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Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener
by Wikipedia
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Image
Field Marshal The Right Honourable
The Earl Kitchener
KG, KP, GCB, OM, GCSI, GCMG, GCIE, PC
Herbert Kitchener in full dress uniform (July 1910)
Secretary of State for War
In office
5 August 1914 – 5 June 1916
Monarch George V
Prime Minister H. H. Asquith
Preceded by H. H. Asquith
Succeeded by David Lloyd George
Consul-General in Egypt
In office
1911–1914
Personal details
Born 24 June 1850
Ballylongford, County Kerry, Ireland
Died 5 June 1916 (aged 65)
HMS Hampshire, west of Orkney, Scotland
Relations The 2nd Earl Kitchener
Sir Walter Kitchener
Military service
Allegiance United Kingdom
Branch/service British Army
Years of service 1871–1916
Rank Field Marshal
Commands Commander-in-Chief, India (1902–09)
British Forces in South Africa (1900–02)
Egyptian Army (1892–99)
Battles/wars Franco-Prussian War
Mahdist War:
Battle of Ferkeh
Battle of Atbara
Battle of Omdurman
Second Boer War:
Battle of Paardeberg
First World War
Awards Knight of the Order of the Garter
Knight of the Order of St Patrick
Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath
Member of the Order of Merit
Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Star of India
Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George
Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Indian Empire

Field Marshal Horatio Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener, KG, KP, GCB, OM, GCSI, GCMG, GCIE, PC (/ˈkɪtʃɪnər/; 24 June 1850 – 5 June 1916) was a senior British Army officer and colonial administrator who won notoriety for his imperial campaigns, most especially his scorched earth policy against the Boers and his establishment of concentration camps during the Second Boer War,[1] and later played a central role in the early part of the First World War.

Kitchener was credited in 1898 for winning the Battle of Omdurman and securing control of the Sudan for which he was made Earl Kitchener of Khartoum. As Chief of Staff (1900–1902) in the Second Boer War he played a key role in Lord Roberts' conquest of the Boer Republics, then succeeded Roberts as commander-in-chief – by which time Boer forces had taken to guerrilla fighting and British forces imprisoned Boer civilians in concentration camps. His term as Commander-in-Chief (1902–09) of the Army in India saw him quarrel with another eminent proconsul, the Viceroy Lord Curzon, who eventually resigned. Kitchener then returned to Egypt as British Agent and Consul-General (de facto administrator).

In 1914, at the start of the First World War, Kitchener became Secretary of State for War, a Cabinet Minister. One of the few to foresee a long war, lasting for at least three years, and with the authority to act effectively on that perception, he organised the largest volunteer army that Britain had seen, and oversaw a significant expansion of materials production to fight on the Western Front. Despite having warned of the difficulty of provisioning for a long war, he was blamed for the shortage of shells in the spring of 1915 – one of the events leading to the formation of a coalition government – and stripped of his control over munitions and strategy.

On 5 June 1916, Kitchener was making his way to Russia on HMS Hampshire to attend negotiations with Tsar Nicholas II when the ship struck a German mine 1.5 miles (2.4 km) west of the Orkneys, Scotland, and sank. Kitchener was among 737 who died.

Early life

Image
Kitchener on his mother's lap, with his brother and sister

Kitchener was born in Ballylongford near Listowel, County Kerry, in Ireland, son of army officer Henry Horatio Kitchener (1805–1894) and Frances Anne Chevallier (d. 1864; daughter of John Chevallier, a priest, of Aspall Hall, and his third wife, Elizabeth, née Cole).[2]

His father had only recently bought land in Ireland, under a scheme to encourage the purchase of land, after selling his commission.[3] They then moved to Switzerland where the young Kitchener was educated at Montreux, then at the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich.[3] Pro-French and eager to see action, he joined a French field ambulance unit in the Franco-Prussian War.[3] His father took him back to Britain after he caught pneumonia while ascending in a balloon to see the French Army of the Loire in action.[3] Commissioned into the Royal Engineers on 4 January 1871,[4] his service in France had violated British neutrality, and he was reprimanded by the Duke of Cambridge, the commander-in-chief.[3] He served in Palestine, Egypt and Cyprus as a surveyor, learned Arabic, and prepared detailed topographical maps of the areas.[2] His brother, Lt. Gen. Sir Walter Kitchener, had also entered the army, and was Governor of Bermuda from 1908 to 1912.[5]

Survey of western Palestine

In 1874, aged 24, Kitchener was assigned by the Palestine Exploration Fund to a mapping-survey of the Holy Land, replacing Charles Tyrwhitt-Drake, who had died of malaria.[6] By then an officer in the Royal Engineers, Kitchener joined fellow officer Claude R. Conder; between 1874 and 1877 they surveyed Palestine, returning to England only briefly in 1875 after an attack by locals at Safed, in Galilee.[6]

Conder and Kitchener's expedition became known as the Survey of Western Palestine because it was largely confined to the area west of the Jordan River. The survey collected data on the topography and toponymy of the area, as well as local flora and fauna.[7]

The results of the survey were published in an eight-volume series, with Kitchener's contribution in the first three tomes (Conder and Kitchener 1881–1885). This survey has had a lasting effect on the Middle East for several reasons:

• It serves as the basis for the grid system used in the modern maps of Israel and Palestine;
• The data compiled by Conder and Kitchener are still consulted by archaeologists and geographers working in the southern Levant;
• The survey itself effectively delineated and defined the political borders of the southern Levant. For example, the modern border between Israel and Lebanon is established at the point in upper Galilee where Conder and Kitchener's survey stopped.[6]

In 1878, having completed the survey of western Palestine, Kitchener was sent to Cyprus to undertake a survey of that newly acquired British protectorate.[3] He became vice-consul in Anatolia in 1879.[8]

Egypt

Kitchener was initiated into Freemasonry in 1883 in the Italian-speaking La Concordia Lodge No. 1226, which met in Cairo.[9] In November 1899 he was appointed the first District Grand Master of the District Grand Lodge of Egypt and the Sudan, under the United Grand Lodge of England.[10][11]

On 4 January 1883 Kitchener was promoted to captain,[12] given the Turkish rank bimbashi (major), and dispatched to Egypt where he took part in the reconstruction of the Egyptian Army.[3]

Egypt had recently become a British puppet state, its army led by British officers, although still nominally under the sovereignty of the Khedive (Egyptian monarch) and his nominal overlord the (Ottoman) Sultan of Turkey. Kitchener became second-in-command of an Egyptian cavalry regiment[13] in February 1883, and then took part in the failed expedition to relieve Charles George Gordon in the Sudan in late 1884.[3] Fluent in Arabic, Kitchener preferred the company of the Egyptians over the British, and the company of no-one over the Egyptians, writing in 1884 that: "I have become such a solitary bird that I often think I were happier alone".[14] Kitchener spoke Arabic so well that he was able to effortlessly adopt the dialects of the different Bedouin tribes of Egypt and the Sudan.[15] Promoted to brevet major on 8 October 1884[16] and to brevet lieutenant-colonel on 15 June 1885,[17] he became the British member of the Zanzibar boundary commission in July 1885.[18] He became Governor of the Egyptian Provinces of Eastern Sudan and Red Sea Littoral (which in practice consisted of little more than the Port of Suakin) in September 1886, and led his forces in action against the followers of the Mahdi at Handub in January 1888, when he was injured in the jaw.[19]

Kitchener was promoted to brevet colonel on 11 April 1888[20] and to the substantive rank of major on 20 July 1889[21] and led the Egyptian cavalry at the Battle of Toski in August 1889. At the beginning of 1890 he was appointed Inspector General of the Egyptian police[22] before moving to the position of Adjutant-General of the Egyptian Army in December of the same year[19] and Sirdar (Commander-in-Chief) of the Egyptian Army with the local rank of brigadier in April 1892.[19]

Kitchener was worried that, although his moustache was bleached white by the sun, his blond hair refused to turn grey, making it harder for Egyptians to take him seriously. His appearance added to his mystique: his long legs made him appear taller, whilst a cast in his eye made people feel he was looking right through them.[23] Kitchener, at 6'2", towered over most of his contemporaries.[24] Sir Evelyn Baring, the de facto British ruler of Egypt, thought Kitchener “the most able (soldier) I have come across in my time”.[25] In 1890, a War Office evaluation of Kitchener concluded: "A good brigadier, very ambitious, not popular, but has of late greatly improved in tact and manner...a fine gallant soldier and good linguist and very successful in dealing with Orientals" [in the 19th century, Europeans called the Middle East the Orient].[26]

Sudan and Khartoum

See also: Anglo-Egyptian invasion of Sudan

Image
Kitchener, Commander of the Egyptian Army (centre right), 1898

In 1896, the British Prime Minister, Lord Salisbury, was concerned with keeping France out of the Horn of Africa. A French expedition under the command of Jean-Baptiste Marchand had left Dakar in March 1896 with the aim of conquering the Sudan, seizing control of the Nile as it flowed into Egypt, and forcing the British out of Egypt; thus restoring Egypt to the place within the French sphere of influence that it had had prior to 1882. Salisbury feared that if the British did not conquer the Sudan, the French would.[27] He had supported Italy's ambitions to conquer Ethiopia in the hope that the Italians would keep the French out of Ethiopia. The Italian attempt to conquer Ethiopia, however, was going very badly by early 1896, and ended with the Italians being annihilated at the Battle of Adowa in March 1896.[28] In March 1896, with the Italians visibly failing and the Mahdiyah state threatening to conquer Eritrea, Salisbury ordered Kitchener to invade northern Sudan, ostensibly for the purpose of distracting the Ansar (whom the British called "Dervishes") from attacking the Italians.[28]

Kitchener won victories at the Battle of Ferkeh in June 1896 and the Battle of Hafir in September 1896, earning him national fame in the United Kingdom and promotion to major-general on 25 September 1896.[29] Kitchener's cold personality and his tendency to drive his men hard made him widely disliked by his fellow officers.[30] One officer wrote about Kitchener in September 1896: "He was always inclined to bully his own entourage, as some men are rude to their wives. He was inclined to let off his spleen on those around him. He was often morose and silent for hours together...he was even morbidly afraid of showing any feeling or enthusiasm, and he preferred to be misunderstood rather than be suspected of human feeling."[31] Kitchener had served on the Wolseley expedition to rescue General Gordon at Khartoum, and was convinced that the expedition failed because Wolseley had used boats coming up the Nile to bring his supplies.[32] Kitchener wanted to build a railroad to supply the Anglo-Egyptian army, and assigned the task of constructing the Sudan Military Railroad to a Canadian railroad builder, Percy Girouard, for whom he had specifically asked.[33]

Kitchener achieved further successes at the Battle of Atbara in April 1898, and then the Battle of Omdurman in September 1898.[19] After marching to the walls of Khartoum, he placed his army into a crescent shape with the Nile to the rear, together with the gunboats in support. This enabled him to bring overwhelming firepower against any attack of the Ansar from any direction, though with the disadvantage of having his men spread out thinly, with hardly any forces in reserve. Such an arrangement could have proven disastrous if the Ansar had broken through the thin khaki line.[34] At about 5 a.m. on 2 September 1898, a huge force of Ansar, under the command of the Khalifa himself, came out of the fort at Omdurman, marching under their black banners inscribed with Koranic quotations in Arabic; this led Bennet Burleigh, the Sudan correspondent of The Daily Telegraph, to write: "It was not alone the reverberation of the tread of horses and men's feet I heard and seemed to feel as well as hear, but a voiced continuous shouting and chanting-the Dervish invocation and battle challenge "Allah e Allah Rasool Allah el Mahdi!" they reiterated in vociferous rising measure, as they swept over the intervening ground".[35] Kitchener had the ground carefully studied so that his officers would know the best angle of fire, and had his army open fire on the Ansar first with artillery, then machine guns and finally rifles as the enemy advanced.[36] A young Winston Churchill, serving as an army officer, wrote of what he saw: "A ragged line of men were coming on desperately, struggling forward in the face of the pitiless fire- black banners tossing and collapsing; white figures subsiding in dozens to the ground...valiant men were struggling on through a hell of whistling metal, exploding shells, and spurting dust—suffering, despairing, dying".[37] By about 8:30 a.m., much of the Dervish army was dead; Kitchener ordered his men to advance, fearing that the Khalifa might escape with what was left of his army to the fort of Omdurman, forcing Kitchener to lay siege to it.[38]

Viewing the battlefield from horseback on the hill at Jebel Surgham, Kitchener commented: "Well, we have given them a damn good dusting".[38] As the British and Egyptians advanced in columns, the Khalifa attempted to outflank and encircle the columns; this led to desperate hand-to-hand fighting. Churchill wrote of his own experience as the 21st Lancers cut their way through the Ansar: "The collision was prodigious and for perhaps ten wonderful seconds, no man heeded his enemy. Terrified horses wedged in the crowd, bruised and shaken men, sprawling in heaps, struggle dazed and stupid, to their feet, panted and looked about them".[39] The Lancers' onslaught carried them through the 12-men-deep Ansar line with the Lancers losing 71 dead and wounded while killing hundreds of the enemy.[39] Following the annihilation of his army, the Khalifa ordered a retreat and early in the afternoon, Kitchener rode in triumph into Omdurman and immediately ordered that the thousands of Christians enslaved by the Ansar were now all free people.[40] Kitchener lost fewer than 500 men while killing about 11,000 and wounding 17,000 of the Ansar.[40] Burleigh summed the general mood of the British troops: "At Last! Gordon has been avenged and justified. The dervishes have been overwhelming routed, Mahdism has been "smashed", while the Khalifa's capital of Omdurman has been stripped of its barbaric halo of sanctity and invulnerability."[40] Kitchener promptly had the Mahdi's tomb blown up and his bones scattered.[41] Queen Victoria, who had wept when she heard of General Gordon's death, now wept for the man who had vanquished Gordon, asking whether it had been really necessary for Kitchener to desecrate the Mahdi's tomb.[41] In a letter to his mother, Churchill wrote that the victory at Omdurman had been "disgraced by the inhuman slaughter of the wounded and...Kitchener is responsible for this".[42] There is no evidence that Kitchener ordered his men to shoot the wounded Ansar on the field of Omdurman, but he did give before the battle what the British journalist Mark Urban called a "mixed message", saying that mercy should be given, while at the same time saying "Remember Gordon" and that the enemy were all "murderers" of Gordon.[43] The victory at Omdurman made Kitchener into a popular war hero, and gave him a reputation for efficiency and as a man who got things done.[41] The journalist G. W. Steevens wrote in the Daily Mail that "He [Kitchener] is more like a machine than a man. You feel that he ought to be patented and shown with pride at the Paris International Exhibition. British Empire: Exhibit No. 1 hors concours, the Sudan Machine".[41] The shooting of the wounded at Omdurman, along with the desecration of the Mahdi's tomb, gave Kitchener a reputation for brutality that was to dog him for the rest of his life, and posthumously.[41]

After Omdurman, Kitchener opened a special sealed letter from Salisbury that told him that Salisbury's real reason for ordering the conquest of the Sudan was to prevent France from moving into the Sudan, and that the talk of "avenging Gordon" had been just a pretext.[27] Salisbury's letter ordered Kitchener to head south as soon as possible to evict Marchand before he got a chance to become well-established on the Nile.[27] On 18 September 1898, Kitchener arrived at the French fort at Fashoda (present day Kodok, on the west bank of the Nile north of Malakal) and informed Marchand that he and his men had to leave the Sudan at once, a request Merchand refused, leading to a tense stand-off as French and British soldiers aimed their weapons at each other.[27] During what became known as the Fashoda Incident, Britain and France almost went to war with each other.[44] The Fashoda incident caused much jingoism and chauvinism on both sides of the English Channel; however, at Fashoda itself, despite the stand-off with the French, Kitchener established cordial relations with Marchand. They agreed that the tricolor would fly equally with the Union Jack and the Egyptian flag over the disputed fort at Fashoda.[44] Kitchener was a Francophile who spoke fluent French, and despite his reputation for brusque rudeness was very diplomatic and tactful in his talks with Marchand; for example, congratulating him on his achievement in crossing the Sahara in an epic trek from Dakar to the Nile.[45] In November 1898, the crisis ended when the French agreed to withdraw from the Sudan.[41] Several factors persuaded the French to back down. These included British naval superiority; the prospect of an Anglo-French war leading to the British gobbling up the entire French colonial empire after the defeat of the French Navy; the pointed statement from the Russian Emperor Nicholas II that the Franco-Russian alliance applied only to Europe, and that Russia would not go to war against Britain for the sake of an obscure fort in the Sudan in which no Russian interests were involved; and the possibility that Germany might take advantage of an Anglo-French war to strike France.[46]

Kitchener became Governor-General of the Sudan in September 1898, and began a programme of restoring good governance. The programme had a strong foundation, based on education at Gordon Memorial College as its centrepiece—and not simply for the children of the local elites, for children from anywhere could apply to study. He ordered the mosques of Khartoum rebuilt, instituted reforms which recognised Friday—the Muslim holy day—as the official day of rest, and guaranteed freedom of religion to all citizens of the Sudan. He attempted to prevent evangelical Christian missionaries from trying to convert Muslims to Christianity.[47]

At this stage of his career Kitchener was keen to exploit the press, cultivating G. W. Steevens of the Daily Mail who wrote a book With Kitchener to Khartum. Later, as his legend had grown, he was able to be rude to the press, on one occasion in the Second Boer War bellowing: "Get out of my way, you drunken swabs".[23] He was created Baron Kitchener, of Khartoum and of Aspall in the County of Suffolk, on 31 October 1898.[48]

Anglo-Boer War

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Lord Kitchener on horseback in The Queenslander Pictorial in 1910

During the Second Boer War, Kitchener arrived in South Africa with Lord Roberts on the RMS Dunottar Castle along with massive British reinforcements in December 1899.[19] Officially holding the title of chief of staff,[49] he was in practice a second-in-command and was present at the relief of Kimberley before leading an unsuccessful frontal assault at the Battle of Paardeberg in February 1900.[19] Kitchener was mentioned in despatches from Lord Roberts several times during the early part of the war; in a despatch from March 1900 Lord Roberts wrote how he was "greatly indebted to him for his counsel and cordial support on all occasions".[50]

Following the defeat of the conventional Boer forces, Kitchener succeeded Roberts as overall commander in November 1900.[51] He was also promoted to lieutenant-general on 29 November 1900[52] and to local general on 12 December 1900.[51] He subsequently inherited and expanded the successful strategies devised by Roberts to force the Boer commandos to submit, including concentration camps and the burning of farms.[19] Conditions in the concentration camps, which had been conceived by Roberts as a form of control of the families whose farms he had destroyed, began to degenerate rapidly as the large influx of Boers outstripped the ability of the minuscule British force to cope. The camps lacked space, food, sanitation, medicine, and medical care, leading to rampant disease and a very high death rate for those Boers who entered. Eventually 26,370 women and children (81% were children) died in the concentration camps.[53] The biggest critic of the camps was the Englishwoman, humanitarian, and welfare worker Emily Hobhouse.[54]

The Treaty of Vereeniging, ending the War, was signed in May 1902 following a tense six months. During this period Kitchener struggled against Sir Alfred Milner, the Governor of the Cape Colony, and the British government. Milner was a hard-line conservative and wanted forcibly to Anglicise the Afrikaans people (the Boers), and Milner and the British government wanted to assert victory by forcing the Boers to sign a humiliating peace treaty; Kitchener wanted a more generous compromise peace treaty that would recognize certain rights for the Afrikaners and promise future self-government. He even entertained a peace treaty proposed by Louis Botha and the other Boer leaders, although he knew the British government would reject the offer; this would have maintained the sovereignty of the South African Republic and the Orange Free State while requiring them to sign a perpetual treaty of alliance with the UK and grant major concessions to the British, such as equal rights for English with Dutch in their countries, voting rights for Uitlanders, and a customs and railway union with the Cape Colony and Natal.[55]

Kitchener, who had been promoted to the substantive rank of general on 1 June 1902,[56] was hosted to a farewell reception at Cape Town on 23 June, and left for the United Kingdom in the SS Orotava on the same day.[57] He received an enthusiastic welcome on his arrival the following month. Landing in Southampton on 12 July, he was greeted by the corporation, who presented him with the Freedom of the borough. In London, he was met at the train station by The Prince of Wales, drove in a procession through streets lined by military personnel from 70 different units and watched by thousands of people, and received a formal welcome at St James's Palace. He also visited King Edward VII, Emperor of India, who was confined to his room recovering from his recent operation for appendicitis, but wanted to meet the general on his arrival and to personally bestow on him the insignia of the Order of Merit (OM).[58] Kitchener was created Viscount Kitchener, of Khartoum and of the Vaal in the Colony of Transvaal and of Aspall in the County of Suffolk, on 28 July 1902.[59]

Court-martial of Breaker Morant

Main articles: Court-martial of Breaker Morant and Breaker Morant

In the Breaker Morant case, five Australian officers and one English officer of an irregular unit, the Bushveldt Carbineers, were court-martialled for summarily executing twelve Boer prisoners,[60] and also for the murder of a German missionary believed to be a Boer sympathiser, all allegedly under unwritten orders approved by Kitchener. The celebrated horseman and bush poet Lt. Harry "Breaker" Morant and Lt. Peter Handcock were found guilty, sentenced to death, and shot by firing squad at Pietersburg on 27 February 1902. Their death warrants were personally signed by Kitchener. He reprieved a third soldier, Lt. George Witton, who served 28 months before being released.[61]

India

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Broome Park, Kitchener's country house in Canterbury, Kent

General Lord Kitchener was in late 1902 appointed Commander-in-Chief, India, and arrived there to take up the position in November, in time to be in charge during the January 1903 Delhi Durbar. He immediately began the task of reorganising the Indian Army. Kitchener's plan “The Reorganisation and Redistribution of the Army in India” recommended preparing the Indian Army for any potential war by reducing the size of fixed garrisons and reorganising it into two armies, to be commanded by Generals Sir Bindon Blood and George Luck.[62] While many of the Kitchener Reforms were supported by the Viceroy, Lord Curzon of Kedleston, who had originally lobbied for Kitchener's appointment, the two men eventually came into conflict. Curzon wrote to Kitchener advising him that signing himself “Kitchener of Khartoum” took up too much time and space – Kitchener commented on the pettiness of this (Curzon simply signed himself "Curzon" as an hereditary peer, although he later took to signing himself “Curzon of Kedleston”).[63] They also clashed over the question of military administration, as Kitchener objected to the system whereby transport and logistics were controlled by a "Military Member" of the Viceroy's Council. The Commander-in-Chief won the crucial support of the government in London, and the Viceroy chose to resign.[64]

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A portrait of Field Marshal Lord Kitchener in full dress uniform taken shortly after being promoted to the rank

Later events proved Curzon was right in opposing Kitchener's attempts to concentrate all military decision-making power in his own office. Although the offices of Commander-in-Chief and Military Member were now held by a single individual, senior officers could approach only the Commander-in-Chief directly. In order to deal with the Military Member, a request had to be made through the Army Secretary, who reported to the Indian Government and had right of access to the Viceroy. There were even instances, when the two separate bureaucracies produced different answers to a problem, with the Commander-in-Chief disagreeing with himself as Military Member. This became known as "the canonisation of duality". Kitchener's successor, General Sir O’Moore Creagh, was nicknamed "no More K", and concentrated on establishing good relations with the Viceroy, Lord Hardinge.[65]

Kitchener presided over the Rawalpindi Parade in 1905 to honour the Prince and Princess of Wales's visit to India.[66] That same year Kitchener founded the Indian Staff College at Quetta (now the Pakistani Command and Staff College), where his portrait still hangs.[67] His term of office as Commander-in-Chief, India, was extended by two years in 1907.[64]

Kitchener was promoted to the highest Army rank, field marshal, on 10 September 1909 and went on a tour of Australia and New Zealand.[64] He aspired to be Viceroy of India, but the Secretary of State for India, John Morley, was not keen and hoped to send him instead to Malta as Commander-in-Chief of British forces in the Mediterranean, even to the point of announcing the appointment in the newspapers. Kitchener pushed hard for the Viceroyalty, returning to London to lobby Cabinet ministers and the dying King Edward VII, from whom, whilst collecting his field marshal's baton, Kitchener obtained permission to refuse the Malta job. However, Morley could not be moved. This was perhaps in part because Kitchener was thought to be a Tory (the Liberals were in office at the time); perhaps due to a Curzon-inspired whispering campaign; but most importantly because Morley, who was a Gladstonian and thus suspicious of imperialism, felt it inappropriate, after the recent grant of limited self-government under the 1909 Indian Councils Act, for a serving soldier to be Viceroy (in the event, no serving soldier was appointed Viceroy until Lord Wavell in 1943, during the Second World War). The Prime Minister, H. H. Asquith, was sympathetic to Kitchener but was unwilling to overrule Morley, who threatened resignation, so Kitchener was finally turned down for the post of Viceroy of India in 1911.[68]

Return to Egypt

In June 1911 Kitchener then returned to Egypt as British Agent and Consul-General in Egypt during the formal reign of Abbas Hilmi II as Khedive.[68]

At the time of the Agadir Crisis (summer 1911), Kitchener told the Committee of Imperial Defence that he expected the Germans to walk through the French “like partridges” and he informed Lord Esher “that if they imagined that he was going to command the Army in France he would see them damned first”.[69]

He was created Earl Kitchener, of Khartoum and of Broome in the County of Kent, on 29 June 1914.[68]

During this period he became a proponent of Scouting and coined the phrase "once a Scout, always a Scout."[70]

First World War

1914

Raising the New Armies


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The iconic, much-imitated 1914 Lord Kitchener Wants You poster

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Young men besieging the recruiting offices in Whitehall, London

At the outset of the First World War, the Prime Minister, Asquith, quickly had Lord Kitchener appointed Secretary of State for War; Asquith had been filling the job himself as a stopgap following the resignation of Colonel Seely over the Curragh Incident earlier in 1914. Kitchener was in Britain on his annual summer leave, between 23 June and 3 August 1914, and had boarded a cross-Channel steamer to commence his return trip to Cairo when he was recalled to London to meet with Asquith.[71] War was declared at 11pm the next day.[72]

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Cpostcard of Lord Kitchener from WW1 period

Against cabinet opinion, Kitchener correctly predicted a long war that would last at least three years, require huge new armies to defeat Germany, and cause huge casualties before the end would come. Kitchener stated that the conflict would plumb the depths of manpower "to the last million". A massive recruitment campaign began, which soon featured a distinctive poster of Kitchener, taken from a magazine front cover. It may have encouraged large numbers of volunteers, and has proven to be one of the most enduring images of the war, having been copied and parodied many times since. Kitchener built up the "New Armies" as separate units because he distrusted the Territorials from what he had seen with the French Army in 1870. This may have been a mistaken judgement, as the British reservists of 1914 tended to be much younger and fitter than their French equivalents a generation earlier.[73]

Cabinet Secretary Maurice Hankey wrote of Kitchener:

The great outstanding fact is that within eighteen months of the outbreak of the war, when he had found a people reliant on sea-power, and essentially non-military in their outlook, he had conceived and brought into being, completely equipped in every way, a national army capable of holding its own against the armies of the greatest military Power the world had ever seen.[74]


However, Ian Hamilton later wrote of Kitchener "he hated organisations; he smashed organisations ... he was a Master of Expedients".[75]

Deploying the BEF

At the War Council (5 August) Kitchener and Lieutenant General Sir Douglas Haig argued that the BEF should be deployed at Amiens, where it could deliver a vigorous counterattack once the route of German advance was known. Kitchener argued that the deployment of the BEF in Belgium would result in having to retreat and abandon much of its supplies almost immediately, as the Belgian Army would be unable to hold its ground against the Germans; Kitchener was proved right, but given the belief in fortresses common at the time, it is not surprising that the War Council disagreed with him.[76]

Kitchener, believing Britain should husband her resources for a long war, decided at Cabinet (6 August) that the initial BEF would consist of only 4 infantry divisions (and 1 cavalry), not the 5 or 6 promised.[77] His decision to hold back two of the six divisions of the BEF, although based on exaggerated concerns about German invasion of Britain, arguably saved the BEF from disaster as Sir John French (on the advice of Wilson who was much influenced by the French), might have been tempted to advance further into the teeth of the advancing German forces, had his own force been stronger.[73]

Kitchener's wish to concentrate further back at Amiens may also have been influenced by a largely accurate map of German dispositions which was published by Repington in The Times on the morning of 12 August.[73] Kitchener had a three-hour meeting (12 August) with Sir John French, Murray, Wilson and the French liaison officer Victor Huguet, before being overruled by the Prime Minister, who eventually agreed that the BEF should assemble at Maubeuge.[78]

Sir John French's orders from Kitchener were to cooperate with the French but not to take orders from them. Given that the tiny BEF (about 100,000 men, half of them serving regulars and half reservists) was Britain's only field army, Lord Kitchener also instructed French to avoid undue losses and exposure to “forward movements where large numbers of French troops are not engaged” until Kitchener himself had had a chance to discuss the matter with the Cabinet.[79]

Meeting with Sir John French

The BEF commander, Sir John French, concerned at heavy British losses at the Battle of Le Cateau, was considering withdrawing his forces from the Allied line. By 31 August French Commander-in-chief Joffre, President Poincaré (relayed via Bertie, the British Ambassador) and Kitchener sent him messages urging him not to do so. Kitchener, authorised by a midnight meeting of whichever Cabinet Ministers could be found, left for France for a meeting with Sir John on 1 September.[80]

They met, together with Viviani (French Prime Minister) and Millerand (now French War Minister). Huguet recorded that Kitchener was "calm, balanced, reflective" whilst Sir John was "sour, impetuous, with congested face, sullen and ill-tempered". On Bertie’s advice Kitchener dropped his intention of inspecting the BEF. French and Kitchener moved to a separate room, and no independent account of the meeting exists. After the meeting Kitchener telegraphed the Cabinet that the BEF would remain in the line, although taking care not to be outflanked, and told French to consider this "an instruction". French had a friendly exchange of letters with Joffre.[81]

French had been particularly angry that Kitchener had arrived wearing his field marshal's uniform. This was how Kitchener normally dressed at the time (Hankey thought Kitchener's uniform tactless, but it had probably not occurred to him to change), but French felt that Kitchener was implying that he was his military superior and not simply a cabinet member. By the end of the year French thought that Kitchener had "gone mad" and his hostility had become common knowledge at GHQ and GQG.[82]

1915

Image
Kitchener's Dream, German propaganda medal, 1915

Strategy

In January 1915, Field Marshal Sir John French, the commander of the British Expeditionary Force, with the concurrence of other senior commanders (e.g. General Sir Douglas Haig), wanted the New Armies incorporated into existing divisions as battalions rather than sent out as entire divisions. French felt (wrongly) that the war would be over by the summer before the New Army divisions were deployed, as Germany had recently redeployed some divisions to the east, and took the step of appealing to the Prime Minister, Asquith, over Kitchener's head, but Asquith refused to overrule Kitchener. This further damaged relations between French and Kitchener, who had travelled to France in September 1914 during the First Battle of the Marne to order French to resume his place in the Allied line.[83]

Kitchener warned French in January 1915 that the Western Front was a siege line that could not be breached, in the context of Cabinet discussions about amphibious landings on the Baltic or North Sea Coast, or against Turkey.[84] In an effort to find a way to relieve pressure on the Western front, Lord Kitchener proposed an invasion of Alexandretta with Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC), New Army, and Indian troops. Alexandretta was an area with a large Christian population and was the strategic centre of the Ottoman Empire's railway network — its capture would have cut the empire in two.Yet he was instead eventually persuaded to support Winston Churchill's disastrous Gallipoli Campaign in 1915–1916. (Churchill's responsibility for the failure of this campaign is debated; for more information see David Fromkin's A Peace to End All Peace.) That failure, combined with the Shell Crisis of 1915 – amidst press publicity engineered by Sir John French – dealt Kitchener's political reputation a heavy blow; Kitchener was popular with the public, so Asquith retained him in office in the new coalition government, but responsibility for munitions was moved to a new ministry headed by David Lloyd George. He was a sceptic about the tank, which is why it was developed under the auspices of Churchill's Admiralty.[85]

With the Russians being pushed back from Poland, Kitchener thought the transfer of German troops west and a possible invasion of Britain increasingly likely, and told the War Council (14 May) that he was not willing to send the New Armies overseas. He wired French (16 May 1915) that he would send no more reinforcements to France until he was clear the German line could be broken, but sent two divisions at the end of May to please Joffre, not because he thought a breakthrough possible.[86] He had wanted to conserve his New Armies to strike a knockout blow in 1916–17, but by the summer of 1915 realised that high casualties and a major commitment to France were inescapable. “Unfortunately we have to make war as we must, and not as we should like” as he told the Dardanelles Committee on 20 August 1915.[87]

At an Anglo-French conference at Calais (6 July) Joffre and Kitchener, who was opposed to “too vigorous” offensives, reached a compromise on “local offensives on a vigorous scale”, and Kitchener agreed to deploy New Army divisions to France. An inter-Allied conference at Chantilly (7 July, including Russian, Belgian, Serb and Italian delegates) agreed on coordinated offensives.[88] However, Kitchener now came to support the upcoming Loos offensive. He travelled to France for talks with Joffre and Millerand (16 August). The French leaders believed Russia might sue for peace (Warsaw had fallen on 4 August). Kitchener (19 August) ordered the Loos offensive to proceed, despite the attack being on ground not favoured by French or Haig (then commanding First Army).[89] The Official History later admitted that Kitchener hoped to be appointed Supreme Allied Commander. Liddell Hart speculated that this was why he allowed himself to be persuaded by Joffre. New Army divisions first saw action at Loos in September 1915.[90]
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Reduction in powers

Kitchener continued to lose favour with politicians and professional soldiers. He found it “repugnant and unnatural to have to discuss military secrets with a large number of gentlemen with whom he was but barely acquainted”. Esher complained that he would either lapse into “obstinacy and silence” or else mull aloud over various difficulties. Milner told Gwynne (18 August 1915) that he thought Kitchener a “slippery fish”.[91] By autumn 1915, with Asquith's Coalition close to breaking up over conscription, he was blamed for his opposition to that measure (which would eventually be introduced for single men in January 1916) and for the excessive influence which civilians like Churchill and Haldane had come to exert over strategy, allowing ad hoc campaigns to develop in Sinai, Mesopotamia and Salonika. Generals such as Sir William Robertson were critical of Kitchener's failure to ask the General Staff (whose chief James Wolfe-Murray was intimidated by Kitchener) to study the feasibility of any of these campaigns.[92]

Kitchener advised the Dardanelles Committee (21 October) that Baghdad be seized for the sake of prestige then abandoned as logistically untenable. His advice was no longer accepted without question, but the British forces were eventually besieged and captured at Kut.[93]

Image
Kitchener with General Birdwood at Anzac, November 1915

Archibald Murray (Chief of the Imperial General Staff) later recorded that Kitchener was “quite unfit for the position of secretary of state” and “impossible”, claiming that he never assembled the Army Council as a body, but instead gave them orders separately, and was usually exhausted by Friday. Kitchener was also keen to break up Territorial units whenever possible whilst ensuring that “No “K” Division left the country incomplete”. Murray wrote that “He seldom told the absolute the truth and the whole truth” and claimed that it was not until he left on a tour of inspection of Gallipoli and the Near East that Murray was able to inform the Cabinet that volunteering had fallen far below the level needed to maintain a BEF of 70 divisions, requiring the introduction of conscription. The Cabinet insisted on proper General Staff papers being presented in Kitchener's absence.[94]

Asquith, who told Robertson that Kitchener was “an impossible colleague” and “his veracity left much to be desired”, hoped that he could be persuaded to remain in the region as Commander-in-Chief and acted in charge of the War Office, but Kitchener took his seals of office with him so he could not be sacked in his absence. Douglas Haig – at that time involved in intrigues to have Robertson appointed Chief of the Imperial General Staff – recommended that Kitchener be appointed Viceroy of India (“where trouble was brewing”) but not to the Middle East, where his strong personality would have led to that sideshow receiving too much attention and resources.[95] Kitchener visited Rome and Athens, but Murray warned that he would likely demand the diversion of British troops to fight the Turks in the Sinai.[96]

Kitchener and Asquith were agreed that Robertson should become CIGS, but Robertson refused to do this if Kitchener “continued to be his own CIGS”, although given Kitchener's great prestige he did not want him to resign; he wanted the Secretary of State to be sidelined to an advisory role like the Prussian War Minister. Asquith asked them to negotiate an agreement, which they did over the exchange of several draft documents at the Hotel de Crillon in Paris. Kitchener agreed that Robertson alone should present strategic advice to the Cabinet, with Kitchener responsible for recruiting and supplying the Army, although he refused to agree that military orders should go out over Robertson's signature alone – it was agreed that the Secretary of State should continue to sign orders jointly with the CIGS. The agreement was formalised in a Royal Order in Council in January 1916. Robertson was suspicious of efforts in the Balkans and Near East, and was instead committed to major British offensives against Germany on the Western Front — the first of these was to be the Somme in 1916.[97]

1916

Early in 1916 Kitchener visited Douglas Haig, newly appointed Commander-in-Chief of the BEF in France. Kitchener had been a key figure in the removal of Haig's predecessor Sir John French, with whom he had a poor relationship. Haig differed with Kitchener over the importance of Mediterranean efforts and wanted to see a strong General Staff in London, but nonetheless valued Kitchener as a military voice against the folly of civilians such as Churchill. However, he thought Kitchener "pinched, tired, and much aged", and thought it sad that his mind was “losing its comprehension” as the time for decisive victory on the Western Front (as Haig and Robertson saw it) approached.[98] Kitchener was somewhat doubtful of Haig's plan to win decisive victory in 1916, and would have preferred smaller and purely attritional attacks, but sided with Robertson in telling the Cabinet that the planned Anglo-French offensive on the Somme should go ahead.[99]

Kitchener was under pressure from French Prime Minister Aristide Briand (29 March 1916) for the British to attack on the Western Front to help relieve the pressure of the German attack at Verdun. The French refused to bring troops home from Salonika, which Kitchener thought a play for the increase of French power in the Mediterranean.[100]

On 2 June 1916, Lord Kitchener personally answered questions asked by politicians about his running of the war effort; at the start of hostilities Kitchener had ordered two million rifles from various US arms manufacturers. Only 480 of these rifles had arrived in the UK by 4 June 1916. The numbers of shells supplied were no less paltry. Kitchener explained the efforts he had made to secure alternative supplies. He received a resounding vote of thanks from the 200 Members of Parliament who had arrived to question him, both for his candour and for his efforts to keep the troops armed; Sir Ivor Herbert, who, a week before, had introduced the failed vote of censure in the House of Commons against Kitchener's running of the War Department, personally seconded the motion.[101]

In addition to his military work, Lord Kitchener contributed to efforts on the home front. The knitted sock patterns of the day used a seam up the toe that could rub uncomfortably against the toes. Kitchener encouraged British and American women to knit for the war effort, and contributed a sock pattern featuring a new technique for a seamless join of the toe, still known as the Kitchener stitch.[102]

Russian mission

In the midst of his other political and military concerns, Kitchener had devoted personal attention to the deteriorating situation on the Eastern Front. This included the provision of extensive stocks of war material for the Russian armies, which had been under increasing pressure since mid-1915.[103] In May 1916 the Chancellor of the Exchequer Reginald Mckenna suggested that Kitchener head a special and confidential mission to Russia to discuss munition shortages, military strategy and financial difficulties with the Imperial Russian Government and the Stavka (military high command), which was now under the personal command of Tsar Nicholas II. Both Kitchener and the Russians were in favor of face to face talks and a formal invitation from the Tsar was received on 14 May.[104] Kitchener with a party of officials, military aides and personal servants left London by train for Scotland on the evening of 4 June.[105]

Death

Image
Kitchener boards HMS Iron Duke from HMS Oak at 12.25pm on 5 June 1916 prior to lunching with Admiral Sir John Jellicoe at Scapa Flow

Image
Lord Kitchener's memorial, St Paul's Cathedral, London

Lord Kitchener sailed from Scrabster to Scapa Flow on 5 June 1916 aboard HMS Oak before transferring to the armoured cruiser HMS Hampshire for his diplomatic mission to Russia. At the last minute, Admiral Sir John Jellicoe changed the Hampshire's route on the basis of a mis-reading of the weather forecast and ignoring (or not being aware of) recent intelligence and sightings of German U-boat activity in the vicinity of the amended route.[106] Shortly before 19:30 hrs the same day, steaming for the Russian port of Arkhangelsk during a Force 9 gale, Hampshire struck a mine laid by the newly launched German U-boat U-75 (commanded by Curt Beitzen) and sank west of the Orkney Islands. Recent research has set the death toll of those aboard Hampshire at 737.[107] Only twelve survived.[107][108] Amongst the dead were all ten members of his entourage. Kitchener was seen standing on the quarterdeck during the approximately twenty minutes that it took the ship to sink. His body was never recovered.[108][109]

The news of Kitchener's death was received with shock all over the British Empire.[110] A man in Yorkshire committed suicide at the news; a sergeant on the Western Front was heard to exclaim "Now we’ve lost the war. Now we’ve lost the war"; and a nurse wrote home to her family that she knew Britain would win as long as Kitchener lived, and now that he was gone: "How awful it is – a far worse blow than many German victories. So long as he was with us we knew even if things were gloomy that his guiding hand was at the helm."[110]

General Douglas Haig commanding the British Armies on the Western Front remarked on first receiving the news of Kitchener's death via a German radio signal intercepted by the British Army, "How shall we get on without him."[111] King George V wrote in his diary: 'It is indeed a heavy blow to me and a great loss to the nation and the allies.' He ordered army officers to wear black armbands for a week.[112]

C. P. Scott, editor of The Manchester Guardian, is said to have remarked that "as for the old man, he could not have done better than to have gone down, as he was a great impediment lately."[113]

Conspiracy theories

Kitchener's great fame, the suddenness of his death, and its apparently convenient timing for a number of parties gave almost immediate rise to a number of conspiracy theories about his death. One in particular was posited by Lord Alfred Douglas (of Oscar Wilde fame), positing a connection between Kitchener's death, the recent naval Battle of Jutland, Winston Churchill, and a Jewish conspiracy. Churchill successfully sued Douglas in what proved to be the last successful case of criminal libel in British legal history, and the latter spent six months in prison.[114] Another claimed that the Hampshire did not strike a mine at all, but was sunk by explosives secreted in the vessel by Irish Republicans.[109]

In 1926, a hoaxer named Frank Power claimed in the Sunday Referee newspaper that Kitchener's body had been found by a Norwegian fisherman. Power brought a coffin back from Norway and prepared it for burial in St Paul's Cathedral. At this point, however, the authorities intervened and the coffin was opened in the presence of police and a distinguished pathologist. The box was found to contain only tar for weight. There was widespread public outrage at Power, but he was never prosecuted.[115]

Image
FBI file photo of Duquesne

General Erich Ludendorff, Generalquartiermeister and joint head (with von Hindenburg) of Germany's war effort stated in the 1920s that Russian communists working against the Tsar had betrayed the plan to visit the Russians to the German command. His account was that Kitchener was "[killed] because of his ability" as it was feared he would help the tsarist Russian Army to recover.[116]

Frederick Joubert Duquesne, a Boer soldier and spy, claimed that he had assassinated Kitchener after an earlier attempt to kill him in Cape Town failed.[117] He was arrested and court-martialled in Cape Town and sent to the penal colony of Bermuda, but managed to escape to the U.S.[118] MI5 confirmed that Duquesne was "a German intelligence officer ... involved in a series of acts of sabotage against British shipping in South American waters during the [First World] war";[119] he was wanted for: "murder on the high seas, the sinking and burning of British ships, the burning of military stores, warehouses, coaling stations, conspiracy, and the falsification of Admiralty documents."[120]

Duquesne's story was that he returned to Europe, posed as the Russian Duke Boris Zakrevsky in 1916, and joined Kitchener in Scotland.[121] While on board HMS Hampshire with Kitchener, Duquesne signalled a German submarine that then sank the cruiser, and was rescued by the submarine, later being awarded the Iron Cross for his efforts.[121] Duquesne was later apprehended and tried by the authorities in the U.S. for insurance fraud, but managed to escape again.[122]

In the Second World War, he ran a German spy ring in the United States until he was caught by the FBI in what became the biggest roundup of spies in U.S. history: the Duquesne Spy Ring.[123] Coincidentally, Kitchener's brother was to die in office in Bermuda in 1912, and his nephew, Major H.H. Hap Kitchener, who had married a Bermudian,[124][125] purchased (with a legacy left to him by his uncle) Hinson's Island, part of the former Prisoner of War camp from which Duquesne had escaped, after the First World War as the location of his home and business.[126][127][128]

Legacy

Kitchener is officially remembered in a chapel on the north-west corner of St. Paul's Cathedral in London, near the main entrance, where a memorial service was held in his honour.[129]

In Canada, the city of Berlin, Ontario, named in respect to a large German immigrant settler population, was officially renamed Kitchener on 1 September 1916.[130]

Since 1970, the opening of new records has led historians to rehabilitate Kitchener's reputation to some extent. Robin Neillands, for instance, notes that Kitchener consistently rose in ability as he was promoted.[131] Some historians now praise his strategic vision in the First World War, especially his laying the groundwork for the expansion of munitions production and his central role in the raising of the British army in 1914 and 1915, providing a force capable of meeting Britain's continental commitment.[2]

His commanding image, appearing on recruiting posters demanding "Your country needs you!", remains recognised and parodied in popular culture.[132]

Memorials

Image
Kitchener Memorial at Marwick Head on Mainland, Orkney

• As a British soldier who was lost at sea in the First World War and has no known grave, Kitchener is commemorated on the Commonwealth War Graves Commission's Hollybrook Memorial at Southampton, Hampshire.[133]
• Blue plaques have been erected to mark where Kitchener lived in Westminster[134] and at Broome Park near Canterbury.[135]
• The NW chapel of All Souls at St. Paul's Cathedral, London, not normally open to visitors, was rededicated the Kitchener Memorial in 1925.[129] The memorial is however clearly visible from the main entrance lobby. The very dignified recumbent white marble figure was designed by Detmar Blow.[136]
• A month after his death, the Lord Kitchener National Memorial Fund was set up by the Lord Mayor of London to honour his memory. It was used to aid casualties of the war, both practically and financially; following the war's end, the fund was used to enable university educations for soldiers, ex-soldiers, their sons and their daughters, a function it continues to perform today.[137] A Memorial Book of tributes and remembrances from Kitchener's peers, edited by Sir Hedley Le Bas, was printed to benefit the fund.[138]
• The Lord Kitchener Memorial Homes in Chatham, Kent, were built with funds from public subscription following Kitchener's death. A small terrace of cottages, they are used to provide affordable rented accommodation for servicemen and women who have seen active service or their widows and widowers.[139]
• A statue of the Earl mounted on a horse is on Khartoum Road (near Fort Amherst) in Chatham, Kent.[140][141]
• The Kitchener Memorial on Mainland, Orkney, is on the cliff edge at Marwick Head, near the spot where Kitchener died at sea. It is a square, crenelated stone tower and bears the inscription: "This tower was raised by the people of Orkney in memory of Field Marshal Earl Kitchener of Khartoum on that corner of his country which he had served so faithfully nearest to the place where he died on duty. He and his staff perished along with the officers and nearly all the men of HMS Hampshire on 5 June 1916."[142][143]
• In the early 1920s, a road on a new council estate in the Kates Hill area of Dudley, Worcestershire (now West Midlands) was named Kitchener Road in honour of Lord Kitchener.[144]
• The east window of the chancel at St George's Church, Eastergate, West Sussex has stained glass commemorating Kitchener.[145]
• In December 2013, the Royal Mint announced their plans to mint commemorative two-pound coins in 2014 featuring Lord Kitchener's "Call to Arms" on the reverse.[146]
• A memorial cross for Lord Kitchener was unveiled at St Botolph's church in 1916 (near Liverpool Street station), perhaps one of the first memorials of the First World War in England.[147]
• One of the three houses of the Rashtriya Indian Military College, Dehradun, India was named after Lord Kitchener.[148]
• Half-a-dozen local communities inscribed Kitchener's name on to the memorials they were already building to their own dead, alongside the names of ordinary soldiers and sailors who had answered his 1914 appeal for volunteers and would never return.[112]

Debate on Kitchener's sexuality

Some biographers have concluded that Kitchener was a latent or active homosexual. Writers who make the case for his homosexuality include Montgomery Hyde,[149] Ronald Hyam,[150] Denis Judd[151] and Frank Richardson.[152] Philip Magnus hints at homosexuality, though Lady Winifred Renshaw said that Magnus later said "I know I've got the man wrong, too many people have told me so."[153]

The proponents of the case point to Kitchener's friend Captain Oswald Fitzgerald, his "constant and inseparable companion", whom he appointed his aide-de-camp. They remained close until they met a common death on their voyage to Russia.[149] From his time in Egypt in 1892, he gathered around him a cadre of eager young and unmarried officers nicknamed "Kitchener's band of boys". He also avoided interviews with women, took a great deal of interest in the Boy Scout movement, and decorated his rose garden with four pairs of sculptured bronze boys. According to Hyam, "there is no evidence that he ever loved a woman".[150]

George Morrison reports that A E Wearne, the Reuters representative in Peking, remarked in 1909 that Kitchener had the "failing acquired by most of the Egyptian officers, a taste for buggery".[154]

According to A. N. Wilson his interests were not exclusively homosexual. "When the great field marshal stayed in aristocratic houses, the well informed young would ask servants to sleep across their bedroom threshold to impede his entrance. His compulsive objective was sodomy, regardless of their gender."[155]

Honours and decorations

Decorations


Image
Garter-encircled shield of Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener, KG, as displayed on his Order of the Garter stall plate in St. George's Chapel, Windsor Castle.

Image
Duffus Bros, platinum print/NPG P403. Horatio Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener of Khartoum, 1901
Kitchener's decorations included:


British

• Knight of the Order of the Garter (KG) – 3 June 1915[156]
• Knight of the Order of St Patrick (KP) – 19 June 1911[157]
• Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath (GCB) – 15 November 1898[158] (KCB – 17 November 1896;[159] CB – 8 November 1889[160])
• Member of the Order of Merit (OM) – 12 July 1902[58][161]
• Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Star of India (GCSI) – 25 June 1909[162]
• Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George (GCMG) – 29 November 1900[163] (KCMG – 12 February 1894;[164] CMG – 6 August 1886[165])
• Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Indian Empire (GCIE) – 1 January 1908[166]

Foreign

• Order of Osmanieh (Ottoman Empire) first class – 7 December 1896[167] (second class – 30 April 1894;[168] third class – 11 June 1885[169])
• Order of the Medjidie (Ottoman Empire) first class – 18 November 1893[170] (second class – 18 June 1888[171])

Honorary regimental appointments

• Honorary Colonel, Scottish Command Telegraph Companies (Army Troops, Royal Engineers) – 1898[172]
• Honorary Colonel, East Anglian Divisional Engineers, Royal Engineers – 1901[172]
• Honorary Colonel, 5th (Militia) Battalion, Lancashire Fusiliers – 11 June 1902[173]
• Honorary Colonel, 4th, later 6th Battalion, Royal Scots – 1905[172]
• Colonel Commandant, Royal Engineers – 1906[172]
• Honorary Colonel, 3rd (Special Reserve) Battalion, Lancashire Fusiliers – 1908[172]
• Honorary Colonel, 7th Gurkha Rifles – 1908[172]
• Honorary Colonel, 1st County of London Yeomanry – 1910[172]
• Regimental Colonel, Irish Guards – 1914[172]

Honorary degrees and offices

• Freedom of the borough, Southampton, 12 July 1902[58]
• Freedom of the borough, Ipswich, 22 September 1902[174][175]
• Freedom of the City, Sheffield, 30 September 1902.[176]
• Freedom of the borough, Chatham, 4 October 1902[177]
• Honorary Freedom of the City of Liverpool, 11 October 1902[178]
• Honorary Freeman of the Worshipful Company of Fishmongers[179]
• Honorary Freeman of the Worshipful Company of Grocers, 1 August 1902.[180]

See also

• Anglo-Egyptian conquest of Sudan – a reconquest of territory lost by the Khedives of Egypt in 1884 and 1885 during the Mahdist War
• Frances Parker – niece and a New Zealand-born British suffragette
• I Was Lord Kitchener's Valet – a clothing boutique which achieved fame in 1960s "Swinging London"
• Kitchener's Army – an all-volunteer army formed in the United Kingdom from 1914
• Kitchener bun – a type of sweet pastry made and sold in South Australia
• Kitchener, Ontario – Canadian city renamed from Berlin after Kitchener's death
• Scapegoats of the Empire – a book by George Witton
• Statue of the Earl Kitchener, London

References

1. Pakenham 1979, pp. 493–495.
2. "Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. 2004. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/34341.(Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
3. Heathcote 1999, p192
4. "No. 23694". The London Gazette. 6 January 1871. p. 38.
5. "Brother of Kitchener passes in Bermuda". The Atlanta Constitution. 8 March 1912. p. 29.
6. Silberman 1982, pp.121–122
7. Hull 1885, p199-222
8. "No. 24741". The London Gazette. 8 July 1879. p. 4338.
9. Pollock 2001, p54
10. Dorothe Sommer, Freemasonry in the Ottoman Empire, I. B. Tauris, Londra-New-York, 2015, p. 80.
11. "Kitchener of Khartoum: Mason extraordinary". MQ Magazine. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
12. "No. 25184". The London Gazette. 2 January 1883. p. 31.
13. Faught, p. 33
14. Urban p.188.
15. Urban p. 190
16. "No. 25402". The London Gazette. 7 October 1884. p. 4373.
17. "No. 25505". The London Gazette. 25 August 1885. p. 4052.
18. "No. 25527". The London Gazette. 6 November 1885. p. 5080.
19. Heathcote 1999, p193
20. "No. 25806". The London Gazette. 10 April 1888. p. 2070.
21. "No. 25963". The London Gazette. 9 August 1889. p. 4319.
22. Faught, p. 54
23. Reid 2006, p78
24. MacLaren 1978, p11
25. Tuchman 1962, p193
26. Urban p.188-189.
27. Urban, p. 194.
28. Urban, p. 187.
29. "No. 26781". The London Gazette. 29 September 1896. p. 5379.
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31. Urban. p. 188
32. Urban, p. 188.
33. Pigott, p. 79.
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35. Urban p. 190-191
36. Urban p.191-192
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49. "No. 27146". The London Gazette. 22 December 1899. p. 8541.
50. "No. 27282". The London Gazette. 8 February 1901. p. 844.
51. "No. 27256". The London Gazette. 14 December 1900. p. 8459.
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59. "No. 27459". The London Gazette. 29 July 1902. p. 4834.
60. Pakenham 1979, p. 538
61. Bridges, Barry (1987). Lord Kitchener and the Morant-Handcock Executions. Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, 73(1). pp. 24–40.
62. Reid 2006, p108
63. Reid 2006, p116
64. Heathcote 1999, p194
65. Reid 2006, p148-9
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70. John S. Wilson (1959), Scouting Round the World. First edition, Blandford Press. p. 30
71. Faught, p. 189
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75. Terraine 1960, p38
76. Cassar 1985, p. 84
77. Holmes 2004, pp198
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80. Holmes 2004, p231
81. Holmes 2004, pp231-6
82. Holmes 2004, pp231, 234–6
83. Groot 1988, p.178
84. Neillands 2006, p166
85. Neillands 2006, p174
86. Holmes 2004, p293
87. Woodward, 1998, p14, 17
88. Holmes 2004, pp294-5
89. Holmes 2004, pp299-300
90. Liddell Hart 1930, p.197
91. Woodward, 1998, p14
92. Woodward, 1998, p14, 16–17
93. Woodward, 1998, pp113
94. Bonham-Carter 1963, pp131-3
95. Groot 1988, p.212
96. Woodward, 1998, p20
97. Woodward, 1998, p24
98. Groot 1988, p.228
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100. Groot 1988, p.237
101. Burg 2010, p120
102. Berry & Leggitt 2004, p82
103. Faught, p. 239
104. Faught, p. 240
105. Faught, p. 244
106. Royle, Trevor (1985). The Kitchener enigma (History Press 2016 ed.). Michael Joseph. p. 347-353. ISBN 9780750967297.
107. Irvine et al. passim (various pages)
108. Faught, p. 244-245
109. Heathcote 1999, p. 197
110. McGreevy, Ronan (30 November 2007). "An Irishman's Diary on the death of Lord Kitchener, the personification of empire". The Irish Times. Retrieved 14 October 2016.
111. 'At G.H.Q.' by John Charteris (Pub. 1931).
112. Paxman, Jeremy (7 November 2014). "The strange death of Lord Kitchener". Financial Times. Retrieved 15 July 2017.
113. Goldstone 2007, 118. Originally quoted from Vera Weizmann Diaries, 13 July 1916 in her memoirs The Impossible Takes Longer as told to David Tutaev (New York, 1967), page 63.
114. "Who killed Kitchener?". New Zealand Truth. 1923. Retrieved 21 July 2013.
115. "The sinking of HMS Hampshire". Retrieved 21 July 2013.
116. "Foreign News: Lord Kitchener". Time Magazine. 25 May 1925. Retrieved 21 July 2013.
117. Burnham 1944, p293
118. Ronnie, Art (1995). Counterfeit hero : Fritz Duquesne, adventurer and spy. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press. p. 37. ISBN 1-55750-733-3. OCLC 605599179.
119. "Records of the Security Service; 1915 – 1918; KV 2/1953". London, UK: The National Archives. April 2014. Archived from the original on 14 April 2014. Retrieved 31 July 2014.
120. London Daily Mail, 27 May 1919
121. Wood 1931, p1-429
122. "'Paralytic' Flees from Prison Ward; Captain Fritz Duquesne, Who Feigned Helplessness, Escapes from Bellevue". New York Times. 28 May 1919. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 21 July 2013.
123. "The Duquesne spy ring". Famous cases. Federal Bureau of Investigation. 200. Archived from the original on 30 September 2013. Retrieved 21 July 2013.
124. "Cracroft's Peerage: Kitchener of Khartoum and of Broome, Earl (UK, 1914 – 2011) Lt Col Henry Horatio Kitchener, of Cossington, Co. Leicester-Children by first wife: 4. "Lt Gen Sir Frederick Walter Kitchener KCB, Governor and Commander-in-Chief of Bermuda 1908–12; Had issue: 2a. S/Ldr Henry Hamilton Kitchener RAF". Retrieved 24 April 2015.
125. "Personals: Marriage of Captain H.H. Kitchener, RE, and Esther Bluck of Bermuda. £20,000 legacy from uncle. FlightGlobal Archive". Flight magazine. 20 July 1916. Retrieved 24 April 2015.
126. Montgomery-Moore, Major Cecil; Kilduff, Peter (1975). That's My Bloody Plane. The Pequot Press. ISBN 0871060574.
127. Pomeroy, Squadron-Leader Colin A. The Flying Boats Of Bermuda. Print Link Ltd. ISBN 0-9698332-4-5.
128. Partridge, Ewan; Singefield, Tom. Wings Over Bermuda. National Museum of Bermuda Press. ISBN 978-1-927750-32-2.
129. "The Chapels". St Paul's Cathedral. Retrieved 10 October 2014.
130. "June 28, 1916: Exactly 346 people voted for Berlin to be renamed Kitchener". Therecord.com. 27 June 2016. Retrieved 29 January 2017.
131. Neillands 2006, p28
132. "Lord Kitchener "Your country needs you!"". Sterling Times. Retrieved 31 March 2011.
133. "Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener". Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
134. Plaque #590 on Open Plaques.
135. Plaque #3290 on Open Plaques.
136. "Field Marshal Horatio Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener of Khartoum and Broome". Churchmonumentssociety.org. Archived from the original on 24 June 2018. Retrieved 11 June 2017.
137. "The History of the Lord Kitchener National Memorial Fund". The Kitchener Scholars' Association. Retrieved 21 July 2013.
138. Le Bas, Hedley (ed.). The Lord Kitchener Memorial Book. Hodder & Stoughton.
139. "Lord Kitchener Memorial Homes Trust". MHS Homes. Archived from the original on 21 July 2013. Retrieved 21 July 2013.
140. "Statue of Kitchener, Chatham". Geograph. Retrieved 21 July 2013.
141. "Plaque for Kitchener Statue, Chatham". Geograph. Retrieved 21 July 2013.
142. "Kitchener memorial". Scottish Places. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 21 July 2013.
143. "Inscription on the Kitchener Memorial". Geograph. Retrieved 21 July 2013.
144. "How 1920's Dudley honoured Nurse Cavell". Black Country Bugle. 6 January 2005. Archived from the original on 13 May 2012. Retrieved 21 July 2013.
145. Hudson, T. P. (ed) (1997). "A History of the County of Sussex: Volume 5 Part 1 – Arundel Rape (south-western part including Arundel). Eastergate". Victoria County History of Sussex. British History Online. pp. 148–160. Retrieved 21 July 2013.
146. "The first coin in a five-year series – a journey from outbreak to armistice". Royal Mint. Archived from the original on 24 August 2017. Retrieved 31 December 2014.
147. Powell, Jim (8 April 2014). "Your country needs you: Kitchener's memorial cross in 1916 ... and now". The Guardian. Retrieved 9 April 2014.
148. "Rashtriya Indian Military College". Defence Destinations. Retrieved 15 July 2016.
149. Hyde 1972, p161
150. Hyam 1991, p38-39
151. Judd 2011, pp.172–176
152. Richardson 1981, p123
153. "Field Marshal 1st Earl Kitchener of Khartoum". The Kitchener Scholars' Association. Retrieved 21 July 2013.
154. Pearl, Cyril (1967). Morrison of Peking. Sydney, Australia: Angus & Robertson. p. 200. ISBN 978-0207171260.
155. Wilson 2003, p598
156. "No. 29180". The London Gazette (Supplement). 3 June 1911. p. 5325.
157. "Page 626 | Issue 12366, 23 June 1911 | Edinburgh Gazette | The Gazette".
158. "No. 27023". The London Gazette. 15 November 1898. p. 6688.
159. "No. 26795". The London Gazette. 17 November 1896. p. 6271.
160. "No. 25991". The London Gazette. 8 November 1889. p. 5919.
161. "No. 27470". The London Gazette. 2 September 1902. p. 5679.
162. "No. 28263". The London Gazette (Supplement). 25 June 1909. p. 4855.
163. "No. 27306". The London Gazette. 19 April 1901. p. 2698.
164. "No. 26484". The London Gazette. 13 February 1894. p. 912.
165. "No. 25614". The London Gazette. 6 August 1886. p. 3793.
166. "No. 28095". The London Gazette (Supplement). 31 December 1907. p. 1.
167. "No. 26801". The London Gazette. 8 December 1896. p. 7227.
168. "No. 26508". The London Gazette. 1 May 1894. p. 2508.
169. "No. 25479". The London Gazette. 12 June 1885. p. 2681.
170. "No. 26460". The London Gazette. 21 November 1893. p. 6553.
171. "No. 25830". The London Gazette. 19 June 1888. p. 3372.
172. Kelly's Handbook of the Titled, Landed and Official Classes, 1916. Kelly's. p. 874.
173. "No. 27441". The London Gazette. 10 June 1902. p. 3755.
174. "Lord Kitchener at Ipswich". The Times (36880). London. 23 September 1902. p. 5.
175. Earl Kitchener of Khartoum: The Story of His Life by Walter Jerrold, London, 1916
176. "Lord Kitchener at Sheffield". The Times (36887). London. 1 October 1902. p. 9.
177. "Lord Kitchener at Chatham". The Times (36891). London. 6 October 1902. p. 6.
178. "Lord Roberts and Lord Kitchener in Liverpool". The Times (36897). London. 13 October 1902. p. 8.
179. "Lord Roberts and Lord Kitchener in the City". The Times (36893). London. 8 October 1902. p. 4.
180. "Mr Chamberlain and Lord Kitchener in the City". The Times (36836). London. 2 August 1902. p. 10.

Sources

• Ballard, Colin (1930). Kitchener. London: Faber and Faber. ISBN 978-1406737646.
• Victor Bonham-Carter (1963). Soldier True: The Life and Times of Field-Marshal Sir William Robertson. London: Frederick Muller Limited.
• Burg, David (2010). Almanac of World War I. The University Press of Kentucky. ASIN B0078XFMK0.
• Burnham, Frederick Russell (1944). Taking Chances. Los Angeles, California: Haynes Corp. ISBN 1-879356-32-5.
• Cassar, George H. (1985). The Tragedy of Sir John French. University of Delaware Press. ISBN 0-87413-241-X.
• Faught, C. Brad (2016). Kitchener: Hero and Anti-Hero. London and New York, I.B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1784533502.
• Goldstone, Patricia (2007). Aaronsohn's Maps: The Untold Story of the Man Who Might Have Created Peace in the Middle East. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. ISBN 978-0151011698.
• De Groot, Gerard (1988). Douglas Haig 1861–1928. Larkfield, Maidstone: Unwin Hyman. ISBN 978-0044401926.
• Hankey, Lord (1961). The Supreme Command: 1914–1918. George Allen & Unwin. ASIN B006HSKXCE.
• Heathcote, Tony (1999). The British Field Marshals 1736–1997. Barnsley (UK): Pen & Sword. ISBN 0-85052-696-5.
• Holmes, Richard (2004). The Little Field Marshal: A Life of Sir John French. Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 0-297-84614-0.
• Hull, Edward (1885). Mount Seir, Sinai and Western Palestine. Richard Bentley and sons. ISBN 978-1402189852.
• Hunter, Archie (1996). Kitchener's Sword-arm: Life and Campaigns of General Sir Archibald Hunter. Spellmount Publishers. ISBN 978-1873376546.
• Hyam, Ronald (1991). Empire and Sexuality: British Experience. Manchester University Press. ISBN 978-0719025051.
• Hyde, Montgomery (1972). The Other Love: An Historical and Contemporary Survey of Homosexuality in Britain. London: Mayflower Books Ltd. ISBN 978-0434359028.
• Irvine, James (2016). HMS Hampshire: a Century of Myths and Mysteries Unravelled, Irvine, Budge, Callister, Grieve, Heath, Hollinrake, Johnson, Kermode, Lowrey, Muir, Turton and Wade. Orkney Heritage Society. ISBN 978-0953594573.
• Judd, Denis (2011). Empire: The British Imperial Experience from 1765 to the Present. I B Tauris Academic. ISBN 978-1848859951.
• Korieh, Chima J.; Njoku, Raphael Chijioke (2007). Missions, States, and European Expansion in Africa. Routledge. ISBN 978-0415955591.
• Liddell Hart, Basil (1930). A History of the World War. Faber & Faber. ISBN 0-333-58261-6.
• MacLaren, Roy (1978). Canadians on the Nile, 1882–1898: Being the Adventures of the Voyageurs on the Khartoum Relief Expedition and Other Exploits. University of British Columbia Press. ISBN 978-0774800945.
• Magnus, Philip (1958). Kitchener: Portrait of an Imperialist. New York: E.P. Dutton. ASIN B0007IWHCY.
• Massie, Robert (2012). Dreadnought: Britain, Germany, and the Coming of the Great War. New York:Random House. ISBN 9780307819932.
• Neillands, Robin (2006). The Death of Glory: the Western Front 1915. London: John Murray. ISBN 978-0-7195-6245-7.
• Pakenham, Thomas (1979). The Boer War. Jonathan Ball Publishers. ISBN 978-0868500461.
• Pigott, Peter (2009). Canada In Sudan War Without Borders. Toronto: Dundurn Press. ISBN 978-1-55002-849-2.
• Pollock, John (2001). Kitchener: Architect of Victory, Artisan of Peace. Carroll & Graf Publishers. ISBN 0-7867-0829-8.
• Reid, Walter (2006). Architect of Victory: Douglas Haig. Birlinn Ltd, Edinburgh. ISBN 1-84158-517-3.
• Richardson, Major-General Frank M. (1981). Mars Without Venus. Imprint unknown. ISBN 978-0851581484.
• Silberman, Neil Asher (1982). Digging for God and Country: Exploration, Archaeology and the Secret Struggle for the Holy Land 1799–1917. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 0-394-51139-5.
• Terraine, John (1960). Mons, The Retreat to Victory. Wordsworth Military Library, London. ISBN 1-84022-240-9.
• Tuchman, Barbara (1962). August 1914. Constable & Co. ISBN 978-0-333-30516-4.
• Urban, Mark (2005). Generals: Ten British Generals Who Changed the World. London: Faber & Feber. ISBN 978-0571224876.
• Wilson, A. N. (2003). The Victorians. Arrow Books. ISBN 978-0099451860.
• Wood, Clement (1932). The man who killed Kitchener; the life of Fritz Joubert Duquesne. New York: William Faro, inc. ASIN B0006ALPOO.
• Woodward, David R. (1998). Field Marshal Sir William Robertson. Westport Connecticut & London: Praeger. ISBN 0-275-95422-6.

Further reading

• Arthur, Sir George (1920). Life of Lord Kitchener. Macmillan. ISBN 978-1616405656.
• Cassar, George H. (1977). Kitchener: Architect of Victory. London: Kimber. ISBN 978-0718303358.
• Conder, C. R.; Kitchener, H. H. (1881–1885). E. H. Palmer; W. Besant (eds.). Survey of Western Palestine: Memoirs of Topography, Orography, Hydrography and Archaeology (3 vols). London: Palestine Exploration Fund. OCLC 1894216.
• Fortescue, Sir John William (1931). Kitchener in Following the Drum. Edinburgh: Blackwood & Sons. pp. 185–250. ASIN B000X9RY9S.
• Germains, Victor Wallace (1925). The Truth about Kitchener. John Lane/Bodley Head. ASIN B000XBC3W4.
• Hodson, Yolande (1997). Kitchener, Horatio Herbert In The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East Ed. Eric M. Meyers. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 300–301. ISBN 0-19-511217-2.
• Hutchison, G.S. (1943). Kitchener: The Man; With a foreword by Field Marshal Lord Birdwood. No imprint.
• King, Peter (1986). The Viceroy's Fall: How Kitchener Destroyed Curzon. Sidgwick & Jackson. ISBN 0-283-99313-8.
• McCormick, Donald (1959). The Mystery of Lord Kitchener's Death. Putnam. ASIN B0000CK9BU.
• Royle, Trevor (1985). The Kitchener Enigma. M. Joseph. ISBN 978-0718123857.
• Simkins, Peter (1988). Kitchener's Army. Pen & Sword. ISBN 978-1844155859.
• Warner, Philip (2006). Kitchener: The Man Behind the Legend. New Ed edition. Cassell. ISBN 0-304-36720-6.

External links

• Works by or about Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener at Internet Archive
• Works by Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
• Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by the Earl Kitchener
• Kitchener Scholars' Fund
• The Melik Society
• National Portrait Gallery 112 portraits
• Lord Kitchener at Project Gutenberg A short biography written in 1917 by G. K. Chesterton
• Lord Kitchener: Active Soldier, Active Freemason
• Newspaper clippings about Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener in the 20th Century Press Archives of the ZBW
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

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Order of the Rising Sun
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 9/30/19

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Image
Order of the Rising Sun
Grand Cordon badge and sash
Awarded by the Emperor of Japan
Type Order
Awarded for long and/or especially meritorious civil or military service
Status Currently constituted
Sovereign His Imperial Majesty The Emperor
Grades 1st through 8th Class (1875–2003)
Since 2003:
Grand Cordon
Gold and Silver Star (Rays, Principal Grade)
Gold Rays with Neck Ribbon (Cordon, Middle Grade)
Gold Rays with Rosette (Cordon, Junior Grade)
Gold and Silver Rays (Double Rays)
Silver Rays (Single Ray)
Precedence
Next (higher) Order of the Paulownia Flowers
Next (lower) Order of the Sacred Treasure

http://rapeutation.com/aorderrissunwik.1b.png
US Navy Admiral Dennis C. Blair being presented the badge and sash of the order (2005).

The Order of the Rising Sun (旭日章 Kyokujitsu-shō) is a Japanese order, established in 1875 by Emperor Meiji. The Order was the first national decoration awarded by the Japanese government,[1] created on 10 April 1875 by decree of the Council of State.[2] The badge features rays of sunlight from the rising sun. The design of the Rising Sun symbolizes energy as powerful as the rising sun[3] in parallel with the "rising sun" concept of Japan ("Land of the Rising Sun").

The order is awarded to those who have made distinguished achievements in international relations, promotion of Japanese culture, advancements in their field, development in welfare or preservation of the environment.[4] Prior to the end of World War II, it was also awarded for exemplary military service. Beginning in 2003, the two lowest rankings (7th and 8th classes) for the Order of the Rising Sun were abolished, with the highest degree becoming a separate order known as the Order of the Paulownia Flowers, with the single rank of Grand Cordon.[5]

While it is the third highest order bestowed by the Japanese government, it is however generally the highest ordinarily conferred order. The highest Japanese order, the Order of the Chrysanthemum, is reserved for heads of state or royalty, while the second highest order, the Order of the Paulownia Flowers, is mostly reserved for politicians.

The modern version of this honour has been conferred on non-Japanese recipients beginning in 1981 (although several foreigners were given the honor before World War II); and women were awarded the Order starting in 2003 (previously, women were awarded the Order of the Precious Crown).[6] The awarding of the Order is administered by the Decoration Bureau of the Cabinet Office headed by the Japanese Prime Minister. It is awarded in the name of the Emperor and can be awarded posthumously.

Classes

The Order was awarded in nine classes until 2003, when the Grand Cordon with Paulownia Flowers was made a separate order, and the lowest two classes were abolished. Since then, it has been awarded in six classes. Conventionally, a diploma is prepared to accompany the insignia of the order, and in some rare instances, the personal signature of the Emperor will have been added. As an illustration of the wording of the text, a translation of a representative 1929 diploma says:

By the grace of Heaven, Emperor of Japan, seated on the throne occupied by the same dynasty from time immemorial,

We confer the Second Class of the Imperial Order of Meiji upon Henry Waters Taft, a citizen of the United States of America and a director of the Japan Society of New York, and invest him with the insignia of the same class of the Order of the Double Rays of the Rising Sun, in expression of the good will which we entertain towards him.

In witness whereof, we have hereunto set our hand and caused the Grand Seal of State to be affixed at the Imperial Palace, Tokyo, this thirteenth day of the fifth month of the fourth year of Shōwa, corresponding to the 2,589th year from the accession to the throne of Emperor Jimmu."[7]


Insignia

The star for the Grand Cordon and Second Class is a silver star of eight points, each point having three alternating silver rays; the central emblem is identical to the badge. It is worn on the left chest for the Grand Cordon, on the right chest for the 2nd Class.

The badge for the Grand Cordon to Sixth Classes is an eight-pointed badge bearing a central red enamelled sun disc, with gilt points (1st–4th Classes), with four gilt and four silver points (5th Class), or with silver points (6th Class); each point comprises three white enamelled rays. It is suspended from three enamelled paulownia leaves (not chrysanthemum leaves as the Decoration Bureau page claims) on a ribbon in white with red border stripes, worn as a sash from the right shoulder for the Grand Cordon, as a necklet for the 2nd and 3rd Classes and on the left chest for the 4th to 6th Classes (with a rosette for the 4th Class).

The badge for the Seventh and Eighth Classes consisted of a silver medal in the shape of three paulownia leaves, enamelled for the 7th Class and plain for the 8th Class. Both were suspended on a ribbon, again in white with red border stripes, and worn on the left chest. Both classes were abolished in 2003 and replaced by the Order of the Paulownia Flowers, a single-class order that now ranks above the Order of the Rising Sun.

Notable recipients

1st Class, Grand Cordon


• V. Krishnamurthy, 2009
• Ashwani Kumar, 2017
• Rear Admiral Ali Osman Pasha, 1890
• Sultan Ibrahim (1873–1959), 1934
• Edmund Allenby, 1921[8]
• Thamir Ghadhban, 2016[9]
• Karu Jayasuriya, 2016
• James F. Amos, 2014[10]
• Michael Armacost, 2007[11]
• Richard Armitage, 2015
• Pridi Banomyong (1900–1983)[12]
• Mahathir Mohamad, 1991
• Arthur Barrett, 1921[13]
• Edmund Barton (1849–1920), 1905[14]
• Carol Bellamy, 2006[15]
• Felix von Bendemann, 1906[16]
• Abdelmalek Benhabyles, 2012.[17]
• Charles Reed Bishop (1822–1915)[18]
• Sepp Blatter, 2009[19][20]
• Gustave Emile Boissonade (1825–1910), 1909
• Sydney Brenner (1927–), 2017[21]
• Laurens Jan Brinkhorst, 2009[20][22]
• Arleigh Burke (1901–1996)[23]
• Erwin Bälz (1849–1913), 1905
• George W. Casey Jr. 2010[24]
• Krasae Chanawongse, 2004[25]
• Dick Cheney, 2018
• Helen Clark, 2017[26]
• James Wheeler Davidson (1872–1933), 1896
• Kemal Derviş, 2009[27][28]
• Malcolm Fraser, 2006[3]
• Jerome Isaac Friedman, 2016
• Sir Stephen Gomersall KCMG, 2015[29]
• Hermann Göring (1893–1946)
• António Guterres, 2002[30]
• Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX (1912–1988)
• John Hamre, 2016
• Kenzaburo Hara (1907–2004)
• Harry B. Harris Jr., 2018
• Dennis Hastert, 2010[31]
• Bob Hawke, 2012[32]
• Soichiro Honda, 1991
• John Howard, 2013[33]
• Masaru Ibuka (1908–1997)[34]
• Daniel Inouye, 2000[35]
• Henry Jackson (1855–1929)[36]
• S. Jayakumar, 2012[37]
• Karu Jayasuriya (1940–), 2016
• Anerood Jugnauth, 1988[38]
• Henk Kamp, 2014[39]
• Ginandjar Kartasasmita, 2008[40]
• Bert Koenders, 2014[39]
• Jorge Kosmas Sifaki 2014
• Sir John Kotelawala (4 April 1895 – 2 October 1980), 1954
• Komura Jutarō (1855–1911)[41]
• Lee Hsien Loong (1952–), 2016[42]
• Abhakara Kiartivongse[43]
• Lee Kuan Yew (1923–2015), 1967[44]
• Curtis LeMay (1906–1990) 1964[45]
• Wangari Maathai, 2009[20][46]
• Douglas MacArthur (1880–1964)[47]
• Sir John Major, 2012
• John McCain, 2018[48]
• John McEwen, 1973[49]
• Franz-Michael Skjold Mellbin, 2011
• Robert Menzies (1894–1978), 1973[50]
• Norman Yoshio Mineta (1931–), 2007[51]
• Amina C. Mohamed, 2017 [52]
• Ernest Moniz, 2017[53]
• Ivan Mrkić, 2018[54]
• Hendrik Pieter Nicolaas Muller (1859–1941)
• A. M. Nair, alias "Nair-San"
• Peter Pace, 2007[55]
• Andrew Peacock, 2017[56]
• Nancy Pelosi, 2015
• William Perry, 2002[57]
• Herbert Plumer (1857–1932)
• Józef Piłsudski, 1928[58]
• Plaek Phibunsongkhram, 1942
• Edward A. Rice Jr.[59]
• Donald Rumsfeld, 2015
• Eishiro Saito, in 1992[60]
• Klaus Schwab, 2013
• Abid Sharifov, 2016
• Shoichiro Toyoda, 2002[61]
• Chea Sim, 2013[62]
• Dr. Manmohan Singh, 2014[63]
• Edward Śmigły-Rydz, (1886–1941)[64]
• Takeshita Isamu (1869–1949), 1920
• Strobe Talbott, 2016
• Her Majesty Queen Te Atairangikaahu of New Zealand (1931–2006), 1970
• John Anthony Cecil Tilley (1869–1952)[65]
• Tokugawa Yoshinobu (1837–1913), 1908[66]
• Goh Chok Tong, 2011[67]
• Gough Whitlam, 2006[3]
• Sir John Whitehead GCMG CVO, (1932–2013), 2006[68]
• Cesar Virata, 2016
• Tengku Ahmad Rithauddeen, 2018[69]
• Võ Hồng Phúc, 2012[70]
• Wataru Kubo, 2001[71]
• Jay Rockefeller, 2013[72]
• Robert Gates, 2017 [73]
• Condoleezza Rice, 2017[74]
• Sir John Tilley (diplomat) (1869-1952), 1927 & 1928[75]

2nd Class, Gold and Silver Star

• Mohammad Hossein Adeli, 2014[76]
• Momofuku Ando (1910–2007), 2002[77]
• Jagdish Bhagwati, 2006[78]
• Arden L. Bement, Jr., 2009[20][22]
• Henryka Bochniarz, 2010[79]
• Louis Bols (1867–1930), 1921[8]
• Gustave Emile Boissonade (1825–1910), 1876[80]
• Donald Prentice Booth (1902–1993), 1961[81][82]
• Georges Hilaire Bousquet (1846–1937), 1898[83]
• Jules Brunet (1838–1911)
• Horace Capron (1804–1885), 1884[84]
• Chang Yung-fa, 2012[85]
• Rita R. Colwell, 2005[86]
• William Douglas Crowder, 2008[87]
• Gerald Curtis, 2005[88]
• Marzuki Darusman, 2017[89][90]
• Sir Joseph Dimsdale (1849–1902), 1902[91]
• Kiin Donarudo, 1993[92]
• Hugh Elles (1880–1945)[93]
• Bill Frenzel, 2000[77][94]
• Thamir Ghadhban, 2016[9]
• Thomas Blake Glover (1838–1911), 1908[95]
• William Reginald Hall (1870–1943)[36]
• Lionel Halsey (1872–1946)[36]
• Michael Kirby, 2017[89][90][96]
• Michał Kleiber, 2012[97]
• David C. Knapp, (1927–2010)[98]
• Tommy Koh, 2009[99]
• Jeffrey Koo, 2012[85]
• George Trumbull Ladd (1842–1921)[100]
• Cecil Lambert (1864–1928)[36]
• Tsung-Dao Lee 2007[101]
• Charles LeGendre (1830–1899), 1874[102]
• Lilia B. de Lima, 2006[103]
• Predrag Filipov, 2019[104]
• William Flynn Martin, 2018[105]
• Connie Morella (1931–), 2016[106]
• Riccardo Muti, 2016[107]
• Thottuvelil Krishna Pillai Ayappan Nair 2015
• Hideyo Noguchi (1876–1928), 1928[108]
• George R. Packard 2007[109]
• Jerzy Pomianowski[110]
• Randles, Sir John Scurrah, 1875-1945
• Chintamani Nagesa Ramachandra Rao, 2015[111]
• Rein Raud, 2011[112]
• Johannis de Rijke (1842–1913)[113]
• Wilbur L. Ross (1937–), 2015[114]
• Vsevolod Rudnev (1855–1913), 1907[115]
• Jacob Schiff (1847–1920), 1907[116]
• William Francis Sempill (1893–1965)[117][118]
• N. K. Singh (2016)[119]
• Jouko Skinnari, 2011[120]
• E. Sreedharan (1932–), 2013[121]
• Wendell M. Stanley (1904–1971), 1966[122]
• Michael Ira Sovern 2003[123]
• Sayidiman Suryohadiprojo [id], 2012[124]
• Washington SyCip, 2017[125]
• Henry W. Taft (1859–1945), 1929[7]
• Frederick Charles Tudor Tudor (1863–1946)[36]
• Charles Vaughan-Lee (1867–1928)[36]
• John Waldron (1909–1975) 1971[126]
• Bryon Wilfert, 2011[127]
• Ernst-Ludwig Winnacker, 2009[20]
• Richard J. Wood, 2010[128]
• Philip Yeo, 2007[129]
• Jaime Zóbel de Ayala, 2018[130]
• José Manuel Entrecanales [es], 2018[131]
• indian foreign diplomat shyam saran (2019)

3rd Class, Gold Rays with Neck Ribbon

• James Curtis Hepburn (1815–1911)[132]
• Gustave Eiffel (1832–1923)
• José Luis Ceacero Inguanzo, 1886
• George Trumbull Ladd (1842–1921)[133]
• John Charles Hoad (1856–1911), 1906[134]
• Kanō Jigorō (1860–1938)[135]
• Otto Hermann Kahn (1867–1934)[136]
• John Milne (1850–1913)[137][138]
• Percival Hall-Thompson (1874—1950)[139]
• Miles Wedderburn Lampson (1880–1964)[140]
• William Elliot Griffis (1843–1928), 1926[141]
• David Bowman Schneder, 1936[142]
• T. Wayland Vaughan (1870–1952), 1940[143]
• István Ujszászy (1894–1948), 1942[144]
• Edmund Blunden (1896–1974), 1963
• Kyuzo Mifune (1883–1965), 1964[145]
• Ichimatsu Tanaka (1895–1983), 1967
• Shinichi Suzuki (1898–1998), circa 1970[146]
• Yanosuke Hirai (1902–1986), 1972
• Jiro Horikoshi (1903–1982), 1973[147]
• Edward Seidensticker, 1975[148]
• Taiichi Ohno, 1982[149]
• Mahdi Elmandjra, 1986[150][circular reference]
• Go Seigen aka Wu Qing Yuan (1914–2014), 1987[151]
• Norman Macrae (1923–2010), 1988[152]
• Earl Miner (1926–2004)[153]
• Joseph K.H. Uy, 1991.[154]
• Ian Nish, 1991[155]
• Andrzej Wajda, 1995[156]
• Edwin McClellan (1925–2009), 1998[157]
• Pyle, Kenneth B. 1999[158][159]
• Peter Drysdale, 2001[160]
• Rustum Roy, 2002[161]
• Susumu Honjo, 2003[162]
• John Howes, (1924–2017), 2003[163]
• Harue Kitamura, 2004[164]
• Robert Garfias, 2005[165]
• Judit Hidasi, 2005[166]
• Kirsti Koch Christensen, 2006[167]
• Willy Vande Walle, 2006[168]
• Jacob Raz, 2006[169]
• Stanisław Filipek, 2006[170]
• Carol Gluck, 2006[171]
• Jochem P. Hanse, 2007[172]
• Patrick Lennox Tierney, 2007[173]
• Charles Wolf, Jr, 2007[174]
• Kusuma Karunaratne[175]
• David Rowe-Beddoe, Baron Rowe-Beddoe, 2008[176]
• Edward Gage Nelson, 2008[177]
• Jerzy Nowacki, 2008[178]
• Emiko "Emily" Sano, 2008[179][180][181]
• Susan Pharr, 2008[182]
• John Powles, 2008[183][184]
• Royall Tyler, 2008[181]
• Setsuko Matsunaga Nishi, 2009[20][185]
• James E. Auer, 2009[186]
• Clint Eastwood, 2009[20][187]
• Edwin Cranston, 2009[20][188]
• Umberto Pineschi, 2009[20][189]
• R.J. Zwi Werblowsky, 2009[190]
• David Russell, 2010[191]
• John O'Conor, 2011[192]
• Ben Nighthorse Campbell, 2011[193]
• Albert Diamond Cohen, 2011[127]
• Jack Fujimoto, 2011[194]
• Kuo-Hsiung Lee, 2011[195]
• Lydia Yu-Jose, 2012[196]
• Muhammad Nurul Islam (b. 1943) (2012)
• Romuald Huszcza, 2012[197]
• Stephen Ira Katz, 2012[198]
• Ivan Bondarenko, 2012[199]
• William Forbes-Sempill, 19th Lord Sempill[200]
• George Tanabe, Jr., 2013[201]
• Richard Bowring, 2013[202]
• Matthew H. Molloy, 2013[202][203]
• Rust Macpherson Deming, 2013[204]
• Kent E. Calder, 2014[205]
• Michael Donnelly, 2014[206]
• Carlos Rubio López de la Llave, 2014.[207]
• Dr. Nghiem Vu Khai, 2014.[208]
• Craig Agena, 2014[209]
• Peter O'Malley, 2015[210]
• Keiichi Ishizaka, 2015[211]
• Dennis M. Ogawa, 2016[212]
• Paul Magnette, 2016
• Yves Leterme, 2016
• Rudy Demotte, 2016
• Rudi Vervoort, 2016
• Raaj Kumar Sah, 2017[213][214][215]
• Paul Watanabe, 2017[216][217]
• Dr. Susumu Nisizaki, 2018[218]
• John Mark Ramseyer, 2018[219]
• Ronald P. Dore[220]
• Tan Sri Dr. Ahmad Tajuddin Ali[citation needed]
• Sadia Rashid, 2019[221]
• Robert Huey, 2019[222]

4th Class, Gold Rays with Rosette

• Charles Von Loewenfeldt, 1987[223]
• Kenji Ekuan, 2000[224]
• Toshiko Akiyoshi, 2004[225]
• Boris Akunin, 2009[226]
• Martha Argerich, 2005[227]
• Andrej Bekeš, 2008[228]
• Henry Pike Bowie, 1909[229]
• James R. Brandon, 1994[230]
• William Penn Brooks, 1888[231]
• David Cope, 2012
• Willard G. Clark (1930–2015), 1991[232]
• Bogna Barbara Dziechciaruk-Maj, 2009[233]
• William Elliot Griffis, 1843–1928[141]
• Glen Gondo, 2013.[234]
• Steven Heine, 2007[235]
• Asao Hirano, 2001[236]
• William Imbrie, 1909[237]
• Randall Sidney Jones, 2015[238]
• Rena Kanokogi, 2008[239]
• Kihachirō Kawamoto, 1995[240]
• Keisuke Kinoshita (1912–1998), 1984[241]
• Włodzimierz Kwieciński, 2012[242]
• Tommy Lasorda, 2008[243]
• Alfred Majewicz, 2002[244]
• Leiji Matsumoto, 2010[245]
• Hazel McCallion, 2014[246]
• Frank A. Miller, 1929[247]
• Shiro Floyd Mori, 2012[248]
• Kent Nagano, 2008[249]
• Hideyo Noguchi (1876–1928), 1915[250]
• David Bowman Schneder, 1917[251]
• Krystyna Okazaki, 2007[11]
• Takao Saito, 2010[252]
• Frederik L. Schodt, 2009[20][253]
• Dr. Manmohan Singh, 2007[254]
• George Shima, 1864–1926[255]
• Tatsuzo Shimaoka (1919–2007), 1999[256]
• Joseph Bower Siddall (1840–1904) 1909[257]
• George Takei, 2004[258]
• Mohammad Hatta (1902–1980) 1943
• Masanobu Tsuji (1902–1961), 1942[259]
• Morihei Ueshiba (1883–1969) 1964[260]
• H. Paul Varley, 1966[261]
• Teruaki Yamagishi, 2008[262]
• Sadao Watanabe, 2005[263]
• Sukarno ( 1901–1970) 1943
• Reiko Hayama [fr] ( 1933–....) 2011
• George Kerr (judoka), 2010[264]
• Charles B. Doleac, Esq., 2011[265]
• Arvydas Ališauskas, 2012[266]
• Rokusaburo Michiba, 2007[267]
• Bobby Charlton, 2012[268]
• The Ventures, 2010[269]
• Dragan Stojković, 2015[270]
• William Scott Wilson, 2015[271]
• Daniel Ost, 2015[272]
• Ferran Adrià. 2015[273]
• Hank Aaron, 2016[274]
• Ivica Osim, 2016[275]
• Masaya Nakamura (1925–2017), 2007[276]
• Myint Wai, 2014[277]
• Dr Aung Kyaw, 2014[277]
• Stephen McEnally, 2017[277]
• Charles Aznavour, 2018
• Kenneth Oye, 2018[278]
• Kenneth H. DeHoff,[279] 2018[280]
• Edwina Palmer, 2018[281]
• Ted Goossen 2018[282]
• David Hughes, 2018[283]
• Raymond S. Uno, 2014[284]
• Carlos Aquino, 2019[285]
• Liao I-chiu (2014)[286]

5th Class, Gold and Silver Rays

• Vincenzo Ragusa (1841–1927), 1884
• George Geddie (1869–1961), 1907[287]
• Rudolf Teusler (1876–1934)[288]
• Kowalewski, Jan (1892–1965), 1923[289]
• Major Douglas Estment Randall, MC (1891–1926), 1925[290][291]
• Kenzo Mori (1914–2007)[292]
• Hironori Ōtsuka (1892–1982), 1966[293]
• Steere Noda, 1968[294]
• Kiyoshi Nishiyama (1893–1983), 1977[295]
• Shōshin Nagamine (1907–1997)
• Yoshizawa, Akira (1911–2005), 1983[296]
• James Takemori (1926–2015), 2004[297]
• Dato' Sri Lee Ee Hoe, 2005[298]
• Shūgorō Nakazato, 2007
• Major Philip Malins MBE MC, 2010[299]
• Ronald Stewart Watt, 2010[269]
• Frances Hashimoto, 2012[300]
• Maki Hiroyuki Miyahara, 2011[301]
• Soleiman Mehdizadeh, 2012[302]
• Jun Noguchi, 2011[303]
• Seiichi Tanaka, 2013[304]
• Low Thian Seng, 2015[305]
• Robert Tadashi Banno, Q.C., 2016[306]
• Mary-Grace Browning, MBE, 2016[307]
• Tom Curtin, 2016[308]
• Vytautas Dumčius, 2016[309]
• Istvan Pinczès, 2016[310]
• Suki Terada Ports, 2016[311]
• Heidi Potter, 2016[277]
• Garrett Serikawa (1932-2019), 2016[312]
• Jalil Sultanov, 2016, director of the Museum of Japanese Internees in Tashkent, Uzbekistan[313][314]
• Marvin Tokayer, 2016[315]
• Dick Beyer, 2017
• Toshihiro Hamano, 2017[316]
• Doreen Simmons, 2017[317]
• Donald A. Wood, 2017[318]
• James F. Hettinger, 2018[319]
• Elise Wessels, 2019[320]

6th Class, Silver Rays

• Henry Hajimu Fujii (1886–1976), 1971[321]
• Bolesław Orliński, 1926[170]
• Fudeko Reekie, 2013[322]
• John Wilson (Captain) (1851–1899), 1895

7th Class, Green Paulownia Leaves Medal

In 2003, the 7th and 8th levels – named for leaves of the Paulownia tree, long used as a mon (emblem) for the highest levels of Japanese society – were moved to a new and distinct order, the single-class Order of the Paulownia Flowers.[5]

• Tetsuzō Iwamoto 1942
• Leonard Kubiak 1926[323]

8th Class, White Paulownia Leaves Medal

In 2003, the 7th and 8th levels – named for leaves of the Paulownia tree, long used as a mon (emblem) for the highest levels of Japanese society – were moved to a new and distinct order, the single-class Order of the Paulownia Flowers.[5]

Class unknown

• Aung, San (1915–1947)[77]
• Beneš, Edvard (1884–1948), 1928
• Ralph T. Browning (1941–2018)[324]
• Burzagli, Ernesto (1873–1944), 1906[325]
• Craig, Albert M. (1988)[326]
• de Bary, William Theodore (1993)[327]
• Eichelberger, Robert Lawrence (1886–1961)[328]
• Ellis, Alfred John (b. 1915), 1989[329]
• Fortescue, Granville Roland (1875–1952)[330]
• Gibney, Frank B. (1976)[331]
• Józef Gieysztor[332]
• Grondijs, Louis (1878–1961)
• Hosoya, Judayu (1840–1907)
• Ibrahim, Sultan of Johor (1873–1959)
• Knott, Cargill G. (1856–1922), 1891[333]
• Wiesław Kotański, 1986[334]
• Kunz, George Frederick (1856–1932)
• Charles, Count of Limburg Stirum (1906–1989)
• Henryk Lipszyc, 1992[335]
• Macrae, Norman, 1988Macrae, Norman (1999). John Von Neumann: The Scientific Genius who Pioneered the Modern Computer, Game Theory, Nuclear Deterrence, and Much More. American Mathematical Society. p. 406. ISBN 978-0-8218-2676-8.</ref>
• McKenzie, Lionel W. (1995)
• Morrison, George F. (1867–1943)
• Musa Ghiatuddin Riayat Shah, Sultan of Selangor (1893–1955)
• Ozaki Yukio (1858–1954)[336]
• Paine, Godfrey (1871–1932), 1918[337]
• Patrick, Hugh Talbot 1994[338]
• Raymond, Rossiter W. (1840–1918)
• Takamine Hideo (1854–1910)
• Tokuda, Kip (1946–2013), 2012[339]
• Tsutakawa, George (1910–1997), 1874
• Wasson, James R. (1847–1923), 1874[340]
• Franciszek Ziejka [pl][341]
• Ivan Ivanovich Zarubin (1822–1902), 1881[342]
admin
Site Admin
 
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Mon Sep 30, 2019 9:59 am

Part 2 of 2

See also

• Order of Civil Merit (Korea)
• Order of Chula Chom Klao and Order of the White Elephant (Thailand)
• Order of St. Michael and St. George (UK)
• Legion of Honour (France)
• Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany (Grand Merit Cross, Merit Cross and Merit Medal equivalents)
• Order "For Merit to the Fatherland" (Russia)
• Order of Isabella the Catholic (Spain)
• Order of Merit of the Italian Republic
• Decoration of Honour for Services to the Republic of Austria (Grand Decoration in Gold with Sash, in Gold with Star, in Gold, Grand Decoration of Honour, Decoration of Honour in Gold, Decoration of Merit in Gold)
• Order of Prince Henry (Portugal)

Notes

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6. "Weatherhead East Asian Institute web site - Carol Gluck". Columbia University. 1 May 2006. Retrieved 5 November 2011.
7. Honor awarded 1929: "Japanese Emperor Honors H.W. Taft; Consul-General Gives Insignia for Fostering International Friendship. Diploma Also Presented; Brother of Chief Justice Receives Order of Rising Sun at Exercises Here," New York Times, 28 June 1929.
8. "No. 32201". The London Gazette (Supplement). 18 January 1921. p. 572.
9. http://www.iraq.emb-japan.go.jp/Press_R ... 60429e.pdf
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12. aka Luang Pradist ManudharmPridi Banomyong (1974). Ma vie mouvementee et mes 21 ans d'exil en Chine populaire (in French). UNESCON.
13. "No. 32428". The London Gazette (Supplement). 19 August 1921. p. 6569.London Gazette issue 32428, 19 August 1921
14. Rutledge, Martha. (1979). "Barton, Sir Edmund (1849–1920)," Australian Dictionary of Biography,Volume 7, pp 194–200; Scaramouche. "Sir Edmund Barton" Archived 20 July 2008 at the Wayback Machine
15. Nagashima-Hayashi, Michiko. "Former UNICEF Executive Director receives humanitarian award in Japan," UNICEF web site (2006)
16. British Library. "Handlist of Japanese Manuscripts Acquired Since 1984," 'Or. 14819 Certificate conferring Order of the Rising Sun on Admiral von Bendemann,' p. 3.
17. "Ambassade du Japon en Algerie". www.dz.emb-japan.go.jp.
18. "First Hawaiian Bank Annual Report, page 15 "Bishop is later awarded the Grand Cordon of the Imperial First Order of the Rising Sun by Japanese Emperor Meiji"" (PDF). www.bancwestcorp.com.
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43. พระราชทานเหรียญดุษฎีมาลา, เล่ม ๑๗,ตอน ๑๘, ๒๙ กรกฎาคม พ.ศ. ๒๔๔๓, หน้า ๒๑๔
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127. "Media Advisory: Government of Japan to Bestow Honour on Three Canadians". Japanese Embassy. 17 June 2011. Retrieved 5 November 2011.
128. Honor awarded 2010 "Richard J. Wood - About | Earlham College"
129. Honor awarded 2007: Embassy of Japan in Singapore: "Conferment Ceremony for Mr. Philip Yeo, Chairman of SPRING Singapore."
130. "Japanese gov't honors Jaime Zobel de Ayala". ABS-CBN News. 2 May 2018. Retrieved 4 May2018.
131. Japan’s Order of the Rising Sun 2018 "José Manuel Entrecanales receives Japan’s Order of the Rising Sun"
132. "Japanese Order for Missionary" (PDF). New York Times. 15 March 1905. p. 13. Retrieved 25 July2009.
133. "American Honored by the Japanese," The New York Times. 22 October 1899.
134. Honor awarded 1906: Perry, Warren. (1983). "Hoad, Sir John Charles (1856–1911)" in Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 9.
135. NNDB: Order of the Rising Sun; Kosho Kempo, Kano Jigoro Archived 13 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine
136. Mortimer H. Schiff and Otto H. Kahn of Kuhn, Loeb & Co., New York, are among the American hankers who have been awarded decorations by the Emperor of Japan. Mr. Schiff was awarded the second class order of the Sacred Treasure and Mr. Kahn, Third Class Order of the Rising Sunhttps://www.jta.org/1927/10/09/archi ... government (retrieved 26 October 2017)
137. L.K. Herbert-Gustar and P.A. Nott published a biography of Milne John Milne, Father of Modern Seismology in 1980 pp 120 ISBN 0-904404-34-X
138. Paul Kabrna "John Milne - the Man who Mapped the Shaking Earth" ISBN 978-0-9555289-0-3Published by Craven & Pendle Geological Society in March 2007.pp68
139. "No. 31811". The London Gazette (Supplement). 5 March 1920. p. 2865.
140. "Pax Britannica (3rd Class)", Time, 16 May 1932.
141. Honor awarded in 1926: Adam Mathew web. Archived 4 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine
142. "Nippu Jiji 1936.06.04 Edition 03 — Hoji Shinbun Digital Collection". hojishinbun.hoover.org. Retrieved 23 March 2019.
143. "Vaughan, Thomas - Biography". www.pwrc.usgs.gov.
144. http://epa.oszk.hu/00900/00995/00006/pdf/szitasz.pdf
145. George, Stuart (2014). "Mifune, Kyuzo". A Supplementary Dictionary of Sports Personalities. Oxford Reference. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780191752186. Retrieved 15 October 2018.
146. Hermann, Evelyn (1996). Shinichi Suzuki: A Man and His Music. Alfred Music.
147. 1973, 3rd order of merit in Japanese honors system (Kunsantō), 1982 4th rank, court honor (jushii, posthumous)
148. "University of Hawaiʻi Presents Honorary Degree to Edward George Seidensticker". Current News. University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa. Retrieved 12 October 2011.
149. Taiichi Ohno's Workplace Management, Jon Miller (trans.), Gemba Press 2007, p. xii
150. Mahdi Elmandjra#Awards and decorations
151. Xunzhi, Luo (17 September 2014). "Long Way to Go: Japan celebrates 100th birthday of Chinese Go Master". Macao Magazine. macaulink. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
152. "Norman Macrae". telegraph.co.uk. London: The Telegraph. 22 January 2010. Retrieved 12 October 2011.
153. Quiñones, Eric. "Earl Miner, Specialist in English and Japanese Literature, dies at age 77"Princetonian Weekly Bulletin. 5 May 2004; Europa Publications. (2003). International Who's Who of Authors and Writers 2004, p. 388.
154. "Filipino recipients of Japanese decorations and Japanese recipients of Philippine decorations | GOVPH".
155. Kenrick, Vivienne. "Personality Profile: Ian Nish,"[permanent dead link] Japan Times. 18 September 2004.
156. Rp.pl. "Andrzej Wajda kawalerem Orderu Wschodzącego Słońca - Archiwum Rzeczpospolitej". archiwum.rp.pl.
157. Honor awarded 1998: "McClellan Named Sterling Professor of Japanese", Archived 27 July 2010 at the Wayback Machine Yale Office of Public Affairs. 3 February 1999.
158. "Japan's emperor honors uw professor for his work". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Seattle. 25 March 1999. pp. B2.
159. ""Hiroshima and the Historians:" Kenneth B. Pyle gives the Griffith and Patricia Way Lecture". Youtube. Retrieved 24 April 2015.
160. Peter Dysdale bio notes: 4th I-House Academy: "Japan and China: Toward Asia- Pacific Cooperation," Archived 24 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine International House of Japan. 22 May 2007.
161. "Rustum Roy, vita for health groups". Rustum Roy. Retrieved 5 November 2011.
162. WHOI Scientist Honored by Japanese Government WHOI 1 May 2003
163. UBC Reports UBC Professor Emeritus Awarded Order of the Rising Sun of Japan Archived 7 February 2011 at the Wayback Machine. 4 December 2003.
164. "Alumni Association NEWS : Our alumni as the awardee of Spring, 2004 has been announced!! — Harue Kitamura, decorated (class of '52)". ritsumei.ac.jp. Ritsumeikan University. 30 April 2004.
165. "California Ethnomusicologist Dr. Robert Garfias to Receive Japan's Order of the Rising Sun Award," Archived 18 November 2008 at the Wayback Machine Alliance for California Traditional Arts (ACTA) Archives.
166. "Hidasi Judit nyelvész, kommunikációs professzor kitüntetése" (in Hungarian). Magyar-Japán Gazdasági Klub. 9 November 2005. Retrieved 11 July 2016.
167. "Vaage, Nora Sørensen. Svein Bolling: Kirsti Koch Christensen, 2005". Archived from the originalon 9 January 2016.
168. Embassy of Japan in Belgium: Decoration Awarding Ceremony of Prof. Dr. W.F. Vande WalleArchived 28 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine
169. "The Order of the Rising Sun, Gold Rays with Neck Ribbon" to Professor Jacob Raz Archived 17 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Embassy of Japan in Israel website.
170. "Wybrane epizody w historii stosunków japońsko-polskich Polish Embassy" (PDF).
171. Weatherhead East Asian Institute, The Reed; "Carol Gluck Receives Top Honors from the Japanese Government," Columbia News, 6 October 2006.
172. "former Commissioner of the Netherlands Foreign Investment Agency and Advisor to the SieboldHuis". Embassy. Retrieved 5 November 2011.
173. "Consulate General of Japan, Los Angeles". Consul Generale. Archived from the original on 4 October 2011. Retrieved 5 November 2011.
174. Pike, John. "GlobalSecurity.org - SITREP Situation Report - Charles Wolf, Jr". sitrep.globalsecurity.org.
175. Perera, Suharshi. "Woman: An icon in the literary world," Archived 4 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine Daily News (Sri Lanka). 9 August 2007.
176. Embassy of Japan in the U.K.: Japanese Government honors Lord David Sydney Rowe-Beddoe,"December 18, 2008.
177. "The Government of Japan honors former Honorary Consul-General of Japan in Nashville", Consulate-General of Japan at Nashville website. 4 June 2008.
178. www.ideo.pl, Ideo Sp. z o.o. -. "Dr Jerzy Nowacki uhonorowany japońskim orderem państwowym - Aktualności o polskiej nauce, badaniach, wydarzeniach, polskich uczelniach i instytutach badawczych". www.naukawpolsce.pap.pl. Archived from the original on 9 January 2016.
179. "2008 Emily Sano Awarded Order of the Rising Sun". Consulate-General of Japan in San Francisco. Retrieved 1 July 2008.
180. "SF US Embassy Japan Archives". Retrieved 30 November 2015.
181. "2008 Spring Conferment of Decorations on Foreign Nationals" (PDF). Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. 1 May 2008. Retrieved 30 November 2015.
182. Consulate General of Japan, Boston. Archived 29 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine
183. "2008 Autumn Conferment of Decorations on Foreign Nationals" (PDF). Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. Retrieved 4 March 2012.
184. "John Powles built important ties between Canada and Japan". 24 November 2001. Archived from the original on 23 March 2010. Retrieved 16 March 2010.
185. "Government of Japan Honors Dr. Setsuko Matsunaga Nishi," Asian American Federation. 2009.
186. "Japan honors Vanderbilt Professor Dr. James E. Auer". Consulate-General of Japan at Nashville. Retrieved 16 April 2016.
187. "Japan honors Clint Eastwood in spring decorations," Archived 5 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine Japan Today. 29 April 2008.
188. Harvard Gazette: Japanese government honors Professor Edwin A. Cranston. 14 May 2009.
189. "外務省: ご案内- ご利用のページが見つかりません". www.mofa.go.jp.
190. http://www.mofa.go.jp/mofaj/gaiko/proto ... h21_sp.pdf
191. "David Russell". STEP Journal. 18 (6): 6. June 2010. Retrieved 1 April 2013.[better source needed]
192. Embassy of Ireland in Japan: Irish Pianist decorated by the Government of Japan Archived 18 February 2013 at Archive.today
193. "2011 Spring Conferment of Decorations on Foreign Nationals" (PDF). Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. Retrieved 19 September 2011.
194. "Recipients of Fall 2011 Decorations". Consulate-General of Japan in Los Angeles. Archived from the original on 26 April 2012. Retrieved 27 November 2011.
195. "K. H. Lee Receives Rising Sun Award from Japan". Archived from the original on 23 February 2013. Retrieved 2015-04-20. 20 April 2015.
196. Apolonio, Eric B. (14 June 2012). "Emperor Akihito honors Ateneo prof for promoting Philippine-Japan friendship". TV5 News and Information. Archived from the original on 8 August 2014. Retrieved 7 August 2014.
197. Embassy of Japan in Poland: Odznaczenie rządu japońskiego dla dr. hab. Romualda Huszczy, prof. UW, prof. UJ
198. Embassy of Japan in the United States of America: Conferral of the Order of the Rising Sun, Gold Rays with Neck Ribbon upon Dr. Stephen Ira Katz, Director of the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases
199. "Уряд Японії нагородив Орденом Вранішнього Сонця двох професорів КНУ імені Тараса Шевченка".
200. Program on Lord Sempill and Japanese espionage, BBC 24 May 2012
201. "Conferral of the Order of the Rising Sun, Gold Rays with Neck Ribbon Upon Dr. George Joji Tanabe, Jr., Professor Emeritus of the Department of Religion, University of Hawaii at Manoa" (PDF). Consulate General of Japan at Honolulu. Retrieved 15 February 2014.
202. "2013 Spring Conferment of Decorations on Foreign Nationals". Embassy of Japan in the UK. Retrieved 24 May 2013.
203. 18th Wing commander presented Order of the Rising Sun Archived 8 December 2015 at the Wayback Machine, Retrieved 21 August 2013.
204. "Conferral of the Order of the Rising Sun, Gold Rays with Neck Ribbon upon Ambassador Rust Macpherson Deming Adjunct Professor of Japan Studies at Johns Hopkins University". Embassy of Japan in the United States. Retrieved 3 November 2015.
205. "Conferral of the Order of the Rising Sun, Gold Rays with Neck Ribbon,upon Professor Kent Eyring Calder, Director of Edwin O. Reischauer Center for East Asian Studies at Johns Hopkins University". Embassy of Japan in the United States. Retrieved 3 November 2015.
206. "Ceremony Confers Japanese Decoration Upon Professor Emeritus of University of Toronto". Consulate-General of Japan in Toronto. Retrieved 24 February 2017.
207. Colao, Leticia (11 March 2014). "El talaverano Carlos Rubio recibe la Orden del Sol Naciente de Japón". La tribuna de Toledo (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 4 June 2016. Retrieved 3 May 2016.
208. "Mr. Nghiem Vu Khai, Chairman of Vietnam - Japan Fraternity, receives Order of the Rising Sun 3rd Class". 21 August 2014. Retrieved 24 July 2016.
209. "List of Order Recipients" (PDF). Ministry Foreign Affairs Japan. Retrieved 13 August 2017.
210. "Recipients of Spring 2015 Decorations". Consulate-General of Japan in Los Angeles. Retrieved 9 July 2015.
211. "Former RIAJ chairman Ishizaka Keiichi gets Order of the Rising Sun, Gold Rays with Neck Ribbon medal". Recording Industry Association of Japan.
212. "UH professor receives medal from Emperor of Japan". University of Hawaiʻi System News. 24 May 2016. Retrieved 8 June 2018.
213. "Raaj Sah". Harris School of Public Policy. Retrieved 12 November 2017.
214. "2017 Autumn Conferment of Decoration". Calameo. Retrieved 12 November 2017.
215. "Government of Japan Record". Calameo. Retrieved 3 May 2018.
216. "2017 Fall Conferment of Decorations of Foreign Nationals". Consulate-General of Japan in Boston. Retrieved 9 December 2017.
217. "Japanese Government Honors Professor Paul Watanabe with Order of the Rising Sun". UMass Boston News. Retrieved 9 December 2017.
218. "2018 Ceremony of Condecoration, Dr. Susumu Nisizaki".
219. Order of the Rising Sun awarded to Professor Mark Ramseyer
220. International Who's Who (2004). Routledge. 19 June 2003. p. 447. ISBN 978-1857432176.
221. Sadia Rashid receives award
222. "Japan grants high honor to UH professor".
223. https://scontent-b-sjc.xx.fbcdn.net/hph ... 2147_n.jpg[permanent dead link]
224. "Japanese designer behind iconic soy sauce bottle dies at 85". ABS-CBN Corporation. 9 February 2015. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
225. "Toshiko Akiyoshi". Berkeley Agency. Retrieved 5 November 2011.
226. "Библиотека изображений "РИА Новости" :: Галерея". Visualrian.com. Retrieved 5 November2011.
227. "Martha Argerich - IMG Artists" Archived 26 June 2009 at the Wayback Machine
228. "Prof. Andrej Bekeš, Ph.D., conferred a high-ranking Japanese order". 12 January 2009. Retrieved 9 August 2017. Embassy of the Republic of Slovenia in Tokyo.
229. Honor awarded 1909: "Receives Guests Attired in Kimono", The San Francisco Call. November 29, 1909. p. 22.
230. Jortner, David; Foley, Kathy (Fall 2001). "James R. Brandon". Asian Theatre Journal. University of Hawai'i Press. 28 (2): 350. JSTOR 41306497.
231. "UMass Presidents William Penn Brooks". Massachusetts.edu. Retrieved 5 November 2011.
232. http://www.fresnobee.com/entertainment/ ... rylink=cpy
233. "Odznaczenie rządu japońskiego dla pani Bogny Barbary Dziechciaruk-Maj, dyrektor Muzeum Sztuki i Techniki Japońskiej Manggha - Japonia". www.japonia.org.pl.
234. Glentzer, Molly (6 May 2013). "Japanese government honors Glen Gondo". Retrieved 30 November2015.
235. "Recent Awards," Archived 19 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine Florida International University, Asian Studies. April 29, 2007.
236. Consulate General of Japan in New York, "Government of Japan to Honor Dr. Asao Hirano,"Archived 3 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine 2001.
237. "Alumni William (Miller Kisselman) Imbrie, D.D.". The Princeton Seminary Bulletin. 23 (2): 572. 1929.
238. "Randall Jones Order of the Rising Sun" (PDF). OECD. Retrieved 29 April 2014.
239. "Consulate General of Japan in New York's Office". Ny.us.emb-japan.go.jp. Retrieved 5 November2011.
240. "Puppet animation producer dies". The Japan Times Online. The Japan Times. 28 August 2010. Retrieved 29 August 2010.
241. Honor awarded 1984: Bergan, Ronald. "A satirical eye on Japan: Keisuke Kinoshita, film director; born December 5, 1912; died December 30, 1998," The Guardian (Manchester). January 5, 1999.
242. "Włodzimierz Kwieciński odznaczony Orderem Wschodzącego Słońca, Złote Promienie z Rozetą"
243. Lasorda honored by Japan, MLB.com, December 3, 2008
244. "Alfred F. MAJEWICZ, professor tytularny zwyczajny, doktor habilitowany" (PDF).
245. "Leiji Matsumoto, Shigeru Mizuki Earn Government Honors - News". Anime News Network. 1 November 2011. Retrieved 5 November 2011.
246. "Mayor Hazel McCallion Awarded the Order of the Rising Sun". City of Mississauga. 10 June 2014. Retrieved 18 June 2014.
247. "Mission Inn Hands on History, Frank A. Miller Order of the Rising Sun". Archived from the original on 28 August 2010.
248. "Conferral of the Order of the Rising Sun, Gold Rays with Rosette upon Mr. Shiro Floyd Mori, National Executive Director Emeritus and former National President of the Japanese American Citizens League (JACL)". Embassy of Japan to the United States. 6 November 2012. Archived from the original on 24 October 2012. Retrieved 7 November 2012.
249. "Maestro Kent Nagano Awarded Order of the Rising Sun". Consulate-General of Japan in San Francisco. 7 December 2008. Archived from the original on 13 May 2012.
250. Honor awarded 1915: Kita, Atsushi (2005). Dr. Noguchi's Journey: A Life of Medical Search and Discovery, p. 196.
251. Pierson, Delvan L. (1918). The Missionary Review of the World, January to December 1917. pp. XIV.
252. "Golgo 13's Saito, Sunset on 3rd St.'s Saigan Win Medals". Anime News Network. 28 April 2010. Retrieved 6 November 2015.
253. Anime News Network: "Frederik L. Schodt Wins The Order of the Rising Sun Award," April 29, 2009.
254. "Embassy of Japan in India: Press Releases from the Embassy". www.in.emb-japan.go.jp.
255. Yoshimura, Toshio. (1981). George Shima, Potato King and Lover of Chinese Classics, p. 53.
256. Honor awarded 1999: Whiting, David. "Obituary: Tatsuzo Shimaoka; Japanese potter steeped in folk traditions who became a cultural ambassador," The Guardian (Manchester). January 17, 2008.
257. "Image gallery: medal". British Museum.
258. "George Takei, bio notes". Georgetakei.com. Archived from the original on 22 September 2001. Retrieved 5 November 2011.
259. Honor awarded 1942: Tsuji, Masanobu. (1997). Japan's Greatest Victory, Britain's Worst Defeat, p. 108.
260. Honor conferred 1964: North Austin Tae Kwan Do: "Chronology of the Life of Morihei Ueshiba, Founder of Aikido."
261. Honor awarded 1996: Columbia University, Department of East Asian Languages and Cultures, Faculty Profiles
262. [2] Archived 26 July 2012 at the Wayback Machine
263. Sadao Watanabe official website: biography
264. "British Judo Association". Britishjudo.org.uk. Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 5 November 2011.
265. "President and founder, Japan-America Society of New Hampshire and founder, Portsmouth Peace Treaty Forum". Archived from the original on 22 January 2012.
266. Founder of center for Japonology in Lithuania, first Japanese translator, Japanese teacher and popularizer of Japanese culture in Lithuania [3]
267. "Rokusaburo Michiba". FutureToday Inc. Archived from the original on 7 May 2013. Retrieved 5 November 2011.
268. "Sir Bobby Charlton awarded Japanese Order". www.jfa.or.jp. Retrieved 4 April 2014.
269. Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Japan): 2010 Spring Conferment of Decorations on Foreign Nationals,p. 8.
270. "Piksi za "Blic": Meni orden, Srbiji priznanje". Blic. Retrieved 30 April 2015.
271. "Conferral of the Order of the Rising Sun, Gold Rays with Rosette, upon translator William Scott Wilson" (PDF). Consulate-General of Japan in Miami. Retrieved 8 December 2015.
272. "Embassy of Japan in Belgium - News". www.be.emb-japan.go.jp.
273. "Ferran Adrià recibe la Orden del Sol Naciente". El País (in Spanish). EFE. 11 December 2015. Retrieved 5 May 2016.
274. "Hank Aaron presented with Order of the Rising Sun". ESPN. 14 January 2016.
275. "Ivica Osim dobio priznanje vlade Japana". OSLOBODJENJE.
276. NAMCO AMERICA INC – Masaya Nakamura receives prestigious award Archived 23 July 2008 at the Wayback Machine coinopTODAY.com, 25 October 2007 (retrieved 2007-25-10)
277. "Embassy of Japan in Myanmar". www.mm.emb-japan.go.jp.
278. "2018 Spring Conferment of Decoration on Foreign Nationals" Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan, 2018.[4]
279. https://www.pacificaviationmuseum.org/n ... 2008_4.pdf
280. https://www.mofa.go.jp/files/000358977.pdf
281. "The Conferral of the Order of the Rising Sun, Gold Rays with Rosette upon Dr Edwina Palmer"(PDF) (Press release). Wellington, New Zealand: Embassy of Japan in New Zealand. 3 November 2018. Retrieved 5 November 2018.
282. "York University Professor Conferred the Order of the Rising Sun, Gold Rays with Rosette" Consulate-General of Japan in Toronto, 2018.[5]
283. “Japanese Government Honours Dr David W. Hughes” Embassy of Japan, London, U.K., 2018. [6]
284. "Japan Imperial Decoration The Order of the Rising Sun, Gold Rays with Rosette conferred upon Judge Raymond S. Uno, Former President of National Japanese American Citizens League (JACL)".
285. "Japan to honor 3 Peruvians with Order of the Rising Sun".
286. Central News Agency. "Taiwanese aquatic breeding expert wins Japan's Nikkei Asia Prize". taiwannews.com.tw. Taiwan News. Retrieved 30 May 2019.
287. "George Geddie (1869–1961) – WikiTree FREE Family Tree". www.wikitree.com. Retrieved 21 March 2018.
288. "Obituary". British Medical Journal. 2 (3844): 496. 1934. PMC 2445123. PMID 20778528.
289. Gronczewska, Anna. "Szyfrant, który sprawił cud".
290. "London Gazette issues 33043-p2919".
291. "Major Douglas Estment Randall, MC". Queensland Family Trees. Retrieved 30 November 2015.
292. Cordileone, Elvira. "Kenzo Mori: An impact on two shores," The Star (Toronto). January 22, 2007.
293. "和道流空手道連盟". www.wado-ryu.jp. Archived from the original on 7 December 2013. Retrieved 4 August 2013.
294. Chinen, Karleen C. (2012). Hawaii's AJA Pioneers: One hundred profiles commemorating the centennial of the Hawaii Hochi. Honolulu: Hawaii Hochi. pp. 18–19.
295. Unpaginated editors' chronology appended to Kiyoshi Nishiyama, Shunkō shūshoku (春光秋色) / Seasonal Aspects of Japan (Tokyo: Asahi Sonorama, 1979) (in Japanese)(in English).
296. Honor awarded 1983: "Origami artist of stunning originality who became an ambassador for Japanese culture and his art". The Times (London). March 30, 2005; Lister, David. "Obituary: Akira Yoshizawa; Japanese craftsman who singlehandedly revived the art of origami," The Guardian (Manchester). April 8, 2005.
297. Imada, Vaughn (24 August 2015). "2015 Members of USJF Hall of Fame". United States Judo Federation. Archived from the original on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 30 November 2015.
298. "Conferment of the Order of the Rising Sun, Gold and Silver Rays upon Dato' Sri Ee Hoe Lee". Embassy of Japan in Malaysia. 29 April 2015. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
299. "The Government of Japan honours Mr Philip Malins, MBE, MC". Embassy of Japan in the UK. 25 November 2010. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
300. Endo, Ellen (5 November 2012). "Mikwaya CEO Hashimoto Passes at 69". Rafu Shimpo. Retrieved 2 December 2012.
301. "2012 Jokun Recognition Luncheon". www.rafu.com.
302. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan; 2012 Autumn Conferment of Decorations on Foreign Nationals, p. 6.
303. "Was a celebration From Kishida Masuo's official website". 11 February 2012. Retrieved 28 March2013.(岸田益雄公式ページ - 祝賀会でした)
304. "Reception in Honor of Mr. Seiichi Tanaka, Grand Master of San Francisco Taiko Dojo", Consulate-General of Japan in San Francisco, February 13, 2014 Archived 23 October 2015 at the Wayback Machine
305. "Conferment Ceremony of 2015 Autumn Imperial Decorations for Foreign Recipients". Embassy of Japan in Malaysia. 4 December 2015. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
306. "Commendation Ceremony for Mr. Robert Tadashi Banno, Q.C., President of the Nikkei Place Foundation". Retrieved 21 September 2016.
307. "Japanese Government honours Mrs Mary-Grace Browning MBE=2016-06-28".
308. Schwan, Henry. "Concord's Tom Curtin remembered as 'brilliant'". Retrieved 21 March 2018.
309. "Apdovanojimas : Embassy of Japan in Lithuania". www.lt.emb-japan.go.jp.
310. Honor awarded 2016: Embassy of Japan in Budapest: "Government of Japan to Honor Istvan Pinczès"
311. Honor awarded 2016: Consulate-General of Japan in New York: "Government Of Japan to Honor Suki Terada Ports".
312. "Legacies" (PDF). 23 (1). Spring 2017: 7.
313. UzDaily.com. "Director of Museum of Japanese Internees awarded with Japanese order". UzDaily.com. Retrieved 21 March 2018.
314. Oguma, Hironao (24 March 2016). "Uzbek's museum keeps memories of Japanese prisoners in Soviet camps alive". Japan Times Online. Retrieved 21 March 2018.
315. http://www.mofa.go.jp/mofaj/files/000200238.pdf
316. "平成29年春の叙勲" (PDF). www8.cao.go.jp.
317. Scott, Ellen (9 November 2017). "85-year-old Doreen receives prestigious award for her contribution to sumo wrestling". Metro. Retrieved 16 March 2018.
318. "Dr Don Wood Receives Japan's Highest Cultural Honor". Birmingham, Alabama USA: Birmingham Museum of Art.
319. "Spring Conferment of Decoration by Consulate General of Japan in Detroit to former President & CEO of Battle Creek Unlimited Mr. James F Hettinger In Recognition of His Contributions Toward Strengthening the Relationship Between Japan and the United States" (PDF). 30 April 2018. Retrieved 12 June 2018.
320. "Conferral of the Order of the Rising Sun, Gold and Silver Rays upon Mrs. Elise Wessels-van Houdt, director of Nihon no hanga Museum". Embassy of Japan in the Netherlands. 21 May 2019. Retrieved 23 May 2019.
321. Honor awarded on 1971: Henshall, Mary. "Pioneer Portraits: Henry and Fumiko Fujii," Idaho Yesterdays., Spring, 1975, pp. 20–27; Washington State University Libraries: "Furthering friendship between Japan and the United States, April 1971"
322. "Fudeko receives Japan's Order of the Rising Sun". Western Advocate. 29 April 2013. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
323. Orliński, Bolesław. "Moje wrażenia z lotu do Tokjo" Lwów 1933, p. 79.
324. "Browning, Ralph (Tom)". AVHoF.org. 5 Pints Productions. Retrieved 14 August 2018.
325. Honor awarded in 1906: "Cruiser 'Livia' in Kobe to Greet Italians", Osaka Mainichi. 28 July 1922.
326. Craig, Albert M. (2010). The heritage of Japanese Civilization. Boston: Prentice Hall. pp. Author Bio. ISBN 978-0-13-600524-7.
327. Ohio University Libraries. "Scholars and Librarians in East Asian Studies (North America) - William Theodore de Bary". Retrieved 21 April 2011.
328. "Uncle Bob", Time, 10 September 1945.
329. "A. John Ellis". Simon Fraser University. Archived from the original on 19 March 2014.
330. Arlington National Cemetery: Granville Roland Foretscue
331. Cynthia Peters (4 April 2006). "Frank B. Gibney, 81, One of the Nation's Preeminent Experts on Asia and President of the Pacific Basin Institute at Pomona College, Has Died". Pomona College. Retrieved 21 April 2011.
332. Jeszcze jeden globtroter? Archived 13 June 2010 at the Wayback Machine
333. Honor awarded 1891: Penicuik Community Development Trust (UK): Cargill Gilston Knott
334. Professor Wiesław Kotański (1915–2005) wybitny uczony, japonista, wychowawca pokoleńArchived 24 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine
335. "amb. Henryk LIPSZYC" (PDF).
336. Ozaki, Yukio. (2001). ''The Autobiography of Ozaki Yukio: The Struggle for Constitutional Government in Japan, p. 393.
337. Honor awarded 1918: RAF web page
338. Honor awarded 1994: Weatherhead East Asian Institute, The Reed
339. "Former state legislator Kip Tokuda dies while fishing". The Seattle Times. Archived from the original on 25 August 2013.
340. Honor awarded 1874: "A Victory for the Chinese; Japanese Driven with Heavy Loss from Ping-yang", The New York Times, 22 August 1894.
341. emabe.pl. "WIADOMOŚCI - Spotkanie z prof. Franciszkiem Ziejką".
342. Russian: «Полный послужной список Корпуса Инженер Механиков Генерал-Майора Зарубина 1-го» (ЦГАВМФ СССР Фонд 406 опись 3 дело 960 лист 21 (оборотный)); English: "A full track record of Mechanical Engineering Corps Major-General Zarubin 1st" (Central State Archive of the Navy of the Soviet Union (Russian State Naval Archives now), Fond 406 inventory 3 file 960 sheet 21 (reverse side)).

References

• Peterson, James W., Barry C. Weaver and Michael A. Quigley (2001). Orders and Medals of Japan and Associated States. San Ramon, California: Orders and Medals Society of America. ISBN 1-890974-09-9.

External links

• Japan, Cabinet Office: Decorations and Medals
o Decoration Bureau: Order of the Rising Sun
• Japan Mint: Production Process
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

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-- A Modern Utopia, by H. G. Wells
-- Tales of Space and Time, by H. G. Wells
-- The History of the Fabian Society, by Edward R. Pease
-- The Open Conspiracy, by H. G. Wells
-- The Time Machine: An Invention, by H. G. Wells
-- The War of the Worlds, by H. G. Wells
-- The Way the World Is Going: Guesses & Forecasts of The Years Ahead, by H.G. Wells
-- Rabindranath Tagore: In Conversation with H. G. Wells, Excerpted from: A Tagore Reader, edited by Amiya Chakravarty
-- H. G. Wells, by Wikipedia
-- Political views of H.G. Wells, by Wikipedia
-- 'The Open Conspiracy': H.G. Wells Plots The World Empire, by Michele Steinberg
-- Celebrating HG Wells’s role in the creation of the UN Declaration of Human Rights: Wells was highly prophetic. But, asks Ali Smith, could he have foreseen that the fundamental freedoms h, set out in The Rights of Man would be under attack 75 years later?, by Ali Smith
-- H.G. Wells' Interview With Stalin Helped Change the Fundamental Principles of Liberalism, by Malcolm Cowley
-- Icarus, or The Future of Science, by Bertrand Russell
-- James Joyce: H.G. Wells reviews "A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man", by H.G. Wells
-- New Republic, by Spartacus Educational
-- One of Wells’s Worlds, by John Maynard Keynes
-- The Godfather of American Liberalism: H. G. Wells: novelist, historian, authoritarian, anticapitalist, eugenicist, and advisor to presidents, by Fred Siegel
-- The Idea of a League of Nations: "What has happened is essentially this, that the natural limitations on warfare which have existed hitherto appear to have broken down.", by Herbert George Wells
-- Utopian Pessimist: The works, world view, and women of H. G. Wells, by Adam Kirsch


Herbert George Wells (1866–1946) — known as H.G. Wells — was a prolific English writer in many genres, including the novel, history, politics, and social commentary, and textbooks and rules for war games. Wells called his political views socialist.

The Fabian Society

Wells was for a time a member of the socialist Fabian Society, but broke with them as his creative political imagination, matching the originality shown in his fiction, outran theirs.[1] He later grew staunchly critical of them as having a poor understanding of economics and educational reform. He ran as a Labour Party candidate for London University in the 1922 and 1923 general elections after the death of his friend W. H. R. Rivers, but at that point his faith in the party was weak or uncertain.

Class

Social class was a theme in Wells's The Time Machine in which the Time Traveller speaks of the future world, with its two races, as having evolved from

the gradual widening of the present (19th century) merely temporary and social difference between the Capitalist and the Labourer ... Even now, does not an East-end worker live in such artificial conditions as practically to be cut off from the natural surface of the earth? Again, the exclusive tendency of richer people ... is already leading to the closing, in their interest, of considerable portions of the surface of the land. About London, for instance, perhaps half the prettier country is shut in against intrusion.[2]


Wells has this very same Time Traveller, reflecting his own socialist leanings, refer in a tongue-in-cheek manner to an imagined world of stark class division as "perfect" and with no social problem unsolved. His Time Traveller thus highlights how strict class division leads to the eventual downfall of the human race:

Once, life and property must have reached almost absolute safety. The rich had been assured of his wealth and comfort, the toiler assured of his life and work. No doubt in that perfect world there had been no unemployed problem, no social question left unsolved.[2]


In his book The Way the World is Going, Wells called for a non-Marxist form of socialism to be set up, that would avoid both class war and conflict between nations.[3]

Democracy

Fred Siegel of the center-right Manhattan Institute wrote of Wells's unflattering take on American democracy: "Wells was appalled by the decentralised nature of America's locally oriented party and country-courthouse politics. He was aghast at the flamboyantly corrupt political machines of the big cities, unchecked by a gentry that might uphold civilised standards. He thought American democracy went too far in providing leeway to the poltroons who ran the political machines and the 'fools' who supported them."[4] Siegel goes on to note Wells's dislike of America's not allowing African Americans to vote.[4]

World government

His most consistent political ideal was the World State. He stated in his autobiography that from 1900 onward he considered a World State inevitable. He envisioned the state to be a planned society that would advance science, end nationalism, and allow people to progress by merit rather than birth. Wells's 1928 book The Open Conspiracy argued that groups of campaigners should begin advocating for a "world commonwealth", governed by a scientific elite, that would work to eliminate problems such as poverty and warfare.[5] In 1932, he told Young Liberals at the University of Oxford that progressive leaders must become liberal fascists or enlightened Nazis who would "compete in their enthusiasm and self-sacrifice" against the advocates of dictatorship.[6][7] In 1940, Wells published a book called The New World Order that outlined his plan as to how a World Government would be set up. In The New World Order, Wells admitted that the establishment of such a government could take a long time, and be created in a piecemeal fashion.[8]

When the war broke out in 1914, the reports were not finished, so it was decided to print the four sections already sent out, with a concluding chapter. A thousand copies of this, with the title Project of a Commonwealth, were distributed among the groups. Then a popular volume on the subject, with the title The Problem of the Commonwealth and Curtis's name as editor, was published (May 1916). Two months later, the earlier work (Project) was published under the title The Commonwealth of Nations, again with Curtis named as editor. Thus appeared for the first time in public the name which the British Empire was to assume thirty-two years later. In the September 1916 issue of The Round Table, Kerr published a statement on the relationship of the two published volumes to the Round Table Groups. Because of the paper shortage in England, Curtis in 1916 went to Canada and Australia to arrange for the separate publication of The Problem of the Commonwealth in those countries. At the same time he set up new Round Table Groups in Australia and New Zealand. Then he went to India to begin serious work on Indian reform. From this emerged the Government of India Act of 1919, as we shall see later.

By this time Curtis and the others had come to realize that any formal federation of the Empire was impossible. As Curtis wrote in 1917 (in his Letter to the People of India): "The people of the Dominions rightly aspire to control their own foreign affairs and yet retain their status as British citizens. On the other hand, they detest the idea of paying taxes to any Imperial Parliament, even to one upon which their own representatives sit. The inquiry convinced me that, unless they sent members and paid taxes to an Imperial Parliament, they could not control their foreign affairs and also remain British subjects. But I do not think that doctrine is more distasteful to them than the idea of having anything to do with the Government of India."

Reluctantly Curtis and the others postponed the idea of a federated Empire and fell back on the idea of trying to hold the Empire together by the intangible bonds of common culture and common outlook. This had originally (in Rhodes and Milner) been a supplement to the project of a federation. It now became the chief issue, and the idea of federation fell into a secondary place. At the same time, the idea of federation was swallowed up in a larger scheme for organizing the whole world within a League of Nations. This idea had also been held by Rhodes and Milner, but in quite a different form. To the older men, the world was to be united around the British Empire as a nucleus. To Curtis, the Empire was to be absorbed into a world organization. This second idea was fundamentally mystical. Curtis believed: "Die and ye shall be born again." He sincerely felt that if the British Empire died in the proper way (by spreading liberty, brotherhood, and justice), it would be born again in a higher level of existence — as a world community, or, as he called it, a "Commonwealth of Nations."

-- The Anglo-American Establishment: From Rhodes to Cliveden, by Carroll Quigley


Eugenics

Some of Wells's early science fiction works reflect his thoughts about the degeneration of humanity.[9] Wells doubted whether human knowledge had advanced sufficiently for eugenics to be successful. In 1904 he discussed a survey paper by Francis Galton, co-founder of eugenics, saying, "I believe that now and always the conscious selection of the best for reproduction will be impossible; that to propose it is to display a fundamental misunderstanding of what individuality implies... It is in the sterilisation of failure, and not in the selection of successes for breeding, that the possibility of an improvement of the human stock lies". In his 1940 book The Rights of Man: Or What are we fighting for? Wells included among the human rights he believed should be available to all people, "a prohibition on mutilation, sterilization, torture, and any bodily punishment".[10]

Race

In 1901 Wells wrote Anticipations of the Reaction of Mechanical and Scientific Progress Upon Human Life and Thought, which included the following extreme views:

"And how will the new republic treat the inferior races? How will it deal with the black? how will it deal with the yellow man? how will it tackle that alleged termite in the civilized woodwork, the Jew? Certainly not as races at all. It will aim to establish, and it will at last, though probably only after a second century has passed, establish a world state with a common language and a common rule. All over the world its roads, its standards, its laws, and its apparatus of control will run. It will, I have said, make the multiplication of those who fall behind a certain standard of social efficiency unpleasant and difficult… The Jew will probably lose much of his particularism, intermarry with Gentiles, and cease to be a physically distinct element in human affairs in a century or so. But much of his moral tradition will, I hope, never die. … And for the rest, those swarms of black, and brown, and dirty-white, and yellow people, who do not come into the new needs of efficiency?

Well, the world is a world, not a charitable institution, and I take it they will have to go. The whole tenor and meaning of the world, as I see it, is that they have to go. So far as they fail to develop sane, vigorous, and distinctive personalities for the great world of the future, it is their portion to die out and disappear.


When a race is born, the forms are ensouled by a certain group of spirits and have inherent capability of evolving to a certain stage of completion and no further. There can be no standing still in nature, therefore when the limit of attainment has been reached, the bodies or forms of that race begin to degenerate, sinking lower and lower until at last the race dies out.

The reason is not far to seek. New race bodies are particularly flexible and plastic, affording great scope for the Egos who are reborn in them to improve these vehicles and progress thereby. The most advanced Egos are brought to birth in such bodies and improve them to the best of their ability. These Egos, however, are only apprentices as yet, and they cause the bodies to gradually crystallize and harden until the limit of improvement of that particular kind of body has been reached. Then forms for another new race are created, to afford the advancing Egos further scope for more extended experience and greater development. They discard the old race bodies for the new, their discarded bodies becoming the habitations for less advanced Egos who, in their turn, use them as stepping-stones on the path of progress. Thus the old race bodies are used by Egos of increasing inferiority, gradually degenerating until at last there are no Egos low enough to profit by rebirth in such bodies. The women then become sterile and the race-forms die.

We may easily trace this process by certain examples. The Teutonic-Anglo-Saxon race (particularly the American branch of it) has a softer, more flexible body and a more high-strung nervous system than any other race on earth at the present time. The Indian and Negro have much harder bodies and, because of the duller nervous system, are much less sensitive to lacerations. An Indian will continue to fight after receiving wounds the shock of which would prostrate or kill a white man, whereas the Indian will quickly recover. The Australian aborigines or Bushmen furnish an example of a race dying out on account of sterility, notwithstanding all that the British government is doing to perpetuate them. It has been said by white men against the white race, that wherever it goes the other races dies out. The whites have been guilty of fearful oppression against those other races, having in many cases massacred multitudes of the defenseless and unsuspecting natives -- as witness the conduct of the Spaniards towards the ancient Peruvians and Mexicans, to specify but one of many instances. The obligations resulting from such betrayal of confidence and abuse of superior intellect will be paid -- yea, the last, least iota! -- by those incurring them. It is equally true, however, that even had the whites not massacred, starved, enslaved, expatriated and otherwise maltreated those older races, the latter would nevertheless have died out just as surely, though more slowly, because such is the Law of Evolution -- the Order of Nature. At some future time the white race-bodies when they become inhabited by the Egos who are now embodied in red, black, yellow or brown skins, will have degenerated so far that they also will disappear, to give place to other and better vehicles.

Science speaks only of evolution. It fails to consider the lines of degeneration which are slowly but surely destroying such bodies as have crystallized beyond possibility of improvement.


-- The Rosicrucian Cosmo-Conception: An Elementary Treatise Upon Man's Past Evolution, Present Constitution and Future Development, by Max Heindel


The world has a greater purpose than happiness; our lives are to serve God's purpose, and that purpose aims not at man as an end, but works through him to greater issues."[11]

Wells's 1906 book The Future in America, contains a chapter, "The Tragedy of Colour", which discusses the problems facing black Americans.[12] While writing the book, Wells met with Booker T. Washington, who provided him with much of his information for "The Tragedy of Colour".[13] Wells praised the "heroic" resolve of black Americans, stating he doubted if the US could:

show any thing finer than the quality of the resolve, the steadfast effort hundreds of black and coloured men are making to-day to live blamelessly, honourably, and patiently, getting for themselves what scraps of refinement, learning, and beauty they may, keeping their hold on a civilization they are grudged and denied.[12]


In his 1916 book What is Coming? Wells states, "I hate and despise a shrewish suspicion of foreigners and foreign ways; a man who can look me in the face, laugh with me, speak truth and deal fairly, is my brother, though his skin is as black as ink or as yellow as an evening primrose".[14]

In The Outline of History, Wells argued against the idea of "racial purity", stating: "Mankind from the point of view of a biologist is an animal species in a state of arrested differentiation and possible admixture . . . [A]ll races are more or less mixed.".[15]

In 1931 Wells was one of several signatories to a letter in Britain (along with 33 British MPs) protesting against the death sentence passed upon the African-American Scottsboro Boys.[16]

In 1943 Wells wrote an article for the Evening Standard, "What A Zulu thinks of the English", prompted by receiving a letter from a Zulu soldier, Lance Coporal Aaron Hlope.[17][18][19] "What a Zulu thinks of the English" was a strong attack on anti-black discrimination in South Africa. Wells claimed he had "the utmost contempt and indignation for the unfairness of the handicaps put upon men of colour". Wells also denounced the South African government as a "petty white tyranny".[17][18][19]

Zionism

Wells had given some moderate, unenthusiastic support for Territorialism before the First World War, but later became a bitter opponent of the Zionist movement in general. He saw Zionism as an exclusive and separatist movement which challenged the collective solidarity he advocated in his vision of a world state. No supporter of Jewish identity in general, Wells had in his utopian writings predicted the ultimate assimilation of the Jewish people.[20][21][22] In notes to accompany his biographical novel A Man of Parts, David Lodge, describes how Wells came to regret his attitudes to the Jews as he became more aware of the extent of the Nazi atrocities. This included a letter of apology written to Chaim Weizmann for earlier statements he had made.[23]

First World War

He supported Britain in the First World War,[24] despite his many criticisms of British policy, and opposed, in 1916, moves for an early peace.[25] In an essay published that year he acknowledged that he could not understand those British pacifists who were reconciled to "handing over great blocks of the black and coloured races to the [German Empire] to exploit and experiment upon" and that the extent of his own pacifism depended in the first instance upon an armed peace, with "England keep[ing] to England and Germany to Germany". State boundaries would be established according to natural ethnic affinities, rather than by planners in distant imperial capitals, and overseen by his envisaged world alliance of states.[26]

In his book In the Fourth Year published in 1918 he suggested how each nation of the world would elect, "upon democratic lines" by proportional representation, an electoral college in the manner of the United States of America, in turn to select its delegate to the proposed League of Nations.[27] This international body he contrasted with imperialism, not only the imperialism of Germany, against which the war was being fought, but also the imperialism, which he considered more benign, of Britain and France.[28] His values and political thinking came under increasing criticism from the 1920s and afterwards.[29]

Soviet Union

The leadership of Joseph Stalin led to a change in his view of the Soviet Union even though his initial impression of Stalin himself was mixed. He disliked what he saw as a narrow orthodoxy and intransigence in Stalin. He did give him some praise saying in an article in the left-leaning New Statesman magazine, "I have never met a man more fair, candid, and honest" and making it clear that he felt the "sinister" image of Stalin was unfair or false. Nevertheless he judged Stalin's rule to be far too rigid, restrictive of independent thought, and blinkered to lead toward the Cosmopolis he hoped for.[30] In the course of his visit to the Soviet Union in 1934, he debated the merits of reformist socialism over Marxism-Leninism with Stalin.[31]

Monarchy

Wells was a republican[32] and an advocate for the creation of republican clubs in the UK.[33]

Other endeavours

Wells brought his interest in Art & Design and politics together when he and other notables signed a memorandum to the Permanent Secretaries of the Board of Trade, among others. The November 1914 memorandum expressed the signatories concerns about British industrial design in the face of foreign competition. The suggestions were accepted, leading to the foundation of the Design and Industries Association.[34] In the 1920s he was an enthusiastic supporter of rejuvenation attempts by Eugen Steinach and others. He was a patient of Dr Norman Haire (perhaps a rejuvenated one) and in response to Haire's 1924 book Rejuvenation: the Work of Steinach, Voronoff, and others,[35] Wells prophesied a more mature, graver society with 'active and hopeful children' and adults 'full of years' where none will be 'aged'.[36]

In his later political writing, Wells incorporated into his discussions of the World State a notion of universal human rights that would protect and guarantee the freedom of the individual. His 1940 publication The Rights of Man laid the groundwork for the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights.[37]

Summary

In the end Wells's contemporary political impact was limited, excluding his fiction's positivist stance on the leaps that could be made by physics towards world peace. His efforts regarding the League of Nations became a disappointment as the organization turned out to be a weak one unable to prevent the Second World War, which itself occurred towards the very end of his life and only increased the pessimistic side of his nature. In his last book Mind at the End of its Tether (1945) he considered the idea that humanity being replaced by another species might not be a bad idea. He also came to refer to the Second World War era as "The Age of Frustration".

References

1. Cole, Margaret (1974). "H. G. Wells and the Fabian Society". In Morris, A. J. Anthony (ed.). Edwardian radicalism, 1900–1914: some aspects of British radicalism. London: Routledge. pp. 97–114. ISBN 0-7100-7866-8.
2. "The Time Machine". Retrieved 10 June 2012.
3. H. G. Wells, The Way the World is Going. London, Ernest Benn, 1928, (p. 49).
4. Siegel, Fred (2013). The Revolt Against the Masses. New York: Encounter Books, pp. 6–7.
5. Wells, H. G. The Open Conspiracy: Blue Prints for a World Revolution (Garden City, New York: Doubleday, Doran, 1928), (pp. 28, 44, 196).
6. Mazower, Mark, Dark Continent:Europe's Twentieth Century. New York : A.A. Knopf, 1998. ISBN 0679438092 (p. 21–22).
7. Coupland, Philip (October 2000). "H. G. Wells's "Liberal Fascism"". Journal of Contemporary History. 35 (4): 549.
8. Partington, John S. Building Cosmopolis: The Political Thought of H. G. Wells. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2003. ISBN 0754633837, (p. 16).
9. "H. G. Wells and the uses of Degeneration in Literature". Bbk.ac.uk. 1946-08-17. Retrieved 2014-03-25.
10. Andrew Clapham, Human Rights:A Very Short Introduction. Oxford : Oxford University Press, 2007. ISBN 9780199205523 (pp. 29-31).
11. Wells, HG. Anticipations of the Reaction of Mechanical and Scientific Progress: Upon Human Life and Thought. pp. 340–343. ISBN 0486406732 Check |isbn= value: checksum (help).
12. H. G. Wells, The Future in America (New York and London: Harper and Brothers, 1906), p. 201 (Chs.11 & 12,).
13. Virginia L. Denton, Booker T. Washington and the Adult Education Movement. University Press of Florida, 1993. ISBN 0813011825. (p. 150, 231)
14. What is Coming? A Forecast of things after the war, London, Cassell, 1916 (p. 256).
15. H. G. Wells, The Outline of History, 3rd ed. rev. (NY: Macmillan, 1921), p. 110 (Ch. XII, §§1–2).
16. Susan D. Pennybacker, From Scottsboro to Munich: race and political culture in 1930s Britain Princeton University Press, 2009. ISBN 0691088284, (p. 29).
17. "What a Zulu Thinks of the English" was reprinted as "The Rights of Man in South Africa" i '42 to '44: A Contemporary Memoir (London, Secker and Warburg, 1944) (p. 68–74).
18. Robert Crossley, "Wells's Common Readers" in Patrick Parrinder and Christopher Rolfe, H. G. Wells Under Revision: Proceedings of the International Hg Wells Symposium London July 1986. Associated University Press, 1990. ISBN 0945636059, (p. 247).
19. John Huntington, Critical essays on H. G. Wells. G. K. Hall, 1991. ISBN 0816188564 (p. 176,177, 179)
20. Cheyette, Bryan. Constructions of "the Jew" in English Literature and Society. Cambridge University Press, 1995, pp. 143–148
21. Hamerow, Theodore S. Why we watched: Europe, America, and the Holocaust. W. W. Norton & Company, 2008, pp. 98–100, 219
22. "Desirable Aliens: British Men of Letters on The Jews". The Review of Reviews Vol. XXXIII Jan–Jun 1906, p. 378
23. Lodge, David (2011). A Man of Parts. London: Secker. p. 521. ISBN 9781846554964.
24. H. G. Wells: Why Britain Went To War (10 August 1914). The War Illustrated album de luxe. The story of the great European war told by camera, pen and pencil. The Amalgamated Press, London 1915
25. Daily Herald, 27 May 1916
26. Wells, H. G. (1916). "The White Man's Burthen". What is coming? : a forecast of things after the war. London: Cassell. p. 240. ISBN 0-554-16469-8. OCLC 9446824.
27. Wells, H. G. (1918). "The League must be representative". In the Fourth Year. London: Chatto and Windus. ISBN 1-4191-2598-2. OCLC 458935146. The president ... is chosen by a special college elected by the people .... Is there any reason why we should not adopt this method in this sending representatives to the Council of the League of Nations?
28. "The Necessary Powers of the League". In the Fourth Year. [T]he League of Free Nations, if it is to be a reality ... must do no less than supersede Empire; it must end not only this new German imperialism, which is struggling so savagely and powerfully to possess the earth, but it must also wind up British imperialism and French imperialism, which do now so largely and inaggressively possess it.
29. Experiment in Autobiography 556. Also chapter four of Future as Nightmare: H. G. Wells and the Anti-Utopians by Mark Robert Hillegas.
30. Experiment in Autobiography, pp. 215, 687–689
31. "Joseph Stalin and H. G. Wells, Marxism vs. Liberalism: An Interview". Rationalrevolution.net. Retrieved 10 June2012.
32. "...the fall of the once-mighty Romanovs only fuelled republican sympathies elsewhere...in a letter to The Times, the celebrated author H. G. Wells asserted that “the time has come to rid ourselves of the ancient trappings of throne and sceptre". Justin C Vovk, Imperial Requiem: Four Royal Women and the Fall of the Age of Empires iUniverse, 2012. ISBN 1475917503 (p. 338)
33. https://www.theguardian.com/news/1917/a ... ainsection
34. Raymond Plummer, Nothing Need be Ugly Design & Industries Assn. Jun 1985
35. Haire, Norman (1924), Rejuvenation : the work of Steinach, Voronoff, and others, G. Allen & Unwin, retrieved 15 April 2013
36. Diana Wyndham. "'Norman Haire and the Study of Sex'". Foreword by the Hon. Michael Kirby AC CMG. Sydney: "Sydney University Press"., 2012, p. 117
37. ‘Human Rights and Public Accountability in H. G. Wells’ Functional World State’ | John Partington. Academia.edu. Retrieved on 9 August 2013.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Thu Oct 10, 2019 6:36 am

Anima mundi [World Soul]
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 10/9/19

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The world soul (Greek: ψυχὴ κόσμου psuchè kósmou, Latin: anima mundi) is, according to several systems of thought, an intrinsic connection between all living things on the planet, which relates to the world in much the same way as the soul is connected to the human body. Plato adhered to this idea and it was an important component of most Neoplatonic systems:

Therefore, we may consequently state that: this world is indeed a living being endowed with a soul and intelligence ... a single visible living entity containing all other living entities, which by their nature are all related.[1]


The Stoics believed it to be the only vital force in the universe. Similar concepts also hold in systems of eastern philosophy in the Brahman-Atman of Hinduism, the Buddha-Nature in Mahayana Buddhism, and in the School of Yin-Yang, Taoism, and Neo-Confucianism as qi.

Other resemblances can be found in the thoughts of hermetic philosophers like Paracelsus, and by Baruch Spinoza, Gottfried Leibniz, Friedrich Schelling and in Hegel's Geist ("Spirit"/"Mind"). Ralph Waldo Emerson published "The Over-Soul" in 1841, which was influenced by the Hindu conception of a universal soul. There are also similarities with ideas developed since the 1960s by Gaia theorists such as James Lovelock.

In Jewish mysticism, a parallel concept is that of "Chokhmah Ila'ah," the all-encompassing "Supernal Wisdom" that transcends, orders and vitalizes all of creation. Rabbi Nachman of Breslov states that this sublime wisdom may be apprehended (or perhaps "channeled") by a perfect tzaddik (holy man).[2] Thus, the tzaddik attains "cosmic consciousness" and thus is empowered to mitigate all division and conflict within creation.

In popular culture

The Police in their song Synchronicity refers to Anima Mundi as Spiritus Mundi.

See also

• Atman (disambiguation)
• Cosmic consciousness
• The Force in Star Wars
• Patrick Harpur
• Neoplatonism and Christianity
• Panpsychism
• Paramatman
• Unus mundus
• Weltgeist

References

1. Plato, Timaeus, 30b–c, 33b.
2. Likutey Moharan I, 61.
• Fideler, David (2014). Restoring the Soul of the World: Our Living Bond With Nature’s Intelligence. Inner Traditions. ISBN 978-162055359-6.
• Jung, C. G. (1968). Psychology and Alchemy. 12. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-691-01831-6.
• Roszak, Theodore (2001) [1992]. The Voice of the Earth: An Exploration of Ecopsychology. Phanes Press. ISBN 1-890482-80-3.
• Southern, R. W. (2001). Scholastic Humanism and the Unification of Europe, Volume II: The Heroic Age. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-631-22079-4.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sun Oct 13, 2019 6:43 am

Alfred Richard Orage (1873-1934)
by Leeds Gurdjieff Fourth Way Group
Accessed: 10/12/19

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Alfred Richard Orage was born in 1873 in North Yorkshire in the village of Dacre, near Harrogate. In 1874 his family moved to his father’s native home in Huntingdonshire. Here Orage went to the village school, and would have gone to work at the age of twelve had not the local squire, impressed with his intelligence and charm, made it possible for him to continue his studies, and eventually to go to a teachers’ training college. At the age of 21, Orage obtained a post at the Leeds Board School, and for the next ten years taught children of various ages.

This, he claimed, was an excellent preparation for his later teaching of adults. In the true sense an educator, he was able to draw people out and get them to formulate their thoughts and feelings. He had, in a high degree, the rare quality of emotional understanding, together with a gaiety and a sense of humour. Not long after coming to Leeds he met a kindred spirit in Holbrook Jackson, and the two young men formed groups to study the philosophers, and, later, they started the Leeds Arts Club, which soon became a ‘sensational success’.

In the meantime Orage developed his talent for public speaking in the open air as well as at meetings with Socialists and Theosophists;


Alfred Richard Orage (1873-1934). Author and journalist who joined the Theosophical Society (TS) on May 10, 1899. Orage was President of the Leeds (England) Lodge of the TS. He was on the staff of the periodical New Age in 1907 and founded New English Weekly in 1932. He resigned from the TS in 1908 to become a follower of G. I. Gurdjieff. He did a great deal of writing and lecturing for the TS and subsequently wrote extensively on Gurdjieff. He died November 5, 1934.

-- Alfred Richard Orage, by Theosophy World Resource Centre


he also was active as a member of the Society for Psychical Research. Throughout his activities in these varied fields, and with the Nietzscheans, Platonists and Fabians, his heart of fire was tempered with a brain of ice which prevented his being caught up in the sentimentality which so often surrounds such groups; he taught with a critical mind that questioned everything.

At the age of thirty he gave up school-teaching and went to London. He became a journalist, and for the first year made hardly enough to exist on. Holbrook Jackson had also gone to London, forsaking the lace trade for journalism. Hearing that ‘The New Age’ was for sale Jackson and Orage decided to acquire it, and induced a number of people, Bernard Shaw among them, to put up the necessary money. They soon discovered that a ‘views-paper’, a paper of ideas, can never pay its way. Jackson left to become a successful publisher and a noted bibliophile, while Orage remained to become, according to his contemporaries, the most brilliant editor that England had had for a hundred years. Almost everyone of note in the world of arts and letters – among them, Chesterton, Arnold Bennett, Belloc, Shaw and Wells – wrote for the paper, and most of them for nothing. In its columns friends were criticized impartially as were foes. It was also a school of literature with Orage as a sort of elder brother critic, which produced more than forty young writers who made their name. What many felt is expressed in a letter to him from Katherine Mansfield. She said:

“I want to thank you for all you let me learn from you. I am still very low down in the school. But you taught me to write, you taught me to think; you showed me what was to be done and what not to do…But let me thank you Orage. Thank you for everything…

Yours in admiration and gratitude,

Katherine Mansfield.”


For fourteen years Orage continued to edit ‘The New Age’. His reputation as a literary critic and writer on current affairs in almost every field of human effort was at its height when an inner discontent began increasingly to manifest itself. With all his searching he had not been able to find an answer to the question which never allowed him to sleep in peace – the question of the meaning and aim of existence. The possibility of finding an answer, however, was nearer than he supposed. P. D. Ouspensky, whom he had been in touch with for some time, arrived in London in the autumn of 1921 and spoke with him about the teachings of G. I. Gurdjieff. Orage, with Rowland Kenny, organized a study group for Ouspensky which first met at the studio of Lady [Margaret Hunam Redhead Harmsworth] Rothermere in Circus Road, N.W. After some months of work Gurdjieff himself visited the group in London early in February 1922 [2] and again for a three week visit in March of that year [3].

TIBETAN REFUGEES

Sir. – Recent devastating events in Tibet caused over 15,000 Tibetans to cross the perilous Himalayas into India. It may be a long time before these unfortunate people can safely return to their overrun country. Our own consciences should allow us neither to neglect nor forget them.

The Indian Government has manfully coped with this addition to its own problems at home. In this country we are bound in honour to help relieve needs of the Tibetan refugees, because from 1905 to 1947 there was a special relationship between Tibet and the United Kingdom – a relationship handed on to the new India.

On balance we think it wisest to concentrate chiefly on collecting money which can be used for the benefit of the refugees, not least in the purchase of necessary antibiotics and other medicaments. The Tibet Society has opened a Tibet Relief Fund for which we now appeal in the hope of a generous response. Donations should be sent to the address below or direct to the National Bank Ltd. (Belgravia Branch), 21 Grosvenor Gardens, S.W.I.

Yours faithfully,

... Harmsworth [Esmond Harmsworth, 2nd Viscount Rothermere] ... The Tibet Relief Fund, 58 Eccleston Square, S.W. I., Letter to the Times, July 31, 1959, p.7.

-- Tibet Society, by tibetsociety.com


His talks convinced Orage that he had found the teacher he was looking for, a teacher who had, as well as a system of ideas, a practical method for inner development. This realization led him to make a complete break with his old life. In October 1922, to the bewilderment of many, he sold “The New Age”, gave up his brilliant life in London – and Ouspensky’s groups – and went to live at the Gurdjieff Institute at the Chateau du Prieurie in Fontainebleau.

A year later, in December 1923, he went to New York as Gurdjieff’s representative – the latter arriving a week later with his pupils to give a number of demonstrations of sacred dances and movements of the East. Before Gurdjieff returned to France he asked Orage to settle in New York and teach his ideas. Thus began a new life for Orage, and for seven years, apart from visits to the Prieure, he remained in America working for Gurdjieff.

One of his accepted tasks, for him very difficult, was to raise money for a fund to enable Gurdjieff to write his book ‘All and Everything: An Objectively Impartial Criticism of the Life of Man; or, Beelzebub’s Tales to his Grandson.’ For some twenty years the greater part of the contribution to this fund came from the American groups. Another of Orage’s tasks was to put the book into readable English. Although he worked for several years on the book he did not live to finish the revision.


Towards the end of his seventh year in America he decided that the time had come for him to go back into life and assimilate what he had learned from Gurdjieff. He afterwards said that in many ways this period in America had been one of the most satisfying of his life. From his teachers exacting discipline and the congenial work with the groups in New York there emerged a bigger, humbler, more understanding, and more youthful man. He returned to England for good in 1931, and in April of 1932 brought out the first number of ‘The New English Weekly’. According to T. S. Elliot, Orage at this time was the best leader writer and the best literary critic in London. He was also the most penetrating writer on economics. The paper became a centre of gravity for those who were studying the causes of the disastrous breakdown of the financial system. It seemed that the paper had appeared in the midst of this economic chaos for a specific purpose. Orage’s office in Cursitor Street was the scene of constant talks and meetings. Toward the end of the paper’s third year this purpose appeared to have been accomplished. During all this time Orage had neither taught Gurdjieff’s ideas nor talked much about them, except to those of us who had been with him at the Prieurie; and he never again saw Ouspensky. But now he began to make fresh plans. D. Mitrinovic, who was interested in Gurdjieff’s ideas, was bringing out a new magazine, and Orage had arranged to be coeditor with him. Orage also intended to introduce some of Gurdjieff’s ideas into the pages of the ‘New English Weekly’, and to take up work with him again.

C. S. Nott remembers talks at this time with Orage [1]:

“We were discussing these matters at the end of 1934 whilst walking up Chancery Lane on the way home – it was the end of October 1934. Then the talk came round to our life at Fontainebleau and our friends in New York. Suddenly he turned to me and said, ‘You know, I thank God every day of my life that I met Gurdjieff’. A week later he was dead”.


Gurdjieff once said:

“I loved Orage as brother. There was indeed in him, together with the inevitable human faults and weaknesses – the denying part – such a composition of the positive qualities that all sorts and conditions of men could not help but love and respect him”.


His body lies in Old Hampstead Churchyard. On the stone is the enneagram carved by his friend Eric Gill, with Krishna’s words to Arjuna:

“You grieve for those who should not be grieved for. The wise grieve neither for the living nor the dead. Never at any time was I not, nor thou, nor these princes of men. Nor shall we cease to be hereafter. The unreal has no being. The real never ceases to be.”


_______________

References:

[1] Orage, Alfred R., 1954. Essays and Aphorisms, Biographical note by C.S. Nott, London: Janus Press.

[2] Moore, James, 1991. Gurdjieff – The Anatomy of a Myth, Dorset: Element.

[3] de Hartmann, Thomas and Olga, 1922. Our Life with Mr. Gurdjieff , London: Arkana/Penguin.

Acknowledgments

Access to written material has been kindly provided by the staff of the Brotherton Special Collections Library at the University of Leeds.

Every effort has been made to obtain permissions from holders of copyright material. However, if any copyright owner has been omitted, the author of this web site would be grateful for any additional copyright information, and undertakes to rectify any omissions.

Explicit permission to quote from the works of A. R. Orage has been kindly provided by Mrs. Anne Orage.
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A Matter of Fact
by Alfred P. Rubin
The American Journal of International Law
Vol. 59, Issue 3, pp. 586-590
July, 1965

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An article in a recent issue of the JOURNAL which presented an Indian perspective on the India-China border dispute1 demonstrated the weaknesses as well as some strengths of the Indian position. My own views as to relative strengths and weaknesses of the positions of India and China in the border dispute at an earlier stage have been published elsewhere2 and I do not propose to repeat them here. However, a short summary of Professor Sharma's mistakes of fact might be appreciated by the legal community.

A. Eastern Sector

It is incorrect to say that Tibet was "an independent state under the rule of the Dalai Lama before it became a vassal of China."3 The temporal power of the Dalai Lamas is normally considered to have begun as a donation from Kublai Khan, a Mongol Emperor of China, in the thirteenth century.4 There does not seem to exist any document or recorded statement that can properly be called a "declaration of independence in 1912" issued by any Tibetan authority.5 The first official assertion that one existed, so far as I have been able to discover, was in 1950.6 There is ample evidence that whatever statements were issued in 1912 (or at any other time until the 1940's) fell far short of claiming "independence" of China.7

Tibet for at least 100 years prior to 1914 did not have "freedom to make agreements with other peoples" or "freedom to conduct foreign relations."8 Although Tibet had some authority to speak internationally, there is no evidence that this authority in the field of foreign relations could properly be exercised independently of a Chinese delegation.
While there are many international agreements in which both China and Tibet appear as parties on one side,9 there is no reason to regard this system of dual signature to documents with effects only in the remote fringes of her Empire as negating the demonstrable necessity for a Chinese signature on the documents. "With the exception of the 1856 Treaty with Nepal, none of the agreements cited was concluded without very clear Chinese participation.10 In the case of the Nepal Treaty the facts as to actual Chinese participation are not clear.11

The assertion that in 1914 Tibet was a state "recognized as such by China itself"12 is not supported in Professor Sharma's article by any citation of authority. It is generally accepted that China did not recognize any degree of rightful independence in Tibet at or near that time.13

Tibet did not have "clear competence" to confirm the validity of the boundary between Tibet and India in 1914.14 The fact that the Notes appended to the Simla Convention referred to Tibet as part of Chinese territory15 made the competence of Tibet far from clear
and made the "genuineness" of the expectations of the members of the Simla Conference questionable with regard to the effects they hoped to claim as a result of the Simla transaction. Sir Henry McMahon, the British principal negotiator, has never before had naivete imputed to him in connection with this negotiation.16

Chinese official ratification of the Simla draft of April 27, 1914, was regarded by all participants at the Conference as essential to the conclusion of the attempted settlement, even though the Chinese negotiator had initialed it. After the refusal of Peking to authorize the conclusion of the Agreement on the basis of the draft of April 27, the British and Tibetans proceeded to alter that draft. The final draft of July 3, 1914, was never initialed by any Chinese, officially or unofficially. Yet even this draft contained the clauses indicating British reluctance to recognize Tibetan territorial independence of China, and thus Tibetan failure to insist upon such recognition.17 In these circumstances it is difficult to understand how the phrases "genuine expectations,"18 "factual acceptance,"19 "commitment,"20 and "mutual expectations"21 can be used to describe the results of the Simla Conference in any meaningful way.

It is not true that "at no time was sovereignty of the northern territory [of Assam] to the crest of the Himalayas . . . acquired by either the Tibetans or Chinese.''22 Parts of the Eastern Sector were under Tibetan control at the time of the first British investigations into the area.23 The tale of the drawing of the McMahon Line, and its deviations from ethnic, traditional, and even watershed lines has been concisely told elsewhere.24 These deviations appear to concern specific sections of the Eastern Sector, and thus general allegations as to the validity of the Indian position in some areas cannot properly be taken to support the Indian position throughout the area.25

It is not true, as asserted by Professor Sharma, that China has "acquiesced in the McMahon Line for over 45 years."26 On the contrary, it appears likely that the British authorities in India were not aware of repeated Tibetan assertions of right in the area on the Indian side of the McMahon Line.27

Of maps incorporating the McMahon Line the only one cited which was issued by the Chinese Government was the Postal Map of India of 1917.28 It has been pointed out elsewhere,29 that this map was based upon non-Chinese sources and was issued by a government department not concerned with boundaries in that area. More importantly, however, the Chinese have been able to cite as much, if not more, in the way of official maps issued by the Government of India to support the other side of the case in this Sector.30

B. Central Sector

Very little argument concerning the Central Sector is presented in Professor Sharma's work. The disputed areas, excepting the potential disputes over actual sovereignty in the denned areas of Bhutan and Sikkim, are small and economically and strategically of minor importance to both sides. It should be pointed out, however, that China at no time "clearly regarded the passes under discussion as border passes" in the treaty discussions of 1954.31 The treaty itself32 does not refer to the six passes in question as "border" passes, but says only that "Traders and pilgrims of both countries may travel by the following passes . . ."33 There is no question that the passes mentioned define known routes. It would thus appear that the Chinese acceptance of this ambiguous language in place of their proposal for language making it plain that the passes were in Chinese territory was, although a concession from the Chinese point of view, hardly an acceptance of the Indian version of the border in this area.34 There was, therefore, no "actual shared expectation" as to a border definition35 arising out of this transaction, since the Indian "expectation," however "actual," was certainly not "shared" by the Chinese, whose views had in fact been clearly presented.

C. Western Sector

Neither the 1684 Treaty nor the 1842 Treaty defines the portion of the bulk of the area in this Sector which is under dispute.36 There is no "demarcation" defining the portion of the area in this Sector which is under dispute.37 The deficiencies of the treaties38 are borne out by the fact that the 11 British attempts to define the "customary" border between 1815 and 1900 resulted in 11 different definitions involving at least 3 major basic patterns.39

The control and authority of India in the form of effective administration and jurisdiction have never prevailed "all through the Ladakh Sector" to the exclusion of effective Chinese administration and jurisdiction.40 As noted above, the British conception of the extent of their dominion in the Ladakh area was constantly changing during the 19th century and, in this almost totally unpopulated region, there appears never to have been either occasion or accident resulting in actual Indian assertions of right significantly more substantial than Chinese assertions before the construction of the Chinese motor road through Aksai Chin.

The Chinese claim in Aksai Chin does not rest upon the fact that a Chinese road, built in 1956-1957, was not discovered by India until "some months" later or upon any prescriptive right to the road itself as an easement.41 It purports to rest instead upon the same basis as the Indian claim: long undisturbed exercise of administration and jurisdiction. The earliest known recent practical use of the area by the Chinese was in their invasion of Tibet in 1950, not in the construction of their road.42 The Government of India did not discover the road until about a year after its completion—certainly more than two years from the time work on it began.43

D. Conclusion

The foregoing analysis does not support any part of the Chinese claim or deny the ultimate validity of any particular part of the Indian claim. It does, however, indicate the extent to which the Indian perspective has been achieved in disregard of the facts. Although this short comment is directed to an Indian exegesis, it is only fair to note that the Chinese position, exaggerated apparently to allow for the give-and-take of negotiation the Chinese attempted to begin in New Delhi in April of 1960, is also based in part upon misapprehensions of fact.

ALFRED P. RUBIN

_______________

Notes:

1 Surya P. Sharma, "The India-China Border Dispute: An Indian Perspective," 59 A.J.I.L. 16 (1965).

2 A. P. Rubin, '"The Sino-Indian Border Disputes,'' 9 Int. and Comp. Law Q. 96 (1960). Professor Sharma's criticism of this work in note 13 on p. 19 of his article is too grotesque to warrant comment. The interested reader may peruse the original to discern for himself the nature of Professor Sharma's distortion.

3 Sharma, loc. cit. 21, note 23.

4. W. W. Rockhill, "The Dalai Lamas of Lhasa and their Relations with the Manchu Emperors of China, 1644-1908," 11 T'oung Pao 2 (1910); G. Schulemann, Geschicht der Dalai Lamas 92 (Leipzig, 1958); H. E. Richardson, A Short History of Tibet 34 (New York, 1962). The fullest scope of temporal authority probably exercised by the Dalai Lamas before 1912 was from the donation of authority and establishment of their title by Gusri Khan in 1642 until the conquest of Tibet by the Dzungarians in 1717. At that point Gusri's heirs and possibly the deposed Dalai Lama invited help from the Manchu-Chinese who restored the Dalai Lama to partial authority and reorganized the Tibetan constitution in 1720. Richardson, op. cit. 39 et seq.; Schulemann, op. cit. 233-234, 292 et seq. The Manchu-Chinese remained more or less the dominant political authority in Tibet from that time until 1911.

5 Sharma, loc. cit. 21, note 23. 6

6 Letter from the Tibetan Government to the Secretary General of the United Nations dated Lhasa, Nov. 7, 1950. U.N. Doc. Note to Correspondents No. 233. See also U.N. Docs. A/1549, A/1565 and A/1658. The letter is reproduced also in Dalai Lama, My Land and My People, Appendix II (London, 1962). See p. 229.

7 It would be tedious in this place to analyze all reported statements of the Dalai Lama in 1912 to show that none can be fairly construed in context to declare Tibetan independence of China. It may be noted that in 1914 the Lhasa Government of Tibet was prepared to agree publicly that Tibet formed "part of Chinese territory." See the Schedule of Notes to the Simla Convention of 1914, par. 1, in C. U. Aitchison, A Collection of Treaties . . . , Vol. XIV, at p. 38 (Calcutta, 1929).

8 Sharma, loc. cit. 21-22.

9 Some are cited in ibid. 21, note 24.

10 The Chinese role in negotiating the 1904 Anglo-Tibetan Agreement was very great indeed. See Parliamentary Papers (U.K.), Cd. 1920 (1904), Cd. 2054 (1904) and Cd. 2370 (1905), passim. Aside from the Nepal-Tibet Treaty of 1856, this is the only agreement cited by Professor Sharma which does not actually have a Chinese signature on it. It was, in fact, signed in the absence of the Dalai Lama but in the presence of the Chinese Viceroy of Tibet in Lhasa and with enthusiastic Chinese approval.

11 Schulemann, op. cit. 355.

12 Sharma, loc. cit. 22.

13 Cf. Aide-Memoire of the British Embassy to the U. S. Department of State dated April 19, 1943, reprinted in U. S. Dept. of State, Foreign Relations of the United States, 1943, China, p. 626 at p. 627 (Washington, 1957); C. P. Fitzgerald, The Birth of Communist China 245 (Baltimore, Pelican, 1964).

14 Sharma, loc. cit. 23.

15 See note 7 above.

16 Quite the contrary. See Alistair Lamb, The China-India Border 145 (London, 1964, hereinafter cited as Lamb). Dr. Lamb's excellent summary of historical fact relating to the border is fully annotated.

17. Ibid. 51-52, 144-145.

18 Sharma, loc. cit. 22.

19. Ibid.

20 ibid. 23.

21. Ibid. 45.

22 Ibid. 31.

23 The very complex pattern of Tibetan-Chinese assertion of authority, quite possibly amounting to assertions of sovereignty in this area, are admirably laid out in Lamb, pp. 115 et seq.

24 Ibid. 142 et seq., 148 et seq.

25 As is sought to be done in Sharma, loc. cit. 32.

26 Ibid. 37.

27 Lamb 153 et seq.

28 Sharma, loc. cit. 38.

29 Lamb 46.

30 Report of the Officials of the Governments of India and the People's Republic of China on the Boundary Question, New Delhi, 1961 (hereinafter cited as Report), pp. CR 210, citation no. 45, and CE 211, citation no. 56.

31 Sharma, loc. cit. 25-26.

32 Government of India, Notes, Memoranda and Letters Exchanged and Agreements signed between the Governments of India and China, 1954-1959, New Delhi, 1959 (Vol. III in this indispensable series will be cited below as White Paper III), p. 98.

33 Art. IV.

34 A fair statement of the negotiation on this point is in Report 85. The conclusion drawn in that place from the transaction described seems insupportable. See Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs to Indian Embassy at Peking, Note dated Dec. 26, 1959, in White Paper III, p. 60 at p. 63.

35 Sharma, loc. cit. 25.

36 Ibid. 27.

37 Ibid. 29.

38 They are pointed out in Lamb 49-50.

39 Fraser in 1815 (relying mainly on the memory of a single Indian informant rather than his own information); Moorecroft in 1820-1822; Boundary Commissions in 1846 and 1847 (both of which included Cunningham; see Sharma, loc. cit. 34); W. H. Johnson in 1864-1865; The Kashmir Survey in 1868; E. B. Shaw in 1870; Dr. Henderson in 1870; Trelawney Saunders in 1873; Douglas Forsyth in 1873-1874; George Macartney in 1898-1899; and John Ardagh in 1899. These various attempts at definition, and their discrepancies, and the reasons for the discrepancies, are summarized in Lamb 59-87, 100-108.

40 Sharma, loc cit. 34, 36.

41 Ibid. 35.

42 Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs to Indian Embassy at Peking, Note dated Dec. 26, 1959, in White Paper III, p. 60 at p. 67.

43 Chou En-Lai to Jawaharlal Nehru, Letter dated Dec. 17, 1959, ibid., p. 52 at p. 54.
 
********************************************

Tibet’s Declarations of Independence
by David A. McCabe
The American Journal of International Law, Vol. 60, No. 2, pp. 369-371
April, 1966

If one applies a low flame to a teapot on the 15,000-foot high Tibetan plateau, the water inside will bubble furiously without giving off much steam or heat. To master this concept is to understand China’s influence in Tibet during the second decade of this century.

No matter how much blustering came from Peking, the external political pressures on Tibet were applied by Great Britain and Russia. China’s role had become ancillary, and Chinese influence was determined and prescribed by whatever plan Great Britain considered would best eliminate Russia’s growing influence in Tibet. It is in this context that comments on any aspect of Tibet’s legal status in 1912 must be viewed.

A decisive turning point in Tibet’s status was the declaration of independence in 1912, existence of which is denied in a note in the July, 1965, JOURNAL by Alfred P. Rubin1 purporting to correct “mistakes of fact” in the Sino-Indian border dispute analysis by Professor Surya P. Sharma in the January, 1965, JOURNAL.2 Mr. Rubin states:

There does not seem to exist any document or recorded statement that can properly be called a “declaration of independence in 1912” issued by any Tibetan authority…. There is ample evidence that whatever statements were issued in 1912 (or at any other time until the 1940’s) fell far short of claiming “independence” of China.3


There is clear and convincing evidence that Mr. Rubin’s suggestion of fact is wrong.

I. On December 29, 1912, Tibet and Mongolia concluded a treaty at Urga which acknowledged mutual independence. The relevant language, in Article 2, states:

The ruler of the Mongol people, Chjebzun Damba Lama, approves and recognizes [sic] the formation of on [sic] independent (Thibetan) State and the proclamation of the Dalai Lama as ruler of Thibet.5


While at least one commentator has reported that the Tibetan envoy lacked authority to conclude the Urga Treaty,5 no statements to this effect appeared prior to the Simla Conference of 1913-1914. At that time, the possibility of any alliance between Russia-courted Mongolia and Tibet had become especially repugnant to Great Britain, whose policy was to maintain Tibet as a Russia-India buffer. It is probable that the idea of discrediting the treaty was developed to further this policy and to highlight Tibet’s swing toward Great Britain.

As frontiersmen following the traditions of Younghusband, their 'founding father', the cadre promoted 'forward' policies, designed to counter the perceived Russian threat to British India by extending British influence over the Himalayas. But Whitehall refused to support these policies to avoid damaging relations with China and other powers who regarded Tibet as part of China. The increased control exerted by central government over the imperial periphery in this period meant that, although the Tibet cadre did succeed in their primary aim of establishing British representation in Lhasa, they were unable to exert a dominant influence on policy-making either in Whitehall or in Lhasa....

Whitehall refused to allow the Government of India to establish a representative in the Tibetan capital, which had been one of Curzon's main policy aims. Younghusband, hoping to salvage Curzon's policy, negotiated a separate agreement with the Tibetans, not included in the Convention.[32] This gave the Gyantse Trade Agent the right to visit Lhasa. Whitehall, however, anxious to avoid continuing involvement in Tibet, rejected the separate agreement, and also reduced the period of the indemnity payments to three years. [33]....

’Forward' policies were even less attractive to Whitehall, whose global perspective gave it an aversion to expanding the frontiers of its empire. Both Russia and China always opposed any extension of British influence in Tibet, while after World War One this opposition widened to include Japan, America and later Nazi Germany, all of whom employed varying degrees of anti-colonialist rhetoric in regard to the British presence in Tibet. Whitehall was particularly concerned to avoid alienating the Chinese, with whom British trade ties were of great economic importance, and therefore sought to solve the Tibetan question through negotiations with China and Russia, leading to wider regional agreements.

There was an obvious tendency for the interests of Whitehall and the Government of India to clash in areas of foreign policy. Measures which India considered essential to safeguard its security interests could be strongly opposed by Whitehall because of their effect on British foreign relations. Whitehall therefore sought to increase its control over India's foreign policy and to limit India's expansionist tendencies. They were deeply distrustful of the frontiersmen and their plans for expanding British authority, and by the turn of this century, improved communications had enabled Whitehall to bring India more firmly under their control. The age of expansion of the British South Asian empire was practically over.

Curzon's period as Viceroy was of seminal importance to Anglo-Tibetan relations, but it marked the high tide of empire on India's north-east frontier. When Curzon ordered Younghusband to Tibet, this seemed likely to end in a British Tibetan protectorate. Whitehall's refusal to allow a British presence to be established at Lhasa was a fatal blow to Curzon's plans, but Younghusband appeared to salvage part of Curzon's aims by obtaining the right to occupy the Chumbi Valley (which was of great strategic importance in that it offered a possible invasion route to and from India) for 75 years; that should have brought the Chumbi Valley into the British Indian empire. But while Younghusband considered that 'I do not see the slightest prospect of our ever being able to give Chumbi up whatever His Majesty's Government may say about not occupying any part of Tibet', Whitehall again refused to approve such a 'forward' move.[50]...

While the Tibet cadre sought to promote an image of Tibet as a separate state, this was restricted by Whitehall's refusal to recognise Tibet as fully-independent....


As will be seen, most cadre officers did their best to strengthen Tibet, albeit under British supervision, but the Tibetan cause was of little concern to Whitehall after World War One, and of no concern at all after World War Two. Thus the Tibetans were abandoned to their fate, despite the efforts of the 'men on the spot'.

-- Tibet and the British Raj, 1904-47: The Influence of the Indian Political Department Officers, by Alexander McKay


II. Affirmation of the Urga Treaty’s validity as evidence of Tibet’s intent appears in several British Foreign Office file references to the fact that independence had been declared. Citation of each would be tedious, but one at least merits attention. Sir Henry McMahon, Britain’s delegate to the Simla Conference, said in his final report:

At the commencement of the year 1913 Thibet was in arms against her neighbour and suzerain China; the Chinese Resident, with his escort and troops, had been driven from the country, and Thibet had declared its independence.6


III. Other evidence of a declaration of independence is contained in Tibet’s opening brief at the conference:

It is decided that Thibet is an independent State and that the precious Protector, the Dalai Lama, is the Ruler of Thibet, in all temporal as well as in spiritual affairs.7


The logical conclusion is that by 1914 Tibet had expressly declared its independence at least twice. Contrary to what Mr. Rubin suggests, it is not necessary to analyze “all reported statements of the Dalai Lama in 1912”8 to show that at least one might possibly be construed as declaring independence. Such a task should be spared even the most diligent fact-finder.

Grasping at Straws: trying to find some way to succeed when nothing you choose is likely to work:
We searched all the backup tapes, trying to find the missing files, but we knew we were grasping at straws.

-- Grasping at Straws, by Cambridge Dictionary


______________

Notes:

1. Rubin, “A Matter of Fact,” 59 A.J.I.L. 586 (1965).

2. Sharma, “The India-China Border Dispute: An Indian Perspective,” ibid. 16.

3. Rubin, loc. cit. at 586-587.

5. Mongol-Thibetan Treaty, Foreign Office File F.O. 535/16, Enclosure 1 in No. 88, p. 66 (1914). Other versions of the treaty appear in Perry-Ayscough & Otter-Barry, With the Russians in Mongolia 10-13 (1914) and Bell, Tibet Past and Present 304-305 (1924).

5. Bell, op. cit. at 151.

6. McMahon, Final Memorandum of the Thibet Conference, Foreign Office File F.O. 535/17, Enclosure 1 in No. 231, p. 231 (1915).

7. Proceedings of the First Meeting of the Thibet Conference held at Simla on October 13, 1913. “Statement of the Thibetan Claims,” Foreign Office File F.O. 535/16, Annex IV to Enclosure in No. 413, p. 393 (1914).

8. Rubin, loc. cit. note 1 above, at 587, note 7.

********************************************

"Tibetan Declaration of Independence": Proclamation Issued by His Holiness the 13th Dalai Lama in 1913
from Tibet House US: Overview, by Tibet House US, quoting "Tibet: A Political History, by Tsepon W.D. Shagapda, New Haven, 1967, pp. 246-248."

PROCLAMATION ISSUED BY H.H. THE DALAI LAMA XIII, ON THE EIGHTH DAY OF THE FIRST MONTH OF THE WATER-OX YEAR (1913) February 14, 1913]

In Ancient Rome, Lupercalia, observed February 13–15, was an archaic rite connected to fertility.

-- Valentine's Day, by Wikipedia


It would be tedious in this place to analyze all reported statements of the Dalai Lama in 1912 to show that none can be fairly construed in context to declare Tibetan independence of China.

-- A Matter of Fact, by Alfred P. Rubin (1965)

***

Contrary to what Mr. Rubin suggests, it is not necessary to analyze “all reported statements of the Dalai Lama in 1912” to show that at least one might possibly be construed as declaring independence. Such a task should be spared even the most diligent fact-finder.

-- Tibet’s Declarations of Independence, by David A. McCabe (1966)

***

We are a small, religious, and independent nation….. To safeguard and maintain the independence of our country, one and all should voluntarily work hard.

-- "Tibetan Declaration of Independence": Proclamation Issued by His Holiness the 13th Dalai Lama in 1913 (1967)


Translation of the Tibetan Text

I, the Dalai Lama, most omniscient possessor of the Buddhist faith, whose title was conferred by the Lord Buddha’s command from the glorious land of India, speak to you as follows:

I am speaking to all classes of Tibetan people. Lord Buddha, from the glorious country of India, prophesied that the reincarnations of Avalokitesvara, through successive rulers from the early religious kings to the present day, would look after the welfare of Tibet.


During the time of Genghis Khan and Altan Khan of the Mongols, the Ming dynasty of the Chinese, and the Ch’ing Dynasty of the Manchus, Tibet and China cooperated on the basis of benefactor and priest relationship. A few years ago, the Chinese authorities in Szechuan and Yunnan endeavored to colonize our territory. They brought large numbers of troops into central Tibet on the pretext of policing the trade marts. I, therefore, left Lhasa with my ministers for the Indo-Tibetan border, hoping to clarify to the Manchu emperor by wire that the existing relationship between Tibet and China had been that of patron and priest and had not been based on the subordination of one to the other. There was no other choice for me but to cross the border, because Chinese troops were following with the intention of taking me alive or dead.

On my arrival in India, I dispatched several telegrams to the Emperor; but his reply to my demands was delayed by corrupt officials at Peking. Meanwhile, the Manchu empire collapsed. The Tibetans were encouraged to expel the Chinese from central Tibet. I, too, returned safely to my rightful and sacred country, and I am now in the course of driving out the remnants of Chinese troops from DoKham in Eastern Tibet. Now, the Chinese intention of colonizing Tibet under the patron-priest relationship has faded like a rainbow in the sky. Having once again achieved for ourselves a period of happiness and peace, I have now allotted to all of you the following duties to be carried out without negligence:

A declaration of independence or declaration of statehood is an assertion by a defined territory that it is independent ...

Independence is a condition of a person, nation, country, or state in which its residents and population, or some portion thereof, exercise self-government, and usually sovereignty, over the territory. The opposite of independence is the status of a dependent territory.

Whether the attainment of independence is different from revolution has long been contested, and has often been debated over the question of violence as legitimate means to achieving sovereignty.

-- Independence, by Wikipedia


and constitutes a state.

In international law, a sovereign state, sovereign country, or simply state, is a political entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area. International law defines sovereign states as having a permanent population, defined territory, one government, and the capacity to enter into relations with other sovereign states.[1] It is also normally understood that a sovereign state is neither dependent or non subjected to any other power or state.[2]

-- Sovereign State, by Wikipedia


Such places are usually declared from part or all of the territory of another state or failed state, or are breakaway territories from within the larger state.

-- Declaration of Independence, by Wikipedia


1. Peace and happiness in this world can only be maintained by preserving the faith of Buddhism. It is, therefore, essential to preserve all Buddhist institutions in Tibet, such as the Jokhang temple and Ramoche in Lhasa, Samye, and Traduk in southern Tibet, and the three great monasteries, etc.

Lamaism: Early History

What precise form of Buddhism first came to Royal Tibet from China, before the imported Tantra of Indian yogis took it over, is not precisely known. Most historians agree that a stream of Chinese Buddhism influenced a certain Tsongsten Gampo, a seventh century Tibetan chieftain, who wanted to expand and then centralize his power with the help of Chinese protection, after conquering other fighting Tibetan tribes. To accomplish this, he married a Chinese princess, Wen Cheng, of the ruling T'ang dynasty, thus initiating formal relations with China. Princess Wen Cheng not only introduced Buddhism, but a higher cultural influence into the tribal royal reaches of Tibet. She brought butter, tea, cheese, barley beer, ancient medical knowledge, and astrology.75 Her form of Buddhism was probably closer to the Chan Buddhism that had spread into Korea, and later into Japan, developing into Zen Buddhism.

This conversion to Chinese Buddhism was not accomplished easily in Tibet. It was a period of constant struggle between the Bon shamanism of the indigenous people, and this new religion, brought to her royal chieftain by this Chinese princess. For it to take hold, as the established religion, beyond the interests of the royal families and their aristocracy, generations of bloody struggles ensued, while more Vajrayana occultism and Tantric Indian guru-worship permeated what eventually became an amalgam of Buddhism, Bon, and Tantra.

When an Indian sorcerer and sadhu, Guru Padmasambhava76 was invited to Tibet in the eighth century by King Trisong Detsen, Tsongsten Gampo's successor, and was asked to help this royal chieftain curb the rebellious Bon resistance, a wrathful repression of the indigenous Bon took place, even though much of its iconography and influence remained.

King Detsen was a more ardent practitioner than his predecessor, Tsongsten Gampo but, like him, took a practical approach to the Tibetan Lamaist priesthood that was growing inside Tibet, and who saw the uses of these lamas, in unifying the warring Tibetan chieftain tribes. He now declared Tibetan Lamaism the state religion and, following an Indian custom, awarded landed estates and serfs to the Lamaist monasteries that were already starting to proliferate, as its monastic movement spread,77 King Detsen was such a zealous Lamaist that he protected the lama clergy by creating a barbaric code that facilitated their guru-worship and future religious dictatorship when he declared:

He who shows a finger to a monk shall have his finger cut off; he who speaks ill of the monks and king's Buddhist policy shall have his lips cut off; he who looks askance at them shall have his eyes put out; he who them shall pay according to the rule of the restitution of eighty times (the value of the article stolen).78


King Detsen also financially empowered the Lamaist monasteries further, by making them exempt from any taxes and free from performing the hated corvee79 demanded of the peasants by the nobility of Tibet.

Soon, the lamas were also demanding corvee from the Tibetan peasants and, as the Lamaseries' powers grew, the lamas were collecting their own taxes and issuing their own debt notes, that amounted to a debilitating usury on the ordinary Tibetan people whose children and grandchildren inherited the debt. This ensured impoverishment for the vast majority, for centuries, with very little means of social and economic fluidity.

As the monasteries flourished, the lamas kept gaining power, by incorporating the Buddhist concept of "karma," into their predetermined and absolutist Lamaist rule and the Tibetan peoples' fate was sealed. In 797, King Trisong Detsen was succeeded by his second son, Muni Tsenpo who, in a moment of real compassion, tried to devise some way to redistribute some of the wealth in Tibet among its suffering and increasingly impoverished people. However, in the end, the Lamaist system prevailed, and Muni Tsenpo was rewarded by being poisoned by his own mother.80

Padmasambhava, King Trisong Detsen's Tantric Indian sorcerer, always considered more important than the historical Buddha in Tibet, further sealed the fate of the Tibetan people when he publically declared that:

Our condition in this life is entirely dependent upon the actions of our previous life and nothing can be done to alter the scheme of things.81


Poverty and misery; perpetuated by the lamas and their wealthy circle of relatives, who increasingly took over the royal families and their rule, was now to be accepted as one's "karma" from past deeds. This ended any possibility of real compassion for the people of Tibet for the next twelve hundred years.

-- Enthralled, The Guru Cult of Tibetan Buddhism, by Chris Chandler


2. The various Buddhist sects in Tibet should be kept in a distinct and pure form. Buddhism should be taught, learned, and meditated upon properly. Except for special persons, the administrators of monasteries are forbidden to trade, loan money, deal in any kind of livestock, and/or subjugate another’s subjects.

The Buddha was born into a noble family.... His father was king Suddhodana, leader of the Shakya clan in what was the growing state of Kosala, and his mother was queen Maya Devi....A prophecy indicated that if the child stayed at home he was destined to become a world ruler. If the child left home, however, he would become a universal spiritual leader. To make sure the boy would be a great king and world ruler, his father isolated him in his palace.... Separated from the world, he later married Yashodhara (Yaśodhara was the daughter of King Suppabuddha and Amita), and together they had one child, a son, Rāhula....

At the age of 29, Siddhartha left his palace to meet his subjects. Despite his father's efforts to hide from him the sick, aged and suffering, Siddhartha was said to have seen an old man. When his charioteer Channa explained to him that all people grew old, the prince went on further trips beyond the palace. On these he encountered a diseased man, a decaying corpse, and an ascetic. These depressed him, and he initially strove to overcome ageing, sickness, and death by living the life of an ascetic.

Accompanied by Channa and riding his horse Kanthaka, Gautama quit his palace for the life of a mendicant. It's said that "the horse's hooves were muffled by the gods" to prevent guards from knowing of his departure.

Gautama initially went to Rajagaha and began his ascetic life by begging for alms in the street. After King Bimbisara's men recognised Siddhartha and the king learned of his quest, Bimbisara offered Siddhartha the throne. Siddhartha rejected the offer but promised to visit his kingdom of Magadha first, upon attaining enlightenment.


-- Family of Gautama Buddha, by Wikipedia


3. The Tibetan government’s civil and military officials, when collecting taxes or dealing with their subject citizens, should carry out their duties with fair and honest judgment so as to benefit the government without hurting the interests of the subject citizens. Some of the central government officials posted at Ngari Korsum in western Tibet, and Do Kham in eastern Tibet, are coercing their subject citizens to purchase commercial goods at high prices and have imposed transportation rights exceeding the limit permitted by the government. Houses, properties and lands belonging to subject citizens have been confiscated on the pretext of minor breaches of the law. Furthermore, the amputation of citizens’ limbs has been carried out as a form of punishment. Henceforth, such severe punishments are forbidden.

Evil-doers are publicly sentenced. The punishments are pretty drastic but they seem to suit the mentality of the population. I was told of a man who had stolen a golden butter-lamp from one of the temples in Kyirong. He was convicted of the offence, and what we would think an inhuman sentence was carried out. His hands were publicly cut off and he was then sewn up in a wet yak-skin. After this had been allowed to dry, he was thrown over a precipice....

Theft and various minor offences are punished with public whipping. A board is slung round the neck of the offender on which his offence is written, and he has to stand for a few days in a sort of pillory. Here again charitable people come and give him food and drink. When highwaymen or robbers are caught they are usually condemned to have a hand or a foot cut off. I was horrified to see in what manner wounds so inflicted were sterilised. The limb is plunged into boiling butter and held there.


-- Seven Years in Tibet, by Heinrich Harrer


4. Tibet is a country with rich natural resources; but it is not scientifically advanced like other lands. We are a small, religious, and independent nation. To keep up with the rest of the world, we must defend our country. In view of past invasions by foreigners, our people may have to face certain difficulties, which they must disregard. To safeguard and maintain the independence of our country, one and all should voluntarily work hard. Our subject citizens residing near the borders should be alert and keep the government informed by special messenger of any suspicious developments. Our subjects must not create major clashes between two nations because of minor incidents.

For Mackiernan two more months would pass at the frozen campsite. Finally, on March 20, 1950, he and his band said good-bye to the Kazakhs and commenced the final and most grueling leg of their journey, over the Himalayas, into Tibet, and eventually to India. From here on, Mackiernan and his men would be ever more exposed to the elements. At night, Mackiernan would lie down in his sleeping bag, huddled against the back of a camel to shield him from the wind. At morning he and Bessac, the two Americans, could no longer assist in saddling the camels. Their fingers were too numb....

Though there was an abundance of game -- wild horses, sheep, and yak -- the elevation presented its own unique problems of consumption. At sixteen thousand feet, Mackiernan found that water boiled at a decidedly lesser temperature. He could thrust his hand up to the elbow in furiously boiling water and remove it without a hint of scalding. One day Mackiernan shot a yak. The men salivated over the prospect of yak steaks. But after four hours in the boiling cauldron, the meat was still raw....

Mackiernan's clothes had long since become tatters, which he, like the other men, repaired as best he could. But a bigger concern was how to protect their feet in the deep and frigid snowdrifts. After so many miles, the men had virtually walked out of the soles of their shoes. One day, Mackiernan and Zvonzov spotted two yaks. Both men were thinking shoes and meat. Mackiernan let Zvonzov, the better shot of the two, have the honors....

As March, then April wore on, Mackiernan and his men plotted a course for the Tibetan border. At each new campsite, Mackiernan took out his radio and wired headquarters of his progress. He requested that Washington contact the Tibetan government and ask the then sixteen-year-old Dalai Lama to arrange that he and his men be granted safe passage across the border and that they be given an escort once they exited China. Washington sent back a confirmation. Couriers from the Dalai Lama would alert the border guards at all crossing points so that Mackieman and his band would be welcomed....

Thousands of miles away, in Washington, the landscape of the Cold War was taking shape. On April 25, 1950, President Truman signed one of the seminal documents of the decade, National Security Council Directive 68. The blueprint for the Cold War strategy, it called on the United States to step up its opposition to Communist expansion, to rearm itself and to make covert operations an integral part of that opposition. The policy of containment was now the undisputed security objective of the era. The CIA had its marching orders.

But for Mackiernan it was not grand geopolitical issues that concerned him, but the ferocity of mountain winds and biting cold. The border had proved more elusive than he had imagined. Finally, at 11:00 A.M. on April 29, 1950, as he scanned the horizon to the southeast with his binoculars, he caught sight of a tiny Tibetan encampment and knew that he had at long last reached the border. It had taken seven months to cross twelve hundred miles of desert and mountain. A moment earlier he had been weary beyond words, his thirty-seven-year old frame stooped with exhaustion. Now, suddenly, he felt renewed and exuberant.

Mackiernan and Bessac went ahead, leaving the others to tend the camels. In the harsh terrain it was an hour before the Tibetans caught sight of Mackiernan, who was now a quarter of a mile ahead of Bessac. He was waving a white flag. The Tibetans dispatched a girl to meet him. They grinned at each other, unable to find any words in common. The girl stuck out her tongue at Mackiernan, a friendly greeting in Tibet, then withdrew to a hilltop where she was met by a Tibetan who unlimbered a gun. Then the two Tibetans disappeared over the hillside. Mackiernan followed and observed a small group apparently reinforcing a makeshift fortification of rocks. Their guns appeared to be at the ready.

Mackiernan decided that it would be best to strike camp here, on the east side of a stream that meandered through the valley. He chose a place in sight of the Tibetans. There he built a small fire to show his peaceful intentions. He suspected that the Tibetans might be wary of his straggling caravan, fearing them to be Communists or bandits bent on rustling sheep. As Mackiernan, Zvonzov, and the other two Russians drove tent stakes into the hard ground, six more Tibetans on horseback appeared, approaching from the northwest.

Moments later shots rang out. Mackiernan and his men dropped to the ground for cover. Bullets were whizzing overhead. Zvonzov reached for the flap of the tent and ripped it free. He tied it to the end of his rifle as a white flag and waved it aloft. The gunfire stopped. No one had been hit. Mackiernan directed Bessac to approach the first group of Tibetans and offer them gifts of raisins, tobacco, and cloth. As Bessac approached, he held a white flag and was taken in by the Tibetans.

Mackiernan, meanwhile, was convinced he could persuade those who had fired on him that his party was not a threat. His plan was a simple one. He and the others would rise to their feet, hands held high above their heads. Slowly they would approach the Tibetans as a group. Zvonzov argued against the plan. He feared the Tibetans would simply open fire when they were most vulnerable. Mackiernan prevailed.

Slowly he and the three White Russians stood up, hands aloft. They walked in measured steps, closing the distance between their tent site and the Tibetans. As they walked, Zvonzov eyed a boulder to the right and resolved that if there was trouble he would dive for cover behind it.

Mackiernan was in the lead, gaining confidence as the Tibetans held their fire. His arms were raised. Behind him walked the two White Russians, Stephani and Leonid. Fewer than fifty yards now separated them from the Tibetan border guards. Just then two shots were fired. Mackiernan cried out, "Don't shoot!" A third shot echoed across the valley. Mackiernan, Stephani, and Leonid lay in the snow. Vassily ran for the boulder. The air was thin and he ripped his shirt open as if it might give his lungs more air. A bullet smashed into his left knee. He tumbled into the snow and crawled toward the tent, his mind fixed on the machine gun and ammo that were there.

Moments later Bessac appeared, his hands tied behind his back, a prisoner of the Tibetans. Vassily, too, was taken prisoner. The six guards looted the campsite, encircled Vassily, and forced him to the ground. They demanded that he kowtow to them. Vassily pleaded for his life. Not long after, Bessac and Vassily, now hobbling and putting his weight on a stick, approached the place where Mackiernan, Stephani, and Leonid had fallen.

The wind was whipping at sixty miles an hour, the snow a blinding swirl. A half hour had passed since the shooting. Mackiernan was lying on his back, his legs crossed. Vassily looked at Mackiernan and thought to himself how peaceful he looked. Mackiernan even appeared to be smiling. It was a slightly ironic smile. Vassily was overcome with the strangest sense of envy.

Just then one of the border guards began to rifle through Mackiernan's pockets. He withdrew a bursak, one of those biscuits Mackiernan was never without. He offered Vassily a piece. Vassily turned away in revulsion. Then the guard pressed the biscuit to Mackiernan's teeth. The mouth fell wide open. Vassily was overcome with nausea. He turned and walked away. Mackiernan's body was already stiffening. But there would be one more indignity Mackiernan and the others would endure. The guards decapitated Mackiernan, Stephani, and Leonid, and even one of the camels that had been felled by their volley.

Shortly thereafter, the guards realized that they had made a terrible mistake, that these men were neither Communists nor bandits. They unbound Bessac's hands and attempted to put him at ease. Then Bessac and Vassily, in the company of the guards, began what was to be the last tedious march, to Lhasa and to freedom.

Five days after Mackiernan was killed, the two surviving members of his party encountered the Dalai Lama's couriers who were to have delivered the message of safe conduct and who were to have been part of Mackiernan's welcoming party. The couriers gave no explanation or excuse for their tardiness. It was small comfort that they offered Bessac the opportunity to execute the leader of the offending border guards. It was an offer he declined.

Three days later, Tibetan soldiers made the arduous trip back to the border to retrieve that which had been looted -- including the remaining gold -- and to return the heads of Mackiernan, Leonid, and Stephani, that they might be buried with their bodies. The camel head was taken on to Lhasa. While convalescing, Vassily carved three simple wooden crosses to stand above the graves on the Tibetan frontier.

Mackiernan and the others were buried where they fell.The place was called Shigarhung Lung. There was no funeral for Mackiernan, then or ever. His grave was marked by Vassily's cross. It read simply "Douglas Mackiernan." He was buried beneath a pile of rocks, not unlike those many simple graves that he had paused to admire along the way and by which he had plotted his own course. Eleven days after the killing, the border guards who had killed him received forty to sixty lashes across the buttocks.

On June 11, 1950, Vassily and Bessac finally reached the outskirts of Lhasa. In the final entry in the log, Bessac wrote, "Good to be here -- Oh God."


-- The Book of Honor: The Secret Lives and Deaths of CIA Operatives, by Ted Gup


5. Tibet, although thinly populated, is an extensive country. Some local officials and landholders are jealously obstructing other people from developing vacant lands, even though they are not doing so themselves. People with such intentions are enemies of the State and our progress. From now on, no one is allowed to obstruct anyone else from cultivating whatever vacant lands are available. Land taxes will not be collected until three years have passed; after that the land cultivator will have to pay taxes to the government and to the landlord every year, proportionate to the rent. The land will belong to the cultivator.

As is usual in a feudally organised country the peasant manages the property for his landlord, and must produce so much for him before making any profit for himself....

The estates of the landed gentry are often very large. It sometimes takes a whole day to ride across a property. Many serfs are attached to every estate; they are given a few fields to cultivate for their own profit, but are obliged to spend a certain time working for their landlord. The estate managers, who are often merely trusted servants of the landlord, boss the serfs like little kings. Their own master lives in Lhasa, where he works for the Government and has little time to bother about the property. However, his public services are frequently rewarded by gifts of land, and there are noble officials to whom in the course of their careers as many as twenty large farms have been given. The official who falls from grace is equally likely to be dispossessed of his estates, which pass into the hands of the Government. Nevertheless there are many families who have been living in their castles for centuries and bear territorial names. Their ancestors often built these fortresses on the rocky promontories which dominate the valleys. When built on the plain, they are surrounded by moats, but these are now dry and empty. The ancient weapons preserved in the castles testify to the warlike spirit of their former lords, who had constantly to be ready to defend themselves against the attacks of the Mongols.


-- Seven Years in Tibet, by Heinrich Harrer


Your duties to the government and to the people will have been achieved when you have executed all that I have said here. This letter must be posted and proclaimed in every district of Tibet, and a copy kept in the records of the offices in every district.

From the Potala Palace.
(Seal of the Dalai Lama)

********************************************

STATE OF THE DISUNION ADDRESS, BY THE 13TH DALAI LAMA [AKA THE 13TH DALAI LAMA'S DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE AGAINST THE TYRANNY OF TIBET]

I, the Dalai Lama, most omniscient possessor of the Buddhist faith, whose title was conferred by the Lord Buddha’s command from the glorious land of India, speak to you as follows:

I am speaking to all classes of Tibetan people….

A few years ago, the Chinese authorities in Szechuan and Yunnan endeavored to colonize our territory. They brought large numbers of troops into central Tibet on the pretext of policing the trade marts…. the existing relationship between Tibet and China had been that of patron and priest and had not been based on the subordination of one to the other…. I am now in the course of driving out the remnants of Chinese troops from DoKham in Eastern Tibet. … the patron-priest relationship has faded ….

Except for special persons, the administrators of monasteries are forbidden to trade, loan money, deal in any kind of livestock, and/or subjugate another’s subjects….

The Tibetan government’s civil and military officials, when collecting taxes or dealing with their subject citizens, should carry out their duties with fair and honest judgment so as to benefit the government without hurting the interests of the subject citizens. Some of the central government officials posted at Ngari Korsum in western Tibet, and Do Kham in eastern Tibet, are coercing their subject citizens to purchase commercial goods at high prices and have imposed transportation rights exceeding the limit permitted by the government. Houses, properties and lands belonging to subject citizens have been confiscated on the pretext of minor breaches of the law. Furthermore, the amputation of citizens’ limbs has been carried out as a form of punishment. Henceforth, such severe punishments are forbidden…..

We are a small, religious, and independent nation….. To safeguard and maintain the independence of our country, one and all should voluntarily work hard. Our subject citizens residing near the borders should be alert and keep the government informed by special messenger of any suspicious developments. Our subjects must not create major clashes between two nations because of minor incidents.

Tibet, although thinly populated, is an extensive country. Some local officials and landholders are jealously obstructing other people from developing vacant lands, even though they are not doing so themselves. People with such intentions are enemies of the State and our progress. From now on, no one is allowed to obstruct anyone else from cultivating whatever vacant lands are available. Land taxes will not be collected until three years have passed; after that the land cultivator will have to pay taxes to the government and to the landlord every year, proportionate to the rent. The land will belong to the cultivator…..

Your duties to the government and to the people will have been achieved when you have executed all that I have said here.

-- State of the Disunion Address, by the 13th Dalai Lama
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Tue Oct 15, 2019 8:14 am

Declaration of Independence
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 10/15/19

A declaration of independence or declaration of statehood is an assertion by a defined territory that it is independent ...

Independence is a condition of a person, nation, country, or state in which its residents and population, or some portion thereof, exercise self-government, and usually sovereignty, over the territory. The opposite of independence is the status of a dependent territory.

Whether the attainment of independence is different from revolution has long been contested, and has often been debated over the question of violence as legitimate means to achieving sovereignty.

-- Independence, by Wikipedia


and constitutes a state.

In international law, a sovereign state, sovereign country, or simply state, is a political entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area. International law defines sovereign states as having a permanent population, defined territory, one government, and the capacity to enter into relations with other sovereign states.[1] It is also normally understood that a sovereign state is neither dependent or non subjected to any other power or state.[2]

-- Sovereign State, by Wikipedia


Such places are usually declared from part or all of the territory of another state or failed state, or are breakaway territories from within the larger state. In 2010, the UN's International Court of Justice ruled in an advisory opinion in Kosovo that "International law contains no prohibition on declarations of independence",[1] though the state from which the territory wishes to secede may regard the declaration as rebellion, which may lead to a war of independence or a constitutional settlement to resolve the crisis.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Tue Oct 15, 2019 9:12 am

The Declaration of Independence
The Unanimous Declaration of the Thirteen United States of America
In Congress

July 4, 1776

When in the Course of human events it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. — That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, — That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security.

Except for special persons, the administrators of monasteries are forbidden to trade, loan money, deal in any kind of livestock, and/or subjugate another’s subjects....

The Tibetan government’s civil and military officials, when collecting taxes or dealing with their subject citizens, should carry out their duties with fair and honest judgment so as to benefit the government without hurting the interests of the subject citizens. Some of the central government officials posted at Ngari Korsum in western Tibet, and Do Kham in eastern Tibet, are coercing their subject citizens to purchase commercial goods at high prices and have imposed transportation rights exceeding the limit permitted by the government. Houses, properties and lands belonging to subject citizens have been confiscated on the pretext of minor breaches of the law. Furthermore, the amputation of citizens’ limbs has been carried out as a form of punishment. Henceforth, such severe punishments are forbidden....

Tibet, although thinly populated, is an extensive country. Some local officials and landholders are jealously obstructing other people from developing vacant lands, even though they are not doing so themselves. People with such intentions are enemies of the State and our progress. From now on, no one is allowed to obstruct anyone else from cultivating whatever vacant lands are available. Land taxes will not be collected until three years have passed; after that the land cultivator will have to pay taxes to the government and to the landlord every year, proportionate to the rent. The land will belong to the cultivator.


-- The 13th Dalai Lama's Declaration of Independence From the Tyranny of Tibet


— Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States.

I, the Dalai Lama, most omniscient possessor of the Buddhist faith, whose title was conferred by the Lord Buddha’s command from the glorious land of India, speak to you as follows:

I am speaking to all classes of Tibetan people. Lord Buddha, from the glorious country of India, prophesied that the reincarnations of Avalokitesvara, through successive rulers from the early religious kings to the present day, would look after the welfare of Tibet....

Peace and happiness in this world can only be maintained by preserving the faith of Buddhism....

Buddhism should be taught, learned, and meditated upon properly....

We are a small, religious, and independent nation.... To safeguard and maintain the independence of our country, one and all should voluntarily work hard....

Your duties to the government and to the people will have been achieved when you have executed all that I have said here. This letter must be posted and proclaimed in every district of Tibet, and a copy kept in the records of the offices in every district.


-- Proclamation Issued by H. H. The Dalai Lama XIII


To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world.

He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.

Education is not widely diffused in Tibet. In the neighborhood of Shigatze children are taught comparatively well the three subjects of writing, arithmetic and reading, but in other places no provision exists for teaching children, except at monasteries, so that the boys and girls of ordinary people are generally left uneducated, especially the latter.

As might naturally be expected, educational establishments are few and far between. The only institutions worthy of the name are found on the premises of the Palace at Lhasa, and of the Tashi Lhunpo monasteries in Shigatze; all the rest are only ‘family schools’.

From the important position which priests command in Tibet, the system of training them is pretty well developed, and it is only at religious schools that one can obtain even a comparatively advanced education. Sons of ordinary people can enjoy the benefit of that education only by joining the order, for otherwise they are refused admission to Government schools.

The doors of those schools are, of course, shut against boys of humble origin. In Tibet there exists one class which is the lowest in the scale of social gradation. This lowest grade is subdivided into fishermen, ferry-men, smiths, and butchers. Smiths are relegated to this grade in Tibet just as in India, and for the same reason—that they pursue an objectionable occupation in making edged tools used for slaughtering living things, the most sinful occupation of all. People of this lowest grade are even prohibited from becoming priests, and if ever they enter the privileged order it is by some surreptitious means and by concealing[436] their real rank. In this way some men of the lowest origin have become priests at places remote from their native villages. Compared with these despised classes, the ordinary people may be said to enjoy a great advantage.

The classes who are entitled to enter the Government institutions are only four:

1. Ger-pa, Peers; 2. Ngak-pa, the manṭra clan, 3. Bon-bo, the Old Sect clan; 4. Shal-ngo, families of former chieftains...

As I have mentioned before, lads belonging to the higher ranks are entitled to enter Government schools, but the subjects taught there are at best imperfect. The lessons consist only of learning by memory, penmanship and counting. The first subject is the most important, next comes penmanship, the latter receiving even a larger allotment of hours than the other. Counting is a primitive affair, being taught by means of pebbles, pieces of wood, or shells. The subject matters of learning by memory are Buddhist Texts, the elements of grammar, and lastly rhetoric. This last is a subject of great ambition for Tibetan scholars, who are just like Chinese in their fondness for grandiloquent expressions. Documents to be presented to the Dalai Lama and other high personages bristle with high-flown phraseology and with characters rarely used in ordinary writing, and not found even in Buddhist Texts. The fact is that Tibetan scholars at present hold strange ideas about writing, being of opinion that they should aim at composing in a style unintelligible to ordinary persons. The more characters they can use which cannot easily be understood by others, the better proof, they think, have they given of the profundity of their scholarship. The most scholarly compositions are practically hierographic so far as their incomprehensibility is concerned.

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FLOGGING AS A MEANS OF EDUCATION

The birch-rod is considered to be the most useful implement in teaching; not exactly a birch-rod, however, but a flat piece of bamboo. The cramming of difficult passages of rhetoric being the principal mode of learning imposed on pupils, their masters are invariably of opinion that they must make free use of the rod in order to quicken their pupils’[444] progress. The relation between masters and pupils does not differ much from that between gaolers and convicts. The latter, poor fellows, hold their masters in such dread that they find it exceedingly trying, at the sight of them and their formidable pedagogic weapons, to compose their minds and to go on unfalteringly with their lessons. They cower with fear, and are filled with the perturbing thought that the rod is sure to descend upon them for the slightest stumble they make in the path of learning. The ordinary way of using the rod is to give thirty blows with it on the left palm of the pupil. Prudence counsels the pupil to stretch out his hand with alacrity at the bidding of his hard master, for in case he hesitates to do so the penalty is generally doubled, and sixty blows instead of thirty are given. It is a cruel sight to see a little pupil holding out his open hand and submitting to the punishment with tearful eyes. Surely this is not education but mere cruelty...

Abuse is also considered as an efficient means of educating boys. “Beast,” “beggar,” “devil,” “ass,” “eater of parents’ flesh,” are epithets applied to backward boys by their teachers, and this custom of using foul language is naturally handed on from teachers to pupils, who when they grow up are sure to pass on those slanderous appellations to the next generation.

While the education of the sons of laymen is conducted with such severity, that of boy disciples by Lama priests is extremely lenient, and is quite in contrast to that of the others. The disciples are not even reprimanded, much less chastised, when they neglect their work. The priests generally leave them to do as they like, much as uxorious husbands do towards their wilful wives, so that it is no wonder that the disciples of Lamas very seldom make any good progress in learning. They are spoiled by the excessive indulgence of their masters. Some of these masters own the evil of their way of education, and are careful not to spoil the youthful pupils placed under their care, and it is precisely from among these latter disciples that priests of learning and ability may be expected.

The memorising part of the Tibetan system of education, as mentioned above, is a heavy burden on the pupils. To give some idea of what an important part this work occupies in their system, I may note that a young acolyte, who has grown to fifteen or sixteen years old, has to commit to memory, from the oral instruction of his teachers, from three hundred to five hundred pages of Buḍḍhist texts in the course of a year. He has then to undergo an examination on what he has learned. Even for a lad of weak memory, the number of pages is not less than one hundred in a year. For those who have grown older, that is for those whose age ranges between eighteen and thirty, the task imposed is still more formidable, being five to eight hundred and even one thousand pages. I was amazed at this mental feat of the Tibetan priests, for I could barely learn fifty sheets in six months, that being the minimum limit allotted for aspirants of poor memory.

-- Three Years in Tibet, by Shramana Ekai Kawaguchi


An English teacher had been asked by the Government to start a European type of school in Lhasa and had been offered a long contract. After six months he packed up his traps and went away. The reactionary monks had made his task impossible....

The policy of the Government towards medicine is a dark chapter in the history of modern Tibet. The doctors of the British and Chinese Legations were the only qualified medical men in a population of three and a half million.... In the towns and monasteries one can get oneself vaccinated against smallpox, but no other forms of inoculation are practised and many lives are lost needlessly in epidemics for want of prophylactic treatment.... The Lamas often smear their patients with their holy spittle. Tsampa, butter and the urine of some saintly man are made into a sort of gruel and administered to the sick.... A monk who had studied in the school of medicine in Lhasa .... his methods of treatment were diverse. One of them was to press a prayer-stamp on the spot affected, which seemed to succeed with hysterical patients. In bad cases he branded the patient with a hot iron..... During the New Year Celebrations the father of the Dalai Lama died. Everything conceivable had been done to keep him alive.... They had even prepared a doll into which they charmed the patient’s sickness and then burnt it with great solemnity on the river bank. It was all to no purpose.... His brother Lobsang, [was] seriously ill with a heart attack... so the Dalai Lama’s physician recalled him to life by applying a branding-iron to his flesh....

In Tibet the traditional belief is that the earth is a flat disk.

The Chinese invented and used the wheel thousands of years ago. But the Tibetans will have none of it, though its use would give an immense impulse to transport and commerce and would raise the whole standard of living throughout the country. When, later, I was engaged in irrigation works, I made various finds which strengthened my belief that the Tibetans had known and used the wheel many centuries ago. We uncovered hundreds of great blocks of stones as big as wardrobes. These could not have been carried save by mechanical means from the remote quarries where they had been hewn.


-- Seven Years in Tibet, by Heinrich Harrer


He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.

He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only.

He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their Public Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures.

He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.

He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected, whereby the Legislative Powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise; the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within.

He has endeavoured to prevent the population of these States; for that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migrations hither, and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.

Some local officials and landholders are jealously obstructing other people from developing vacant lands, even though they are not doing so themselves. People with such intentions are enemies of the State and our progress. From now on, no one is allowed to obstruct anyone else from cultivating whatever vacant lands are available. Land taxes will not be collected until three years have passed; after that the land cultivator will have to pay taxes to the government and to the landlord every year, proportionate to the rent. The land will belong to the cultivator.

-- Proclamation Issued by H. H. The Dalai Lama XIII


He has obstructed the Administration of Justice by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary Powers.

On March 4th (or a date near to this, as the Tibetan New Year is flexible — similar to our Easter) the City Magistrate hands over his authority to the monks — symbolising the restoration by the secular power of its office to religion, to whom it originally belonged. This is the beginning of a strict and formidable regime. To start with the whole place is tidied up and during this season Lhasa is renowned for its cleanliness — which is not a normal condition. At the same time a sort of civil peace is proclaimed. All quarrels cease. Public offices are closed, but the bargaining of street traders is livelier than ever, except during the festal processions. Crimes and offences, including gambling, are punished with especial severity. The monks are relentless judges and are accustomed to inflict fearful floggings which occasionally cause the death of the victim.

-- Seven Years in Tibet, by Heinrich Harrer


He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.

Though the lay nobles play an important part in the administration of the country, a small group of monks has the last word in everything....

The Government consults the State Oracle before taking important decisions... the appointment of a governor, the discovery of a new Incarnation, matters involving war and peace. The Oracle was asked to decide on all these things....

The Dalai Lama's ... will was law...

The gods must have the last word....


-- Seven Years in Tibet, by Heinrich Harrer


He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to harass our people and eat out their substance.

Some of the central government officials posted at Ngari Korsum in western Tibet, and Do Kham in eastern Tibet, are coercing their subject citizens to purchase commercial goods at high prices and have imposed transportation rights exceeding the limit permitted by the government. Houses, properties and lands belonging to subject citizens have been confiscated on the pretext of minor breaches of the law. Furthermore, the amputation of citizens’ limbs has been carried out as a form of punishment. Henceforth, such severe punishments are forbidden.

-- Proclamation Issued by H. H. The Dalai Lama XIII


He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the Consent of our legislatures.

He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil Power.

He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation:

In the seventh century AD, Tibet had emerged as a united tribal federation under a series of sacral kings who ruled at Lhasa. After a brief period as an expansionist power, when Tibetan troops ranged from Samarkand in the west to the Chinese capital of Chang'an (now Xian) in the east, the Tibetan kingdom collapsed after the assassination of the last of the sacral kings in c842. In the 13th century Tibet emerged again as a united, now predominantly Buddhist, state, which submitted to Mongol overlordship. In return it was allowed to retain a large measure of internal autonomy, and was able to convert the Mongols to Tibetan Buddhism.

In 1578, the Mongol ruler, Altan Khan, gave the title of Dalai Lama ('Ocean of Wisdom') to the hierarch of the Tibetan Buddhist Gelugpa sect, who was recognised as the second incarnation of the sect's founder.

The title was later applied retrospectively to his predecessors, and was inherited by his successive incarnations. In 1642, Mongol forces intervened in Tibetan internal struggles on behalf of the Gelugpa sect, and made the 5th Dalai Lama the effective ruler of Tibet. ...

In 1720, the Mongols' overlordship of Tibet was replaced by that of China's Ch'ing dynasty.


-- Tibet and the British Raj, 1904-47: The Influence of the Indian Political Department Officers, by Alexander McKay


For quartering large bodies of armed troops among us:

For protecting them, by a mock Trial from punishment for any Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States:

For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world:

No one received permission to come to Tibet. The unchangeable policy was to present Tibet as the Forbidden Land.

-- Seven Years in Tibet, by Heinrich Harrer


For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent:

The New Year’s celebrations did not pass off this year without a mishap.... Every year they put up high flagstaff’s made of heavy tree trunks fitted into one another. These are brought from distant places and it is quite a business to carry them to Lhasa. It is managed in a very primitive way, and my indignation was aroused when I saw, for the first time, a procession coming in. It reminded me of the Volga boatmen. About twenty men drag each trunk which is attached to them by a rope round their waists. They sing a monotonous air as they trudge along, keeping step with one another. They sweat and pant, but their foreman, who leads the singing, gives them no pause for rest. This forced labour is in part a substitute for taxation. The carriers are picked up at villages on the road and dismissed when they come to the next settlement. The monotonous airs to which they drag their burden are said to distract their minds from the severity of their task. I should have thought they would do better to save their breath. The sort of fatalistic resignation with which they lent themselves to this back-breaking toil always used to infuriate me. As a product of our modern age, I could not understand why the people of Tibet were so rigidly opposed to any form of progress. There must obviously be some better means of transporting these heavy burdens than by man-handling them. The Chinese invented and used the wheel thousands of years ago. But the Tibetans will have none of it, though its use would give an immense impulse to transport and commerce and would raise the whole standard of living throughout the country.

-- Seven Years in Tibet, by Heinrich Harrer


For depriving us in many cases, of the benefit of Trial by Jury:

There are no police in our sense of the word. Evil-doers are publicly sentenced. The punishments are pretty drastic but they seem to suit the mentality of the population. I was told of a man who had stolen a golden butter-lamp from one of the temples in Kyirong. He was convicted of the offence, and what we would think an inhuman sentence was carried out. His hands were publicly cut off and he was then sewn up in a wet yak-skin. After this had been allowed to dry, he was thrown over a precipice.

-- Seven Years in Tibet, by Heinrich Harrer


For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offences:

For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these Colonies

For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments:

For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.

He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War against us.

He has plundered our seas, ravaged our coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.

He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to compleat the works of death, desolation, and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty & Perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized nation.

Tortures are carried to the extreme of diabolical ingenuity. They are such as one might expect in hell. One[383] method consists in drilling a sharpened bamboo stick into the tender part of the tip of the fingers, as already described. Another consists in placing ‘stone-bonnets’ on the head of the victim. Each ‘bonnet’ weighs about eight pounds, and one after another is heaped on as the torture proceeds. The weight at first forces tears out of the eyes of the victim, but afterward, as the weight is increased, the very eye-balls are forced from their sockets. Then flogging, though far milder in itself, is a painful punishment, as it is done with a heavy rod, cut fresh from a willow tree, the criminal receiving it on the bared small of his back. The part is soon torn open by the lashing, and the blood that oozes out is scattered right and left as the beater continues his brutal task, until the prescribed number, three hundred or five hundred blows as the case may be, are given. Very often, and perhaps with the object of prolonging the torture, the flogging is suspended, and the poor victim receives a cup of water, after which the painful process is resumed. In nine cases out of ten the victims of this corporeal punishment fall ill, and while at Lhasa I more than once prescribed for persons who, as the result of flogging, were bleeding internally. The wounds caused by the flogging are shocking to see, as I know from my personal observations.

A prison-house is in any case an awful place, but more especially so in Tibet, for even the best of them has nothing but mud walls and a planked floor, and is very dark in the interior, even in broad day. This absence of sunlight is itself a serious punishment in such a cold country.

As for food, prisoners are fed only once a day with a couple of handfuls of baked flour. This is hardly sufficient to keep body and soul together, so that a prisoner is generally obliged to ask his friends to send him some food. Nothing, however, sent in from outside reaches the[384] prisoners entire, for the gaolers subtract for their own mouths more than half of it, and only a small portion of the whole quantity gets into the prisoners’ hands.

The most lenient form of punishment is a fine; then comes flogging, to be followed, at a great distance, by the extraction of the eye-balls; then the amputation of the hands. The amputation is not done all at once, but only after the hands have been firmly tied for about twelve hours, till they become completely paralysed. The criminals who are about to suffer amputation are generally suspended by the wrists from some elevated object with stout cord, and naughty street urchins are allowed to pull the cord up and down at their pleasure. After this treatment the hands are chopped off at the wrists in public. This punishment is generally inflicted on thieves and robbers after their fifth or sixth offence. Lhasa abounds in handless beggars and in beggars minus their eye-balls; and perhaps the proportion of eyeless beggars is larger than that of the handless ones.

Then there are other forms of mutilation also inflicted as punishment, and of these ear-cutting and nose-slitting are the most painful. Both parties in a case of adultery are visited with this physical deformation. These forms of punishment are inflicted by the authorities upon the accusation of the aggrieved party, the right of lodging the complaint being limited, however, to the husband; in fact he himself may with impunity cut off the ears or slit the noses of the criminal parties, when taken in flagrante delicto. He has simply to report the matter afterwards to the authorities.

With regard to exile there are two different kinds, one leaving a criminal to live at large in the exiled place, and the other, which is heavier, confining him in a local prison.

Capital punishment is carried out solely by immersion in water. There are two modes of this execution: one by[385] putting a criminal into a bag made of hides and throwing the bag with its live contents into the water; and the other by tying the criminal’s hands and feet and throwing him into a river with a heavy stone tied to his body. The executioners lift him out after about ten minutes, and if he is judged to be still alive, down they plunge him again, and this lifting up and down is repeated till the criminal expires. The lifeless body is then cut to pieces, the head alone being kept, and all the rest of the severed members are thrown into the river. The head is deposited in a head vase, either at once, or after it has been exposed in public for three or seven days, and the vase is carried to a building established for this sole purpose, which bears a horrible name signifying “Perpetual Damnation.” This practice comes from a superstition of the people that those whose heads are kept in that edifice will forever be precluded from being reborn in this world.

All these punishments struck me as entirely out of place for a country in which Buddhist doctrines are held in such high respect. Especially did I think the idea of eternal damnation irreconcilable with the principles of mercy and justice, for I should say that execution ought to absolve criminals of their offences. Several other barbarous forms of punishment are in vogue, but these I may omit here, for what I have stated in the preceding paragraphs is enough to convey some idea of criminal procedure as it exists in the Forbidden Land.


-- Three Years in Tibet, by Shramana Ekai Kawaguchi


He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the executioners of their friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands.

He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.

In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A Prince, whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.

My memories are of many cheerful parties in the Fort and in the homes of wealthy families, the dominance and brutality of the Lamas and officials towards the serf population and the prevalence of venereal diseases.

-- Tibet and the British Raj, 1904-47: The Influence of the Indian Political Department Officersm by Alexander McKay


Nor have We been wanting in attentions to our British brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace Friends.

We, therefore, the Representatives of the united States of America, in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these united Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States, that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do. — And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of Divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes, and our sacred Honor.

I am speaking to all classes of Tibetan people.... We are a small, religious, and independent nation.... Your duties to the government and to the people will have been achieved when you have executed all that I have said here.

-- Proclamation Issued by H. H. The Dalai Lama XIII


New Hampshire:
Josiah Bartlett, William Whipple, Matthew Thornton

Massachusetts:
John Hancock, Samuel Adams, John Adams, Robert Treat Paine, Elbridge Gerry

Rhode Island:
Stephen Hopkins, William Ellery

Connecticut:
Roger Sherman, Samuel Huntington, William Williams, Oliver Wolcott

New York:
William Floyd, Philip Livingston, Francis Lewis, Lewis Morris

New Jersey:
Richard Stockton, John Witherspoon, Francis Hopkinson, John Hart, Abraham Clark

Pennsylvania:
Robert Morris, Benjamin Rush, Benjamin Franklin, John Morton, George Clymer, James Smith, George Taylor, James Wilson, George Ross

Delaware:
Caesar Rodney, George Read, Thomas McKean

Maryland:
Samuel Chase, William Paca, Thomas Stone, Charles Carroll of Carrollton

Virginia:
George Wythe, Richard Henry Lee, Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Harrison, Thomas Nelson, Jr., Francis Lightfoot Lee, Carter Braxton

North Carolina:
William Hooper, Joseph Hewes, John Penn

South Carolina:
Edward Rutledge, Thomas Heyward, Jr., Thomas Lynch, Jr., Arthur Middleton

Georgia:
Button Gwinnett, Lyman Hall, George Walton

Before proceeding to give an account, necessarily imperfect, of Tibetan diplomacy, I must explain what is the public opinion of the country as to patriotism. I am sorry to say that the attitude of the people in this respect by no means does them credit. So far as my limited observation goes, the Tibetans, who are sufficiently shrewd in attending to their own interest, are not so sensitive to matters of national importance. It seems as if they were destitute of the sense of patriotism, as the term is understood by ordinary people. Not that they are totally ignorant of the meaning of “fatherland,” but they are rather inclined to turn that meaning to their own advantage in preference to the interest of their country. Such seems, in short, the general idea of the politicians of to-day.

The Tibetans are more jealous with regard to their religion. A few of them, a very limited few it is true, seem to be prepared to defend and promote it at the expense of their private interest, though even in this respect the majority are so far unscrupulous as to abuse their religion for their own ends. In the eyes of the common people, religion is the most important product of the country, and they think therefore that they must preserve it at any cost. Their ignorance necessarily makes them fanatics and they believe that any one who works any injury to their religion deserves death. The Hierarchical Government makes a great deal of capital out of this fanatical tendency of the masses. The holy religion is its justification when it persecutes persons obnoxious to it, and when it has committed any wrong it seeks refuge under the same holy name. The Government too often works mischief in the[494] name of religion, but the masses do not of course suspect any such thing—or even if they do now and then harbor a suspicion, they are deterred from giving vent to their sentiments, for to speak ill of the religion is a heinous crime in Tibet.

I have already stated how in general the Tibetan women are highly selfish and but poorly developed in the sense of public duty. One might naturally suppose that the children born of such mothers must be similarly deficient in this important point. I thought at first that the Tibetan men were less open to this charge than their wives and sisters, but I soon found this to be a mistake. I found the men not much better than the women, and equally absorbed in their selfish desires while totally neglecting the interests of the State. A foreign country knowing this weak point, and wishing to push its interests in the Forbidden Land, has only to form its diplomatic procedure accordingly. In other words, it has merely to captivate the hearts of the rulers of Tibet, for once the influential Cabinet Ministers of the Hierarchical Government are won over, the next step will be an easy matter. The greedy Ministers will be ready to listen to any insidious advice coming from outside, provided that the advice carries with it literally the proper weight of gold. They will not care a straw about the welfare of the State or the interest of the general public, if only they themselves are satisfied.

However, foreign diplomatists desiring to succeed in their policy of gaining influence over Tibet must not think that they have an easy task before them. Gold is most acceptable to all Tibetan statesmen, but at times gold alone may not carry the point. The fact is that Tibet has no diplomatic policy in any dignified sense of the word. Its foreign doings are determined by sentiment, which is necessarily destitute of any solid foundation, but[495] is susceptible to change from a trivial cause. A foreign country which has given a large bribe to the principal statesmen of Tibet may find afterwards that its enormous disbursements on this account have been a mere waste of money, and that the recipients who were believed to have been secured with golden chains have broken loose from them, for some mere triviality. It is impossible to rely on the faith of the Tibetan statesmen, for they are entirely led by sentiment and never by rational conviction.

-- Three Years in Tibet, by Shramana Ekai Kawaguchi
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