wilhelm Röpke – International economics and spiritual father of the German social market economy.
• Jacob Viner – Canadian international economics and early member of the Chicago School of Economics.
• Jean Ziegler – Swiss sociologist, author and public intellectual.

Current Faculty

• Jean-Louis Arcand – professor of international economics, director of the Centre for Finance and Development
• Richard Baldwin – acclaimed international trade economist
• José Manuel Barroso – Visiting professor, chairman at Goldman Sachs International.,[59] the 11th president of the European Commission (2004–14) and the 115th Prime Minister of Portugal (2002–2004).
• Thomas J. Biersteker – Curt Gasteyger Professor of International Security, Council on Foreign Relations scholar and former director of the Watson Institute for International Studies at Brown University.
• Gilles Carbonnier – professor of development economics and vice-president of the International Committee of the Red Cross.
• Andrew Clapham professor of international law, former representative of Amnesty International at the United Nations, and former adviser on international humanitarian law to the Special Representative of the UN secretary-general in Iraq.
• Tim Flannery – Visiting professor, Australian of the Year 2007, mammalogist, palaeontologist, environmentalist and former chief commissioner of the Federal Climate Commission.
• Michael Goebel – Holder of the Pierre du Bois Chair Europe and the World.
• Jakob Kellenberger – Visiting professor, former head of the International Committee of the Red Cross.
• Ilona Kickbusch – Adjunct professor, leading thinker in the fields of health promotion and global health.
• Robert B. Koopman – Adjunct professor and chief economist of the World Trade Organization.
• Nico Krisch – professor of international law specializing in constitutional theory, and global governance.
• Keith Krause – professor of international relations, director of the Small Arms Survey.
• Jussi Hanhimäki – professor of international history, recipient of the 2002 Bernath Prize for his book The Flawed Architect: Henry Kissinger and American Foreign Policy.
• Susanna Hecht – professor of international history whose early work on the deforestation of the Amazon led to the founding of the subfield of political ecology.
• Anna Leander – professor of international relations well known for her work in critical security studies and international political sociology.
• Giacomo Luciani – Leading scholar on the geopolitics of energy.
• Mohamed Mahmoud Ould Mohamedou – professor of international history, former foreign minister of Mauritania and acclaimed Al Qaeda specialist.
• Nicolas Michel – honorary professor of international law, former under-secretary-general for legal affairs and United Nations legal counsel.
• Alessandro Monsutti – Leading expert on the Hazaras.
• Ugo Panizza – Pictet Professor of Development and Finance.
• Joost Pauwelyn – professor of international law, famous scholar in WTO law and public international law.
• Timothy Swanson – André Hoffmann Professor of Environmental Economics.
• Jordi Tejel – professor of international history specialized in Kurdish state-building and Syrian Kurds.
• Jorge E. Viñuales – Adjunct professor of environmental law and Harold Samuel Professor of Law and Environmental Policy at the University of Cambridge.
• Beatrice Weder di Mauro – professor of international macroeconomics and president of the Centre for Economic Policy Research
• Charles Wyplosz – professor of international economics, regular columnist in the Financial Times, Le Monde, Libération, Le Figaro, Finanz und Wirtschaft, and Handelsblatt.


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25. Sophie Davaris (3 December 2008). "IHEID dévoile son campus et la future Maison de la paix". Tribune de Genève (in French). Archived from the original on 23 July 2012. Retrieved 13 October 2012.
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27. "La Fondation Pictet pour le développement donne 25 millions à la Genève internationale". Le Temps (in French). Archived from the original on 10 June 2015. Retrieved 14 October 2012.
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33. "New Permanent Representative of Burkina Faso presents credentials", United Nations press release, BIO/3152, 15 April 1998.
34. "Former Secretary-General Kofi Annan". Retrieved 9 May 2016.
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59. "Ex-European Commission head Barroso under fire over Goldman Sachs job". 13 July 2016 – via


• The Graduate Institute of International Studies Geneva: 75 years of service towards peace through learning and research in the field of international relations, The Graduate Institute, 2002.

External links

• Official website
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Thu Jun 20, 2019 8:40 am

Ann Randolph
by Esalen
Accessed: 6/22/19




Ann Randolph is an award-winning writer, performer, and educator. Her off-Broadway hit, Squeezebox, was produced by Mel Brooks. Her current show is Inappropriate in All the Right Ways. Her personal essays have aired on NPR, BBC and The Moth.

Email Me:

Sharing Your Life Story from the Page to the Stage
View general pricing information


This is an invitation for you to discover your own unique and powerful story and the profound transformation that occurs when you speak it out loud. You’ll learn how to trust your creative impulses, thus embracing all of who you are. By becoming the author of your own life and learning how to tell your own story, you will not only learn to craft your experience into a compelling narrative, but you will also unleash a sense of purpose in your own life that you never thought possible. Through improvisation, writing exercises and group discussion, you can cultivate a fearlessness in speaking your truth.

Ann creates a supportive, fun, and dynamic space in which to create. All levels are welcome. This is a workshop for those seeking to explore personal essay, memoir, solo performance, or the sacred practice of journaling.

Topics include:

• Writing exercises to stimulate memory

• Learning to structure the narrative in a compelling way

• Discovering ways to create spontaneously

• Overcoming performance anxiety

• Utilizing tools to release yourself from the inner critic

• Transforming your ideas/stories into performance

Recommended reading: Pressfield, War of Art.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Thu Jun 20, 2019 8:40 am

Unlocked Stories: Ann Randolph, Writer, Performer, Comedienne, Teacher and Trailblazer
Accessed: 6/23/19




To do the work you love, you’ve got to unlock a few doors. UNLOCKED Stories are honest conversations with people who chose a path and made it happen.

A note from Ellen: I was introduced to Ann Randolph through a mutual friend, and as soon as Ann and I started chatting I knew: this woman is OUT OF THIS WORLD.

Ann is an award-winning playwright, actor, comedian, and performer, though she prefers to simply call herself a “storyteller.”

Ann’s plays touch upon the dark, messy, uncomfortable aspects of what it means to be human. Audiences leave Ann’s shows feeling cracked open and cathartically transformed, like it’s finally OK to share feelings they never thought they could share. The Washington Post calls her work “inappropriate in all the right ways” and Mel Brooks calls her “a genius.”

Buckle up for Ann’s story, which will inspire you to keep marching towards your dream, even if the journey tests your faith and patience to the limit. If Ann can find the inner grit to keep going, keep writing, and keep putting her work out there… why not you?


[Ann]: I am a storyteller. I write and perform solo theatre shows. I also teach people to speak their truth for the page and the stage in writing workshops across the U.S .


[Ann]: Most of my shows deal with situations that people may find uncomfortable to witness or talk about. Situations and topics like sex (not PG13-rated, Disney-fied sex, but raunchy, awkward, messy sex), grief, insanity, illness, and stories about marginalized people in our society who often get ignored.


[Ann]: I was always doing these things. As a little kid I would impersonate different people. I was attracted to oddballs—misfits — people living on the margins of life.

In college, I needed to get a job and there was this mental hospital. Built at the turn of the century, old Victorian, just rotting and decrepit.

They told me they didn’t have any jobs available. But every semester, they let six college students live there—with free room and board—if they’re studying Psychology.

And I go, “I’m not studying Psychology, but I could write plays for the patients.” They said, “You can move in.”

I was assigned to the Schizophrenic Unit. It smelled like urine and dirty feet. Practically my first day on the job, I see a guy walking around with no pants on, masturbating. These patients had no filter, no censorship. It was so hardcore.

I’d never been around the mentally ill before, but somehow I felt pulled to be with these people. Oddly, I felt right at home.

I wound up working there for four years. I wrote plays. I would cast the patients in my plays as a form of “creative/art therapy.” That was the beginning of my “official” playwriting career!


[Ann]: After graduating from college, my goal was to write and perform on Saturday Night Live. My dream was to live in NYC. But I had no money. That was a problem.

I read in the back of a magazine that I could earn $20,000 dollars for one summer’s worth of work cleaning fish in Alaska—so I went there and I got a job on a slime line cleaning fish.

I lived in a tent. I was terrible at that job because I was very slow. I got fired. Then I saw an ad in the paper from a local school seeking a Professor to teach Humanities and Playwriting. I’d never taken a Humanities course in my life, but I walked in there, lied, and said, “Yes I can do this”… so I got the job. I even wrote the first play for the college based on my experiences at the mental hospital.

After that (this is the hyper-accelerated, sound-bite version of the story…) I joined a comedy troupe in Boston, then I spent a year in NYC, then bounced back to Alaska to clean rocks after a huge Exxon oil spill, earned a ton of money there, then went down to New Mexico and moved into a mansion with three professors studying Chaos Theory at the Santa Fe Institute.

While living in Santa Fe, I had this vision of building an outdoor theater in the mountains. I was singing at a local church, and—as it turns out—the church owned some land and they offered to give it to me—for free—if I’d build the theater there. I happened to be dating a contractor at the time, so I used my Exxon oil spill clean up money, hired him to help, and built the theater on the donated church land.

When the theater opened, I put on my first show. Well, at least… my first show outside of a mental institute!


[Ann]: After moving to L.A. I worked at a homeless shelter for 4 nights a week from 7pm to 7am shift. I took the graveyard shift because I was allowed to sleep part of the night. I needed my days free to create. On my days off, I received reduced rent from where I was staying because I only slept there 3 nights a week.

Meanwhile, I was part of the Groundlings comedy group alongside Will Ferrell, Chris Kattan, and Cheri Oteri. All these incredible performers were my peers, but I felt ashamed, like I was living a lie. I was performing, but I felt I had much more to say then a 3 minute sketch. I was at a choice point. Do I stay with Groundlings or quit and focus on solo shows. I quit and focused on returning to solo shows.

Everybody thought I was nuts to do this but I had to listen to the stories that wanted to come through me and they were not always funny. Also, it was terrifying financially because who makes their living from solo shows? Who goes to see a solo show?

For the next 10 years, I wrote and performed 4 solo shows in addition to other plays and sketch shows. These shows would win awards, get great reviews, but I made no money. All the money I saved went into renting theaters and never an apartment. I never had my own place.

I really struggled with comparison, jealousy, and questioning my level of talent. My career seemed like it was crawling along while my peers appeared to be soaring. Deals would come my way but then nothing panned out. People told me I was too outrageous, that my characters needed to be toned down. It was now 10 years at the shelter making $8.60 cents an hour and well, I just plain lost faith. I lost my mojo.

Finally, a mentor told me that I needed to stop hiding the fact that I worked at a shelter, and instead, I should write about it.

That’s what I did—and that choice changed my career.

I wrote a play called Squeeze Box, all about my experiences working in a shelter, and in writing that play, I rediscovered myself and found my faith again. The show was discovered by Mel Brooks and Anne Bancroft. They optioned the play and helped me hone my chops for over a year, before they opened Squeeze Box Off-Broadway.


[Ann]: I’ve had a lot of successes and also a lot of failures. But each failure made me more fearless. Each time I got knocked down, it gave me something deep and gritty to write about. It gave me more courage, too. At a certain point, you’re like, “What have I got to lose?”

I’ve learned that things are rarely “linear” in this business. My career path has been extremely swervy and loopy, not a straight line. I’ve had incredible opportunities handed to me—Broadway opportunities, Hollywood film deal opportunities—only to have everything fall apart at the last moment due to uncontrollable circumstances. Frustrating things happen. But miraculous things happen, too. Like I once received a $10,000 check—out of the blue—from a woman who saw one of my shows and wanted to support me. Then at one of my lowest moments, I got a phone call from someone who loved my work and wanted to help me set up a national tour so that I could perform all across America. Totally unexpected. You just never who’s going to email you or call you up… or who’s going to be sitting in your audience one night… or what’s around the corner.


[Ann]: Should I lie or tell the truth?


[Ann]: HAHAHA! I eat a bunch of crap. I have this thing with McDonald’s. That’s my unhealthy coping strategy. I’ve done that. I also love to spend time alone in the woods. That’s my healthy coping strategy.


[Ann]: McDonald’s and Nature!


[Ann]: I have so many. Astor Piazzolla, who’s an Argentinian jazz tango artist. His music inspires me. Carol Burnett, definitely. As a kid, it was Pippi Longstocking.


[Ann]: I’m premiering my new solo show, Inappropriate in all the Right Ways” at the Marsh. The Huffington Post just gave it a wonderful review and said, “It’s a show like no other” That’s the best compliment because I have combined my love of performing with teaching. I perform and then guide the audience in telling their own stories, so by the end of the show, the audience takes the stage. It’s super cool and inspiring. If you live in SF, please come to the premiere.

Also, this past summer I got to help create a story to Saint-Saëns Organ symphony. It was digitaly mapped in front of 35,000 people with this amazing orchestra playing in front. I love the idea of creating stories to classical music.

I am going to begin my interviews in November and then I will go from there.


[Ann]: Surround yourself with people who believe in you. People who can be your champions. That’s HUGE.

Who believes in you? Only go to them.

People often give up on their career dreams because they feel too lonely or someone put fear in their bones.

To really do something big, there’s got to be that encouragement. If you don’t have anybody to provide that encouragement right now, create a voice in your head that champions you.



Three questions to think about, write about—or talk about with a friend.

1. Ann says to surround yourself with people who believe in you: your champions.

Who is your biggest champion? Who roots for you to succeed? What could you do to deepen and strengthen your relationship with that person even more?

2. Ann has had a series of peculiar jobs—working in a mental institute, a homeless shelter, gutting fish in Alaska, cleaning up after a huge oil spill—yet each “odd job” provided a ton of inspiration/material for her to write about in her plays.

Have you ever had a really “odd” or “random” job? Did that job teach you something important—or influence your life in an unexpectedly positive way?

3. Ann isn’t afraid to talk about the dark, messy, gritty aspects of being human—and by sharing her experiences onstage, she gives the people in her audience permission to open up and share their feelings, too.

What’s something about yourself—or your past/life experiences—that you’ve always kept quiet? Would it feel healing to share that story? Would sharing help others to feel less alone? What’s stopping you from speaking about it?
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sat Jun 22, 2019 2:05 am

Conspiracy of Heretics
by Joel Garreau
November 1, 1994



The Global Business Network was founded in 1988 as a think tank to shape the future of the world. It's succeeding.

On April 21, 1994, between 7 p.m. and 9 p.m. – the Twilight Zone, you might call it – I rendezvoused with a blend of fantasy and reality in which, you'll be happy to know, the future of the planet was successfully resolved.

The encounter occurred aboard the presidential yacht USS Potomac, the same steel-hulled craft that, half a century ago, carried Roosevelt to his meeting with Churchill wherein they secretly plotted World War II. It cruised on the San Francisco Bay as helicopters hovered above, dropping smoke flares to mark a jumper from the Golden Gate Bridge.

The twilight was a glorious gold, fading to a cool blue-gray.

Reality started turning to smoke, however, as I listened to the people on board bartering the globe. Those identifying themselves as Middle Easterners and Africans – controlling the world's gold, oil, diamonds, and rare earths – quickly made deals that they said raised US$300 billion. They needed it badly, they felt, to protect themselves from a Russian named Boris.

Over by the bar, a lean, shifty-looking man actually went by that name. The Europeans said they feared such a man might be the 21st century's Adolf Hitler. This led to sophisticated discussions about America's war machine. How fortuitous, everyone agreed, that it still exists. Several people on the boat speculated as to the circumstances under which it might be leased.

Those who said they embodied the interests of Asia largely ignored those who represented North America. They were too preoccupied with their bucking and surging economies. The Americans were mildly surprised. But since they were focused utterly inward, intent only on transforming their newly lean multinational companies into mean global forces, they shrugged it off.

Sideshows abounded. The fool Brazilians cutting down the planet's oxygen production, it was agreed, must be dealt with. So the wasteland of the Sahara would simply have to be forested. Africa's Rwanda-like chaos-wars might even be damped by such a project, some felt.

There were surprises. Microsoft was quietly discussed as far more effective a world shaper than the International Monetary Fund. The Latins were startled by how much better the North Americans were at presenting a future for Brazil, Chile, and Argentina than were the South Americans themselves. I, meanwhile, was having a marvelous time wandering about in the guise of a world-weary diplomatic sleazeball representing "international institutions" like the United Nations and the World Bank. Almost involuntarily dropping into a British accent, I sidled up to a chap who supposedly was a neighbor of North Korea and said, archly, "Say, old man, have you any security problems you find sticky? Pity. Perhaps you might give us a ring."

In one dimension, this was all a game. A trivial little game really, conducted by an outfit that at one level is only a vanishingly tiny $4.5 million international consulting company – Global Business Network.

But that is only one layer of reality. To this day, I ponder how history may have shifted during that "game" that I was a part of because I, too, am a member of the Global Business Network. "Membership" is a tricky word at GBN; there is no initiation ritual. One simply gets more and more tangled in its swirling mists. I was first asked to join a discussion on the network's private BBS. Then I started receiving books that members thought I might find interesting. Then I got invited to gatherings at fascinating places, from Aspen to Amsterdam. Finally, I was asked to help GBN project the future regarding subjects about which I had expertise. By then, the network seemed natural.

The GBN members who rehearsed the future on that boat hailed from the Singapore Ministry of Defense, the Australian department of taxation, the Mexican Stock Exchange, the London Stock Exchange, Volvo, Fiat, Petroleos de Venezuela, Allstate, DuPont, ARCO, Saatchi & Saatchi, the American Express Bank in London, and the Executive Council of the Club of Rome. And that scarcely begins to define the group. For spice, there were the likes of Jon McIntire, former manager of the Grateful Dead, and theoretical neurophysiologist William Calvin.

Nor does that game and list of players delimit the group's ambitions. The agenda for the next day was modestly labeled "The Restructuring of the World Economy."

Toward the end of the boat trip, Jay Ogilvy, a co-founder of Global Business Network, reclined in a rattan deck chair of the style favored by those who, back in the '40s, created our modern world.

"I like this," he said, sipping his sauvignon blanc as he gazed at the bosom-like hills of Marin.

"I like it a lot."

He was referring to the pleasures of lording like a potentate over a rented boat.

But once again, not entirely.

Ogilvy is one of five white men of a certain age who, in 1988, created a company/think tank/men's club whose explicit purpose is to shape the future of the world.

It is succeeding.

The Joint Chiefs of staff, for example, hired Global Business Network to help figure out what the nature of military threats to the United States might be for the next 30 years. (The most challenging possibility: what would they do should they face decades of peace?)

How about the LA riots and the collapse of the California economy? GBN helped Pacific Gas and Electric Company anticipate the consequences of both, causing the utility company to put major and early emphasis on convincing industry not to leave Northern California.

Back when the Japanese stock market was flying and Japanese car companies seemed invulnerable, GBN helped Nissan North America Inc. imagine how it would stave off bankruptcy and where it might move its factories if, as actually came to pass this year, the unthinkable happened and the yen dropped below 100 to the dollar.

Back when AT&T thought of itself as a collection of telephone cables, GBN helped the company imagine the modern world in which mobile communication defines the future, and entertainment drives the system.

What happens when broadcast television collapses and the underpinnings of entire industries disappear? That was of interest to Leo Burnett Company, one of the world's major advertising agencies; Universal, one of the world's biggest producers of broadcast programming; and ABC, the television network - all clients of GBN who listen to its advice.

How will we handle the crisis when, as seems plausible later this decade, half of the US nuclear-power-generating capacity becomes too expensive to operate? GBN has thought about it.

What happens if computer shopping kills off every mall? A retailer with gross annual sales larger than the GNP of some European countries keenly wanted to know. They went to GBN for a hint.

Suppose the Asian economic miracle fails, brought down by regional wars and a bellicose China, and the whole territory begins to look like El Salvador in the '80s?

GBN has profited from untangling concepts like "loyalty," "altruism," "community," "honesty," "individualism," "justice," and "fun" for Dentsu Inc., the Japanese advertising agency that is the largest in the world.

GBN is currently indirectly helping the White House plot a course for sustaining the planet should there come a world ecology crisis – a sudden shift in the Gulf Stream brought on by global warming, for example, coupled with the aforementioned nuclear crisis.

In the world of consulting, this is beyond all imagining. "Given GBN's size, it's an absolute miracle that I've even heard of it, much less that I have an image of it" as a world leader in futurism, said Melvyn Menezes, manager at Gemini Consulting, the $516 million Morristown, New Jersey-based firm which has offices around the world.

But then again, at only one plane of truth is GBN a consulting company. In its other, more mysterious guises, GBN pops up in the darnedest places.

When a very informal group of GBNers, as they call themselves, became interested in the future of money, the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco was so impressed with the intellectual and financial power and connections of those who asked for the visit, it rolled out the chief operating officer. As he presided, woodenly, a rather more fluid woman staffer described her plans to have the Fed electronically dematerialize the world's checks. An encryption hacker with a dastardly imagination brought along by the GBNers grilled her about the security of these trillions. As an aside, she discussed the resiliency of $100 greenbacks as the currency of choice in some 30 countries.

The day before, when Genentech Inc., one of the world's leading biotech companies, had discovered GBN was coming, it was sufficiently awed that it rolled out its director of bio-organic chemistry, director of pharmaceutical R&D, director of business development, and several of its hottest, young, jeans-clad scientists. The primary thing the GBNers learned from this encounter was that when bioengineers create new forms of life, they rarely, if ever, discuss the ethics and societal implications of what they're doing. "Just wait till this technology moves off-shore," said GBN co-founder, Stewart Brand. "The developing countries' corporate motto is gonna be" – he smirked and waved his hand – "Ahhhhh, Just Do It."

A private computer bulletin board through which members stay in touch reveals why "Global" is this brotherhood's first name. Members chew to boredom the technical vexations of reaching the Internet from the remote portions of extinct empires. It's the kind of complaint that is really a subtle form of one-upmanship: it announces one's arrival in, say, Tashkent, with an assignment important enough to require a laptop.

Indeed, GBN has influenced your life. The magazine you're holding in your hands was co-founded by Executive Editor Kevin Kelly. Kelly is a member of the GBN cabal. To the cognoscenti, the GBN inspiration has been obvious – perhaps essential – in every issue of Wired.

The origins of Global Business Network, oddly enough, lie in the oil business. The reasons for its existence can be traced back to the '60s, 20 years before GBN was founded.

The golden age of American stability – the '50s – was breaking up on a number of sharp rocks: the Baby Boom, contraception, wars of national liberation, drugs, new technology, the rise of the Pacific Rim, and rock and roll.

It was abundantly clear to those who wished to think about it – markedly few of whom were in the Fortune 500 – that not only was change and upheaval upon them, but it was not going to stop. In fact, even change was changing – becoming unprecedented in magnitude and ever more impossible to prophesy.

This was not so obvious a proposition as one might think. The strategic planning of the time assumed one could project existing realities out in a more or less straight line and achieve satisfactory results. If General Motors was the world's preeminent automobile manufacturer, it would continue to be so. If IBM based its business on mainframes, that would be OK forever. Rapid discontinuous change? Why plan for that? Hadn't happened much in 25 years.

But one year, 1973, changed everything. The quadrupling of energy prices redrew the world's power map and fundamentally rocked the industrial economies. Only one organization, Royal Dutch/Shell's Group Planning, anticipated the energy crisis. Don't take my word for this. The evidence is presented in Daniel Yergin's The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money, and Power, the bestselling 1992 Pulitzer winner that gives Shell's Group Planning the credit. (Yergin, too, is a member of GBN. Watch the wiring diagrams here. This fraternity is not called the Network for nothing.)

It is virtually impossible to overestimate the importance of foreseeing that radical discontinuous change in the world of oil prices back in the '70s. The planners at Shell were not only pioneering a new way of thinking about the future; they had so much confidence in it as to go to comrades-in-arms and tell them to end their businesses. If the consumption of oil was going to crash because of soaring prices, the economic survival of Shell depended, for example, on stopping the building of supertankers immediately. This was thought by most to be insane. Everyone "knew" the oil industry to be invulnerable. Friendships terminated. Anguish ensued.

But Shell Group Planning, whose alumni would eventually found GBN, had it absolutely right: as a result, in 1990, Shell won its 70-year war with Exxon, passing it to become the largest oil company in the world. Group Planning was also right in predicting the second price shock in 1979, with its attendant upheavals, and the ultimate price collapse of the '80s that led to, for example, the economic depressions of Houston and Denver.

For an encore, Group Planning also anticipated the rise of Gorbachev and the collapse of the Soviet Union.

Thus, it is little surprise that in 1988, a year when Pentagon planners were saying that for the next 30 years, without question, the major threat facing the United States would be the Soviet Union, the very first sentence of the first scenario book that the newly formed Global Business Network wrote, was "The Cold War is over."

Global Business Network was founded by Shell alumni such as Peter Schwartz and Napier Collyns to be a sort of Group Planning not just for one company, but for the world. Today, even the Pentagon is impressed, for GBN's kind of thinking is becoming recognized as the cutting edge of "futurism."

GBN's renown is largely due to the work of a Frenchman, Pierre Wack (pronounced "Vack"), who as head of "business environment" research for Shell Group Planning in the '70s, helped pioneer an utterly improbable idea.

Wack burned incense in his office and spoke in riddles and parables. His speeches were mesmerizing, like those of a stage magician. When he retired in 1981, it was to a medieval château in the south of France. He looks like Yoda.

Wack claimed that if the rules of the world were constantly changing, it was hopeless to get the "right" forecast. Hiring more or better forecasters to project existing realities in a straight line was pointless. The stakes were too high, the changes too widespread. Just look at the unexpected upheavals of feminism, to pick one example. Who would have guessed back in 1970 that women entering the workforce in America would help cause the number of cars on the road to double, and all-day traffic jams to become common?

The only stability, he argued, was in accepting uncertainty. Organizations would have to be systematically open to heresy.

Wack thus developed "scenario planning."

Scenario planning is gracefully described in The Art of the Long View, by the man who in the '80s held Wack's old job at Shell – GBN co-founder Schwartz. Scenario planning is the methodical thinking of the unthinkable. It searches for wisdom in unusual places. It assumes that there will never be enough information on which to base a decision, if that decision requires certainty about the future. Therefore, it is important to prepare a wide range of possible decisions based on an entire range of possible futures. Never being wrong about the future is better than occasionally being exactly right.

In this view, the best way to deal with the possibility of falling over a cliff is to help people figure out in advance how tall and steep the cliff is. Also to calculate how many different kinds of cliffs there are. And how to recognize when a cliff is coming, and which kind it is.

This is not trivial. Not only must one know what possible futures exist, but one must know how to recognize into which previously anticipated future one is entering. For, as Cicero wrote, "It was ordained at the beginning of the world that certain signs should prefigure certain events."

One astonishing example of scenario planning in action occurred in the early '90s. At the invitation of a multiracial group of South Africans, Adam Kahane, a Global Business Network member and alumnus of Shell Group Planning, shouldered no less a task than seeing whether scenario planning could help turn that pariah nation into a multiracial democracy.

The Mont Fleur scenarios – as they became known, after the small town near Stellenbosch, South Africa, where, in 1991, they were first devised – were the first in the world to attempt the turnaround of an entire country.

These Mont Fleur tales tried to describe nothing less than the ways the world might be tomorrow.

The amazing thing about them is that their narrative power was so compelling that they caused everyone from the radical African National Congress to the crypto-fascist National Party to agree objectively that they were accurate descriptions of the possible future realities.

There were four main futures for South Africa. Everybody, after intensive discussion, agreed that the following were logical and plausible:

> "The Ostrich Scenario." If the white power structure just stuck its head in the sand - did not face the world economic and political isolation, did not deal with internal black unrest except by repression, and did not conduct negotiations with the majority - the result would be massive internal resistance, international condemnation, violence, flight of capital and skills, and economic deterioration. Then things would get really ugly.

> "The Lame Duck Scenario." If negotiations did occur, but the result was a grudging transition to the new, in tiny steps and dragged out indefinitely, the country would be marked by indecision, lack of confidence, lowest-common-denominator waffling, uncertainty, and a resultant lack of outside capital infusions to either turn the economy around or solve social problems. Nobody would be truly satisfied.

> "The Icarus Scenario" (fly now, crash later). Suppose negotiations occurred, and the transition to the new was rapid and decisive, but the result was a populist government that went on a huge spending spree to try to cure all the problems of generations overnight. As has happened so often in Latin America, deficit spending would cause a brief boom, but ultimately the country would become an economic basket case, and the poor as well as the wealthy would end up worse than before.

> "The Flight of the Flamingos Scenario." Flamingos take off slowly, but fly high and together. In this scenario, negotiations and a quick transition lead to effective, sustainable, clean, inclusive government, generating the economic growth that allows social problems to be addressed. Everyone lives happily ever after.

The amazing thing about these scenarios is not that they were drawn up. The amazing thing is that they had such power – were logical, persuasive, easily understood and communicated – that to-the-death enemies, all of whom had it in their power to prevent the flamingos from taking off, began to see a feasible, positive path toward a successful national democratic future together.

The beauty of such scenario thinking – whether in South Africa or elsewhere – is that it basically allows people to tell each other stories about how the world might work. The key element is not whether they are "right" or "wrong." The key element is a sort of literary criticism, in which people dig down to understand the assumptions and perceptions that underpin the imaginations in each scenario, and evaluate their plausibility, their credibility.

This is not a linear, mechanistic, numbers-driven process. It is more of a dance. The process is sufficiently intuitive that, back on the GBN computer network, I discover that one of the more elegant participants is an artist – Brian Eno, the Grammy Award-winning experimental musician.

Such storytelling also allows people to find the most pleasing scenario. Then they can start figuring how to make it happen, as was the case in South Africa. It is all rather like the way a painter creates a new work. Indeed, the point is not to focus on outcomes so much as to understand the forces that would compel the outcome; less on figures, more on figure-ground.

Quite a stunt.

In fact, during the day I first encountered GBN – as mysterious people filled my head with far-out ideas – the first thing that popped into my mind was Isaac Asimov.

On August 1, 1941, Asimov began a series of stories that came to be known as the "Foundation" series. In it, a conspiracy of high-minded people had figured out a science called "psychohistory" that could reliably anticipate the future.

They foresaw a coming galactic Dark Age and launched a plan to cause – to force – a future in which enlightenment would return and triumph over brutal barbarism and savage warfare in only 1,000 years, rather than the 30,000 that it would otherwise require.

At any rate, that first night I could only think one thing about GBN: Holy shit. This is The Foundation.

Subsequent events have only marginally disabused me of this framework of understanding.

One of Wack's iconoclastic beliefs was in putting a premium on listening to heretics – whom he called "remarkable people."

In this view, all the statistical data in the world is of less value than a bracing afternoon with an outcast, renegade, nonlinear thinker.

The members of GBN themselves are such "remarkable people." Co-founder Peter Schwartz, 48, for example, has a welcoming smile, quick wit, halo of hair, and full beard. He resembles the genial host of that kind of restaurant where large men eat large steaks while making large decisions. He is by training an astronautical engineer. He worked for NASA. This allows him to get off lines like, "I am a rocket scientist. I can tell you. Scenario planning is not rocket science."

Schwartz has also studied Tibetan Buddhism and worked closely with Willis Harman, a key figure in the transpersonal psychology movement in San Francisco. Before accepting a post at Shell's Planning Group, he worked at SRI International, the famed Menlo Park, California, research outfit that came up with the widely used psychographic measuring system known as VALS (for "values and life styles"). SRI also developed the computer mouse. Schwartz's is a tame résumé by the standards of GBN.

Member Peter Gabriel, for example, the innovative rock musician, won an MTV Video Music Award for his "Kiss That Frog" video. Rusty Schweickart, who was the lunar module pilot of Apollo 9, is a co-founder of the Association of Space Explorers, an international professional society of astronauts and cosmonauts. Mary Catherine Bateson is the author of With a Daughter's Eye, a memoir of her parents, pioneering anthropologists Gregory Bateson and Margaret Mead. Doug Carlston is head of Brøderbund, the world's hottest producer of learning software like "Living Books" and Where in the World is Carmen Sandiego? Orville Schell is the widely read China scholar. Alex Singer directed episodes of some of televisions best series, including Lou Grant, Cagney and Lacey, Hill Street Blues, and Star Trek: The Next Generation. There are a ton of members focused on the transformation of the former Soviet bloc.

I gotta tell you. This makes for one hell of a cocktail party.

Okay, so Royal Dutch/Shell was a major influence on GBN; SRI was another (co-founder Ogilvy is also from the latter). If scenario planning is its engine, remarkable people are its fuel.

Its product, however, is nothing less than accelerated evolution. Such rapid evolution is frequently described as "group learning." Its value is stunning. It assumes that morphing into new shapes is the only sustainable advantage any competitive organization has.

This ability to morph is embedded in GBN itself, which, from its offices in an industrial neighborhood of Emeryville, California, can and does – with only 30 employees – present itself in so many bewildering guises that describing it as a tiny consulting company with 55 major corporate clients is as silly as describing Yale's "Skull and Bones" as just a fraternity.

GBN is a "network," which by definition connects to other power structures. There are also different ways in which a person can be inside or outside the organization. That makes GBN like the elephant being felt up by the blind men. Its elements can add up in mysterious and perplexing ways.

At its core GBN is a cause, a club, a conspiracy, and a collection of highly energetic particles aimed at bumping up against huge organizations with positive results.

"It's a convention of curious kids," says Eric Best, a GBN staffer. "They want the opportunity and license to explore anything with the smartest people they can find.

"At a time of macro change, it's a collection of magpies and blue jays that set up the screeching when a big animal moves in the forest – because the forest needs that. When we tried to boil it down to two or three words, the phrase 'ruthless curiosity' came up."

GBN can come together in so many ways that describing it organizationally is an almost hopeless task other than to note that there are basically four classes of connection: the five co-founders, the staff, about 90 network members (the eclectic braintrust), and the 55 corporations that are paying customers.

More satisfying than presenting a wiring diagram of GBN is to say how it feels.

Global Business Network, first of all, has an Anglo-American cast.

The grand old man of the organization is co-founder Napier Collyns, 67. An avuncular British liberal of keen insight and random concentrations, one would almost expect him to be a dedicated breeder of orchids.

Coming from the London office of Shell, Collyns helped impart a scholarly, tolerant, upper-crust seasoning to GBN. He is the kind of person who winces when pressed about the profit-making aspects of Global Business Network. That all seems so, rather, base.

GBN, however, also has a California capacity for American boogie. That is brought to it in part by Stewart Brand, 55, another co-founder. Brand has been an American cultural icon for half his life. This is the man who, in the '60s, won the National Book Award for inventing The Whole Earth Catalog. Its motto was so American as to bring a tear to the eye: "We are as gods and might as well get good at it." That might as well also be the motto of GBN.

In the '80s, Brand stuck with his maxim by creating the Well, one of the nation's most influential computer bulletin boards, with which GBN trades staffers, and through which - on a private conference - GBNers stay in touch. (The Well, in turn, feels like a San Francisco bar fight.)

Brand also has become the distinguished chronicler of MIT's Media Lab – where, it has been said, "the future is invented." His interest in the implications of cyberspace continues to be a recurring preoccupation of the members of Global Business Network.

There is another sense, however, in which GBN feels Anglo-American. This allegedly universal set of iconoclasts is relentlessly white and male and middle-aged – even more so than many dinosaur American corporations. Discussions of music tend to focus on the avant-garde, the experimental, jazz, and classical.

While GBN's European, American, and Asian clients from governments to oil companies to telecommunications conglomerates are geographically, culturally, and racially quite diverse, there are only 15 women in the core network of 90 GBNers, and only one black, one Latino, and one Asian.

Collyns gets quite defensive when this is pointed out. "If anyone knows of a professional scenarist with lots of experience who is a woman, please let us know. Training takes longer," he harrumphs on the computer network. Everyone points to the misogynistic aspects of the oil and gas industry from which scenario planning sprang as the historical precedent GBN has to overcome. Stewart Brand points to the number of women and minorities at a recent scenario training exercise as the beginnings of a new and virtuous circle.

Barbara Heinzen – who made it through Shell to become one of the world's few woman scenarists, and who is a member of GBN - does not buy all of this. "There is some diversity," she noted, "but not as much as we might see in another three to five years' time, if we continue to develop as a truly global network."

But the women and the minorities who are part of GBN are remarkably inclined to cut the organization some slack. They point to the omnidirectional, informal, friendly, and open-minded atmosphere.

Nancy Hicks Maynard, the former publisher of The Oakland Tribune who has been a panelist on Face the Nation, Meet the Press, and Washington Week in Review, agrees. "I've spent a lot of time working on issues of diversity. But I've been very pleased with the reaction to what I have to bring to GBN. Not necessarily being a black woman, but to my work experience, where I've lived – the way my crazy brain is wired."

She compares GBN positively to outfits that may appear more diverse, but, "There's 10 of us, and two of that: there's a very mechanical feel to it that is not at all welcoming to the people being included. They are not there for who they are in a deep sense – who's a good linear thinker, who's an iconoclast, who's a good convergence thinker, bringing the pieces together. GBN just feels comfortable."

GBN feels articulate, artistic, even literary, as well as visionary. It's quite charming to be rafting down the Rio Chama in northern New Mexico on a GBN expedition in which you're pulling an oar next to Joe Traub, a pioneer of the science of "complexity," or launching a pirate raid/water fight against the boat of Pamela McCorduck, an explorer of hypertext – a new medium that allows her to represent memory as a dynamic, complex system. All the while, Peter Warshall, the ecologist, is describing the complexities of the wilderness through which you float, and Lee Schipper, the transportation visionary, is doing a Lenny Bruce shtick. Just as fascinating are the paying clients, like Robert Salmon, the Parisian vice chairman of L'Oréal – an outfit deeply interested in GBN's take on the future of women around the world.

GBN feels powerful. A high-ranking corporate officer can get quite upset if you present him with a convincing scenario that suggests an entire multibillion-dollar class of investments on which his company has depended for generations might well become worthless within the next five years.

(This sort of thing is also rather fun.)

Finally, GBN feels optimistic.

At an April GBN meeting, one of the most closely studied scenarios was one developed outside GBN by Roger Cass, titled "The Belle Epoque." It made a closely reasoned (and heavily caveated) case that the coming decades could see the greatest flowering of the human spirit since the Renaissance, with democracy ascendant, international trade flourishing, prosperity growing, and intellectual achievements proliferating as unlimited thoughts bloom and are cross-pollinated on the Net.

This sort of optimism is important. One of Peter Schwartz's favorite stories, repeated over and over again, is how in 1980, IBM calculated that the world market for personal computers over the following 10 years was 275,000 machines. The actual number, he smirks, was 60 million.

IBM was caught not by its inability to foresee problems, but by its inability to imagine greatness.

That is to say, it scarcely takes a rocket scientist to generate a disaster scenario.

But to envision success takes talent.

And courage.

There is a rather New Age sort of romanticism to all this. (Not surprising: when co-founder Ogilvy, 52, was a young assistant professor of philosophy at Yale University, Garry Trudeau created a Doonesbury character around him named "Dr. Consciousness.")

Yet GBN's headquarters are not in the rarified air of the Berkeley hills. They are in a converted factory in the industrial flatlands of Emeryville, down by the footings of the Bay Bridge. The trendy seven-foot designer grasses someone has thoughtfully planted grow through rusted triple-strand barbed wire.

"Business" is GBN's middle name, and it ultimately lives or dies by its ability to shake down big bucks from hard-headed clients such as Sears, Ford, Hewlett-Packard, Campbell's Soup, and Bell South. Yet the only co-founder of GBN with an MBA is Lawrence Wilkinson; characteristically, he studied classics at Oxford University before that. One wonders how this sort of touchy-feely séance plays back in the halls of power in Washington, London, and Singapore. I mean, really. Sharing knowledge as a way to achieve profit? Isn't this all rather zen?

The answer seems to be that so many top corporate managers around the world are so utterly shell shocked by change that nothing seems implausible anymore. The rise of China, the fall of IBM, the acknowledgement by many that they have absolutely no idea what a career in their industry will look like in 20 years, much less how to educate and prepare their staffs for that future – all they know is that business-as-usual means death.

To the extent that scenario planning offers any logical path at all, GBN starts looking good to business.

Capitalists have deeply internalized, for example, the lesson of laughing at W. Edwards Deming, the American statistician whose "quality management" ideas led the Japanese to glory. They don't laugh so much any more at any idea – no matter how outlandish it may sound on the surface – if there seems to be a kernel of opportunity in it. After listening to a few Genentech scientists at a GBN conclave talk seriously about someone creating a slave class of genetically modified chimps, very little else a corporate officer hears at a GBN meeting seems preposterous. Besides, if it's the chief economist of the American Express Bank in London sitting next to you who's just said something weird, one feels less self-conscious about stretching one's thinking.

"I'll go out on a limb and take a stab at articulating the 'capitalist' perspective on this rather unique breed of cat," posted Dan Simpson, director of strategy and planning at The Clorox Company, a GBN client member.

"GBN is a rather unique set of competencies and connections," he wrote, "that offers the businessperson three things:

1. Technique;
2. Food on the Future (challenges to thinking about the future);
3. Food on the Present (challenges to rethinking the present differently).

"Whenever I refer colleagues to GBN, it is always in response to the question, Who would you recommend to help us in developing our very first set of scenarios?

"The network is a curious blend of scientists, musicians, artists, economists, anthropologists, and information technology gym rats who form a mosaic by which us capitalists can view our business environment and even our company."

Another corporate client, J.R.W. "Wick" Sloane of Aetna, adds, "People are hungry for new views. The current argot is outside-the-box thinking. By and large, people believe that systemic shocks will make or break companies, and that little curiosities today could be major trends soon. Environmentalism is one example. Thirty years ago a quirky movement. Superfund today.

"I take the GBN mailings and send them out to about 100 people from time to time. People are fascinated, interested, and look for more."

In order to close the circle on these futurists, I asked Peter Schwartz to give me three scenarios for the future of GBN, at least one of which would have to be The Official Future.

He complied, but in such a corporate way as almost to lull me into the belief that his was indeed nothing more than a tiny little company housed in a converted factory.

The Official Future involves GBN spinning off television shows for PBS, new publications, that sort of thing. The most interesting offshoot in this scenario addressed that age-old question: if you're so smart, why ain't you rich? "We find that we are in a position to see a lot of companies that are emerging intriguingly in new fields," Schwartz said. "We're thinking about starting up a venture fund to invest in them." Entry would be on the order of $5 million a pop.

But the other scenarios were pretty much what you'd expect of any young company. In "Slow Slide," the phone stops ringing. "Wildest Dreams" involves an extraordinarily high buyout bid from one of consulting's giants.

Not a whole lot in these scenarios about The Men's Club, or The Shape Shifter, or The Foundation, or even Remarkable People. It is enough to shake one's belief that the Global Business Network might be anything extraordinary.

But then, but then....

Back on GBN's private computer network, Sloane, the insurance executive in Connecticut, posted to the group asking for information about how things were going in South Africa.

From Cape Town came back no less an authority on the subject than Adam Kahane, that instigator of the Mont Fleur scenarios that changed the country.

Reading the words Kahane typed to his fellow GBNers, I once again flashed back to Asimov and his depiction of The Foundation. Kahane's eerie posting reminded me of a passage in Asimov in which an agent for The Foundation's founder, Hari Seldon, is speaking to a new recruit:

"'You must realize that Dr. Seldon's plans include all eventualities with significant probabilities. This is one of them. It will end well; almost certainly so for the project; and with reasonable probability for you.'

"'What are the figures?' demanded Gaal.

"'For the project, over 99.9 percent.'

"'And for myself?'

"'I am instructed that this probability is 77.2 percent.'

"'Then I've got better than one chance in five of being sentenced to prison or death.'

"'The last is under one percent.'"

For it is possible to get the giggles about the work of GBN at the same instant one realizes it can be deathly serious. Kahane, for example, referred to the scenarios South Africa had in fact gone through on its way to joining the rest of the globe in a marvelously camp secret-agent-sounding burst: "We're in Flamingos now. Icarus is still a danger – but one that is present in everyone's mind, and is therefore less likely to occur. Lame Duck is also less likely for the same reason. Ostrich is past now. The MF [Mont Fleur] team will be reconstituted (with a wider range of viewpoints) this August. I will facilitate again. Two key members of MF-1 are now in the Cabinet."

Peter Schwartz, the spark plug of GBN, did not giggle online. He of course took it all seriously.

"Since Flamingos was the most balanced and optimistic scenario, it is an interesting outcome," he mused. "It is rare that the best case is the real outcome."

"On reflection," wrote Schwartz, the Hari Seldon of GBN, "it would be interesting to explore why that was so."

Life is not going to be easy in the 21st century for people who insist on black-and-white descriptions of reality. The shape of the truth isn't static; it shifts depending on where one stands. Bottomless truth lies in the gray.

There are multiple layers of truths about this organization. GBN is a network. All networks shimmer with gray boundaries, vague membership, and multiple - often contradictory - goals. Like the search committee for the MacArthur "genius" grants, Global Business Network assumes that if you are one of the hundred-or-so remarkable people in whom they might have an interest, they know how to find you. It's spooky.

And the network is a tangle. This article on GBN was commissioned by a magazine whose executive editor is a member of GBN. It is running in a magazine which mentions a GBN member in almost every issue. Four GBNers have already been on its cover. And, as I mentioned at the beginning, it was written by a journalist who is a member of GBN.

Hari Seldon would definitely get a kick out of this.

For information about GBN, e-mail or look for GBN's World Wide Web home page at

Who's Who in GBN:

A sampling of GBN's member roster turns up a collection of heretics and remarkable people:

Peter Coyote,
a film and television actor and one-time leader of the Diggers, the famous commune formed by members of the San Francisco Mime Troupe in the Haight-Ashbury of the '60s.

Bruce Sterling,
cyberpunk icon and author of four science-fiction novels and the nonfiction The Hacker Crackdown.

Eric Drexler,
the godfather of nanotechnology, the incipient revolution in manufacturing based on the manipulation of individual atoms and molecules.

Paul Hawken,
founder of Smith & Hawken, the ecology-friendly gardening enterprise, and host of the PBS series Growing a Business.

Pamela McCorduck,
author of Machines who Think and four other books on the intellectual impact of computers.

William Gibson,
a founder of the cyberpunk vein of fiction writing and author of Neuromancer, Count Zero, Mona Lisa Overdrive, and Virtual Light.

Jaron Lanier,
a musician and pioneer of the virtual reality industry.

Bill Joy,
co-founder of Sun Microsystems, the pioneer in powerful workstations.

Lawrence Lasker,
a writer and producer who has seen his movies WarGames and Awakenings nominated for Best Screenplay and Best Picture Oscars.

Mitch Kapor,
the developer of Lotus 1-2-3 and co-founder of the Electronic Frontier Foundation, the advocacy group for computer users.

Amory Lovins,
co-founder of the Rocky Mountain Institute and America's foremost seer on energy futures.

Richard Rodriquez,
the author of Days of Obligation: An Argument With My Mexican Father and a prominent writer on the Mexican-American immigrant experience.

Danny Hillis,
co-founder of Thinking Machines Corp., the trailblazer of massively parallel computers

Donella Meadows,
co-author of the ground-breaking The Limits to Growth.

Don Michael,
one of the few futurists who saw the feminist revolution coming.

Michael Murphy,
co-founder of the Esalen Institute, the source of the human potential movement.

Gary Snyder,
a beat poet and a leader of the '60s cultural revolution.

Michael Naylor,
senior vice president of technology and environment for Rubbermaid Inc., the innovative creator of mundane and necessary household items.

Walter Parkes,
head of Steven Spielberg's production company, Amblin Entertainment.

John L. Petersen,
an expert on the changing nature of the concept "national security."
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

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Global Business Network
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Global Business Network
Industry Consulting
Fate Acquired by Deloitte
Founded 1987; 32 years ago in Berkeley, California, United States
Peter Schwartz
Jay Ogilvy
Stewart Brand
Napier Collyns
Lawrence Wilkinson
Defunct January 2013
Headquarters San Francisco, USA
Parent Monitor Deloitte

Global Business Network (GBN) was a leading[citation needed] consulting firm that specialized in helping organizations to adapt and grow in an increasingly uncertain and volatile world. Using tools and expertise in scenario planning, experiential learning, together with networks of experts and visionaries (so called "Remarkable People" (RPs)), GBN advised businesses, NGOs, and governments in addressing their most critical challenges, helping them to gain the insight, confidence and capabilities they needed to shape their future. GBN was previously a member of Monitor Group, prior to the acquisition of Monitor by Deloitte.[1][2] GBN was based in San Francisco, and had offices in New York City, London, and Cambridge, Massachusetts.[3]


GBN was founded in Berkeley, California, in 1987 by a group of entrepreneurs including Peter Schwartz, Jay Ogilvy, Stewart Brand, Napier Collyns, and Lawrence Wilkinson.[3] The company grew to include a core group of "practice members", and over a hundred individual network members (or "RPs") from a range of different fields, such as Wired editor Kevin Kelly,[4] social media expert Clay Shirky, anthropologist Mary Catherine Bateson, economist Aidan Eyakuze, musician Brian Eno, biotechnologist Rob Carlson, and China scholar Orville Schell.

For its first 15 years, corporate clients would pay an annual subscription of up to $40,000 to become members of GBN's "Worldview". In return, they received exposure to the network of experts, were invited to workshops and interactive meetings to explore emerging trends and alternative futures, while gaining access to training seminars, a private website, and the GBN Book Club, offering a selection of literature about future issues each month.[5][6][7] After its acquisition by Monitor in 2000, GBN soon stopped offering this membership service, concentrating instead on scenario-based consulting and training.

Before GBN, Peter Schwartz had been employed at SRI International as director of the Strategic Environment Center; following that, he took a position as head of scenario planning at Royal Dutch/Shell, from 1982 to 1986,[8] where he continued the pioneering work of Pierre Wack, in the field of scenario planning.

GBN ceased to be an active entity following the acquisition of the Monitor Group by Deloitte in January 2013.[9]

Scenario planning

Unlike forecasting which extrapolates past and present trends to predict the future, scenario planning is an interactive process for exploring alternative, plausible futures and what those might mean for strategies, policies, and decisions. Scenario planning was first used by the military in World War II and then by Herman Kahn at RAND (“Thinking the Unthinkable”) during the Cold War, before being adapted to inform corporate strategy by Pierre Wack and other business strategists at Royal Dutch/Shell in the 1970s. The key principles of scenario planning include thinking from the outside in about the forces in the contextual environment that are driving change, engaging multiple perspectives to identify and interpret those forces, and adopting a long view.

The GBN diaspora

Over the years, a number of people have worked at GBN and then taken their skills in scenario planning, facilitation, and strategy into other ventures. Organizations with significant GBN heritage include:

• Monitor Institute:[10] A social enterprise that surfaces and spreads best practices in public problem solving, led by Katherine Fulton.
• Monitor 360:[11] A "Narrative Analytics+Strategy Company" that brings clarity to complex, helps solve cross-disciplinary strategic challenges, led by Doug Randall who is now leading Randall Consulting[12]
• Worldview Stanford:[13] A group at Stanford creating interdisciplinary learning experiences about the future to prepare leaders for the strategic challenges ahead, led by Brie Linkenhoker and Nancy Murphy
• Independent Scenario Consulting Practices: Long time scenario practitioners: Eric Best,[14] Nicole-Anne Boyer,[15] Jim Butcher,[16] Lynn Carruthers,[17] Oliver Freeman,[18] Brian Mulconrey,[19] Matt Ranen,[20] Jonathan Star,[21] Nick Turner,[22] Steve Weber[23] and others have created new firms focused on scenario planning and strategy.


1. Garreau, Joel (November 1994). "Conspiracy of Heretics". Wired.
2. Futurist Peter Schwartz '68 Eyes the New Century. Rensselaer Mag. December 1999.
3. "Where We Started". Archived from the original on January 5, 2010.
4. Turner, Fred (2006). From counterculture to cyberculture: Stewart Brand, the Whole Earth Network, and the rise of digital utopianism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 203.
5. "Long Boom or Bust". The New York Times. June 1, 1998.
6. GBN Book Club Selections. Archived from the original on October 10, 2007.
7. GBN Members. Archived from the original on January 28, 1999.
8. Long Boom or Bust. The New York Times.
9. "Deloitte completes acquisition of Monitor's global strategy consulting business | Deloitte US | Press release". Deloitte. Retrieved March 10, 2016.

Further reading

• Schwartz, Peter (1991). The Art of the Long View. ISBN 0-385-26731-2.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sat Jun 22, 2019 2:17 am

by Wikipedia
Accessed: 6/21/19



UK private company, limited by guarantee[1]
Industry Professional services
Founded 1845; 174 years ago
London, England, United Kingdom
Founder William Welch Deloitte
Headquarters London, United Kingdom[2]
Area served
Key people
David Cruickshank (Chairman Deloitte Global)[3]
Punit Renjen (CEO Deloitte Global)[4]
Management consulting
Financial advisory
Risk advisory
Revenue Increase US$43.2 billion (2018)[5]
Number of employees
286,200 (2018)[5]

Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu Limited /dəˈlɔɪt ˈtuːʃ toʊˈmɑːtsuː/, commonly referred to as Deloitte, is a multinational professional services network.[6] Deloitte is one of the "Big Four" accounting organizations and the largest professional services network in the world by revenue and number of professionals.[7]

Deloitte provides audit, tax, consulting, enterprise risk and financial advisory services with more than 286,200 professionals globally.[8] In FY 2018, the network earned a record $43.2 billion USD in aggregate revenues.[9] As of 2017, Deloitte is the 4th largest privately owned company in the United States.[10]

As of 2015, Deloitte currently has the highest market share in auditing among the top 500 companies in India.[11][12] Deloitte has been ranked number one by market share in consulting by Gartner,[13] and for the fourth consecutive year, Kennedy Consulting Research and Advisory ranks Deloitte number one in both global consulting and management consulting based on aggregate revenue.[14]


Early history

In 1845, William Welch Deloitte opened an office in London, United Kingdom. Deloitte was the first person to be appointed an independent auditor of a public company, namely the Great Western Railway.[15] He went on to open an office in New York in 1880.[15]

In 1890, Deloitte opened a branch office on Wall Street headed by Edward Adams and P.D. Griffiths as branch managers. That was Deloitte's first overseas venture. Other branches were soon opened in Chicago and Buenos Aires. in 1898 P.D. Griffiths returned from New York and became a partner in the London office.[16]

In 1896, Charles Waldo Haskins and Elijah Watt Sells formed Haskins & Sells in New York.[15] It was later described as "the first major auditing firm to be established in the country by American rather than British accountants".[17]

In 1898, George Touche established an office in London and then, in 1900, joined John Ballantine Niven in establishing the firm of Touche Niven in the Johnston Building at 30 Broad Street in New York.[15]

On 1 March 1933, Colonel Arthur Hazelton Carter, President of the New York State Society of Certified Public Accountants and managing partner of Haskins & Sells, testified before the U.S. Senate Committee on Banking and Currency. Carter helped convince Congress that independent audits should be mandatory for public companies.[15]

William Welch Deloitte, founder of Deloitte

In 1947, Detroit accountant George Bailey, then president of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants, launched his own organization. The new entity enjoyed such a positive start that in less than a year, the partners merged with Touche Niven and A. R. Smart to form Touche, Niven, Bailey & Smart.[15] Headed by Bailey, the organization grew rapidly, in part by creating a dedicated management consulting function. It also forged closer links with organizations established by the co-founder of Touche Niven, George Touche: the Canadian organization Ross and the British organization George A. Touche.[15] In 1960, the firm was renamed Touche, Ross, Bailey & Smart, becoming Touche Ross in 1969.[15] In 1968 Nobuzo Tohmatsu formed Tohmatsu Aoki & Co, a firm based in Japan that was to become part of the Touche Ross network in 1975.[15] In 1972 Robert Trueblood, Chairman of Touche Ross, led the committee responsible for recommending the establishment of the Financial Accounting Standards Board.[15]

In 1952, Deloitte's firm (by then known as Deloitte, Plender, Griffiths & Co.) merged with Haskins & Sells to form Deloitte Haskins & Sells.[18]

In 1989, Deloitte Haskins & Sells merged with Touche Ross in the USA to form Deloitte & Touche. The merged firm was led jointly by J. Michael Cook and Edward A. Kangas. Led by the UK partnership, a smaller number of Deloitte Haskins & Sells member firms rejected the merger with Touche Ross and shortly thereafter merged with Coopers & Lybrand to form Coopers & Lybrand Deloitte (later to merge with Price Waterhouse to become PwC).[19] Some member firms of Touche Ross also rejected the merger with Deloitte Haskins & Sells and merged with other firms.[19] In UK, Touche Ross merged with Spicer & Oppenheim in 1990.[20]

Recent history

At the time of the US-led mergers to form Deloitte & Touche, the name of the international firm was a problem, because there was no worldwide exclusive access to the names "Deloitte" or "Touche Ross" – key member firms such as Deloitte in the UK and Touche Ross in Australia had not joined the merger. The name DRT International was therefore chosen, referring to Deloitte, Ross and Tohmatsu. In 1993, the international firm was renamed Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu.[15]

Deloitte Office Building in Downtown Chicago

In 1995, the partners of Deloitte & Touche decided to create Deloitte & Touche Consulting Group (now known as Deloitte Consulting).[21]

In 2000, Deloitte acquired Eclipse to add Internet design-based solutions to its consulting capabilities. Eclipse was later separated into Deloitte Online and Deloitte Digital.[22]

In 2002, Arthur Andersen's UK practice, the firm's largest practice outside the US, agreed to merge with Deloitte's UK practice. Andersen's practices in Spain, the Netherlands, Portugal, Belgium, Mexico, Brazil and Canada also agreed to merge with Deloitte.[23][24] The spinoff of Deloitte France's consulting division led to the creation of Ineum Consulting.[25]

In 2005, Deloitte acquired Beijing Pan-China CPA to become the largest accountancy firm in China. Just prior to this acquisition Deloitte China had about 3,200 employees. This acquisition was part of a five-year plan to invest $150 million in China. Deloitte has had a presence in China since 1917.[26]

In 2007, Deloitte began hiring former employees of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) for their competitive intelligence unit known as Deloitte Intelligence.[27]

Frank Strickland and Chris Whitlock are former intelligence officers now serving as directors at Deloitte Consulting. They provide consulting services for various US government agencies and commercial clients, focusing on change management and the use of analytics in decisionmaking.

-- Studies in Intelligence, Vol. 60, No. 1, by Central Intelligence Agency

In 2009, Deloitte purchased the North American public service practice of BearingPoint (formerly KPMG Consulting) for $350 million after it filed for bankruptcy protection.[28]

Deloitte LLP took over the UK property consultants Drivers Jonas in January 2010. As of 2013, this business unit was known as Deloitte Real Estate.[29]

In 2011, Deloitte acquired DOMANI Sustainability Consulting and ClearCarbon Consulting in order to expand its sustainability service offerings.[30]

In January 2012, Deloitte announced the acquisition of Übermind, a mobile advertising agency.[31] The acquisition marked Deloitte's first entrance into the mobile application field.[32]

In November 2012, Deloitte acquired Recombinant Data Corporation, a company specializing in data warehousing and clinical intelligence solutions, and launched Recombinant by Deloitte.[33] In February 2013 Recombinant by Deloitte merged with an internal informatics unit (Deloitte Health Informatics) and launched ConvergeHEALTH by Deloitte.[34]

On 11 January 2013, Deloitte acquired substantially all of the business of Monitor Group,[35] the strategy consulting firm founded by Harvard Business School professor Michael Porter, after Monitor filed for bankruptcy protection.[36]

In 2014 the company introduced Rubix, a blockchain consultancy providing advisory services for clients in different business sectors, including government. In 2016 the company created its first blockchain lab in Dublin. A second hub was launched in New York in January 2017. In 2016, Deloitte Canada set-up a Bitcoin automatic teller machine and equipped a restaurant in its office complex to accept bitcoin as payment. Deloitte CIS partnered with Waves Platform to offering services related to initial coin offerings. Deloitte became a member of the Ethereum Enterprise Alliance and the Hyperledger Project sponsored by the Linux Foundation in May 2017.[37]

In 2016, Deloitte acquired advertising agency Heat of San Francisco, best known for its work Madden NFL from EA Sports and the Hotwire travel website. Heat was the 11th digital marketing agency purchased by Deloitte Digital since its founding in 2012. As of 2016, Deloitte Digital had 7,000 employees. It billed $2.1 billion in 2015, making it one of world's largest digital agencies.[38][39]

In September 2016, Apple Inc. announced a partnership with Deloitte aimed at boosting sales of its phones and other mobile devices to businesses. As part of the partnership, the two companies will launch a service called Enterprise Next, in which more than 5,000 Deloitte consultants will advise clients on how to make better use of Apple products and services.[40][41][42]

In October 2016, Deloitte announced that they were creating Deloitte North West Europe. The Belgian, Danish, Dutch, Finnish, Icelandic, Norwegian, and Swedish member firms will combine with the UK and Swiss member firms to create Deloitte North West Europe. Deloitte, over the next three years, will invest €200m to enhance its services to its global, national and private market clients and to create the best development opportunities. The firm will come into effect on 1 June 2017 and it is estimated to have 28,000 partners and people generating over €5bn in annual revenue. Deloitte North West Europe will account for approximately 20% of all revenue within their Global Network.[43]

Name and branding

Deloitte logo (Short)

While in 1989, in most countries, Deloitte, Haskins & Sells merged with Touche Ross forming Deloitte & Touche, in the United Kingdom the local firm of Deloitte, Haskins & Sells merged instead with Coopers & Lybrand (later renamed PwC).[44]

While the full name of the UK private company is Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu Limited, in 1989 it initially branded itself DTT International. In 2003, the rebranding campaign was commissioned by William G. Parrett, the then-CEO of DTT, and led by Jerry Leamon, the global Clients and Markets leader.[45]

According to the company website, Deloitte now refers to the brand under which independent firms throughout the world collaborate to provide audit, consulting, financial advisory, risk management, and tax services to selected clients.[46]

In 2008, Deloitte adopted its new "Always One Step Ahead" (AOSA) brand positioning platform to support the existing Deloitte vision: "To be the Standard of Excellence". AOSA represents the global organization's value proposition and is never used as a tagline. The recent launch of the Green Dot ad campaign also aligns with Deloitte's brand strategy and positioning framework.[47]

In June 2016, Deloitte changed its branding and adopted a new logo with Deloitte written in black color instead of earlier blue.[48]

In India, Deloitte operates under several brand names including A.F.Ferguson &Co., A.F.Ferguson Associates, S.B.Billimoria, C.C.Choksi & Co., P.C.Hansotia, Fraser & Ross and Deloitte Haskins & Sells (India).[49]

Legal structure

For many years, the organization and its network of member firms were legally organized as a Swiss Verein (the equivalent to an unincorporated association). As of 31 July 2010, members of the Verein became part of Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu (DTTL), a UK private company, limited by guarantee. Each member firm in its global network remains a separate and independent legal entity, subject to the laws and professional regulations of the particular country or countries in which it operates.[50] Deloitte is registered under the NAIC code of 55112.[51]

30 Rockefeller Plaza

This structure is similar to other professional services networks which seek to limit vicarious liability for acts of other members. As separate and legal entities, member firms and DTTL cannot obligate each other. Professional services continue to be provided by member firms only and not DTTL. With this structure, the members should not be liable for the negligence of other independent members. This structure also allows them to be members of the IFAC Forum of Firms.[52]


Deloitte member firms offer services in the following functions, with country-specific variations on their legal implementation (i.e., all operating within a single company or through separate legal entities operating as subsidiaries of an umbrella legal entity for the country).[5]


Audit provides the organization's traditional accounting and audit services, as well as internal auditing and IT control assurance. In 2018, audit grew by 7.7%.[5]

Investors in Guangdong Kelon Electrical Holdings Company Limited have claimed that there was a failure to alert them to the company's poor financial position.[53][54] Deloitte claims it did a good job on the project. Deloitte's global CEO defended the firm's work on the Kelon matter. The firm was the auditor for thirty months from 2002 to 2004. It qualified its opinion in 2004 as to company sales, returns, and allowances. The firm resigned from the Kelon account after completing the 2004 audit. Deloitte said it resigned from the account because management at the client was not committed to best practices in finance.[55]


Consulting assists clients by providing services in the areas of enterprise applications, technology integration, strategy & operations, human capital, and short-term outsourcing. In 2018, consulting grew by 15.7%.[5]

In An American Sickness (2017), Dr. Elisabeth Rosenthal attributed to Deloitte a key role in counseling the adoption of "strategic billing" as a way of increasing revenues from hospital business. She dates this development from 2005, when Deloitte hired Tommy Thompson, former secretary of health and human services, as chairman of its global healthcare practice.[56] In 2011, Deloitte was ranked No. 1 by revenue in all areas of healthcare consulting—life sciences, payer, provider, and government health.[57]

The firm implemented the SAP HR system for the Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD) for $95 million and because of faults in the system, some teachers were underpaid, overpaid, or not paid at all.[58] As of 31 December 2007, LAUSD had incurred a total of $140 million in payments to Deloitte to get the system working properly.[59] In 2008, there was some evidence that the payroll issues had started to stabilize with errors below 1% according to LAUSD's chief operating officer.[60]

The firm worked on a statewide case management system which originally had a budget of around $260 million. Almost $500 million had been spent and costs were at one time projected to potentially run as high as $2 billion. No single court became fully operational.[61] California's Judicial Council terminated the project in 2012 citing actual deployment costs associated with the project and California's budget concerns.[62]

Financial advisory

Financial advisory provides corporate finance services to clients, including dispute, personal and commercial bankruptcy, forensics, e-discovery, document review, advisory, mergers & acquisitions, capital projects consulting and valuation services. In 2018, financial advisory grew by 8%.[5]

Risk advisory

Risk advisory provides offerings in enterprise risk management, information security and privacy, data quality and integrity, project risk and cyber risk, and business continuity management and sustainability. In 2018, risk advisory grew by 12%.[5]

Tax and legal

Tax & legal helps clients increase their net asset value, undertake the transfer pricing and international tax activities of multinational companies, minimize their tax liabilities, implement tax computer systems, and provides advisory of tax implications of various business decisions. In 2018, tax & legal grew by 8.7%.[5]

In November 2013, the international development charity ActionAid accused Deloitte of advising large businesses on how they could use Mauritius to avoid potentially hundreds of millions of dollars of tax in some of the poorest countries in Africa. Deloitte responded by saying that, in the absence of the double-taxation treaties, they advise their clients to avail themselves of arrangements that could result in less taxes being paid to the countries in question. Deloitte also said it was wrong to say it is tax avoidance to make use of provisions in double tax treaties and that without such treaties investment might be reduced.[63]


GovLab is the internal think tank of Deloitte Consulting LLP's Federal Government consulting practice, focused on innovation and government reform. Created in 2010, GovLab is based in the Washington, D.C. metro area and typically undertakes 8 or 9 research topics per year, focusing on how future trends, technologies, and business models will affect government.[64]


Deloitte operates across the world in more than 100 locations including Hong Kong, China and India.[65]

Operations in India

In the late 1990s, Deloitte commenced operations in India, at the same time as another large auditing firm KPMG. In India, ICAI regulations do not permit foreign firms to carry out audits in India.[66] Hence Deloitte carries out audits in India under the name of C.C.Chokshi & Co., an existing auditing firm that it arranged an agreement with 1998.[67] In 1992, after India was forced to liberalise under one of the conditions of the world bank and IMF sponsored bail out, Deloitte was granted a license to operate in India. It subsequently purchased C.C.Chokshi & Co and now conducts audits in India under the name of this firm.[68]

Awards and recognition

In 2019, Fortune magazine ranked Deloitte as one of the 100 Best Companies to Work For[69] and Bloomberg Business has consistently named Deloitte as the best place to launch a career.[70]

Deloitte, along with KPMG, PwC and PA Consulting Group were recognized among the UK's best companies to work for in 2017.[71]

Deloitte was named the #1 accounting firm for the tenth year in a row by Inside Public Accounting in August 2018.[72]

In 2017, Deloitte was ranked as one of the ten best places to work for paternity leave by Fatherly, an online resource for parenting news.[73]

Litigation and regulatory action

Adelphia Communications

The Securities and Exchange Commission announced on 26 April 2005 that Deloitte had agreed to pay $50 million to settle charges relating to Adelphia's 2000 financial statements.[74][75] The settlement was later reported to be as high as $210m or $167.5m.[76][77]

Canadian Bar Association

In September 2003, Deloitte reported to the Canadian Bar Association (CBA) that motor vehicle accident insurance claims for bodily injury had been declining since 1999 adjusted for inflation. This contradicted the government's and industry's argument that general damages for soft-tissue injury had to be capped at $4,000. Within hours of release, a member of Deloitte was communicating with Insurance Bureau of Canada without the knowledge of CBA (their client) and providing confidential information. The Institute of Chartered Accountants of Alberta found Deloitte guilty of unprofessional conduct and fined the firm $40,000.[78]


In proceedings arising from the insolvency of the former entertainment company Livent, in April 2014 its special receiver obtained judgment against Deloitte for $84,750,000 in the Ontario Superior Court of Justice, in relation to Deloitte's failure to exercise its duty of care with respect to the audit of Livent's financial statements during 1993–1998.[79] The ruling was upheld by the Ontario Court of Appeal in January 2016,[80][81][82] but in December 2017, the Supreme Court of Canada in Deloitte & Touche v Livent Inc (Receiver of) allowed an appeal in part, declaring that liability existed only in respect of Deloitte's negligence in conducting the audit for Livent's 1997 fiscal year, and accordingly reduced the amount of damages awarded to $40,425,000.[83]

Standard Chartered

In August 2012, Deloitte Financial Advisory Services (DFAS) publicly denied that as the official internal auditors for Standard Chartered, it helped the bank cover up money laundering operations related to Iran which were earning the bank significant profits by "intentionally omitting critical information".[84] DFAS paid the state of New York a $10 million settlement, was required not to take on new business for one year from designated New York banks, and was required to implement reforms in order to prevent similar problems in the future. The state regulator stated that there was no evidence DFAS intentionally helped Standard Chartered launder money.[85]


Australian tobacco industry

In 2011, Deloitte was commissioned by the tobacco industry to compile a report on illicit tobacco. The Australian Customs and Border Protection Service officials called the report "potentially misleading", and raised concerns about the "reliability and accuracy" of the data.[86] When a second Deloitte report focusing on counterfeit cigarettes was released, Home Affairs Minister Brendan O'Connor described the second report as "baseless and deceptive" and "bogus".[87] Public health officials criticised Deloitte's decision to conduct the research, as it added credibility to the tobacco industry's effort to undermine the Australian Government's plain cigarette packaging legislation.[88][89]

E-mail hack

In September 2017, The Guardian reported that Deloitte suffered a cyberattack that breached the confidentiality of its clients and 244,000 staff, allowing the attackers to access "usernames, passwords, IP addresses, architectural diagrams for businesses and health information". Reportedly, Deloitte had stored the affected data in Microsoft's Azure cloud hosting service, without two-step verification. The attackers were thought to possibly have had access from as early as October 2016.[90] Brian Krebs reported that the breach affected all of Deloitte's email and administrative user accounts.[91][92] A later report by The Wall Street Journal repeated Deloitte's statement that only a few clients were affected. Deloitte said that neither its services nor its clients' businesses were disrupted. Deloitte reportedly first noticed suspicious activity in April 2017. Deloitte said that no sensitive information was compromised and that its investigators were eventually able to read every email obtained by the hackers.[93]

The Guardian reported that client accounts compromised in the breach included, but were not limited to, the US Department of Defense, the US Department of Homeland Security, the US State Department, the US Department of Energy, mortgage companies Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and the US Postal Service.[94] Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac issued statements saying they were not affected by the attack and denied that any of their data was compromised.[95]

Deloitte said that it immediately contacted legal authorities and six clients. Deloitte also increased security measures on the advice of both internal and external experts.[96] As of October 2017, the New York attorney general's office was investigating the hack.[93]


Deloitte had acted as internal auditor at construction and services giant Carillion before it went into liquidation in January 2018. The "excoriating" and "damning" (The Guardian)[97] final report of the Parliamentary inquiry into Carillion's collapse was published on 16 May 2018, and criticised Deloitte for its involvement in the company's financial reporting practices:

"Deloitte were responsible for advising Carillion’s board on risk management and financial controls, failings in the business that proved terminal. Deloitte were either unable to identify effectively to the board the risks associated with their business practices, unwilling to do so, or too readily ignored them."[98]

The select committee chairs (Frank Field and Rachel Reeves) called for a complete overhaul of Britain’s corporate governance regime, accusing the big four accounting firms of operating as a "cosy club".[97] Deloitte said it was "disappointed" with the committees' conclusions regarding its role as internal auditors, but would take on board any lessons that could be learned from Carillion's collapse.[97]


Following Autonomy's 2011 sale to Hewlett-Packard, the British software company was accused of accounting improprieties that contributed to an $8.8 billion write-down of Autonomy's value. In May 2018, the UK-Based Financial Reporting Council launched disciplinary action against Deloitte, Autonomy's auditor at the time of the sale. Deloitte Partners who led the audit were accused of failing to correct false and misleading information filed with the FRRP, and otherwise failing to act with objectivity during the course of the audit. The FRC's action followed legal proceedings in the US that found former Autonomy executive Sushovan Hussain guilty of fraud earlier that month. [99]


Deloitte LLP serves as the official professional services sponsor of the United States Olympic Committee since year 2009.[100] The UK member firm of Deloitte was a sponsor of the London 2012 Olympics[101] and the Royal Opera House.[102] The Canadian member firm was also the official professional services supplier for the 2010 Vancouver Winter Olympic Games[103] and 2010 Winter Paralympic Games.[104] In Asia, the Singapore member firm of Deloitte was a sponsor of the 2010 Summer Youth Olympics.[105] The Australian member firm of Deloitte is a Founding Partner of Invictus Games Sydney 2018, and a Principal from the firms Consulting practice is CEO of the not-for-profit entity delivering the Games.[106][107]

Moreover, Deloitte sponsors many university sports teams and societies, such as Edinburgh University Hockey Club.[108] It also entered into a 3-year partnership with the Cambridge Union Society in November 2013.[109]

See also

• New York City portal
• Companies portal
• Accounting networks and associations
• Deloitte Fast 500
• Deloitte Football Money League
• Professional services networks
• Sarbanes–Oxley Act
• Big Four accounting firms: KPMG, PwC, EY, Deloitte
• BDO Global, Grant Thornton
• Professional services
• Financial audit
• Tax advisor
• Management consulting
• FTSE 100 Index


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