Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

This is a broad, catch-all category of works that fit best here and not elsewhere. If you haven't found it someplace else, you might want to look here.

Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Mon Nov 25, 2019 1:06 am

Chushi Gangdruk [NVDA: National Volunteer Defense Army]
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 11/24/19



Another source of volunteers came via the international network she had established in Delhi, the Tibetan Friendship Group, through which Freda roped in pen pals, sponsors, and helpers for her tulkus and Tibetan refugees in general.

-- The Revolutionary Life of Freda Bedi, by Vicki Mackenzie

Dhotoe Chushi Gangdrug, Europe (Switzerland)

Name of Administrative Contact: Tashi Wangdü Khorlotsang
Street Address: Illnauerstr. 30
City, State/Province, Country and Postal Code: 8307 Effretikon, Switzerland
Telephone Number: 0041 52 343 89 70
Email Address:
Web Page URL (Address):

Dhokham Chushi Gangdruk (New York) (USA)

Name of Administrative Contact: Doma Norbu
Street Address: Dhokham Chushi Gangdruk
75-22, 37th Avenue
Mail Box #326
City, State/Province, Country and Postal Code: Jackson Heights, NY 11372, USA
Telephone Number: +1 (646) 435-7880
Fax Number: +1 (646) 435-7880
Email Address:
Web Page URL (Address):

Dhokham Chushi Gangdruk (DCG) is a non-governmental, non-religious, nonpartisan organization registered in the state of New York as a not-for-profit corporation and authorized under Section 501 (c)(3) of the United States Internal Revenue Code.

DCG's mission is to:

Work towards restoring the independence of Tibet through a non-violent movement.
Work towards the rights of the Tibetan people to determine their own political, economic, social, religious and cultural future under the sole leadership of His Holiness the Dalai Lama.
Preserve the unique Tibetan culture in-exile, which is being systematically destroyed by the Communist Chinese Government inside Tibet.
Look after the welfare of the veteran Chushi Gangdruk members.

-- Tibetan Friendship Group, by

What many people may not know is that Trungpa first taught in Boulder at CU [Colorado University], and today the university shares with Columbia University the distinction of having three faculty members who specialize in modern Tibetan studies: McGranahan, Gayley and Associate Professor of Geography Emily Yeh, whose research focuses on environmental issues on the Tibetan Plateau and the Tibetan diaspora. All three women have traveled extensively in Tibet.

“I usually say we have three tenure-track, full-time specialists in Tibet, and that’s three more faculty specializing in Tibet than you find at most universities,” McGranahan says. “It’s not a huge group … but it’s an incredible opportunity (for research) and also for students.”

McGranahan in recent years has been researching Tibetan guerillas who fought against the Chinese occupation in the 1960s and were trained by the CIA at Camp Hale, a U.S. Army facility near Leadville, Colo.

The combined academic heft of CU’s [Colorado University's] Tibetan studies trio, Naropa and a new Boulder research branch of the New York-based Tsadra Foundation, which funds the translation of Tibetan Buddhist texts, have attracted attention and new opportunities to Boulder and Colorado.

A joint lecture series between CU [Colorado University] and Naropa, named in honor of Chogyam Trungpa, kicked off in 2013 with Janet Gyatso of Harvard University. John Makransky, professor of Buddhism and Comparative Theology at Boston University and a meditation teacher, will speak in September on compassion, the theme at Naropa’s 40th-anniversary year.

“This is a step forward in the collaboration between the universities,” Gayley says. “There is the perfect nexus for Buddhist studies in Boulder and (collaborations of this kind) will strengthen both programs.”

The lecture series was started with a seed grant from the Uberoi Foundation for Religious Studies, founded by the late Mahinder Uberoi, former chair of the Department of Aerospace Engineering at CU-Boulder.

In October, the Tibetan Translation and Transmission Conference, sponsored by the Tsadra Foundation, will bring some 200 Tibetan studies scholars and translators to Keystone. Andrew Quintman, assistant professor of Religious Studies at Yale University, will speak in Boulder as a lead up to the conference.

“Boulder is definitely a lightning rod for Buddhist and Tibetan studies,” Gayley says. “I always have a wait list for my Buddhism classes, and I get 120 to 150 for the Foundation of Buddhism class. … It would be hard to garner that kind of interest anywhere else.”

-- CU's [Colorado University's] expertise in Tibetan and Buddhist studies is unusually deep, by Clay Evans

A deep state (from Turkish: derin devlet), also known as a state within a state, is a form of clandestine government made up of hidden or covert networks of power operating independently of a state's political leadership, in pursuit of their own agenda and goals. Examples include organs of state, such as the armed forces or public authorities (intelligence agencies, police, secret police, administrative agencies, and government bureaucracy). A deep state can also take the form of entrenched, career civil servants acting in a non-conspiratorial manner, to further their own interests. The intent of a deep state can include continuity of the state itself, job security for its members, enhanced power and authority, and the pursuit of ideological objectives. It can operate in opposition to the agenda of elected officials, by obstructing, resisting, and subverting their policies, conditions and directives. It can also take the form of government-owned corporations or private companies that act independently of regulatory or governmental control.[1]

-- Deep State, by Wikipedia

Chushi Gangdruk
Badge of the "Tibetan Volunteer Defenders of the Faith". Inscription in Tibetan is gangs ljongs bstan srung dang blangs.
Leader(s) Andruk Gonpo Tashi
Dates of operation June 16, 1958–1974
Dissolved 1974[1]

Chushi Gangdruk (Tibetan: ཆུ་བཞི་སྒང་དྲུག་, Wylie: Chu bzhi sgang drug, literally "Four Rivers, Six Ranges", full name: Tibetan: མདོ་སྟོད་ཆུ་བཞི་སྒང་དྲུག་བོད་ཀྱི་བསྟན་སྲུང་དང་བླངས་དམག་, Wylie: mdo stod chu bzhi sgang drug bod kyi bstan srung dang blangs dmag, "the Kham Four Rivers, Six Ranges Tibetan Defenders of the Faith Volunteer Army"[2]) was an organization of Tibetan guerrilla fighters, formally created on June 16, 1958, which had been fighting the forces of the People's Republic of China (PRC) in Tibet since 1956.

The Dokham Chushi Gangdruk organization, a charity set up in New York City and India with chapters in other countries, now supports survivors of the Chushi Gangdruk resistance currently living in India. Chushi Gangdruk also led The 14th Dalai Lama out of Lhasa, where he had lived, soon after the start of the Chinese invasion. During that time, a group of Chushi Gangdruk guerillas was led by Kunga Samten, who is now deceased.[3] Because the United States was prepared to recognize People's Republic of China in the early 1970s, CIA Tibetan Program, which funded the Chushi Gangdruk army, was ended in 1974.[4]


Chushi Gangdruk "Four Rivers, Six Ranges" is the name traditionally given to the eastern Tibetan region of Kham where the gorges of the Gyalmo Nyulchu (Salween), Dzachu (Mekong), Drichu (Yangtse), and Machu (Huang Ho) rivers, all arising on the Tibetan Plateau, pass between six parallel ranges of mountains (Duldza Zalmogang, Tshawagang, Markhamgang, Pobargang, Mardzagang, and Minyagang) that form the watersheds for these rivers. "Chu" (choo) is the Tibetan word for "water", and "shi" (she) is the Tibetan word for 4. "Gang" is range, and "druk" (drewk) means 6.[5]


The Fall of Chamdo and signing of the Seventeen-Point Agreement

On 19 October 1950, the monastery where Ngabo Shapé was hiding was surrounded by the Chinese troops accompanied by a few Khampa guides, and here Ngabo Shapé and his officials and troops surrendered to the invading Chinese.[6] The Tibetan Government army in Chamdo was defeated, and the Communist Chinese army took over the city of Chamdo. In Drugu monastery, Ngabo Shapé signed the official surrender.

During the negotiation of the Seventeen-Point Agreement, when the negotiation broke down after Ngabo Shapé resisted to sign the agreement, Li Weihan threatened to order the Chinese troops to march into Lhasa. They decided it was more perilous to Tibet not to reach an agreement, therefore, they accepted the Chinese terms without asking Lhasa.[7] The Chinese were further furious when they were told that the Dalai Lama’s seal was still in Yatung with him.[8] The Chinese made new seal for Ngabo Shapé to stamp the document when he exclaimed that he did not have his official seal to stamp the document, though he had with him the official seal as the Governor General of Kham.[9] Therefore, on 23 May 1951, Ngabo Shapé was forced to sign under duress the “Agreement of the Central People’s Government and the Local Government of Tibet on Measures for the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet,” commonly known as the “Seventeen-Point Agreement”.[10]

Formation of Chushi Gangdrug

Andrug Gompo Tashi (also known as Andrug Jindak) established a people's army called Chushi Gangdrug. Like many other volunteered fighters, Andrug Jindak financed many of the freedom fighters and was accepted as their undisputed leader of the resistance army.

In order to mobilize more support across the different regions of Tibet, the names Tenshung Danglang Mak were appended to Chushi Gangdrug in order to address the pan-Tibetan composition of the people's army. It was not a Tibetan government army but rather a grassroots army of the Tibetan people. Tenshung Danglang Mak fought for the political and religious freedom of Tibet. Khampas and Amdowas had been fighting against the invading Chinese Communist troops since 1956 in different parts of Kham and Amdo. On 16 June 1958, a meeting of Chushi Gangdrug and their supporters was held in Lhodak Dhama Dzong with impressive cavalry parade, incense burnt to the Dalai Lama photograph, and then launched the Chushi Gangdrug yellow flag of the Tensik Danglang Mak with an emblem of two swords represented a deity and handles symbolic of Dorjee or thunderbolt and lotus flower.[11][12]

The formation of the Chushi Gangdruk Volunteer Force was announced on June 16, 1958. It was called National Volunteer Defence Army (NVDA). "Chushi Gangdruk" is a Tibetan phrase meaning "land of four rivers and six ranges," and refers to Amdo and Kham. The group included Tibetans from those regions of eastern Tibet, and its main objective was to drive PRC occupational forces out of Tibet. While central and western Tibet (Ü-Tsang) were bound by a 17-point agreement with the People's Republic of China, the PRC initiated land reform in eastern Tibet (including Amdo and Kham) and engaged in harsh reprisals against the Tibetan land-owners there.

Andrug Gompo Tashi[13] before 1959

Under the direction of General Andrug Gonpo Tashi, Chushi Gangdruk included 37 allied forces and 18 military commanders. They drafted a 27-point military law governing the conduct of the volunteers. Their headquarters were located at Tsona, then later moved to Lhagyari.

Initially militia members purchased their own weapons, mainly World War II-era British .303 in, German 7.92 mm, and Russian 7.62 mm caliber rifles. Chushi Gangdruk contacted the US government for support. However, the State Department required an official request from the Tibetan government in Lhasa, which was not forthcoming. State Department requests were made and ignored in both 1957 and 1958.

CIA support

Without getting approval from the Dalai Lama, the US Central Intelligence Agency decided to go ahead to support the Chushi Gangdrug Tenshung Danglang Mak in the summer of 1959.[14] The CIA provided the group with material assistance and aid, including arms and ammunition, as well as training to members of Chushi Gangdruk and other Tibetan guerrilla groups at Camp Hale.

Chapter 3: The Prodigal Son

During the second week of September 1956, CIA officer John Hoskins arrived at Calcutta's Dum Dum Airport to a blast of late summer heat. At twenty-nine, he had already spent two years recruiting agents in Japan and another four shuttling between Washington desk assignments and vigorous tradecraft instruction. [1] Now assigned to the Calcutta consulate, his new post was an experiment of sorts. The CIA's Far East Division had just gotten permission to station its officers at any diplomatic mission where overseas Chinese were found in numbers. This meant superimposing Far East Division personnel outside of their home turf -- in this case, in India of the Near East Division. [2]

In Calcutta, Hoskins could choose from a wealth of Chinese targets. Topping the list was the PRC's consulate and the People's Bank of China branch, both of which had been opened following the 1954 Sino-Indian trade agreement. In addition, some 30,000 Chinese expatriates -- three-quarters of all those living in India -- made their homes in and around the city.

Hoskins landed the secondary assignment of preening non-Chinese sources in the Himalayan states along the Tibetan border. Just as case officer Kenneth Millian had found out four years earlier, however, the Indians went out of their way to obstruct such efforts. "Overseas Chinese were fair game for penetration," recalls Hoskins, "but the others were considered under Indian hegemony." [3] This was driven home when Mary Hawthorne, a CIA officer assigned to Calcutta, allowed Jigme Thondup (a Bhutanese royal who later became prime minister) and his family to spend the night at her apartment. When the Indians learned of the incident, their outcry was so shrill that Hawthorne was forbidden by her superiors to attempt any similar invitations. [4]

Mindful of Indian surveillance, Hoskins made plans for an exceedingly discreet approach to establish his own ties with Princess Kukula of Sikkim. As she was known to have an affinity for equestrian events, he first considered making an overture at the Tibetan pony races held in Darjeeling. But because the crowds were small and whites were sure to attract notice, Hoskins instead opted to wait until she came to Calcutta for one of the city's thoroughbred competitions. Blending with the event's large number of Western spectators, he approached the princess. But Kukula, Hoskins found, had more reservations than in the past. "She wanted to keep contacts strictly social," he concluded. "She was not serious about getting involved."

As things turned out, the services of the Sikkimese royals would soon prove redundant. When the United States learned that the Dalai Lama had gotten permission in early November to attend the Buddha Jayanti celebrations, the CIA scrambled to bypass Sikkim and establish direct links with Tibetan sources close to the monarch. [5]

None were closer than the Dalai Lama's two brothers in exile. The eldest, Thubten Norbu, already had a history of indirect contact with the agency via the Committee for a Free Asia. After he had been unceremoniously dropped from CFA funding in 1952, both he and his servant, Jentzen Thondup, had become stateless refugees in Japan. Not until 1955, following repeated appeals channeled through Church World Services, did he and Jentzen finally get new Indian identity cards and U.S. visas. Settling in New Jersey, Norbu began to earn a modest income teaching Tibetan to a handful of students as part of a noncredited course at Columbia University.

The other brother, Gyalo Thondup, was residing in Darjeeling. Six years Norbu's junior, Gyalo was the proverbial prodigal son. The problem was, he was the figurative son to a number of fathers. He was the only one of five male siblings not directed toward a monastic life. As a teen, he had befriended members of the Chinese mission in Lhasa and yearned to study in China. Although this was not a popular decision among the more xenophobic members of his family, Gyalo got his wish in 1947 when he and a brother-in-law arrived at the Kuomintang capital of Nanking and enrolled in college.

Two years later, Gyalo, then twenty-one, veered further toward China when he married fellow student Zhu Dan. Not only was his wife ethnic Chinese, but her father, retired General Chu Shi- kuei, had been a key Kuomintang officer during the early days of the republic. Because of both his relationship to General Chu and the fact that he was the Dalai Lama's brother, Gyalo was feted in Nanking by no less than Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek.

The good times were not to last. With the communists closing in on Nanking during the final months of China's civil war, Gyalo and his wife fled in mid-1949 to the safer climes of India. Once again because of his relationship to the Dalai Lama, he was added to the invitation list for various diplomatic events and even got an audience with Prime Minister Nehru.

That October, Gyalo briefly ventured to the Tibetan enclave at Kalimpong before settling for seven months in Calcutta. While there, his father-in-law, General Chu, attempted to make contact with the Tibetan government. With the retreat of the Kuomintang to Taiwan, Chu had astutely shifted loyalty to the People's Republic and was now tasked by Beijing to arrange a meeting between Tibetan and PRC officials at a neutral site, possibly Hong Kong. [6]

Conversant in Chinese and linked to both the Dalai Lama and General Chu, Gyalo was a logical intermediary for the Hong Kong talks. The British, however, were dragging their feet on providing visas to the Tibetan delegation. Unable to gain quick entry to the crown colony, Gyalo made what he intended to be a brief diversion to the Republic of China (ROC) on Taiwan. But Chiang Kai- shek, no doubt anxious to keep Gyalo away from General Chu and the PRC, had other plans. Smothering the royal sibling with largesse, Chiang kept Gyalo in Taipei for the next sixteen months. Only after a desperate letter to U.S. Secretary of State Dean Acheson requesting American diplomatic intervention did the ROC relent and give Gyalo an exit permit.

After arriving in Washington in September 1951, Gyalo continued to dabble in diplomacy. Within a month of his arrival, he was called to a meeting at the State Department. Significantly, Gyalo's Chinese wife was at his side during the encounter. Because of the couple's close ties to Chiang, department representatives assumed that details of their talk would quickly be passed to the Kuomintang Nationalists. [7]

Gyalo, in fact, was not a stooge of Taipei, Beijing, or, for that matter, Washington. Despite State Department efforts to secure him a scholarship at Stanford University, he hurriedly departed the United States in February 1952 for the Indian subcontinent. Leaving his wife behind, he then trekked back to Lhasa after a six- year absence.

By that time, Beijing had a secure foothold in the Tibetan capital. Upon meeting this wayward member of the royal family, the local PRC representatives were pleased. As a Chinese speaker married to one of their own, Gyalo was perceived as a natural ally. Yet again, however, he would prove a disappointment. After showing some interest in promoting a bold land reform program championed by the Dalai Lama, Gyalo once more grew restive. In late spring, he secretly met with the Indian consul in Lhasa, and after promising to refrain from politicking, he was given permission to resettle in India. [8]

Although not exactly endearing himself to anyone with his frequent moves, Gyalo was not burning bridges either. Noting his recent return to Darjeeling, the U.S. embassy in early August 1952 cautiously considered establishing contact. Calcutta's Consul General Gary Soulen saw an opportunity in early September while returning from his Sikkim trek with Princess Kukula. Pausing in Darjeeling, Soulen stayed long enough for Gyalo to pass on the latest information from his contacts within the Tibetan merchant community. [9]

Although he had promised to refrain from exile politics, Gyalo saw no conflict in courting senior Indian officials. In particular, he sought a meeting with India's spymaster Bhola Nath Mullik. As head of Indian intelligence, Mullik presided over an organization with deep colonial roots. Established in 1887 as the central Special Branch, it had been organized by the British to keep tabs on the rising tide of Indian nationalism. Despite several redesignations before arriving at the title Intelligence Bureau, anticolonialists remained its primary target for the next sixty years.

Upon independence in 1947, Prime Minister Nehru appointed the bureau's first Indian director. Rather than suppressing nationalists, the organization now had to contend with communal violence and early problems with India's erstwhile Muslim brothers now living in the bisected nation of Pakistan.

Three years later, Mullik became the bureau's second director. A police officer since the age of twenty-two, the taciturn Mullik was known for his boundless energy (he often worked sixteen-hour days), close ties to Nehru, healthy suspicion of China, and (rare for a senior Indian official) predisposition against communism. Almost immediately, the Tibetan frontier became his top concern. This followed Beijing's invasion of Kham that October, which meant that India's military planners now had to contend with a hypothetical front besides Pakistan. Moreover, the tribal regions of northeastern India were far from integrated, and revolutionaries in those areas could now easily receive Chinese support. The previous year, in fact, the bureau had held a conference on risks associated with Chinese infiltration. [10]

Despite Mullik's concerns, Nehru was prone to downplay the potential Chinese threat. Not only did he think it ludicrous to prepare for a full-scale Chinese attack, but he saw real benefits in cultivating Beijing to offset Pakistan's emerging strategy of anticommunist cooperation with the West. "It was Nehru's idealism against hard-headed Chinese realism," said one Intelligence Bureau official. "Mullik injected healthy suspicions."

Astute enough to hedge his bets, Nehru allowed Mullik some leeway in improving security along the border and collecting intelligence on Chinese forces in Tibet. To accomplish this, Mullik expanded the number of Indian frontier posts strung across the Himalayas. In addition, he sought contact with Tibetans living in the Darjeeling and Kalimpong enclaves. Not only could these Tibetans be tapped for information, but a symbolic visit by a senior official like Mullik would lift morale at a time when their homeland was being subjugated. Such contact, moreover, could give New Delhi advance warning of any subversive activity in Tibet being staged from Indian soil. [11]

Of all the Tibetan expatriates, Mullik had his eye on Gyalo Thondup. Besides having an insider's perspective of the high offices in Lhasa, Gyalo had already passed word of his desire for a meeting. Prior to his departure for his first visit to Darjeeling in the spring of 1953, Mullik asked for -- and quickly received -- permission from the prime minister to include the Dalai Lama's brother on his itinerary. Their subsequent exchange of views went well, as did their tete-a-tete during Mullik's second visit to Darjeeling in 1954. [12]

Apart from such occasional contact with Indian intelligence, Gyalo spent much of the next two years removed from the tribulations in his homeland. To earn a living, he ironically began exporting Indian tea and whiskey to Chinese troops and administrators in Tibet. For leisure, he and his family were frequent guests at the Gymkhana Club. Part of an exclusive resort chain that was once a playpen for the subcontinent's colonial elite, the Gymkhana's Darjeeling branch was situated amid terraced gardens against the picturesque backdrop of Kanchenjunga. A regular on the tennis courts, the Dalai Lama 's brother was the local champion. [13]

In the summer of 1956, Gyalo's respite came to an abrupt end. The senior abbot and governor from the Tibetan town of Gyantse had recently made his escape to India and in July wrote a short report about China's excesses. Gyalo repackaged the letter in English and mailed copies to the Indian media, several diplomatic missions, and selected world leaders. One of these arrived in early September at the U.S. embassy in the Pakistani capital of Karachi, and from there was disseminated to the American mission in New Delhi and consulate in Calcutta. [14]

Although the letter was less than accurate on several counts, it served two important purposes. First, it corroborated the reports of China's brutality provided by the crown prince of Sikkim in June. Second, it brought Gyalo back to the attention of Washington as a concerned activist. For the past four years, there had been virtually no contact between him and American diplomats in India. In particular, he was completely unknown among CIA officers in Calcutta. [15]

This was set to change, and quickly. Once word reached India in early November that the Dalai Lama would be attending the Buddha Jayanti, John Hoskins got an urgent cable from headquarters. Put aside your efforts against the Chinese community, he was told, and make immediate contact with Gyalo. A quick check indicated Gyalo's predilection for tennis, so Hoskins got a racket and headed north to Darjeeling. After arranging to get paired with Gyalo for a doubles match, the CIA officer wasted no time in quietly introducing himself.

First impressions are lasting ones, and Hoskins was not exactly wowed by Gyalo's persona. "There was a lot of submissiveness rather than dynamism," he noted. At their first meeting, little was discussed apart from reaching an understanding that, to avoid Indian intelligence coverage in Darjeeling, future contact would be made in Calcutta using proper countersurveillance measures.

Later that same month, the Dalai Lama and a fifty-strong delegation departed Lhasa by car. Switching to horses at the Sikkimese border, the royal entourage was met on the other side by both Gyalo and Norbu, who had rushed to India from his teaching assignment in New York. The party was whisked through Gangtok and down to the closest Indian airfield near the town of Siliguri, and by 25 November the monarch was being met by Nehru on the tarmac of New Delhi's Palam Airport. [16]

By coincidence, three days after the Dalai Lama's arrival in New Delhi, Chinese premier Zhou En- Lai began a twelve-day stop in India as part of a five-country South Asian tour. Keeping with diplomatic protocol, the young Tibetan leader was on hand to greet Zhou at the airport. The two then held a private meeting, at which time the elderly Chinese statesman lectured the Dalai Lama on the necessity of returning to his homeland.

Zhou was not alone in his appeal. As eager as Nehru was to offset Chinese influence in Tibet, he, too, was against the Dalai Lama's seeking asylum -- especially on Indian soil. This was partly because India wanted to maintain good relations with China. This was also because New Delhi did not want to go it alone, and not a single country to date had recognized Tibetan independence. Fearing that the monarch's brothers would have an unhealthy effect on any decision, Indian officials in the capital did all in their power to keep Gyalo and Norbu segregated from their royal sibling. [17]

The Dalai Lama hardly needed convincing from his brothers, however. During his first private session with Nehru, he openly hinted about not going back to Lhasa. He also requested that the issue of Tibetan independence be taken up by Nehru and President Dwight Eisenhower at their upcoming summit in Washington in December. Nehru was not entirely surprised by all this: Gyalo had already sought out Mullik and told the Indian intelligence chief in no uncertain terms that his brother would opt for exile. [18]

As India's leadership digested these developments, the Dalai Lama departed the capital for an exhausting schedule of Buddha Jayanti festivities. He was still in the midst of this tour when Zhou returned to New Delhi for an encore visit on 30 December. In the interim, Nehru had had his Washington meeting with Eisenhower, and the Chinese premier had scheduled the stop specifically to discuss the outcome of that summit. As it turned out, however, Tibet was a major topic of conversation. In particular, Nehru used the opportunity to press Zhou about tempering China's harsh military and agrarian policies on the Tibetan plateau.

Tibet was clearly shaping into a litmus test for Sino-Indian relations. Anxious to broker a deal that would assuage both Lhasa and Beijing, Nehru summoned the Dalai Lama from his pilgrimage and underscored to the Tibetan leader that Indian asylum was not in the cards. But if that was bitter news, Zhou had earlier proposed a sweetener. While noting that China was ready to use force to stamp out resistance, he claimed that Mao now recognized the folly of rapid collectivization and pledged to delay further revolutionary reforms in Tibet.

Zhou and his senior comrades were by now gravely concerned over permanently losing the Dalai Lama. Leaving nothing to chance, Zhou was back in New Delhi on 24 January 1957 for his third visit in as many months.

Despite Beijing's lobbying, Gyalo and Norbu were still insistent that their brother choose exile. Torn over his future, the twenty-one-year-old monarch had already departed Calcutta on 22 January for Kalimpong, which by then was home to a growing number of disaffected Tibetan elite. Once there, he did what Tibet's leaders had done countless other times when confronted with a hard decision: he consulted the state oracle. Two official soothsayers happened to be traveling with his delegation; using time-honored -- if unscientific -- methods, the pair went into a trance on cue and recited their sagely advice. Return to Lhasa, they channeled. [19]

As far as the Dalai Lama was concerned, the ruling of his oracles was incontrovertible, and the decision was made all the easier by the fact that nobody seemed anxious to give him refuge. Flouting the suggestions of his brothers, he declared his intention to go home. He crossed into Sikkim in early March and was compelled to remain in Gangtok until heavy snows melted from the mountain passes. There, he finalized plans to set out for Lhasa by month's end.

Prior to November 1956, Tibet had never ranged far from the bottom of the priority watch list for those in the Far East Division at CIA headquarters in Washington. The agency had no officer assigned solely to Tibetan affairs; it, along with Mongolia and other peripheral ethnic regions under PRC control, barely factored as a minor addendum to the activities of William Broe's China Branch.

But as soon as the Dalai Lama received permission to attend the Buddha Jayanti, Broe felt it prudent to show heightened interest. Looking for a junior officer to spare, he soon settled on John Reagan. Twenty-eight years old, Reagan had joined the agency upon graduation from Boston College in 1951. He was soon in Asia, where he spent the next twenty-four months working on paramilitary projects in Korea. Switching to China Branch, he served two more years in Japan as part of the CIA's penetration effort against the PRC. Returning to the United States in 1955, Reagan divided the next twelve months between Chinese language training and trips to New York City to practice tradecraft against United Nations delegates.

As the branch's new man on Tibet, Reagan initially did little more than forward instructions for John Hoskins to make contact with Gyalo. He was silent on further guidance, primarily because senior U.S. policy makers had not yet ironed out a coherent framework for dealing with Lhasa. In earlier meetings between CIA and State Department officials during the summer of 1956, there had been those who felt that the Dalai Lama should flee to another Buddhist nation to offer a rallying cry for anticommunist Buddhists across Asia. Others, primarily inside the agency, believed that he could play a more important role as a rallying symbol in Lhasa among his fellow Tibetans. This eas still the CIA's operating assumption in late 1956: once the Dalai Lama was in India, the prevailing mood at agency headquarters was that he should eventually go home. [20]

Gyalo, meantime, was telling Hoskins that his brother had every intention of seeking asylum. With the Dalai Lama apparently intent on staying away from his homeland -- and therefore not conforming to the agency's preferred scenario of rallying his people from Lhasa -- Reagan was largely idle during most of the Dalai Lama's four-month absence from Tibet. [21]

Eventually, however, the CIA looked to hedge its bets. Since the second half of 1956, a band of twenty-seven young Khampa men -- some still in their late teens -- had been growing restive in the enclave of Kalimpong. Most came from relatively wealthy trading families and had been spirited to India to protect them from the instability in their native province. Full of vigor, the entire group had ventured to New Delhi shortly before the Dalai Lama's Buddha Jayanti pilgrimage to conduct street protests. Once the Dalai Lama arrived, they sought a brief audience to make an impassioned plea for Lhasa's intercession against the Chinese offensive in Kham.

To their disappointment, the Dalai Lama counseled patience. "His Holiness only said things would settle down," recalls one of the Khampas. Undaunted, the twenty-seven young men shadowed the monarch during several of the Buddha Jayanti commemorative events. By early January 1957, this took them to Bodh Gaya, the city in eastern India where the historical Buddha was said to have attained enlightenment. While there, the Dalai Lama's older brother, Thubten Norbu, approached the Khampas and asked if he could take their individual photographs as a souvenir. Although it was an odd request, they complied. [22]

For the next few weeks, nothing happened. Frustrated by the Dalai Lama's repeated rebuffs, the Khampas sulked back to Kalimpong. Several Chinese traders were in town, some of whom were rumored to have links to the Nationalist regime on Taiwan. Desperate, the Khampas sounded them out on the possibility of covert assistance from Taipei. It was at that point that Gyalo Thondup arrived and requested a meeting with all twenty-seven. For most of the young Khampas, it was the first time they had spoken with the Dalai Lama's lay brother. As they listened attentively, Gyalo lectured them to steer clear of the Kuomintang. "The United States," he told them cryptically, "is a better choice." [23]

Less than a week later, the Dalai Lama arrived in Kalimpong, the oracles had their channeling session, and things changed dramatically. With the monarch's return journey now imminent, John Reagan in Washington scrambled to script a program of action. At its core, the plan called for a unilateral capability to determine how much armed resistance activity really existed in Tibet; further commitments could then be weighed accordingly.

The CIA had good reason to act with prudence. It already had a long and growing list of embarrassing failures while working with resistance groups behind communist lines. Perhaps none had been more painful than its experience against the PRC. There the agency's efforts had taken two tracks. The first was a collaborative effort with the Kuomintang government on Taiwan. Clinging to its dream of reconquering the mainland, the ROC in 1950 claimed to control a million guerrillas inside the People's Republic. Although a February 1951 Pentagon study placed the figure at no more than 600,000 -- only half of which were thought to be nominally loyal to the ROC -- Washington saw fit to support these insurgents as a means of appeasing a key Asian ally while at the same time possibly diverting Beijing's attention from the conflict on the Korean peninsula. [24]

To funnel covert American assistance to the ROC, the CIA established a shell company in Pittsburgh known as Western Enterprises (WE). In September 1951, WE's newly appointed chief, Raymond Peers, arrived on Taiwan with a planeload of advisers. A U.S. Army colonel who had earned accolades during World War II as chief of the famed OSS Detachment 101 in Burma, Peers quickly initiated a number of paramilitary efforts. A large portion of his resources was directed toward airborne operations, including retraining the ROC's 1,50O-man parachute regiment. Other WE advisers, meanwhile, were tasked with putting ROC action and intelligence teams through an airborne course. [25]

To deploy these operatives, WE turned to the agency's Far East air proprietary, Civil Air Transport (CAT). By the spring of 1952, CAT planes were dropping teams and singletons on the mainland, as well as supplies to resistance groups that the ROC claimed were already active on the ground. Some of the penetrations ranged as far as Tibet's Amdo region, where the ROC alleged it had contact with Muslim insurgents. [26]

Concurrently, the agency in April 1951 initiated a unilateral third-force effort using anticommunist Chinese unaffiliated with the ROC. Allocated enough arms and ammunition for 200,000 guerrillas, the CIA recruited many of these third-force operatives from Hong Kong, trained them in Japan and Saipan, and inserted them in CAT planes via air bases in South Korea. [27]

By the spring of 1953, both the ROC program and third-force effort were in their second years. Although the Pentagon's top brass (groping for ways to pressure Beijing during Korean cease-fire negotiations) were wistfully talking in terms of "sparking a coordinated anti-communist resistance movement throughout China," those running the CIA's infiltration program could hardly have been so optimistic. "None of the Taiwan agents we dropped were successful," said one WE adviser. The third-force tally was just as bad: all its operatives were either killed or taken prisoner, and CAT lost one plane during an attempted exfiltration that resulted in the capture of two CIA officers. [28]

That summer, an armistice sent the Korean conflict into remission. This provided the CIA with convenient cover to reassess its third-force track. Although it elected to maintain a China Base at Yokosuka, Japan, this unit was to handle primarily agent penetrations and low-level destabilization efforts; support for broader unilateral resistance got the ax.

Cooperative ventures with the ROC were not so easily nixed. Although Taipei had tempered its claims somewhat, it still pegged loyal mainland guerrilla strength at 650,000 insurgents. By contrast, a November 1953 estimate by the U.S. National Security Council (NSC) put the figure closer to 50,000. Despite this huge discrepancy, the NSC still advocated continued covert assistance to the ROC in order to develop anticommunist guerrillas for resistance and intelligence. Even temporary guerrilla successes, the council reasoned, might set off waves of defections and stiffen passive resistance. [29]

Chiang Kai-shek could not have agreed more. Eager to vastly increase the scope of guerrilla support, the generalissimo in 1954 asked Washington for some 30,000 parachutes. Turned down the first time, he made further high-priority appeals over the next two years. These parachutes were needed for an ambitious plan to drop 100-man units near major PRC population centers. Hoping to set off a chain of uprisings, Chiang optimistically talked in terms of uprooting Chinese communism in as little as two years. [30]

Hearing these plans, Washington patiently counseled against the proposed airborne blitz. On a more modest level, however, the CIA's assistance program continued unabated. In this, success was more elusive than ever. Despite inserting an average of two Nationalist agents a month through the mid-1950s, the ROC operatives were still being killed or captured in short order. [31]

Reasons for the lack of success against the People's Republic were legion. First, the infiltration program took at face value some of Taipei's claims about contact with a vast network of anticommunists on the mainland. In reality, such claims were wildly exaggerated, and precious little was known about events in the PRC countryside; even top PRC leaders were prone to mysteriously disappear from public view for months on end. [32] Second, in the unlikely event such resistance existed, the logistical challenge of maintaining support to these guerrilla pockets outstripped what could realistically be staged by Taiwan and the CIA. Third, the CIA's recent experience against the Soviet Union and its satellites had shown the folly of abetting insurgents in a tightly controlled police state; Beijing's omnipresent militia and party network were no less daunting. [33] Finally, even though the PRC's ruthless experimentation in social engineering had no doubt bred detractors by the score, the corruption of the Kuomintang regime hardly endeared Taipei to any disenchanted masses on the mainland.

Although these reasons might have made covert operations against the PRC a study in frustration, Tibet appeared to be different. Unlike many of Taipei's wishful claims about other areas of the mainland, Tibet had a resistance movement corroborated by multiple, albeit dated, sources. What the CIA needed was timely data that could give a current and accurate picture of this resistance. And given the historical animosity between Tibetans and lowland Chinese, the agency needed to gather this information without resort to ROC assistance.

In February 1957, John Hoskins was ordered by Washington to immediately identify eight Tibetan candidates for external training as a pilot team that would infiltrate their homeland and assess the state of resistance. Gyalo, who had been in Kalimpong making an eleventh-hour bid to convince his brother to seek asylum, was given responsibility for screening candidates among the Tibetan refugees already in India. Although the twenty-seven Khampas did not know it, Gyalo intended to make the selection from their ranks. Using the photographs taken by Norbu at Bodh Gaya, he sought guidance from two senior Khampas in town, both of whom hailed from the extended family of Gompo Tashi Andrugtsang, a prominent trader of Tibetan wool, deer horns, and musk.

With their assistance, Gyalo soon settled on his first pick. Wangdu Gyato-tsang, age twenty-seven, had been born to an affluent Khampa family from the town of Lithang. He was well connected: Gompo Tashi was his uncle, as was one of the senior Khampas helping Gyalo with the selection.
Wangdu also had the right disposition for the task at hand. Despite being schooled at the Lithang monastery from the age of ten, he did not exactly conform to monastic life. "He was hot tempered from childhood," recalls younger brother Kalsang.

A sampling of this temper came at age seventeen during a trip to the Tibetan town of Menling. Out of deference to the local chieftain, it was decreed that hats, firearms, and horse bells would be removed in front of the chief's residence. It was raining, however, so Wangdu continued wearing his cap. Spying this violation, the chieftain's bodyguard strode up and knocked the Khampa on the head. Without flinching, the young monk drew his pistol and shot the guard dead. [34]

On account of his family connections, Wangdu was spared punishment. In 1956, his family ties again came into play following the PLA's devastating attack on the Lithang monastery. On orders from uncle Gompo Tashi, Wangdu and his younger brother were bundled off to the safer environs of Kalimpong.

When approached by Gyalo, Wangdu immediately volunteered for the mission. Within days, five other Khampas were singled out (Washington now wanted a total of six trainees, not eight), but only Wangdu was given any hint of the impending assignment. Four were from Lithang; of these, three were Wangdu's close acquaintances, and one was his family servant. The fifth was a friend from the nearby town of Bathang (also spelled Batang). All were still on hand to attend the Dalai Lama's final open-air blessing in a Kalimpong soccer field shortly before the monarch headed back toward Tibet.

With the Dalai Lama en route to Lhasa, attention shifted in early March to smuggling the six Khampas out of India for training. This was easier said than done. Because of Nehru's determination to maintain cordial Sino-Indian ties, New Delhi's complicity remained out of the question. Moreover, the Khampas were refugees without proper identification, discounting overt travel via commercial airliner or boat. Brainstorming covert alternatives, several came to mind. "There was some talk in the Calcutta consulate about floating them off the Indian coast," said Gyalo, "then having them picked up by submarine." Consideration was also given to issuing fake Nepalese passports. [35]

-- The CIA's Secret War in Tibet, by Kenneth Conboy and James Morrison

[The Tibetan involvement with the U.S. came during the Cold War and decolonization period in world history that in the United States manifested as anticommunism, and in the People’s Republic of China as anticapitalism. [15][16]

Allen Dulles, the CIA deputy director responsible for overseeing all CIA covert operations, saw an opportunity to destabilize Communist China.[17] The primary motive was more to impede and harass the Chinese Communists, than to render sufficient aid to the Tibetans.[18]

Surrender to Indian government

Chushi Gangdrug assisted the escape of the 14th Dalai Lama to India in March 1959. After this, the idea of any further battle with the Chinese Communist troops was abandoned. Andrug Jindak persuaded Kunga Samten Dewatshang in Tawang to surrender his weapons to the Indian authorities.[19] Shangri Lhagyal and other Chushi Gangdrug fighters handed over their weapons to the Indian officials at Tezpur, India. They crossed the border where they were greeted by a representative of the Tibetan Government, Tsedrung Jampa Wangdu.[20] On 29 April 1959, they handed over their rifles, ammunition, and all other weapons to the Deputy Commissioner of Tezpur district, and were permitted to take their gold, silver, and other valuables.[21]

The 14th Dalai Lama conferred the rank of Dsasak to Andrug Gompo Tashi in a letter: “You have led the Chushi Gangdrug force with unshakeable determination to resist the Chinese occupation army for the great national cause of defending the freedom of Tibet. I confer on you the rank of Dzasak (the highest military rank equivalent to general) in recognition of your services to the country. The present situation calls for a continuance of your brave struggle with the same determination and courage.”[22] In addition, Andrug Jindak received some gifts of priceless religious relics including an earthen statue of God of Protection Jigchi Mahai and some holy beads.[23]

Later guerrilla operations

From 1960, Chushi Gangdruk conducted its guerrilla operations from the northern Nepalese region of Mustang.[24] In 1974, guerrilla operations ceased after the CIA, given the realignment of Sino-American relations initiated by President Richard Nixon, terminated its program of assistance to the Tibetan resistance movement and the Dalai Lama, the exiled Tibetan spiritual and temporal leader, taped a message telling the Tibetans to lay down their weapons and surrender peacefully.

See also

Ratuk Ngawang was in ‘Four Rivers, Six Ranges’, the Tibetan resistance force against the Communist Chinese

• List of organizations of Tibetans in exile
• Tibetan American
• Tibetan Resistance Since 1950
• Special Frontier Force



1. "Resistance and Revolution". Tibet Oral History Project. Archived from the original on 2017-06-27. Retrieved 2017-06-25. He went to India after the Nepalese Government disbanded the unit in 1974.
2. Goldstein, Melvyn: A History of Modern Tibet. Vol. 2. The Calm before the Storm, 1951-1955, University of California Press, London, 2007, p. 598
3. "Membership & Support". Archived from the original on 2012-07-17. Retrieved 2012-06-10.
4. Stephen Talty (Dec 31, 2010). "The Dalai Lama's Great Escape". The Daily Beast.
5. Kunga Samten Dewatshang (1997). Flight at the Cuckoo’s Behest, The Life and Times of a Tibetan Freedom Fighter. New Delhi: Paljor Publications. p. 113.
6. Ford, Robert (1990). Captured in Tibet. NY: Oxford University Press. pp. 136–137.
7. Knaus, J. K. (1999). Orphans of the Cold War: America and the Tibetan Struggle for Survival. NY: Public Affairs. p. 84.
8. Goodmann, M. H. (1986). The Last Dalai Lama, A Biography. London: Sidgwick & Jackson. p. 173.
9. Dalai Lama (2006). My Land and My People. New Delhi: Srishti Publishers & Distributors. p. 88.
10. INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION OF JURISTS (1959). "The Question of Tibet and the Rule of Law". International Commission of Jurists.
11. Knaus, J. K. (1999). Orphans of the Cold War: America and the Tibetan Struggle for Survival. NY: Public Affairs. p. 150.
12. Gyalo Thondup and Thurston, A. F. (2015). The Noodle Maker of Kalimpong, The Untold Story of My Struggle for Tibet. NY: Public Affairs. p. 176.
13. Thondup, Gyalo; Thurston, Anne F. (2015). The Noodle Maker of Kalimpong: The Untold Story of My Struggle for Tibet. Gurgaon, India: Random House India. p. 169. ISBN 978-818400-387-1. Most of the resisters in India were followers of Andrug Gompo Tashi, a wealthy, patriotic Kham trader from Litang where the resistance had begun with the introduction of China's so-called reforms. Popular outrage had been further fueled with the death and destruction unleashed when the Chinese attacked and bombed the local Litang monastery.
14. Knaus, J. K. (1999). Orphans of the Cold War. NY: Public Affairs. pp. 139.
15. McGranahan, C. (2018). Ethnographies of U.S. Empire: Love and Empire: The CIA, Tibet, and Covert Humanitarianism. Durham and London: Duke University. p. 334.
16. McGranahan, C. "Ethnographies of U.S. Empire: Love and Empire: The CIA, Tibet, and Covert Humanitarianism" (PDF).
17. Roberts II, J. B. (1997). "The Secret War Over Tibet". The American Spectator. December: 31-35.
18. Knaus, J. K. (1999). Orphans of the Cold War. NY: Public Affairs. pp. 139.
19. Kunga Samten Dewatshang (1997). Flight at the Cuckoo’s Behest, The Life and Times of a Tibetan Freedom Fighter. New Delhi: Paljor Publications. p. 149.
20. Gompo Tashi Andrugtsang (1973). Four Rivers, Six Ranges: Reminiscences of the Resistance Movement in Tibet. Dharamsala: Information and Publicity Office of H.H. The Dalai Lama. p. 105.
21. Gompo Tashi Andrugtsang (1973). Four Rivers, Six Ranges: Reminiscences of the Resistance Movement in Tibet. Dharamsala: Information and Publicity Office of H.H. The Dalai Lama. pp. 105–106.
22. Gompo Tashi Andrugtsang (1973). Four Rivers, Six Ranges: Reminiscences of the Resistance Movement in Tibet. Dharamsala: Information and Publicity Office of H.H. The Dalai Lama. p. 101.
23. Gompo Tashi Andrugtsang (1973). Four Rivers, Six Ranges: Reminiscences of the Resistance Movement in Tibet. Dharamsala: Information and Publicity Office of H.H. The Dalai Lama. p. 101.
24. Cowan, Sam (17 January 2016). "The curious case of the Mustang incident". The Record. Retrieved 2017-02-10.


• Tsering Shakya, The Dragon in the Land of Snows - A History of Modern Tibet Since 1947, Columbia University Press, 1999, ISBN 0-231-11814-7.
Site Admin
Posts: 32984
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Mon Nov 25, 2019 2:32 am

Janet Gyatso
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 11/24/19



Janet Gyatso
Born Janet Frank
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Nationality American
Education University of California at Berkeley (BA, MA, and PhD)
Occupation Professor of Buddhist Studies, Associate Dean for Faculty and Academic Affairs
Years active 1981- current
Employer Harvard Divinity School
Known for Study of Buddhism and Tibetan and South Asian culture
Notable work
Being Human in a Buddhist World
Women in Tibet
Apparitions of the Self
In the Mirror of Memory
(See § Works.)

Janet Gyatso is a Religious Studies scholar currently employed as the Hershey Professor of Buddhist Studies and the Associate Dean for Faculty and Academic Affairs at Harvard Divinity School.[1] She is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Gyatso's research interests are in Buddhism and its relationship to Tibetan and South Asian civilizations.[1]


Gyatso attended the University of California at Berkeley for her BA, MA and PhD. She received her PhD in 1981 in the department of South and Southeast Asian Languages and Literatures [at Berkeley,] with a dissertation on Thangtong Gyalpo and the visionary tradition of Tibetan Buddhism [2][3] Prior to her PhD, she completed her Master of Arts in 1974 in Sanskrit, and her Bachelor of Arts in 1972 in Religious studies at Berkeley.


Gyatso currently teaches at Harvard Divinity School and has taught with Harvard since 2001.[4] She is the first Hershey Professor of Buddhist Studies at Harvard's Divinity School and is the Associate Dean of Faculty and Academic Affairs. Prior to teaching at Harvard, Gyatso taught at Amherst College (between 1987-2001), the University of Michigan (Spring 1999) and Wesleyan University (1986–87; Spring 1988).[3]

From 2000-2006, Gyatso held the position of president of the International Association of Tibetan Studies. From 2004-2010, she was co-chair of the Buddhism Section of the American Academy of Religion.[1]


Gyatso is known for her work on Tibet, primarily through text analysis and has focused on the twelfth to eighteenth centuries, examining the introduction of Buddhism to Tibet and its eventual status as mainstream in Tibet. Her first monograph explored the writing of autobiography in Tibet, and translated and analysed one of its most beautiful examples, the visionary journals of 'Jigs med gling pa (Apparitions of the Self, Princeton, 1998). Her more recent book, Being Human in a Buddhist World, studied the relationship between Buddhism and medicine in early modern Tibet.[5] Her work has been credited by Barbara Gerke as helping to develop our understanding of the relationship between science and religion in early modern Tibetan culture.[6]

Gyatso has also edited a book entitled Women in Tibet, a compilation of essays on the topic.[7] Gyatso and her fellow editor Hannah Havnevik put this book together to draw attention to the lack of research in the area of women in Tibet.[7] A previous edited collection by Gyatso was "In the Mirror of Memory" (State University of New York Press, 1992), a study of the types of memory theorized and used in Buddhist practice. Other topics of interest have been the reception of Indian poetic theory in Tibetan literature, the nature of experience in Buddhist thought and practice, Buddhist monasticism, and Buddhist conceptions of sex and gender, including the "third sex." She is currently working on animal ethics.



• Being Human in a Buddhist World: An Intellectual History of Medicine in Early Modern Tibet (2015)[8][9][10][11]
• Women of Tibet. Co-edited with Hanna Havnevik. (2005)
• Apparitions of the Self: The Secret Autobiographies of a Tibetan Visionary (1998)[12][13][14][15]
• In the Mirror of Memory: Reflections on Mindfulness and Remembrance in Indian and Tibetan Buddhism. Edited volume of essays.(1992)[16][17]


• Turning Personal: Recent Work on Autobiography in Tibetan Studies Journal of Asian Studies (2016) 229-235
• One Picture. In Tibetan and Himalayan Healing - An Anthology for Anthony Aris, edited by Charles Ramble and Ulrike Roesler (2014) 273-278.
• Buddhist Practices and Ideals in Desi Sangye Gyatso’s Medical Paintings in Bodies in Balance: The Art of Tibetan Medicine, edited by Theresia Hofer (2013) 198-220.
• Looking for Gender in the Medical Paintings of Desi Sangye Gyatso, Regent of the Tibetan Buddhist State in Asian Medicine: Tradition and Modernity in the med issue on Gender, Health and Medicine in Tibet edited by Theresia Hofer and Heidi Fjeld [no] (2010–11) 217-292.
• Discerning Tibetan Modernities: Moments, Methods, Assumptions in Mapping the Modern in Tibet edited by Gray Tuttle (2011) 1-37.
• Experience, Empiricism, and the Fortunes of Authority: Tibetan Medicine and Buddhism on the Eve of Modernity pp. 311–335 in Forms of Knowledge in Early Modern Asia: Explorations in the Intellectual History of India and Tibet edited by Sheldon Pollock (2011)
• Female Ordination in Buddhism: Looking into a Crystal Ball, Making a Future in Dignity and Discipline edited by Thea Mohr and Jampa Choedron (2010) pp. 1–21.
• Spelling Mistakes, Philology, and Feminist Criticism: Women and Boys in Tibetan Medicine in Tibetan Studies in Honor of Samten Karmay Dharamsala: Amnye Machen InstituteFrançoise Pommaret edited by Jena-Luc Achard (2009) 81-98.
• Introduction in Body & Spirit: Tibetan Medical Paintings edited by Laila Williams (2009) 3-13
• Culture and Education in Authenticating Tibet: Answers to China's 100 Questions edited by Anne-Marie Blondeau and Katia Buffetrille (2008)
• A Partial Genealogy of the Lifestory of Yeshe Tsogyal In Journal of the International Association of Tibetan Studies Seminar (2006) 1-27
• Sex in Critical Terms for the Study of Buddhism edited by Donald S. Lopez (2005) 271-290.
• The Ultimate Couple in Buddhist Scriptures edited by Donald S. Lopez (2004) 488-494.
• Compassion at the Millenium: A Buddhist Salvo for the Ethics of the Apocalypse In Thinking Through the Death of God: Essays on the Thought of Thomas J. J. Altizer edited by Brian Schroeder and Lissa McCullough (2004)
• One Plus One Makes Three: Buddhist Gender Conception and the Law of the Non-Excluded Middle in History of Religions (2003): 89-115.
• The Ins and Outs of Self-Transformation: Personal and Social Sides of Visionary Practice in Tibetan Buddhism in Self and Self-Transformation in the History of Religions edited by David Shulman 2002.
• Longchenpa and the Possession of the Dakinis in Tantra in Practice edited by David White (2000) 239-265
• Healing Burns with Fire: The Facilitations of Experience in Tibetan Buddhism in Journal of the American Academy of Religion (1999) 113-147.
• Introduction to Lama Chonam and Sangye Khandro in The Lives and Liberation of Princess Mandarava (1998) 1-14
• Counting Crows' Teeth: Tibetans and Their Diaries in Les habitants du Toit du monde edited by Samten Karmay and Phillip Sagant (1997) 159-178
• The Relic Text as Prophecy: The Semantic Drift of Byang-bu and its Appropriation in the Treasure Tradition in Commemorative Volume for Rai Bahadur T.D edited by Densapa Tashi Tsering, a special issue of Tibet Journal. Still forthcoming.
• Drawn from the Tibetan Treasury: The Gter-ma Literature in Tibetan Literature: Studies in Genre edited by José Ignacio Cabezón and Roger Jackson (1996) 147-169
• An Avalokitesvara Sadhana in Religions of Tibet in Practice edited by Donald S. Lopez (1997) 266-270
• From the Autobiography of a Visionary in Religions of Tibet in Practice edited by Donald S. Lopez (1997) 369-375.
• Guru Chos-dbang's gTer 'byung chen mo: An Early Survey of the Treasure Tradition and its Strategies in Discussing Bon Treasure in Tibetan Studies: Proceedings of the Sixth International Association of Tibetan Studies Seminar edited by Per Kvaerne (1994) 275-287.
• The Logic of Legitimation in the Tibetan Treasure Tradition in History of Religions (1993) 97-134.
• Autobiography in Tibetan Religious Literature: Reflections on Its Modes of Self-Presentation in Tibetan Studies:Proceedings of the 5th International Association of Tibetan Studies Seminar. Narita: Naritasan Institute for Buddhist Studies edited by Shoren Ihara and Zuiho Yamaguchi (1992) 465-478
• Genre, Authorship and Transmission in Visionary Buddhism: The Literary Traditions of Thang-stong Rgyal-po in Tibetan Buddhism: Reason and Revelation edited by Ronald Davidson and Steven Goodman (1992) 95-106.
• Down with the Demoness: Reflections on a Feminine Ground in Tibet in Tibet Journal XII.4 (1987) 34-46
• Signs, Memory and History: A Tantric Buddhist Theory of Scriptural Transmission in Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies (1986) 7-35.
• Thang-stong rGyal-po, Father of the Tibetan Drama: The Bodhisattva as Artist in Zlos-gar, The Tibetan Performing Arts: Commemorative Issue on the Occasion of the 25th Anniversary of the Founding of the Tibetan Institute of Performing Arts edited by Jamyang Norbu (1986) 91-104.
• The Development of the gCod Tradition in Soundings in Tibetan Civilization edited by Barbara Aziz and Matthew Kapstein (1985) 74-98.
• The Teachings of Thang-stong rGyal-po in Tibetan Studies in Honour of Hugh Richardson edited by Michael Aris and Aung San Suu Kyi (1980) 111-119

Awards and accolades

• 2017 - Elected to American Academy of Arts and Sciences[18]
• 2017 E. Gene Smith Award for Best Book in Inner Asia; Association of Asian Studies, for her book Being Human in a Buddhist World'
• 2016 - Toshihide Numata Book Award for her book Being Human in a Buddhist World[19]


1. "Janet Gyatso". Retrieved 2018-12-01.
2. "Digital Dharma". Retrieved 2018-12-10.
3. (PDF) ... ug2011.pdf. Retrieved 2018-12-10.Missing or empty |title= (help)
4. "Janet Gyatso | Harvard University -". Retrieved 2018-12-01.
5. Gyatso, Janet (2015). Being Human in a Buddhist World: An Intellectual History of Medicine in Early Modern Tibet. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-53832-9.
6. Barbara, Gerke (2016-05-27). Review of ' Being Human in a Buddhist World: An Intellectual History of Medicine in Early Modern Tibet' by Janet Gyatso. Himalaya, the Journal of the Association for Nepal and Himalayan Studies. OCLC 954619043.
7. Gyatso, Janet & Havnevik, Hanna (eds.) (2005). Women in Tibet. C. Hurst. ISBN 978-1850656531. OCLC 248178272.
8. Samuel, Geoffrey (2016-08-01). "Janet Gyatso, Being Human in a Buddhist World: An Intellectual History of Medicine in Early Modern Tibet". Social History of Medicine. 29 (3): 634–636. doi:10.1093/shm/hkw024. ISSN 0951-631X.
9. Salguero, C. Pierce (2016-03-30). "Being Human in a Buddhist World: An Intellectual History of Medicine in Early Modern Tibet by Janet Gyatso (review)". Bulletin of the History of Medicine. 90 (1): 150–152. doi:10.1353/bhm.2016.0007. ISSN 1086-3176.
10. Kværne, Per (2016-12-21). "Gyatso Janet, Being human in a Buddhist world. An intellectual history of medicine in early modern Tibet. New York, Columbia University Press, 2015, x + 519 pages, ISBN 978-0-231-16496-2". Études Mongoles et Sibériennes, Centrasiatiques et Tibétaines (47). ISSN 0766-5075.
11. Katharina Sabernig, "Janet Gyatso. Being Human in a Buddhist World: An Intellectual History of Medicine in Early Modern Tibet.," Isis 107, no. 1 (March 2016): 148-149.
12. Geoffrey, Samuel (2000). "Reviewed Work: Apparitions of the Self: The Secret Autobiographies of a Tibetan Visionary by Janet Gyatso". Journal of the American Academy of Religion. 68 (3): 642–644. JSTOR 1465902.
13. Willis, Janice D. (2000). "Reviewed Work: Apparitions of the Self: The Secret Autobiographies of a Tibetan Visionary by Janet Gyatso". History of Religions. 39 (4): 390–393. doi:10.1086/463608. JSTOR 3176552.
14. Samuel, Geoffrey (2000). "Reviewed Work: Apparitions of the Self: The Secret Autobiographies of a Tibetan Visionary by Janet Gyatso". Journal of the American Academy of Religion. 68 (3): 642–644. doi:10.1093/jaarel/68.3.642. JSTOR 1465902.
15. Lavine, Amy (1999). "Reviewed Work: Apparitions of the Self: The Secret Autobiographies of a Tibetan Visionary by Janet Gyatso". The Journal of Religion. 79 (3): 511–512. doi:10.1086/490491. JSTOR 1205529.
16. Bartholomeusz, Tessa; Gyatso, Janet (1993). "In the Mirror of Memory: Reflections of Mindfulness and Remembrance in Indian and Tibetan Buddhism". The Journal of Asian Studies. 52 (4): 1053. doi:10.2307/2059409. ISSN 0021-9118. JSTOR 2059409.
17. Fox, Alan; Gyatso, Janet (1997). "In the Mirror of Memory: Reflections on Mindfulness and Remembrance in Indian and Tibetan Buddhism". Philosophy East and West. 47 (4): 616. doi:10.2307/1400312. ISSN 0031-8221. JSTOR 1400312.
18. "Janet Gyatso Elected to American Academy of Arts and Sciences". Retrieved 2018-12-01.
19. "Announcements - Buddhist Studies - University of California, Berkeley". Retrieved 2018-12-01.

External links

• Janet Gyatso on IMDb


Doris [Black] Frank, 88, Fled Pogroms and Found Vineyard
by Vineyard Gazette
Thursday, April 12, 2007 - 8:00pm

The family of Doris [Black] Frank is saddened to announce her death on Wednesday. She had been living for the last two and a half years in Brighton at Chestnut Park, an assisted living facility close to her daughter's home. She died peacefully of natural causes. She was 88.

Doris was born in the Ukraine, near Kiev, in 1918. With the rest of her immediate and some of her extended family, she fled the pogroms in 1921, moving across Europe in stealth until they finally sailed to Canada at some time in 1923. It is not certain if the port of sail was Liverpool, England or a port in Belgium.

Doris was raised and schooled in Montreal, where she lived with her two sisters, Fannie and Ray, and her parents Benjamin and Sosia Black. In 1939 she attended an adult's socialist tennis camp in upstate New York where she met her future husband, Gilbert Frank, to whom she was eventually married in 1941 in Montreal.

They settled in Philadelphia, Pa., where Doris gave birth to her son Daniel in 1944 and her daughter Janet in 1949. During these years, in addition to being a mother and housewife, Doris was active in the League of Women Voters and various leftist Jewish organizations. Following the example of members of Gilbert's family, including his second cousin Hattie Jacobs and her husband George, and later his sisters Rea and Selma Frank, Doris and Gilbert moved to the Vineyard in 1980. They lived there happily until Gilbert died in 2004.

Throughout her life, Doris was an observant Jew who cared passionately about the fate of the Jewish people, the state of Israel, and the learning of Hebrew and Yiddish culture. She and her husband were also avid lovers of nature and animals. They enjoyed the simple life they were able to achieve on the Vineyard, and continued to have a wide circle of friends and social causes in which they participated well into their 80s.

Survivors include her children Daniel Frank and Janet Gyatso, along with their respective spouses Doris Clerc and Charles Hallisey; her grandchildren Johanna, Jeremy, Michael and Zoey Frank, as well as Sean, Stephen and Gina Hallisey; her great grandchildren Ben, Jillian and Allison Troth; Gilbert's sister, Selma Frank of Vineyard Haven; and the following nieces and nephews who are children of her late sisters Fannie Silverman and Ray Yellin: Peretz, Ozzie, and Jerry Silverman, and Esther Wynn, Sorel Cohen, and Dorothy Yellin.

A funeral will be held on Sunday at 9:30 a.m. at the Hebrew Cemetery in Vineyard Haven. Arrangements are under the care of the Chapman, Cole & Gleason Funeral Home, Oak Bluffs.


Charles Hallisey
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 11/24/19


Charles Hallisey is the Yehan Numata Senior Lecturer on Buddhist Literatures at Harvard Divinity School and an authority on Sinhala literature.


Hallisey obtained his AB from Colgate University, MDiv from Harvard Divinity School and later a MA from the University of Pennsylvania. Subsequently, he received his PhD from the University of Chicago.[1]

From 1996 to 2001 he was John L. Loeb Associate Professor of the Humanities in the Committee on the Study of Religion and the Department of Sanskrit and Indian Studies at Harvard University. Later in 2001 he joined the University of Wisconsin as Associate Professor in the Department of Languages and Cultures of Asia and the Religious Studies Program. He joined the Faculty of Divinity of Harvard Divinity School in the academic year 2007–08.[1]


• Therigatha: Poems of the First Buddhist Women. Murty Classical Library of India. Harvard University Press. 2015. ISBN 978-0-674-42773-0.


1. "Charles Hallisey".

External links

• Official website


by Wikipedia
Accessed: 11/24/19


Word/name: Tibetan
Meaning: Ocean

Gyatso or Gyamco (Tibetan: རྒྱ་མཚོ, Wylie: rgya mtsho, ZYPY: Gyamco), is a Tibetan personal name meaning "ocean". It is also written Rgya-mtsho in Wylie transliteration, Gyaco in Tibetan pinyin, Gyatsho in Tournadre Simplified Phonetic Transcription and Gyatso in THDL Simplified Phonetic Transcription. In the Lhasa dialect, it is pronounced [càtsʰo] or [càmtsʰo]. In accordance with the latter pronunciation, it can also be spelled "Gyamtso" in English.

Notable persons whose names include "Gyatso" include:

• Each Dalai Lama, other than the 1st, has had Gyatso as the second word of his personal name; for instance, the current Dalai Lama is named Tenzin Gyatso. See the list of Dalai Lamas;
• Chödrak Gyatso, the 7th Karmapa;
• Chögyam Trungpa (Chögyam is short for Chögyi Gyamtso), Buddhist teacher;
• Gyamco, village in Tibet
• Geshe Kelsang Gyatso, the founder of the New Kadampa Tradition (NKT);
• Khenpo Tsültrim Gyamtso, a Karma Kagyu lama;
• Palden Gyatso, a monk who served thirty-three years as a political prisoner
• Desi Sangye Gyatso, 17th century political figure
• Geshe Sherab Gyatso, 20th century Communist politician
• Thubten Gyatso, an Australian Gelug monk.
• Monk Gyatso, a character from the Nickelodeon cartoon Avatar: The Last Airbender.
Site Admin
Posts: 32984
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Mon Nov 25, 2019 3:12 am

by Wikipedia
Accessed: 11/24/19



Manangbhot, Nyeshang
Manang village. Annapurna-III (left, 7555 m) and Gangapurna (7455 m) peaks are in the background.
Location in Nepal
Coordinates: 28°40′0″N 84°1′0″ECoordinates: 28°40′0″N 84°1′0″E
Country Nepal
Admin. division Gandaki Zone
District Manang District
Elevation 3,519 m (11,545 ft)
Population (2001)
• Total 6,527
Time zone UTC+05:45 (Nepal Time)

Manang (Nepali: मनाङ) is a town in the Manang District of Nepal. It is located at 28°40'0N 84°1'0E with an altitude of 3,519 metres (11,545 ft).[1] According to the preliminary result of the 2011 Nepal census it has a population of 6,527 people living in 1,495 individual households. Its population density is 3 persons/km2.[2]

It is situated in the broad valley of the Marshyangdi River to the north of the Annapurna mountain range. The river flows to the east. To the west, the 5,416-metre (17,769 ft) Thorong La pass leads to Muktinath shrine and the valley of the Gandaki River. To the north there is the Chulu East peak of 6,584 m (21,601 ft). Most groups trekking around the Annapurna range will take resting days in Manang to acclimatize to the high altitude, before taking on Thorong La pass. The village is situated on the northern slope[citation needed], which gets the most sunlight and the least snow cover in the winter. The cultivation fields are on the north slope[citation needed] with terraces.

There are now motorable road as well as trails where goods are transported on jeep or mule trains or carried by porters. A small airport, located 2.5 km (1.6 mi) east of the town, serves the whole valley. The airport was begun in 1985. The development of a trail linking Manang to the Annapurna Conservation Area was finished in February 2011 and has brought many benefits to the villagers and the area.

Besides catering to trekkers, there is some agriculture and herding of yaks. There is a medical centre, which specializes in high-altitude sickness.


Main street of Manang with yaks

A view of Gangapurna Lake situated at Manang district

Gangapurna Lake close to Manang

Gangapurna glacier and lake near Manang

See also

Manang Language


1. "redirect to /world/NP/00/Manangbhot.html".
2. , Nepal Census Bureau ... eet%29.xls, retrieved 20 September 2012 Missing or empty |title= (help).

External links

• Map of Annapurna Range
Site Admin
Posts: 32984
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Mon Nov 25, 2019 3:22 am

Jigme Dorje Palbar Bista
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 11/24/19



Raja Jigme Dorje Palbar Bista
The Rt. Hon. Sri Sri Sri Raja
Reign 1964–2008
Predecessor Sri Sri Sri Raja Angun Tenzing Trandul bista
Successor Monarchy Abolished
Born 1930
Lo Manthang, Mustang district, Nepal
Died December 16, 2016 (aged 86)
Kathmandu, Nepal
Spouse Rani Sahiba Sidol Palbar Bista
Issue Angun Tenzing (died young)
Full name
A-ham 'Jig-med d pal-'bar o 'Jig-med rdo-rje 'dgra-'drul
House Lo
Father Sri Sri Sri Raja Angun Tenzing Trandul bist
Mother Rani Kelsang Choeden
Religion Tibetan Buddhism

Flag of the Kingdom of Mustang

Jigme Dorje Palbar Bista (Nepali:जिग्मे दोर्जे पलवर विष्ट) (1930-2016) was the unofficial King of Mustang (Tibetan: Lo rGyal-po, Nepalese: Mustang Rājā) between 1964 and 2008, until Monarchy, Semi-Monarchy, Vassals and Titular Kingship were abolished in Nepal. He was descendant in 25th generation of King A-ma-dpal bist (1440–1447), who was founder of the Lo (Lo-Manthang) dynasty.[1]


Jigme Dorje Palbar Bista was born in Lo-Manthang Palace in Upper Mustang in the Himalayan Range of Nepal. He was the third son of Colonel H.H. Sri Sri Sri Raja Angun Tenzing Trandul, King of Mustang, by his wife, Kelsang Choeden. He was educated privately at Shigatse, Tibet. He was appointed as the Heir Apparent recognised by the Nepal Government in 1959 A.D. He succeeded as the Head of the Royal House of Lo and to the title of Lo-rGyal-po and King of Mustang upon the death of his father in 1964 A.D and elder brother in 1958 A.D. Bista is the title given by King of Nepal which means Distinguished Baron in the Nepali language and not the Nepali family name Bista. He was a member of the Raj Sabha between (1964–1990) and a Lieutenant Colonel of Nepalese Army (1964).

Lo Manthang Palace

He married a noble lady from Shigatse, Tibet, H.H. Rani Sahiba Sidol Palbar Bista in the 1950s.[2] He had one son, Angun Tenzin, who died at the age of 8, and he later adopted his nephew, Zingme Singhe Palbar Bista (b. 1957). The last heir is his nephew whom resides in the United States, the grandson of Raja Angun. He is married to a Bhutanese princess and they issue two children, a daughter and a son. They are believed to be residing in San Francisco. [3]


Nepalese Honours

• King Birendra Coronation Medal (24 February 1975).[3]
• King Gyanendra Coronation Medal (4 June 2001).[3]

See also

• Kingdom of Mustang


• Paul Raffaele, Il re del Mustang, <Le ultime tribù sulla Terra>, pp. 205–220, fbe edizioni, Trezzano sul Naviglio 2003.


1. Raffaele, p. 205
2. Presence and Absence: Mourning a Himalayan King
3. "MUSTANG2". Retrieved 2017-02-27.

External links

• Media related to Jigme Palbar Bista at Wikimedia Commons
Site Admin
Posts: 32984
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Mon Nov 25, 2019 3:38 am

Richard C. Blum
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 11/24/19



"Tai Situpa's camp was trying to follow our every move, and revised their story as we discovered one fact after the next in the interviews," Shimatsu told me. "Dalai Lama camp, ditto. Representatives of Chinese President Jiang Zemin were eager to get the video and were overjoyed at the fact that they could get the real story. They admitted the episode was mysterious, that the Tibet Autonomous Region was blocking the President's inquiries about the affair. But they also said that the video was much too explosive for broadcast in China." Many journalists requested copies and television stations in Hong Kong, Taiwan, and elsewhere in Asia aired excerpts from the film.

Shimatsu's team discovered that a helicopter that picked up Ogyen Trinley in Nepal was owned by a company that had previously done work for the United States CIA, Fishtail Air. Even more suspicious, the Fishtail Air office had lost all flight records tor the day of Ogyen Trinley's pickup. "When Susanna Chung and Prakash Khanal broke the story of the Mustang escape route and the Fishtail Air helicopter pickup at Thorang-La, I rushed the story and video to the South China Morning Post in Hong Kong Internet news department," Shimatsu told me. "Their news producers were very excited and promised me five thousand dollars."

"Then we had to clear the story through editors of the print version of the newspaper. We were greeted by three editors. They were female, and I suspect two of them were MI-6 (British intelligence) agents. They killed the story with totally bogus questions, all of which were proven on tape and in notes. They wanted to know who our key contact was in Mustang (a businessman) but I refused to disclose his identity, since he could easily be killed by the Manang smugglers involved with the Karmapa escape." So the South China Morning Post killed Shimatsu's story.

Outside of East Asia, Shimatsu's film got little attention, and he attributes some of that to government influence and some to media bias. He claims that the United States government had an interest in Ogyen Trinley, perhaps because of lobbying by Tibetan rights groups in Washington who support the Dalai Lama. Shimatsu singled out the American Himalayan Foundation in particular, funded by San Francisco real-estate billionaire Richard Blum, husband of Senator Dianne Feinstein from California.

"Plus, most Western journalists, including Chinese journalists in Hong Kong, are pretty brainwashed by the 'human rights' nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), since they wrongly assume that these NGOs are honest little guys fighting for truth and justice," rather than groups with their own biases -- often in favor of Western governments -- that cause them to paint a one-sided picture of alleged rights abuses. Shimatsu felt that by making his film, he was striking a blow for press freedom. "This media monopoly made it all the more important to produce an independent documentary using portable DV mini- cameras, so Flight of A Karmapa was one of the first documentaries using this new media."

-- Buddha's Not Smiling: Uncovering Corruption at the Heart of Tibetan Buddhism Today, by Erik D. Curren

Richard C. Blum
Blum at UC Berkeley in 2009
First Gentleman of San Francisco
In role
January 20, 1980 – January 8, 1988
Preceded by Gina Moscone (First Lady)
Succeeded by Sherry Agnos (First Lady)
Personal details
Born Richard Charles Blum
July 31, 1935 (age 84)
San Francisco, California, U.S.
Nationality American
Spouse(s) Dianne Feinstein (m. 1980)
Alma mater University of California, Berkeley (BS, MBA)
Occupation Investment banker

Richard Charles Blum (born July 31, 1935[1]) is an American investment banker and husband of United States Senator Dianne Feinstein. He is the chairman and president of Blum Capital, an equity investment management firm that acts as general partner for various investment partnerships and provides investment advisory services. Blum also serves in various boards of directors of several companies, including CB Richard Ellis, where until May 2009 he served as the chairman of that board. He has been a regent of the University of California since 2002.[2]

Personal life and education

Blum was born in San Francisco, California, to a Jewish family and attended San Francisco public schools.[3] He received his B.S. in business administration in 1958 and an M.B.A. in 1959 from the Haas School of Business of the University of California, Berkeley.[4]

In the 1970s, Blum supported then Mayor of San Francisco George Moscone. After Moscone's assassination, Blum supported the new mayor Dianne Feinstein; they married in 1980.[3]


Blum founded Blum Capital in 1975 and pioneered the firm’s hybrid Strategic Block/Private Equity investment strategy. Mr. Blum previously served as Chairman of the board of directors of CB Richard Ellis, as well as serving as director on the boards of directors of three other portfolio companies: Fairmont Raffles Holdings International Ltd., Current Media, L.L.C. and Myer Pty Ltd. in Australia. Mr. Blum co-founded Newbridge Capital in the early 1990s and is Co-Chairman of TPG Asia V, L.P. (the successor fund to the Newbridge franchise that has been incorporated into Texas Pacific Group).[citation needed]

Mr. Blum has served on the boards of many prominent companies, including Northwest Airlines Corporation, Glenborough Realty Trust, Inc., Korea First Bank, URS Corporation and National Education Corporation. In addition, Mr. Blum is active in numerous non-profit organizations. He is the founder and Chairman of the American Himalayan Foundation and is Honorary Consul to Mongolia and Nepal. Mr. Blum also serves as a member of the Advisory Board of the Haas School of Business at the University of California at Berkeley.

Blum joined investment brokerage Sutro & Co. at the age of 23, becoming a partner before age 30.[3] At Sutro, Blum led a partnership that acquired Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Circus for $8m, selling it to Mattel four years later for $40m.[3] On the back of this deal Blum started in business for himself in 1975, founding what is now Blum Capital Partners;[3] a stake in URS Corp. was one of its first investments.[3]

On April 25, 2009, Blum was honored with the Berkeley Medal by UC Berkeley Chancellor Robert Birgenau in front of the 14th Dalai Lama. The talk was sponsored by his American Himalayan Foundation and the Blum Center for Developing Economies at UC Berkeley.[5]


On March 12, 2002, Blum was appointed by California Governor Gray Davis to a 12-year term as one of the Regents of the University of California,[6] and he was nominated for re-appointment to another 12-year term in 2014. Blum also serves on the boards of the following companies:

• CB Richard Ellis (Chairman)
• Newbridge Capital (co-Chairman)
• Current TV
• Blum Capital

Blum is also the primary owner of Career Education Corporation.[7]


Blum has been a major contributor via the Blum Family Foundation to many charities and educational institutions. He has a strong interest in Tibet and Tibetan Buddhism and in 1981 he attempted to climb Mount Everest from the Tibetan side with Sir Edmund Hillary. He is the chairman and founder of the apolitical American Himalayan Foundation (AHF), which has given millions of dollars to build hospitals and schools in Tibet and Nepal but has refrained from political involvement with the Chinese control of Tibet. Other of Blum’s not-for-profit endeavors include service as Trustee of The Carter Center; former Co-Chairman of The World Conference of Religions for Peace; Member of Governing Council of The Wilderness Society;[8] member of the Board of Trustees of The Brookings Institution; member of the Board of Trustees of the American Cancer Society Foundation; member of the Board of Directors of the National Democratic Institute;[9] and is a Member of the Board of Trustees of the Richard C. Blum Center for Developing Economies at the University of California, Berkeley,to which he provided $15 million for the Center which is focused on finding solutions to address the crisis of extreme poverty and disease in the developing world.[10] He's given to the University of California at San Francisco (UCSF), Merced and Los Angeles (UCLA) and Sonoma State University, as well as Macalester College. He pledged $1.25 million to the University of San Francisco (USF) in 2007, and another $1.5 million to USF for "global education" in 2019.[11] He has served on many other boards including the Seva Foundation, as Chairman of the Himalayan Foundation, as a Trustee on Brookings Institute. He has also supported local charities including the San Francisco Food Bank and the John Burton Foundation for Children Without Homes. In the arts and culture, he has made grants to the Creative Visions Foundation, the Daniel Pearl Foundation, San Francisco's Asian Art Museum, the San Francisco Conservatory of Music, and the Geffen Playhouse in Los Angeles.[12]


Blum's wife, Senator Dianne Feinstein, has received scrutiny due to her husband's government contracts and extensive business dealings with China and her past votes on trade issues with the country. Blum has denied any wrongdoing.[13] URS Corp, which Blum had a substantial stake in, bought EG&G, a leading provider of technical services and management to the U.S. military, from The Carlyle Group in 2002; EG&G subsequently won a $600m defense contract.[3]

Blum and his wife have also received significant scrutiny and criticism due to his 75% stake in contractor Tutor Perini which received hundreds of millions to billions of dollars in military contracts in Iraq and Afghanistan during the US occupation of those countries.[14][15] Critics have argued that business contracts with the US government awarded to a company controlled by Blum raise a potential conflict-of-interest issue with the voting and policy activities of his wife.[16]

In 2009, Feinstein introduced legislation to provide $25 billion in taxpayer money to the Federal Deposit Insurance Corp, a government agency that had recently awarded her husband's real estate firm, CB Richard Ellis, what the Washington Times called "a lucrative contract to sell foreclosed properties at compensation rates higher than the industry norms."[17]

The United States Postal Service has entered into an exclusive contract with CB Richard Ellis to sell buildings that currently house post offices.[18]


1. "AHF Annual Dinner : Events | American Himalayan Foundation" Archived July 28, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.
2. Rone Tempest (November 18, 2005). "Deal-Maker's Worlds Mesh at Party in S.F." Los Angeles Times.
3. Abate, Tom. (May 11, 2003). The man behind URS, next to Sen. Feinstein, San Francisco Chronicle, pp. I1-I2 |Although Jewish, the deeply philosophical Blum has taken a keen interest in Buddhism and Eastern philosophy
4. "Regent Richard C. Blum". Regents of the University of California. Retrieved September 29, 2018.
5. Berkeley Welcomes Dalai Lama. The Daily Californian. April 29, 2009
6. Lederman, Doug (March 3, 2008) "At U. of California, a Systemic Governance Crisis".
7. CounterPunch, February 26, 2010, DiFi and Blum: a Marriage Marinated in Money
8. Blum Biography Archived December 13, 2005, at the Wayback Machine at the University of California
9. "NDI Board of Directors: Richard Blum". National Democratic Institute. Retrieved October 2, 2012.
10. Maclay, Kathleen (April 19, 2006) Blum Center to develop sustainable solutions to issues facing world's poor. University of Berkeley.
11. [Educating Global Learners and Leaders with a Gift of $1.5 Million], University of San Francisco, Ashleigh Hollowell, April 30, 2019. Retrieved August 9, 2019.
12. Inside Philanthropy. Retrieved August 7, 2019.
13. Paddock, Richard C. (March 27, 2007) "Feinstein's husband steps out of her shadow". Los Angeles Times
14. "Windfalls of War". Archived from the original on March 12, 2008. Retrieved December 7, 2008.
15. "Winning Contractors". 2003. Retrieved July 29, 2019.
16. Byrne, Peter (January 24, 2007) Senator Feinstein's Iraq Conflict: Feinstein voted for appropriations worth billions to her husband's firms. North Bay Bohemian.
17. Neubauer, Chuck (April 21, 2009) EXCLUSIVE: Senator's husband's firm cashes in on crisis. In fact, Dianne Feinstein wrote a memo to the FDIC on her Senate letterhead informing the FDIC that they should award the contract to her husband. That contract paid Feinstein's husband for selling and managing each house a foreclosed bank had on file. Those fees paid Blum over $2,000 per month for each property he managed. The couple made hundreds of millions off of this deal and have yet to be brought up on criminal charges.Washington Times
18. Romney, Lee (December 7, 2013). "Berkeley making the rounds to save its historic post office". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on December 9, 2013. Riling many here is the exclusive deal with CBRE Group, whose chairman, Richard Blum, is married to U.S. Sen. Dianne Feinstein (D-Calif.).

External links

• Blum Capital Partners, L.P.
• Blum's Plums: Conflicts of interest benefitted Blum's firms during his term as a UC Regent Peter Byrne, North Bay Bohemian, February 21, 2007.
Site Admin
Posts: 32984
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Mon Nov 25, 2019 3:50 am

Tutor Perini
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 11/24/19



Tutor Perini Corporation
Traded as NYSE: TPC
Russell 2000 Component
Industry construction
Founded 1894
Headquarters Sylmar, California, United States
Key people
Ronald Tutor, CEO
Revenue DecreaseUS$4.76 billion (2017)[1]
Net income
IncreaseUS$154.5 million (2017) [1]
Total assets IncreaseUS$4.26 billion (2017) [1]
Number of employees
10,061[2] (2017)

Tutor Perini Corporation (formerly Perini Corporation) is one of the largest general contractors in the United States. At the end of 2013 it reported an annual revenue of approximately $4.2 billion. Tutor Perini is headquartered in Sylmar, California, and works on many construction projects throughout the United States and Canada. Specific areas of focus are civil infrastructure (bridges, highways, tunnels, airports, mass transit systems), building infrastructure (healthcare, education, municipal government, hospitality and gaming, multi-use, office towers, multi-unit residential towers, high-technology projects), and specialty contracting (electrical, mechanical, plumbing, heating, air conditioning and ventilation (HVAC), fire protection systems, concrete placement).


Albert G. Tutor began the A. G. Tutor Company Inc. in 1949 and the company grew throughout the century under Albert’s son, Ronald Tutor.[3] In 1972 the Tutor Company partnered with N.M. Saliba and became Tutor-Saliba.[3]

Perini Corporation was founded in 1894 in Ashland, Massachusetts by a stonemason named Bonfiglio Perini.[4] Under the direction of Bonfiglio's grandson, Lou Perini, the company moved into the real-estate business, developing 4,500 acres (1,800 ha) in Palm Beach County, Florida. Later real-estate ventures were less successful, leaving Perini deeply in debt by the mid-1990s. In 1997, Ron Tutor helped Perini Corp. recapitalize alongside investor Richard Blum.[5] Tutor became CEO of Perini in 2000 and merged Perini with Tutor-Saliba in 2008.[6]

Perini was listed on the NYSE on April 1, 2004.[7]

Richard Blum divested his Perini stock in 2005.[8]

Perini was headquartered in Framingham, Massachusetts until relocating to Sylmar, California in 2009.[9][10]

In May 2009, Perini shareholders voted to change the company's name to Tutor Perini Corporation.[11][12] Tutor Perini issued $300 million of Senior Notes in October 2010.[13] Tutor Perini proceeded to acquire six companies over the next nine months.


In 2003, Perini acquired Florida-based James A. Cummings.[14] In 2005, the company acquired Cherry Hill Construction, a Maryland-based contractor,[15][16] and California-based Rudolph & Sletten, Inc.[17] In January 2009, the corporation acquired Philadelphia-based building contractor Keating Building Corporation.[18]

November 1, 2010 - Superior Gunite, a structural concrete firm headquartered in Lakeview Terrace, CA.[19]

January 3, 2011 – Fisk Electric, a provider of electrical and technological services headquartered in Houston, TX[20]

April 4, 2011 – Anderson Companies, a general contractor headquartered in Gulfport, MS[21]

June 1, 2011 – Frontier-Kemper Constructors, a provider of numerous construction services including civil construction, mine development, drilling, tunneling, and electrical services headquartered in Evansville, IN[21]

July 1, 2011 – Lunda Construction Company, provider of various construction services such as the construction, rehabilitation, and maintenance of bridges, railroads, and other civil structures headquartered in Black River Falls, WI[19]

July 1, 2011 – GreenStar Services Corporation, an electrical and mechanical services provider that is composed of 3 operating entities: Five Star Electric Corporation, WDF, and Nagelbush[19]

Notable projects

March 17, 2016 - After several smaller contracts at the Hudson Yards, Manhattan site, the company has been awarded contracts worth roughly $1.2 billion for the construction of Tower D and The Shops & Restaurants retail complex at the development.[22]

Corruption Allegations

Tutor Perini has gained a reputation for low balling government contracts only to later increase prices at the expense of the taxpayer, along with other corrupt business practices:

Since 2000 Tutor Perini has costed the state of California $765 million in additional unexpected costs on 11 different projects. This is mostly due to California law which requires the lowest bid to be selected.[23]

In 2002, after an expansion at San Francisco International Airport went over budget by $360 million, City Attorney Dennis Herrera sued Tutor Perini for fraud and attempted to have it banned from bidding on city projects.[24]

In March 2011, after a four-week trial a federal jury in Brooklyn found Zohrab B. Marashlian, the former president of Perini Corp.’s Civil Division, guilty of fraud and conspiracy to launder money. Tutor Perini had paid Marashlian $14 million during the investigation and trial. However Marashlian committed suicide two days before he was to receive a prison sentence. A fellow employee is currently serving time in prison for the same case.[25]

In April 2018, Tutor Perini had deliberately substituted weaker rails than those specified in the San Francisco construction contract, so the city ordered Tutor Perini to rip out much of the steel track it had already laid down. The San Francisco Examiner reported that this is likely to delay the opening of the subway and that Tutor Perini may file additional claims to recoup their costs.[26]

Richard Blum, the husband of California Senator Dianne Feinstein, made large investments in Tutor Perini. Allegations of collusion between Feinstein and Richard Blum assert that Senator Feinstein used her government position to award contracts to companies Richard Blum had invested in which allowed the couple to personally profit from the deals.[27]


• Tutor-Saliba Corporation
• Perini Building Company
• Rudolph and Sletten, Inc.


1. "2017 Annual Report" (PDF). Tutor Perini. 2017. Retrieved 14 November 2018.
2. "Tutor Perini". Fortune. Retrieved 2019-01-14.
3. Jump up to:a b "Ron Tutor: The Lawsuits, Losses and Private Struggles of the Man Behind Miramax". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 2018-11-15.
4. "Bonfiglio Perini: The Good Son" (PDF). Retrieved February 1, 2018.
5. Peter J. Howe (2007-05-23). "Cashing in". Globe 100. The Boston Globe. pp. 26–28.
6. "Merger Pays Off Big For Perini CEO | Ron Tutor secures more than $500M". Worcester Business Journal. Retrieved 2018-11-15.
7. "Perini Corporation Annual Report 2004" (PDF).
8. Byrne, Peter. "Blum'e Plums". The Byrne Report. Retrieved 7 August 2017.
9. Ailworth, Erin; Wallack, Todd (2009-10-22). "Tutor Perini moving headquarters to LA". Retrieved 2018-06-20.
10. "Building giant Tutor Perini moves to Sylmar". Daily News. 2009-10-20. Retrieved 2018-06-20.
11. "Perini Shareholders Approve Name Change to Tutor Perini Corporation". Retrieved 2018-06-27.
12. "Perini Gone, Still Synonymous With Consequential Damages | Construction Law Today". Construction Law Today. 2009-06-01. Retrieved 2018-06-27.
13. "Tutor Perini buys Frontier-Kemper, to buy Lunda Construction". Retrieved 2018-06-27.
14. "James A. Cummings purchased for $20M". Retrieved 2018-06-20.
15. Milani, Kate (January 21, 2005). "Cherry Hill Construction bought for $20M". Retrieved 2018-06-20.
16. "Perini Corporation Completes Acquisition of Cherry Hill Construction, Inc". Retrieved 2018-06-20.
17. "Perini Corporation Completes Acquisition of Rudolph and Sletten, Inc". Retrieved 2018-06-20.
18. "CONFIRMED: Keating Building Co. sold to Perini Corp". Retrieved 2018-06-20.
19. "Tutor Perini Corporation Annual Report 2013" (PDF). Retrieved 14 November 2018.
20. "Tutor Perini Acquires Fisk Electric". For Construction Pros. Retrieved 2018-06-27.
21. Jump up to:a b "Tutor Perini Acquires Frontier-Kemper, To Buy Lunda". RTTNews. Retrieved 2018-11-14.
22. "Tutor Perini Wins Whopper of a Contract at NYC's Hudson Yards Project".
23. ... 780385.php
24. ... -bart-muni
25. ... e-1.117958
26. ... new-delay/
27. ... California

External links

• Tutor Perini Corporation
Site Admin
Posts: 32984
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Mon Nov 25, 2019 4:03 am

Seva Foundation
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 11/24/19



Another great Hog Farm adventure set the stage for Wavy's participation in the founding of Seva. Recruited by San Francisco underground radio pioneer Tom Donahue and Warner Brothers Records to travel around the country and be filmed for a movie called Cruising for Burgers, later renamed Medicine Ball Caravan, the Farmers bused themselves across America, setting up stages for mainstream rock and rollers. After one last concert with Pink Floyd in Bishopsbourne, England, the Farmers pooled their movie pay and some funds raised for them from a benefit staged by a London commune and continued their trek across Europe. "It was around the time of the great Pakistani flood," Wavy remembers, "and relief was pouring in so very, very slow. There was a line of Gandhi's that hit me at that time, it was something like, 'If God should appear to starving people, God would not dare to appear in any form other than food.’ We'd had so much attention from that free kitchen at Woodstock, we thought if we were in Pakistan with any kind of food, we could embarrass the large governments, and they would speed up the food relief. Then the Indo-Pakistani war broke out, and we hung a left into K-K-K-Kathmandu, distributing food and medical supplies to Tibetan refugee camps as we traveled. We fixed leaky roofs with rolls of plastic and built a playground in Kathmandu for impoverished kids. We also saw a tremendous number of blind people in Nepal."

With locally run sight programs in India, Nepal, and Tibet, Seva provides more than 80,000 eye surgeries a year.
It also establishes partnership in Native American communities to tackle the rising epidemic of diabetes, supports work for sustainable agriculture in Chiapas, Mexico, and monitors violence against refugees of the Guatemalan civil war. "What we do is find someone who is a blazing, shining example of doing a particular piece of service, and we just back them hook, line, and sinker," Wavy says of Seva’s strategy, "sometimes providing the flashlight to help them find the light switch.

-- A Clown For Our Time, by


Motto Compassion in Action
Formation 1978
Purpose Prevention of blindness.
Headquarters 1786 Fifth Street
Berkeley, California, United States
Region served
Executive Director
Kate Moynihan[1]

Seva Foundation is an international non-profit health organization based in Berkeley, California known for preventing and treating blindness and other visual impairments. It was co-founded in 1978 by Dr. Larry Brilliant, Ram Dass, Wavy Gravy, Nicole Grasset and Govindappa Venkataswamy. Steve Jobs served as an early adviser and major contributor.

Seva works with local communities in more than 20 countries around the world to develop locally-run, culturally appropriate, self-sustaining programs to increase access to eye care. Seva works with local eye health hospitals and clinics in central Asia, southeast Asia, Eastern Europe, Latin America, and throughout sub-Saharan Africa. The foundation also works with Native communities in North America through its American Indian Sight Initiative.


Seva Foundation, based in Berkeley, California, was founded in 1978 by public health expert Larry Brilliant,[2] spiritual leader Ram Dass and humanitarian activist Wavy Gravy.[3] Other co-founders include Dr. Govindappa Venkataswamy, founder of the Aravind Eye Foundation, and Nicole Grasset, the senior adviser for the World Health Organization smallpox eradication campaign.[4][5] Steve Jobs also participated as an adviser at early Seva meetings and provided the first significant cash donation along with an Apple II to enter and analyze eye care survey results in the original Nepal program.[6]

See also

• Himalayan Cataract Project, a similar charity


1. "Staff". Seva Foundation. Retrieved July 31, 2018.
2. Strom, Stephanie (January 29, 2011). "Google Finds It Hard to Reinvent Philanthropy". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved January 4, 2014.
3. "About Seva Foundation". Seva Foundation. Retrieved December 11, 2012.
4. "Celebrating 35 Years of Service: Seva Foundation's history of Compassion in Action". Seva Foundation. Archived from the original on January 6, 2014. Retrieved December 14, 2013.
5. "Programme d' éradication de la variole dans la République de Djibouti : évaluation de la situation actuelle et exécution des activités de surveillance : 6 novembre-30 décembre 1977 / par Nicole Grasset" (in French). World Health Organization. Retrieved December 14, 2013.
6. Wingfield, Nick (November 20, 2013). "A Gift From Steve Jobs Returns Home". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved January 4, 2013.

External links

• Official Website
Site Admin
Posts: 32984
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Mon Nov 25, 2019 4:16 am

Larry Brilliant
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 11/24/19



Larry Brilliant
Born Lawrence Brilliant
May 5, 1944 (age 75)
Detroit, Michigan, United States
Alma mater MPH - University of Michigan
M.D. - Wayne State University School of Medicine
Known for One of the leaders of the successful World Health Organization (WHO) smallpox eradication program.
Spouse(s) Girija Brilliant
Joe Brilliant
Jon Brilliant
Iris Brilliant
Scientific career
Fields Epidemiology

Lawrence "Larry" Brilliant (born May 5, 1944) is an American epidemiologist, technologist, philanthropist, and author of "Sometimes Brilliant."

Brilliant, a technology patent holder, has been the CEO of public companies and venture backed start-ups. He was the inaugural Executive Director of,[1] the charitable arm of Google established in 2005, and the first CEO of Skoll Global Threats Fund, established in 2009 by eBay founder Jeff Skoll to address climate change, pandemics, water security, nuclear proliferation, and conflict in the Middle East. Brilliant currently serves as the Chairman of the Board of Ending Pandemics, and is also on the boards of the Skoll Foundation,, The Seva Foundation, and Dharma Platform.

Dharma Platform was founded in 2015 by statistician Jesse Berns and data scientist Michael Roytman. During their time working for the United Nations in Iraq, they witnessed first-hand the challenges and setbacks that come with data collection and management. Rather than responding to outbreaks, much of their time was spent cleaning spreadsheets, making pivot tables and hiring consultants.

They created Dharma Platform to give people the tools they need to collect, manage and translate data—freeing up valuable time for what matters most.

-- About Us, by Dharma Platform

From 1973 to 1976, Brilliant participated in the successful World Health Organization (WHO) smallpox eradication program.

Early life

Born in Detroit, Michigan, Brilliant received his undergraduate training as well as his MPH degree (Masters in Public Health) from the University of Michigan, where he worked on the staff of the Gargoyle Humor Magazine, and his M.D. from Wayne State University School of Medicine. He moved to California for his internship at the California Pacific Medical Center, and developed parathyroid cancer from which he recovered. Brilliant is board certified in preventive medicine and public health.

In 1969, a group of American Indians from many different tribes, calling themselves Indians of All Tribes, occupied the Alcatraz island in San Francisco. A call went out for doctors to help a pregnant woman there give birth and Brilliant joined their occupation as unofficial doctor. The Indians on Alcatraz named the baby "Wovoka" after a Northern Paiute medicine man.[2]


Brilliant in 2015

After the US government forced the Indians of All Tribes off Alcatraz, Brilliant became a media darling which led to a movie company casting him in Medicine Ball Caravan—a sequel to the hit Woodstock Nation—playing a doctor in a film about a tribe of hippies who follow the Grateful Dead, Jefferson Airplane, Jethro Tull, and Joni Mitchell.[3] The cast was paid with airline tickets to India. Brilliant and some others cashed their tickets in and rented a bus to drive around Europe, which then turned into a relief convoy to help victims of the 1970 Bhola cyclone in Bangladesh (then East Pakistan).

Civil unrest stopped the relief caravan so he spent several years in India studying at a Himalayan ashram with Neem Karoli Baba (a Hindu sage) from whom he received the name Subramanyum. After about a year Neem Karoli Baba advised Brilliant to eradicate smallpox, a project on which he would spend the next several years. He participated, as a medical officer, in the World Health Organization (WHO) smallpox eradication program that in 1980 certified the global eradication of smallpox.[4] Brilliant found that Indian officials became more receptive to his efforts when they learned of Neem Karoli Baba's involvement, to which he credits a significant portion of the program's success.[5] Brilliant contributed a seven-page account of his experiences to the book Miracle of Love: Stories of Neem Karoli Baba.[5]

In December 1978, he became a co-founder and chairman of Seva Foundation, an international, non-profit, health foundation. Seva's projects in places like Tibet, Nepal, India, Bangladesh, Cambodia, Tanzania, Ethiopia, and Guatemala have given back sight to more than 3 million blind people through surgery, self-sufficient eye care systems, and low cost manufacturing of intraocular lenses. One important contribution of his was his helping to set up the Aravind Eye Hospital in Madurai, India.

When he returned to the United States, he became a professor of international health at the University of Michigan as well as starting numerous charitable and business ventures.

In 1985, he co-founded, with Stewart Brand, The Well, a prototypic online community that has been the subject of multiple books and studies. Time magazine said, "Well was a huge hit, a precursor of every online business from to eBay."[6]

He spent the first half of 2005 as a volunteer helping out in the tsunami in Sri Lanka and working in India with WHO in the campaign to eradicate polio.

On February 22, 2006, Google Inc. appointed him as the Executive Director of, the philanthropic arm of Google,[7] a position which he held until April, 2009,[8] when he joined the Skoll Foundation, as its President, the philanthropic organization established by former eBay president Jeff Skoll.[9]

In July 2006, he was awarded the TED Prize, granting him $100,000 and 'One Wish to Change the World'[10] which he presented at TED in July 2006. As his prize nominator summed up, "'Dr. Brilliant' is a name to live up to, and he has."[11] His one wish that he presented at the conference was, "To build a powerful new early warning system to protect our world from some of its worst nightmares."[12]

In May 2013, he gave the commencement speech at Harvard School of Public Health,

On Nov. 5, 1962, the Reverend Martin Luther King visited the University of Michigan. It was a dramatic time. The world teetered on the brink of nuclear madness during the Cuban Missile Crisis. Federal troops were on patrol after the first black student was admitted to Ole Miss.


He said that "the arc of moral universe is long, but it bends towards justice".


Here is what I ask of you: Imagine that arc of history that Martin Luther King inspired is right here with us. The arc of the universe needs your help to bend it towards justice. It will not happen on its own. The arc of history will not bend towards justice without you bending it. Public health needs you to insure health for all. Seize that history. Bend that arc. I want you to leap up, to jump up and grab that arc of history with both hands, and yank it down, twist it, and bend it. Bend it towards fairness, bend it towards better health for all, bend it towards justice![13]

Personal life

Brilliant is married to Girija (formerly Elaine) and has three children: Joe, Jon, and Iris Brilliant. Girija holds a PhD in public health administration and is an equal partner in many of her husband's enterprises. Co-founder of Seva Foundation,[14] she was instrumental in the World Health Organization's smallpox eradication program.


Brilliant has worked on numerous films including Contagion, Unseen Enemies, the award winning HBO film Open Your Eyes (as producer), Saint Mis’Behaving (about his friend, the clown, Wavy Gravy), Fierce Grace, the CNN film Unseen Enemy, Medicine Ball Caravan, Hare Rama Hare Krishna, and Oscar nominated The Final Inch.

Brilliant also acted as an extra in the 1971 Bollywood movie Hare Rama Hare Krishna, which depicts hippie culture. He said, "When shooting for the song sequence 'Dum Maro Dum' (which glorifies smoking marijuana), Dev Anand was looking for certain types of foreigners..."[15] Brilliant is a featured interviewee in the 2009 feature-length documentary, Saint Misbehavin': The Wavy Gravy Movie, as the social activist's real-life physician.


• Sometimes Brilliant, HarperOne[16]
• Brilliant, Larry (1995). "Were you talking to God?". In Ram Dass (ed.). Miracle of Love: Stories about Neem Karoli Baba (3rd ed.). Hanuman Foundation. ISBN 1887474005.
• Girija E. Brilliant and Lawrence B. Brilliant: Himalayan Numismatics, Chelsea, Michigan, Spring 1983.


1. Goodell, Jeff (April 2008). "The Guru of Google". Rolling Stone.
2. Hoge, Patrick (24 February 2006). "Larry Brilliant: Doctor Looks to Use Technology to Aid Global Health Care". Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 1 November 2007. Retrieved 2007-07-26.
3. Harriet Rubin (2000). "Dr. Brilliant Vs. the Devil of Ambition". Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. Retrieved 2007-07-26.
4. "Smallpox". WHO. 2000. Archived from the original on 2007-09-21. Retrieved 2007-07-26.
5. Jump up to:a b Ram Dass (1995). Miracle of Love: Stories about Neem Karoli Baba. Hanuman Foundation. 4th ed., Chapter 9: The Stick That Heals, pp. 155-161. ISBN 978-1-887474-00-9.
6. Taylor, Chris (April 21, 2003). "Will You Buy WiFi?". TIME. Retrieved 2007-07-26.
7. Hafner, Katie (September 14, 2006). "Philanthropy Google's Way: Not the Usual". NY Times. Retrieved 2007-07-25.
8. Dr. Larry Brilliant (April 14, 2009). "Brilliant Takes on Urgent Threats". Google. Retrieved 2009-06-25.
9. "Google loses Brilliant to rival foundation". The Guardian. 15 April 2009.
10. Zetter, Kim (2006-02-23). "Brilliant's Wish: Disease Alerts". Retrieved 2007-08-01.
11. "Larry Brilliant: TED Prize wish: Help stop the next pandemic" (Streaming Video). TED (conference). July 2006. Retrieved 2007-07-25.
12. Bruno Giussani (March 23, 2006). "Larry Brilliant: Can the Internet help stop pandemics?". LunchoverIP. Retrieved 2007-07-25.
13. "" HSPH News " Commencement 2013: Larry Brilliant's address". Harvard School of Public Health. May 30, 2013. Retrieved 2013-11-22.
14. Seva Foundation: History Archived 2014-01-06 at the Wayback Machine
15. "Executive Director of Google praising the Ramayana and Mahabharata!". 2008-05-21. Archived from the originalon 2007-10-25.
16. [1]

External links

• Are Social Entrepreneurs Heroes? Larry Brilliant on BBC The Forum
• Larry Brilliant on Twitter
• Seva Foundation (Co-Founder)
• Larry Brilliant, President, Skoll Global Threats Fund, Profile at Skoll Foundation
• Larry Brilliant at TED
o TED Prize Wish: Larry Brilliant wants to stop pandemics, a TED talk (TED2006)
o Larry Brilliant makes the case for optimism, a TED talk (Skoll World Forum 2007)
Site Admin
Posts: 32984
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Mon Nov 25, 2019 4:31 am

Neem Karoli Baba
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 11/24/19



Neem Karoli Baba
Born Lakshmi Narayan Sharma
1900 c.[1]
Akbarpur, United Provinces, British India
(now in Firozabad district, Uttar Pradesh, India)
Died 11 September 1973 (aged 73)
Vrindavan, Uttar Pradesh, India
Religion Hinduism
Nationality Indian
Philosophy Bhakti yoga, Sewa
Religious career
Guru Hanuman
Disciples: Bhagavan Das, Jai Uttal, Krishna Das, Ram Dass, Ram Rani, Surya Das

Neem Karoli Baba sculpture in Ram Dass library

Neem Karoli Baba (Hindi: नीम करौली बाबा[2]) or Neeb Karori Baba (Hindi: नीब करौरी बाबा) (c. 1900 - 11 September 1973) - known to his followers as Maharaj-ji - was a Hindu guru, mystic and devotee of the Hindu lord Hanuman.[3] He is known outside India for being the guru of a number of Americans who travelled to India in the 1960s and 1970s, the most well-known being the spiritual teachers Ram Dass and Bhagavan Das, and the musicians Krishna Das and Jai Uttal. His ashrams are in Kainchi,[4] Vrindavan, Rishikesh, Shimla, Neem Karoli village near Khimasepur in Farrukhabad, Bhumiadhar, Hanumangarhi, Lucknow, Delhi in India and in Taos, New Mexico, USA.


Early years

Born around 1900, in village Akbarpur, Firozabad district, Uttar Pradesh, India, in a Brahmin family of Durga Prasad Sharma.[1] After marrying young at 11, Neem Karoli Baba became a wandering sadhu. He later returned home, at his father's request, to marry. He fathered two sons and a daughter.[5]

As Maharaj-ji

Neem Karoli Baba or Baba Lakshman Das (also spelled "Laxman Das"), as he was known then, left his home in 1958. Ram Dass tells an unverified story that Baba Lakshman Das boarded a train without a ticket and the conductor decided to halt the train and force Neem Karoli Baba off of the train at the village of Neeb Karori, Farrukhabad district (U.P). After boarding Baba off the train, the conductor found that the train would not start again. After several attempts at starting the train someone suggested to the conductor that they allow the sadhu back on to the train. Neem Karoli agreed to board the train on two conditions that the railway company promise to build a station at the village of Neeb Karori (at the time the villagers had to walk many miles to the nearest station), and the railway company must henceforth treat sadhus better. The officials agreed and Neem Karoli Baba boarded the train, jokingly saying, "What, is it up to me to start trains?" Immediately after his boarding the train, it started, but the train drivers would not proceed unless the sadhu blessed them to move forward. Baba gave his blessings and the train proceeded. Later a train station was built at the village of Neeb Karori.[6] Baba lived in the village of Neeb Karori for a while and was given his name by locals.

Thereafter he wandered extensively throughout Northern India. During this time he was known under many names including Lakshman Das, Handi Wallah Baba, and Tikonia Walla Baba. When he did tapasya and sadhana at Vavania Morbi in Gujarat, he was known as Tallaiya Baba. In Vrindavan, local inhabitants addressed him by the name of Chamatkari Baba ("miracle baba").[6] During his life two main ashrams were built, first at Vrindavan and later at Kainchi, where he spent the summer months.[1] In time, over 100 temples were constructed in his name.[1]

The Kainchi Dham ashram where he stayed in the last decade of his life, was built in 1964 with a Hanuman temple. It started two years prior with a modest platform built for two local shadhus,[what language is this?] Premi Baba and Sombari Maharaj to perform yagnas. Over the years the temple, situated 17 km from Nainital on the Nainital-Almora road, has become an important pilgrimage for locals, especially on 15 June, when then the Kainchi Dham Bhandara takes place to commemorate the inauguration of the temple, when it is visited by over a lakh of devotees.[7][8][9]


Neem Karoli Baba, samadhi mandir, Vrindavan ashram.

Neem Karoli Baba (Maharaj ji) died at approximately 1:15 a.m. in the early morning hours of 11 September 1973 in a hospital at Vrindavan, India after slipping into a diabetic coma. He had been returning by night train to Kainchi near Nainital, from Agra where he had visited a heart specialist due to experiencing pains in his chest. He and his traveling companions had disembarked at Mathura railway station where he began convulsing and requested being taken to Shri Dham Vrindavan.

They took him to the emergency room at the hospital. In the hospital the doctor gave him injections and placed an oxygen mask over his face. The hospital staff said that he was in a diabetic coma but that his pulse was fine. Maharajji roused and pulled the oxygen mask off his face and the blood pressure measuring band from his arm, saying, “Bekar (useless).” Maharajji asked for Ganga water. As there was none, they brought him regular water. He then repeated several times, “Jaya Jagadish Hare” (Hail to the Lord of the Universe),” each time in a lower pitch. His face became very peaceful, all signs of pain disappeared. He was dead.[10]

Subsequently, his samadhi shrine was built within the complex of Vrindavan ashram, which also has some of his personal belongings.


He was a lifelong adept of bhakti yoga, and encouraged service to others (seva) as the highest form of unconditional devotion to God. In the book Miracle of Love, compiled by Ram Dass, a devotee named Anjani shares the following account:

There can be no biography of him. Facts are few, stories many. He seems to have been known by different names in many parts of India, appearing and disappearing through the years. His non-Indian devotees of recent years knew him as Neem Karoli Baba, but mostly as “Maharajji” – a nickname so commonplace in India that one can often hear a tea vendor addressed thus. Just as he said, he was "nobody". He gave no discourses; the briefest, simplest stories were his teachings. Usually he sat or lay on a wooden bench wrapped in a plaid blanket while a few devotees sat around him. Visitors came and went; they were given food, a few words, a nod, a pat on the head or back, and they were sent away. There was gossip and laughter for he loved to joke. Orders for running the ashram were given, usually in a piercing yell across the compound. Sometimes he sat in silence, absorbed in another world to which we could not follow, but bliss and peace poured down on us. Who he was was no more than the experience of him, the nectar of his presence, the totality of his absence, enveloping us now like his plaid blanket.[10]

Notable disciples

Kainchi Dham Ashram near Nainital.

Among the most well known of Neem Karoli Baba's disciples were spiritual teacher Ram Dass (the author of Be Here Now), teacher/performer Bhagavan Das, Lama Surya Das[11] and the musicians Jai Uttal and Krishna Das and Trevor Hall (Rampriya Das). Other notable devotees include humanitarian Larry Brilliant and his wife Girija, Dada Mukerjee (former professor at Allahabad University, Uttar Pradesh, India), scholar and writer Yvette Rosser, John Bush filmmaker, and Daniel Goleman author of The Varieties of the Meditative Experience and Emotional Intelligence.[12] Baba Hari Dass (Haridas) was not a disciple,[13] however, he supervised several buildings and maintained the ashrams[14] in Nainital area (1954-1968) before heading to the USA to become a spiritual teacher in California in the beginning of 1971.

Steve Jobs, along with his friend Dan Kottke, traveled to India in April 1974 to study Hinduism and Indian spirituality; they planned also to meet Neem Karoli Baba,[15] but arrived to find the guru had died the previous September.[16] Hollywood actress[17] Julia Roberts was also influenced by Neem Karoli Baba. A picture of him drew Roberts to Hinduism.[18] Mark Zuckerberg, founder of facebook, influenced by Steve Jobs, visited Neem Karoli Baba's (Maharajji) ashram in Kainchi. Larry Brilliant took Google’s Larry Page and Jeffrey Skoll, co-founder of eBay, on the pilgrimage.[19]


After returning to the United States, Ram Dass and Larry Brilliant founded the Seva Foundation, an international health organization based in Berkeley, California. Steve Jobs, a friend of Brilliant, also funded the organization.[20] It is committed to applying the teachings of Neem Karoli Baba toward ending world poverty.

In the late 2000s another Foundation evolved, the 'Love Serve Remember Foundation', whose purpose is to preserve and continue the teachings of Neem Karoli Baba.[21]


• Sab Ek (All One)[22]
• Love everyone, Serve Everyone, Feed Everyone, Remember God. [23]
• Meditate like Christ. He lost himself in love [24]


1. Constance Jones; James D. Ryan (2006). Encyclopedia of Hinduism. Infobase Publishing. p. 310. ISBN 978-0-8160-7564-5.
2. "सुर्खियों में आया बाबा नीम करौली का आश्रम". Dainik Bhaskar (in Hindi). 1 October 2015. Retrieved 4 October 2015.
3. Swami Chidananda. "Baba Neem Karoli: A Wonder Mystic of Northern India". Divine Life Society. Retrieved 4 October 2015.
4. 29.4220°N 79.5125°E Kainchi Dham
5. "10 facts to know about Neem Karoli Baba". 1 October 2015.
6. Ram Dass (1995). Miracle of Love: Stories about Neem Karoli Baba. Hanuman Foundation. ISBN 1-887474-00-5.
7. "Devotees throng Kainchi Dham fair". The Times of India. 15 June 2015. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
8. "10 facts to know about Neem Karoli Baba". India TV News. 1 October 2015. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
9. "One 'Mark' who stayed two nights". The Telegraph. 30 September 2015. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
10. Ram Dass (1995). Miracle of Love: Stories about Neem Karoli Baba. Hanuman Foundation. ISBN 1-887474-00-5[1]
11. Das, Surya (1998). Awakening the Buddha Within: Tibetan Wisdom for the Western World. Broadway. p. 41. ISBN 0-7679-0157-6.
12. "Krishna Das : Songwriter Interviews". Song facts. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
13. Jones, Constance A.; D. Ryan, James (2007). Encyclopedia of Hinduism. New York: Infobase Publishing. pp. Baba Hari Dass. ISBN 978-0-8160-5458-9.
14. Mukerjee, Sudhir Dada (2012) [1996]. The Near and The Dear. Santa Fe, NM: Hanuman Foundation. pp. 221–2. ISBN 1-887474-02-1.
15. "Steve Jobs, a Hindu holy man, and the Apple logo".
16. "Sought 'enlightenment' in India". The Times of India. 6 October 2011. Retrieved 5 April 2012.
17. "Steve Jobs, a Hindu holy man, and the Apple logo". 4 April 2013.
18. "Julia Roberts' Journey in 'Eat Pray Love'". ABC News. 9 August 2010. Retrieved 6 October 2010.
19. Gowen, Annie (31 October 2015). "Inside the Indian temple that draws America's tech titans" – via
20. Anthony Imbimbo (2009). Steve Jobs: The Brilliant Mind Behind Apple. Gareth Stevens. p. 43. ISBN 978-1-4339-0060-0.
21. "Love Serve Remember Foundation - Ram Dass". Retrieved 6 October 2015.
22. Das, Krishna (15 February 2010). Chants of a Lifetime. Hay House, Inc. ISBN 9781401927714.
23. Doval, Nikita (29 September 2015). "Mark Zuckerberg's temple run, courtesy Steve Jobs". Livemint. Retrieved 15 October 2015.
24. "Meditate Like Christ | Neem Karoli Baba Ashram". 4 November 2018. Retrieved 2 November2019.


• Bhagavan Das (1997). It's Here Now (Are You?). Broadway. ISBN 0-7679-0009-X.
• Hanuman Foundation (1980). Neem Karoli Baba. Hanuman Foundation.
• Keshav Das, ed. (2011). Barefoot in the Heart: Remembering Neem Karoli Baba. Sensitive Skin Books. ISBN 978-0-9839271-2-9.
• Krishna Das (2010). Chants of a Lifetime: Searching for a Heart of Gold. Hay House, Inc. ISBN 978-1-4019-2022-7.
• Markus, Parvati. Love Everyone: The Transcendent Wisdom of Neem Karoli Baba and His Devotees. Hanuman Foundation. ISBN 1-887474-02-1.
• Pande, Ravi Prakash (2015). Divine Reality: Shri Baba Neem Karoli Baba. HarperOne. ISBN 0062342991.
• Mukerjee, Dada (2001). By His Grace: A Devotee's Story. Hanuman Foundation. ISBN 0-9628878-7-0.
• Mukerjee, Dada (2001). The Near and the Dear: Stories Neeb Karori Ji Maharaj. Shri Kainchi Hanuman Mandir Ashram.
• Ram Dass (1971). Be Here Now. Three Rivers Press. ISBN 0-517-54305-2.
• Ram Dass (1995). Miracle of Love: Stories about Neem Karoli Baba. Hanuman Foundation. ISBN 1887474005.
• Ransom, Jai Ram (2014). It All Abides in Love: Maharaji Neem Karoli Baba. Taos Music and Art, Inc. ISBN 9780990718222.

External links

• Official website of the Neem Karoli Baba Ashram, Taos, New Mexico
• Neeb Karori Baba Manav Seva Samiti website
• Neem Karoli Baba at Curlie
• Archived Neen Karoli Baba site
Site Admin
Posts: 32984
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Mon Nov 25, 2019 7:33 am

Tibet Autonomous Region
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 11/25/19



Tibet Autonomous Region
Xizang Autonomous Region
Tibetan: བོད་རང་སྐྱོང་ལྗོངས།
Chinese: 西藏自治区
Autonomous region
Chinese transcription(s)
• Chinese characters 西藏自治区
(abbreviation: XZ / 藏)
• Pinyin Xīzàng Zìzhìqū
(abbreviation: Zàng)
Tibetan transcription(s)
• Tibetan script བོད་རང་སྐྱོང་ལྗོངས།
• Wylie transliteration bod rang skyong ljongs
• official transcription (PRC) Poi Ranggyong Jong
Bridge over the Lhasa river
Map showing the location of the Tibet Autonomous Region
Named for བོད་ (Bö) is the Tibetan name of the Greater Tibet region.
西藏 (Xīzàng) means "Western Tsang", from Manchu "wargi Dzang", from Tibetan Ü-Tsang. Ü and Tsang are subregions of Greater Tibet.
"Tibet" is from the word Tibat of disputed origin.
Capital (and largest city) Lhasa
Divisions 5 prefecture-level cities, 2 prefectures, 6 districts, 68 counties, 692 townships
• Party Secretary Wu Yingjie
• Chairman Che Dalha
• Total 1,228,400 km2 (474,300 sq mi)
Area rank 2nd
Highest elevation (Mount Everest) 8,848 m (29,029 ft)
Population (December 2014)[2]
• Total 3,180,000
• Rank 32nd
• Density 2.59/km2 (6.7/sq mi)
• Density rank 33rd
• Ethnic composition 90% Tibetan
8% Han
0.3% Monpa
0.3% Hui
0.2% others
• Languages and dialects Tibetan, Mandarin Chinese
ISO 3166 code CN-XZ
GDP (2017) CNY 131 billion
USD 20 billion (31st) [3]
- per capita CNY 39,258
USD 5,814 (28th)
HDI (2017) Increase 0.589[4]
medium · 31st

The Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) or Xizang Autonomous Region, called Tibet or Xizang for short (Chinese: 西藏; pinyin: Xīzàng; Mandarin pronunciation: [ɕí.tsâŋ]; literally: 'Western Tsang'; Tibetan: བོད་, Wylie: Bod, ZYPY: Poi, Tibetan pronunciation: [pʰø̀ʔ]), is a province-level autonomous region in southwest China. It was formally established in 1965 to replace the Tibet Area, an administrative division the People's Republic of China (PRC) took over from the Republic of China (ROC) about five years after the dismissal of the Kashag by the PRC following the 1959 Tibetan uprising, and about 13 years after Tibet's incorporation into the PRC in 1951.

The current borders of the Tibet Autonomous Region were generally established in the 18th century[5] and include about half of ethno-cultural Tibet. The Tibet Autonomous Region is the second-largest province-level division of China by area, spanning over 1,200,000 km2 (460,000 sq mi), after Xinjiang, and mostly due to its harsh and rugged terrain, is the least densely populated provincial-level division of the PRC.


Main article: History of Tibet

There is a politically-charged historical debate on the exact nature of relations between Tibet and the Chinese Ming dynasty (1368–1644) and whether the Ming Dynasty had sovereignty over Tibet[6][7][8] after the Mongol conquest of Tibet and Yuan administrative rule in the 13th and 14th centuries. Qing dynasty (1636–1912) rule in Tibet began with their 1720 expedition to the country when they expelled the invading Dzungars, and Tibet was actually first controlled by central government. From 1912 to 1950 Tibet was under de jure suzerainty of the Republic of China, however, the difficulties of establishing a new government in the aftermath of the Xinhai Revolution, the fractious Warlord Era, the Chinese Civil War, and the overwhelming Japanese invasion and occupation before and during World War II left the Republic unable to exert any effective administration. Other parts of ethno-cultural Tibet (eastern Kham and Amdo) had been under de jure administration of the Chinese dynastic government since the mid-18th century;[9] today they are distributed among the provinces of Qinghai, Gansu, Sichuan and Yunnan. (See also: Xikang province)

In 1950, the People's Liberation Army marched into Tibet and defeated the Tibetan local army in a battle fought near the city of Chamdo. In 1951, the Tibetan representatives signed a 17-point agreement with the Central People's Government affirming China's sovereignty over Tibet and the incorporation of Tibet. The agreement was ratified in Lhasa a few months later.[10][11] Although the 17-point agreement had provided for an autonomous administration led by the Dalai Lama, a "Preparatory Committee for the Autonomous Region of Tibet" (PCART) was established in 1955 to exclude the Dalai Lama's government and create a system of administration along Communist lines. Under threat of his life from Chinese forces the Dalai Lama fled to India in 1959 and renounced the 17-point agreement. Tibet Autonomous Region was established in 1965, thus making Tibet a provincial-level division of China.


Main article: Geography of Tibet

The Tibet Autonomous Region is located on the Tibetan Plateau, the highest region on earth. In northern Tibet elevations reach an average of over 4,572 metres (15,000 ft). Mount Everest is located on Tibet's border with Nepal.

China's provincial-level areas of Xinjiang, Qinghai and Sichuan lie to the north, northeast, and east, respectively, of the Tibet AR. There is also a short border with Yunnan province to the southeast. Tibet Autonomous Region contains South Tibet, which is administered by India as part of Arunachal Pradesh. Tibet Autonomous Region also contains Doklam which is in dispute with Bhutan. The other countries to the south are Myanmar (Kachin State), Bhutan (Gasa, Lhuntse Thimphu, Trashiyangtse and Wangdue Phodrang Districts) and Nepal (Far-Western, Mid-Western, Western, Central, and Eastern Regions).

Mount Everest

Physically, the Tibet AR may be divided into two parts, the lakes region in the west and north-west, and the river region, which spreads out on three sides of the former on the east, south, and west. Both regions receive limited amounts of rainfall as they lie in the rain shadow of the Himalayas, however the region names are useful in contrasting their hydrological structures, and also in contrasting their different cultural uses which is nomadic in the lake region and agricultural in the river region.[12] On the south the Tibet AR is bounded by the Himalayas, and on the north by a broad mountain system. The system at no point narrows to a single range; generally there are three or four across its breadth. As a whole the system forms the watershed between rivers flowing to the Indian Ocean − the Indus, Brahmaputra and Salween and its tributaries − and the streams flowing into the undrained salt lakes to the north.

The lake region extends from the Pangong Tso Lake in Ladakh, Lake Rakshastal, Yamdrok Lake and Lake Manasarovar near the source of the Indus River, to the sources of the Salween, the Mekong and the Yangtze. Other lakes include Dagze Co, Namtso, and Pagsum Co. The lake region is a wind-swept Alpine grassland. This region is called the Chang Tang (Byang sang) or 'Northern Plateau' by the people of Tibet. It is some 1,100 km (680 mi) broad, and covers an area about equal to that of France. Due to its great distance from the ocean it is extremely arid and possesses no river outlet. The mountain ranges are spread out, rounded, disconnected, separated by relatively flat valleys.

The Tibet AR is dotted over with large and small lakes, generally salt or alkaline, and intersected by streams. Due to the presence of discontinuous permafrost over the Chang Tang, the soil is boggy and covered with tussocks of grass, thus resembling the Siberian tundra. Salt and fresh-water lakes are intermingled. The lakes are generally without outlet, or have only a small effluent. The deposits consist of soda, potash, borax and common salt. The lake region is noted for a vast number of hot springs, which are widely distributed between the Himalaya and 34° N, but are most numerous to the west of Tengri Nor (north-west of Lhasa). So intense is the cold in this part of Tibet that these springs are sometimes represented by columns of ice, the nearly boiling water having frozen in the act of ejection.

The river region is characterised by fertile mountain valleys and includes the Yarlung Tsangpo River (the upper courses of the Brahmaputra) and its major tributary, the Nyang River, the Salween, the Yangtze, the Mekong, and the Yellow River. The Yarlung Tsangpo Canyon, formed by a horseshoe bend in the river where it flows around Namcha Barwa, is the deepest, and possibly longest canyon in the world.[13] Among the mountains there are many narrow valleys. The valleys of Lhasa, Xigazê, Gyantse and the Brahmaputra are free from permafrost, covered with good soil and groves of trees, well irrigated, and richly cultivated.

The South Tibet Valley is formed by the Yarlung Tsangpo River during its middle reaches, where it travels from west to east. The valley is approximately 1200 kilometres long and 300 kilometres wide. The valley descends from 4500 metres above sea level to 2800 metres. The mountains on either side of the valley are usually around 5000 metres high.[14][15] Lakes here include Lake Paiku and Lake Puma Yumco.


See also: List of modern political leaders of Tibet and List of current Chinese provincial leaders

The Tibet Autonomous Region is a province-level entity of the People's Republic of China. Chinese law nominally guarantees some autonomy in the areas of education and language policy. Like other subdivisions of China, routine administration is carried out by a People's Government, headed by a Chairman, who has been an ethnic Tibetan except for an interregnum during the Cultural Revolution. As with other Chinese provinces, the Chairman carries out work under the direction of the regional secretary of the Communist Party of China. The regional standing committee of the Communist Party serves as the top rung of political power in the region. The current Chairman is Che Dalha and the current party secretary is Wu Yingjie.[16]

Administrative divisions

For a more comprehensive list, see List of administrative divisions of the Tibet Autonomous Region and List of township-level divisions of the Tibet Autonomous Region.

The Autonomous Region is divided into seven prefecture-level divisions: six prefecture-level cities and one prefecture.

These in turn are subdivided into a total of 66 counties and 8 districts (Chengguan, Doilungdêqên, Dagzê, Samzhubzê, Karub, Bayi, Nêdong, and Seni).

Administrative divisions of Tibet Autonomous Region


№ / Division code[17] / Division / Area in km2[18] / Population 2010[19] / Seat / Divisions[20]
Districts Counties
-- / 540000 / Tibet Autonomous Region / 1,228,400.00 / 3,002,166 / Lhasa city / 8 / 66
5 / 540100 / Lhasa city / 29,538.90 / 559,423 / Chengguan District / 3 / 5
4 / 540200 / Shigatse / Xigazê city / 182,066.26 / 703,292 / Samzhubzê District / 1 / 17
3 / 540300 / Chamdo / Qamdo city / 108,872.30 / 657,505 / Karuo District / 1 / 10
7 / 540400 / Nyingchi city / 113,964.79 / 195,109 / Bayi District / 1 / 6
6 / 540500 / Shannan / Lhoka city / 79,287.84 / 328,990 / Nêdong District / 1 / 11
2 / 540600 / Nagqu city / 391,816.63 / 462,382 / Seni District / 1 / 10
1 / 542500 / Ngari Prefecture / 296,822.62 / 95,465 / Gar County / -- / 7

Yamdrok Lake

Namtso Lake

Administrative divisions in Tibetan, Chinese, and varieties of romanizations

Urban areas

Population by urban areas of prefecture & county cities

# / City / Urban area[21] / District area[21] / City proper[21] / Census date
1 / Lhasa[a] / 199,159 / 279,074 / 559,423 / 2010-11-01
(1) / Lhasa (new districts)[a] / 21,093 / 78,957 / see Lhasa / 2010-11-01
2 / Xigazê[ b] / 63,967 / 120,374 / 703,292 / 2010-11-01
(3) / Qamdo[c] / 44,028 / 116,500 / 657,505 / 2010-11-01
(4) / Nagqu[d] / 42,984 / 108,781 / 462,381 / 2010-11-01
(5) / Nyingchi[e] / 35,179 / 54,702 / 195,109 / 2010-11-01
(6) / Shannan[f] / 30,646 / 59,615 / 328,990 / 2010-11-01

1. New districts established after census: Doilungdêqên (Doilungdêqên County), Dagzê (Dagzê County). These new districts not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
2. Xigazê Prefecture is currently known as Xigazê PLC after census; Xigazê CLC is currently known as Samzhubzê after census.
3. Qamdo Prefecture is currently known as Qamdo PLC after census; Qamdo County is currently known as Karuo after census.
4. Nagqu Prefecture is currently known as Nagqu PLC after census; Nagqu County is currently known as Seni after census.
5. Nyingchi Prefecture is currently known as Nyingchi PLC after census; Nyingchi County is currently known as Bayi after census.
6. Shannan Prefecture is currently known as Shannan PLC after census; Nêdong County is currently known as Nêdong after census.


Historical population

Year / Pop. / ±%
1912[22] / 1,160,000 / —
1928[23] / 372,000 / −67.9%
1936–37[24] / 372,000 / +0.0%
1947[25] / 1,000,000 / +168.8%
1954[26] / 1,273,969 / +27.4%
1964[27] / 1,251,225 / −1.8%
1982[28] / 1,892,393 / +51.2%
1990[29] / 2,196,010 / +16.0%
2000[30] / 2,616,329 / +19.1%
2010[31] / 3,002,166 / +14.7%

Xikang Province / Chuanbian SAR was established in 1923 from parts of Tibet / Lifan Yuan; dissolved in 1955 and parts were incorporated into Tibet AR.

With an average of only two people per square kilometer, Tibet has the lowest population density among any of the Chinese province-level administrative regions, mostly due to its harsh and rugged terrain.[32]

In 2011 the Tibetan population was three million.[33] The ethnic Tibetans, comprising 90.48% of the population,[34] mainly adhere to Tibetan Buddhism and Bön, although there is an ethnic Tibetan Muslim community.[35] Other Muslim ethnic groups such as the Hui and the Salar have inhabited the Region. There is also a tiny Tibetan Christian community in eastern Tibet. Smaller tribal groups such as the Monpa and Lhoba, who follow a combination of Tibetan Buddhism and spirit worship, are found mainly in the southeastern parts of the region.

Historically, the population of Tibet consisted of primarily ethnic Tibetans. According to tradition the original ancestors of the Tibetan people, as represented by the six red bands in the Tibetan flag, are: the Se, Mu, Dong, Tong, Dru and Ra. Other traditional ethnic groups with significant population or with the majority of the ethnic group reside in Tibet include Bai people, Blang, Bonan, Dongxiang, Han, Hui people, Lhoba, Lisu people, Miao, Mongols, Monguor (Tu people), Menba (Monpa), Mosuo, Nakhi, Qiang, Nu people, Pumi, Salar, and Yi people.

According to Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition published between 1910–1911, total population of Tibetan capital of Lhasa, including the lamas in the city and vicinity, was about 30,000, and the permanent population also included Chinese families (about 2,000).[36]

Most Han people in the TAR (8.17% of the total population)[34] are recent migrants, because all of the Han were expelled from "Outer Tibet" (Central Tibet) following the British invasion until the establishment of the PRC.[37] Only 8% of Han people have household registration in TAR, other keep their household registration in place of origin.[34]

Tibetan scholars and Tibetans in exile claim that, with the 2006 completion of the Qingzang Railway connecting the TAR to Qinghai Province, there has been an "acceleration" of Han migration into the region.[38] The exile Tibetan Administration of the Dalai Lama in north India, claims that the PRC will swarm Tibet with migrants in order to alter Tibet's demographic makeup.[39]


Main article: Religion in Tibet

Religion in Tibet (2012 estimates)[40]

Tibetan Buddhism: 78.5%
Bon: 12.5%
Chinese folk religion: 8.58%
Islam[41]: 0.4%
Christianity: 0.02%

Maitreya Buddha statue of Tashilhunpo Monastery in Shigatse

The main religion in Tibet has been Buddhism since its outspread in the 8th century AD. Before the arrival of Buddhism, the main religion among Tibetans was an indigenous shamanic and animistic religion, Bon, which now comprises a sizeable minority and which would later influence the formation of Tibetan Buddhism.

According to estimates from the International Religious Freedom Report of 2012, most of Tibetans (who comprise 91% of the population of the Tibet Autonomous Region) are bound by Tibetan Buddhism, while a minority of 400,000 people (12.5% of the total population of the TAR) are bound to the native Bon or folk religions which share the image of Confucius (Tibetan: Kongtse Trulgyi Gyalpo) with Chinese folk religion, though in a different light.[42][43] According to some reports, the government of China has been promoting the Bon religion, linking it with Confucianism.[44]

Most of the Han Chinese who reside in Tibet practice their native Chinese folk religion (神道; shén dào; 'Way of the Gods'). There is a Guandi Temple of Lhasa (拉萨关帝庙) where the Chinese god of war Guandi is identified with the cross-ethnic Chinese, Tibetan, Mongol and Manchu deity Gesar. The temple is built according to both Chinese and Tibetan architecture. It was first erected in 1792 under the Qing dynasty and renovated around 2013 after decades of disrepair.[45][46]

Built or rebuilt between 2014 and 2015 is the Guandi Temple of Qomolangma (Mount Everest), on Ganggar Mount, in Tingri County.[47][48]

There are four mosques in the Tibet Autonomous Region with approximately 4,000 to 5,000 Muslim adherents,[40] although a 2010 Chinese survey found a higher proportion of 0.4%.[41] There is a Catholic church with 700 parishioners, which is located in the traditionally Catholic community of Yanjing in the east of the region.[40]

Human rights

Main article: Human rights in Tibet

Towns and villages in Tibet

Further information: List of populated places in the Tibet Autonomous Region

"Comfortable Housing"

Beginning in 2006, 280,000 Tibetans who lived in traditional villages and as nomadic herdsmen have been forcefully relocated into villages and towns. In those areas new housing was built and existing houses were remodelled to serve a total of 2 million people. Those living in substandard housing were required to dismantle their houses and remodel them to government standards. Much of the expense was borne by the residents themselves often through bank loans. The population transfer program, which was first implemented in Qinghai where 300,000 nomads were resettled, is called "Comfortable Housing". which is part of the “Build a New Socialist Countryside” program. Its effect on Tibetan culture has been criticized by exiles and human rights groups.[49] Finding employment is difficult for relocated persons who have only agrarian skills. Income shortfalls are offset by government support programs.[50] It was announced in 2011 that 20,000 Communist Party cadres were to be placed in the new towns.[49]


Main article: Economy of Tibet

The Tibetans traditionally depended upon agriculture for survival. Since the 1980s, however, other jobs such as taxi-driving and hotel retail work have become available in the wake of Chinese economic reform. In 2011, Tibet's nominal GDP topped 60.5 billion yuan (US$9.60 billion), nearly more than seven times as big as the 11.78 billion yuan (US$1.47 billion) in 2000. Economic growth since the beginning of the 21st century has averaged over 10 percent a year.[32]

While traditional agriculture and animal husbandry continue to lead the area's economy, in 2005 the tertiary sector contributed more than half of its GDP growth, the first time it surpassed the area's primary industry.[51][52] Rich reserves of natural resources and raw materials have yet to lead to the creation of a strong secondary sector, due in large part to the province's inhospitable terrain, low population density, an underdeveloped infrastructure and the high cost of extraction.[32]

The collection of caterpillar fungus (Cordyceps sinensis, known in Tibetan as Yartsa Gunbu) in late spring / early summer is in many areas the most important source of cash for rural households. It contributes an average of 40% to rural cash income and 8.5% to the TAR's GDP.[53]

The re-opening of the Nathu La pass (on southern Tibet's border with India) should facilitate Sino-Indian border trade and boost Tibet's economy.[54]

In 2008, Chinese news media reported that the per capita disposable incomes of urban and rural residents in Tibet averaged 12,482 yuan (US$1,798) and 3,176 yuan (US$457) respectively.[55]

The China Western Development policy was adopted in 2000 by the central government to boost economic development in western China, including the Tibet Autonomous Region.

Lhasa Economic and Technological Development Zone


The Potala Palace in Lhasa, the capital of the TAR.

Foreign tourists were first permitted to visit the Tibet Autonomous Region in the 1980s. While the main attraction is the Potala Palace in Lhasa, there are many other popular tourist destinations including the Jokhang Temple, Namtso Lake, and Tashilhunpo Monastery.[56] Nonetheless, tourism in Tibet is still restricted for non-Chinese passport holders and Taiwan citizens, and presently the only way for foreigners to enter is via Tibet Entry Permit. The permit can only be obtained through a travel agency in Tibet, and travel in Tibet must be arranged in a group tour, in which the group must be accompanied by a licensed tour guide at all times. Those traveling into Tibet must specify every location they want to travel within the TAR, and thus cannot travel anywhere not specified in the application. Before entering on a train, plane, or road leading into Tibet, anyone without a Chinese passport must present the Tibet Entry Permit, or they will otherwise be denied entry. People barred from obtaining the permit are journalists, diplomats, professional media photographers, and government officials.[57]



Lhasa Gonggar Airport, the biggest airport in TAR

The civil airports in Tibet are Lhasa Gonggar Airport,[58] Qamdo Bangda Airport, Nyingchi Airport, and the Gunsa Airport.

Gunsa Airport in Ngari Prefecture began operations on 1 July 2010, to become the fourth civil airport in China's Tibet Autonomous Region.[59]

The Peace Airport for Xigazê was opened for civilian use on 30 October 2010.[60]

Nagqu Dagring Airport is expected to become the world's highest altitude airport by 2014 at 4,436 meters above sea level.[61]


The Qinghai–Tibet Railway from Golmud to Lhasa was completed on 12 October 2005. It opened to regular trial service on 1 July 2006. Five pairs of passenger trains run between Golmud and Lhasa, with connections onward to Beijing, Chengdu, Chongqing, Guangzhou, Shanghai, Xining and Lanzhou. The line includes the Tanggula Pass, which, at 5,072 m (16,640 ft) above sea level, is the world's highest railway.

The Lhasa–Xigazê Railway branch from Lhasa to Xigazê was completed in 2014. It opened to regular service on 15 August 2014. The planned China–Nepal railway will connect Xigazê to Kathmandu, capital of Nepal, and is expected to be completed around 2027.[62]

The construction of the Sichuan–Tibet Railway began in 2015. The line is expected to be completed around 2025.[63]

See also

• Geography portal
• Asia portal
• China portal
• China Tibetology Research Center
• Incorporation of Tibet into the People's Republic of China
• History of Tibet (1950–present)
• Kazara
• List of prisons in the Tibet Autonomous Region
• List of universities and colleges in Tibet
• Tibet Area, Republic of China
• Tibetan Independence Movement
• Sinicization of Tibet
• Shigatse Photovoltaic Power Plant


1. 西藏概况(2007年) [Overview of Tibet (2007)] (in Chinese). People's Government of Tibet Autonomous Region. 11 September 2008. Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 18 December 2015.
2. "National Data". National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 19 April 2016. Retrieved 18 December 2015.
3. 西藏自治区2017年国民经济和社会发展统计公报 [Statistical Communiqué of Tibet Autonomous Region on the 2017 National Economic and Social Development] (in Chinese). Statistical Bureau of Tibet Autonomous Region. 15 April 2018. Retrieved 22 June 2018.
4. "Sub-national HDI - Area Database - Global Data Lab". Retrieved 13 September 2018.
5. "What is Tibet? – Fact and Fancy", Excerpt from Goldstein, Melvyn, C. (1994). Change, Conflict and Continuity among a Community of Nomadic Pastoralist: A Case Study from Western Tibet, 1950–1990. pp. 76–87.
6. Wylie (2003), 470.
7. Wang & Nyima (1997), 1–40.
8. Laird (2006), 106–7.
9. Grunfeld, A. Tom, The Making of Modern Tibet, M.E. Sharpe, p245.
10. Gyatso, Tenzin, Dalai Lama XIV, interview, 25 July 1981.
11. Goldstein, Melvyn C., A History of Modern Tibet, 1913–1951, University of California Press, 1989, p. 812-813.
12. "Tibet: Agricultural Regions". Archived from the original on 24 August 2007. Retrieved 6 August 2007.
13. "The World's Biggest Canyon". Archived from the original on 12 October 2007. Retrieved 29 June2007.
14. Yang, Qinye; Zheng, Du (2004). Tibetan Geography. China Intercontinental Press. pp. 30–31. ISBN 978-7-5085-0665-4.
15. Zheng Du, Zhang Qingsong, Wu Shaohong: Mountain Geoecology and Sustainable Development of the Tibetan Plateau (Kluwer 2000), ISBN 0-7923-6688-3, p. 312;
16. "Leadership shake-up in China's Tibet: state media". France: France 24. Agence France-Presse. 15 January 2010. Archived from the original on 18 January 2010. Retrieved 29 July 2010.
17. "Archived copy" 中华人民共和国县以上行政区划代码 (in Chinese). Ministry of Civil Affairs. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 7 April 2015.
18. Shenzhen City Bureau of Statistics. Archived copy 《深圳统计年鉴2014》 (in Chinese). China Statistics Print. Archived from the original on 12 May 2015. Retrieved 29 May 2015.
19. Census Office of the State Council; Population and Employment Statistics Division of the National Bureau of Statistics, eds. (2012). 中国2010人口普查分乡、镇、街道资料 (1th ed.). Beijing: China Statistics Print. ISBN 978-7-5037-6660-2.
20. Ministry of Civil Affairs (August 2014). 《中国民政统计年鉴2014》 (in Chinese). China Statistics Print. ISBN 978-7-5037-7130-9.
21. Census Office of the State Council; Population and Society, Science and Technology Statitics Division of the National Bureau of Statistics, eds. (2012). 中国2010年人口普查分县资料. Beijing: China Statistics Print. ISBN 978-7-5037-6659-6.
22. "Archived copy" 1912年中国人口. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
23. "Archived copy" 1928年中国人口. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
24. "Archived copy" 1936–37年中国人口. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 6 March2014.
25. "Archived copy" 1947年全国人口. Archived from the original on 13 September 2013. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
26. 中华人民共和国国家统计局关于第一次全国人口调查登记结果的公报. National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 5 August 2009.
27. 第二次全国人口普查结果的几项主要统计数字. National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the originalon 14 September 2012.
28. 中华人民共和国国家统计局关于一九八二年人口普查主要数字的公报. National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 10 May 2012.
29. 中华人民共和国国家统计局关于一九九〇年人口普查主要数据的公报. National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 19 June 2012.
30. 现将2000年第五次全国人口普查快速汇总的人口地区分布数据公布如下. National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 29 August 2012.
31. "Communiqué of the National Bureau of Statistics of People's Republic of China on Major Figures of the 2010 Population Census". National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 27 July 2013.
32. China Economy @ China Perspective. Retrieved on 18 July 2013.
33. Wang, Guanqun. "Tibet's population tops three million; 90% are Tibetans". Xinhua. Archivedfrom the original on 13 May 2011. Retrieved 4 May 2011.
34. 西藏自治区常住人口超过300万. Xizang gov. Xizang gov. Archived from the original on 16 February 2013. Retrieved 6 May 2011.
35. Hannue, Dialogues Tibetan Dialogues Han
36. Yule, Henry; Waddell, Laurence (1911). "Lhasa" . In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica. 16 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 531.
37. Grunfeld, A. Tom (1996). The Making of Modern Tibet. East Gate Books. pp. 114–119.
38. Johnson, Tim (28 March 2008). "Tibetans see 'Han invasion' as spurring violence | McClatchy". Archived from the original on 15 November 2009. Retrieved 11 October 2011.
39. "Population Transfer Programmes". Central Tibetan Administration. 2003. Archived from the original on 30 July 2010. Retrieved 29 July 2010.
40. Internazional Religious Freedom Report 2012 by the US government. p. 20: «Most ethnic Tibetans practice Tibetan Buddhism, although a sizeable minority practices Bon, an indigenous religion, and very small minorities practice Islam, Catholicism, or Protestantism. Some scholars estimate that there are as many as 400,000 Bon followers across the Tibetan Plateau. Scholars also estimate that there are up to 5,000 ethnic Tibetan Muslims and 700 ethnic Tibetan Catholics in the TAR.»
41. Min Junqing. The Present Situation and Characteristics of Contemporary Islam in China. JISMOR, 8. 2010 Islam by province, page 29 Archived 27 April 2017 at the Wayback Machine. Data from: Yang Zongde, Study on Current Muslim Population in China, Jinan Muslim, 2, 2010.
42. Te-Ming TSENG; Shen-Yu LIN (December 2007). 《臺灣東亞文明研究學刊》第4卷第2期(總第8期) [The Image of Confucius in Tibetan Culture] (PDF). National Taiwan University. pp. 169–207. Archived from the original (pdf) on 4 March 2016.
43. Shenyu Lin. The Tibetan Image of Confucius Archived 13 September 2017 at the Wayback Machine. Revue d’Etudes Tibétaines.
44. China-Tibet Online: Confucius ruled as a "divine king" in Tibet[permanent dead link]. 2014-11-04
45. World Guangong Culture: Lhasa, Tibet: Guandi temple was inaugurated Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine.
46. China-Tibet Online: Tibet's largest Guandi Temple gets repaired[permanent dead link]. 2013-03-13
47. World Guangong Culture: Dingri, Tibet: Cornerstone Laying Ceremony being Grandly Held for the Reconstruction of Qomolangma Guandi Temple Archived 7 November 2017 at the Wayback Machine.
48. World Guangong Culture: Wuhan, China: Yang Song Meets Cui Yujing to Discuss Qomolangma Guandi TempleArchived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine.
49. ""They Say We Should Be Grateful": Mass Rehousing and Relocation Programs in Tibetan Areas of China"(PDF). Human Rights Watch. June 2013. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 July 2013. Retrieved 28 June 2013.
50. Jacobs, Andrew (27 June 2013). "Rights Report Faults Mass Relocation of Tibetans". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 27 June 2013. Retrieved 28 June 2013.
51. "Xinhua – Per capita GDP tops $1,000 in Tibet". Xinhua. 31 January 2006. Archived from the original on 9 June 2011. Retrieved 11 October 2011.
52. "Tibet posts fixed assets investment rise". Xinhua. 31 January 2006. Archived from the original on 9 June 2011. Retrieved 11 October 2011.
53. Winkler D. 2008 Yartsa gunbu (Cordyceps sinenis) and the fungal commodification of rural Tibet. Economic Botany 62.3. See also Hannue, Dialogues Tibetan Dialogues Han
54. Maseeh Rahman in New Delhi (19 June 2006). "China and India to trade across Himalayas | World news". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 11 October 2011.
55. "Tibetans report income rises". Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 11 October 2011.
56. * Birgit Zotz, Destination Tibet. Hamburg: Kovac 2010, ISBN 978-3-8300-4948-7 [1] Archived 17 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine
57. "In-depth Guide of How to get to Tibet". Archived from the original on 19 January 2016. Retrieved 18 January 2016.
58. "Gongkhar Airport in Tibet enters digital communication age". Xinhua News Agency. 12 May 2009. Archived from the original on 15 December 2010. Retrieved 12 December 2010.
59. "Tibet's fourth civil airport opens". Xinhua News Agency. 1 July 2010. Archived from the original on 14 December 2010. Retrieved 11 December 2010.
60. "Tibet to have fifth civil airport operational before year end 2010". Xinhua News Agency. 26 July 2010. Archived from the original on 15 December 2010. Retrieved 12 December 2010.
61. "World's highest-altitude airport planned on Tibet". Xinhua News Agency. 12 January 2010. Archived from the original on 15 December 2010. Retrieved 12 December 2010.
62. Giri, A; Giri, S (24 August 2018). "Nepal, China agree on rail study". The Kathmandu Post. Archived from the original on 22 September 2018. Retrieved 22 September 2018.
63. Chu. "China Approves New Railway for Tibet". CRI. Archived from the original on 9 November 2014. Retrieved 9 November 2014.

Further reading

• Hannue, Dialogues Tibetan Dialogues Han, travelogue from Tibet – by a woman who's been travelling around Tibet for over a decade, ISBN 978-988-97999-3-9
• Sorrel Wilby, Journey Across Tibet: A Young Woman's 1900-Mile Trek Across the Rooftop of the World, Contemporary Books (1988), hardcover, 236 pages, ISBN 0-8092-4608-2.
• Hillman, Ben, ‘China’s Many Tibets: Diqing as a model for ‘development with Tibetan characteristics?’ Asian Ethnicity, Vol. 11, No. 2, June 2010, pp 269–277.[ISBN missing]

External links

• Tibet Autonomous Region official website
• Economic profile for Tibet Autonomous Region at HKTDC
• Population Structure and Changes in the Tibet Autonomous Region
Site Admin
Posts: 32984
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am


Return to Articles & Essays

Who is online

Users browsing this forum: No registered users and 7 guests