Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sun Dec 01, 2019 3:06 am

by Wikipedia
Accessed: 11/30/19



The Senate committee’s investigation into the use of journalists was supervised by William B. Bader, a former CIA intelligence officer who returned briefly to the Agency this year as deputy to CIA director Stansfield Turner and is now a high‑level intelligence official at the Defense Department. Bader was assisted by David Aaron, who now serves as the deputy to Zbigniew Brzezinski, President Carter’s national security adviser.

According to colleagues on the staff of the Senate inquiry, both Bader and Aaron were disturbed by the information contained in CIA files about journalists; they urged that further investigation he undertaken by the Senate’s new permanent CIA oversight committee. That committee, however, has spent its first year of existence writing a new charter for the CIA, and members say there has been little interest in delving further into the CIA’s use of the press.

Bader’s investigation was conducted under unusually difficult conditions. His first request for specific information on the use of journalists was turned down by the CIA on grounds that there had been no abuse of authority and that current intelligence operations might he compromised. Senators Walter Huddleston, Howard Baker, Gary Hart, Walter Mondale and Charles Mathias—who had expressed interest in the subject of the press and the CIA—shared Bader’s distress at the CIA’s reaction. In a series of phone calls and meetings with CIA director George Bush and other Agency officials, the senators insisted that the committee staff be provided information about the scope of CIA‑press activities. Finally, Bush agreed to order a search of the files and have those records pulled which deals with operations where journalists had been used. But the raw files could not he made available to Bader or the committee, Bush insisted. Instead, the director decided, his deputies would condense the material into one‑paragraph sum­maries describing in the most general terms the activities of each individual journalist. Most important, Bush decreed, the names of journalists and of the news organizations with which they were affiliated would be omitted from the summaries. However, there might be some indication of the region where the journalist had served and a general description of the type of news organization for which he worked.

Assembling the summaries was difficult, according to CIA officials who supervised the job. There were no “journalist files” per se and information had to be collected from divergent sources that reflect the highly compartmentalized character of the CIA. Case officers who had handled journalists supplied some names. Files were pulled on various undercover operations in which it seemed logical that journalists had been used. Significantly, all work by reporters for the Agency under the category of covert operations, not foreign intelligence.) Old station records were culled. “We really had to scramble,” said one official.

After several weeks, Bader began receiving the summaries, which numbered over 400 by the time the Agency said it had completed searching its files.

The Agency played an intriguing numbers game with the committee. Those who prepared the material say it was physically impossible to produce all of the Agency’s files on the use of journalists. “We gave them a broad, representative picture,” said one agency official. “We never pretended it was a total description of the range of activities over 25 years, or of the number of journalists who have done things for us.” A relatively small number of the summaries described the activities of foreign journalists—including those working as stringers for American publications. Those officials most knowledgeable about the subject say that a figure of 400 American journalists is on the low side of the actual number who maintained covert relationships and undertook clandestine tasks.

Bader and others to whom he described the contents of the summaries immediately reached some general conclusions: the sheer number of covert relationships with journalists was far greater than the CIA had ever hinted; and the Agency’s use of reporters and news executives was an intelligence asset of the first magnitude. Reporters had been involved in almost every conceivable kind of operation. Of the 400‑plus individuals whose activities were summarized, between 200 and 250 were “working journalists” in the usual sense of the term—reporters, editors, correspondents, photographers; the rest were employed at least nominally) by book publishers, trade publications and newsletters.

Still, the summaries were just that: compressed, vague, sketchy, incomplete. They could be subject to ambiguous interpretation. And they contained no suggestion that the CIA had abused its authority by manipulating the editorial content of American newspapers or broadcast reports.

Bader’s unease with what he had found led him to seek advice from several experienced hands in the fields of foreign relations and intelligence. They suggested that he press for more information and give those members of the committee in whom he had the most confidence a general idea of what the summaries revealed. Bader again went to Senators Huddleston, Baker, Hart, Mondale and Mathias. Meanwhile, he told the CIA that he wanted to see more—the full files on perhaps a hundred or so of the individuals whose activities had been summarized. The request was turned down outright. The Agency would provide no more information on the subject. Period.

The CIA’s intransigence led to an extraordinary dinner meeting at Agency headquarters in late March 1976. Those present included Senators Frank Church who had now been briefed by Bader), and John Tower, the vice‑chairman of the committee; Bader; William Miller, director of the committee staff; CIA director Bush; Agency counsel Rogovin; and Seymour Bolten, a high‑level CIA operative who for years had been a station chief in Germany and Willy Brandt’s case officer. Bolten had been deputized by Bush to deal with the committee’s requests for information on journalists and academics. At the dinner, the Agency held to its refusal to provide any full files. Nor would it give the committee the names of any individual journalists described in the 400 summaries or of the news organizations with whom they were affiliated. The discussion, according to participants, grew heated. The committee’s representatives said they could not honor their mandate—to determine if the CIA had abused its authority—without further information. The CIA maintained it could not protect its legitimate intelligence operations or its employees if further disclosures were made to the committee. Many of the journalists were contract employees of the Agency, Bush said at one point, and the CIA was no less obligated to them than to any other agents.

Finally, a highly unusual agreement was hammered out: Bader and Miller would be permitted to examine “sanitized” versions of the full files of twenty‑five journalists selected from the summaries; but the names of the journalists and the news organizations which employed them would be blanked out, as would the identities of other CIA employees mentioned in the files. Church and Tower would be permitted to examine the unsanitizedversions of five of the twenty‑five files—to attest that the CIA was not hiding anything except the names. The whole deal was contingent on an agreement that neither Bader, Miner, Tower nor Church would reveal the contents of the files to other members of the committee or staff.

Bader began reviewing the 400‑some summaries again. His object was to select twenty‑five that, on the basis of the sketchy information they contained, seemed to represent a cross section. Dates of CIA activity, general descriptions of news organizations, types of journalists and undercover operations all figured in his calculations.

From the twenty‑five files he got back, according to Senate sources and CIA officials, an unavoidable conclusion emerged: that to a degree never widely suspected, the CIA in the 1950s, ‘60s and even early ‘70s had concentrated its relationships with journalists in the most prominent sectors of the American press corps, including four or five of the largest newspapers in the country, the broadcast networks and the two major newsweekly magazines. Despite the omission of names and affiliations from the twenty‑five detailed files each was between three and eleven inches thick), the information was usually sufficient to tentatively identify either the newsman, his affiliation or both—particularly because so many of them were prominent in the profession.

“There is quite an incredible spread of relationships,” Bader reported to the senators. “You don’t need to manipulate Time magazine, for example, because there are Agency people at the management level.”

-- The CIA and the Media: How America's Most Powerful News Media Worked Hand in Glove with the Central Intelligence Agency and Why the Church Committee Covered It Up, by Carl Bernstein

Asiaweek magazine cover August 25 1993.jpg
cover August 25, 1993
Frequency Weekly
Company Time Inc.
Based in Hong Kong
Language English
ISSN 1012-6244

Asiaweek was an English-language news magazine focusing on Asia, published weekly by Asiaweek Limited, a subsidiary of Time Inc. Based in Hong Kong, it was established in 1975, and ceased publication with its 7 December 2001 issue due to a "downturn in the advertising market," according to Norman Pearlstine, editor in chief of Time Inc. The magazine had a circulation of 120,000 copies when it closed.[1]

The magazine was formerly associated with Yazhou Zhoukan (亞洲週刊), an international Chinese newsweekly, before Time Warner media acquired it.


Asiaweek was founded in 1975 by Michael O'Neill, a New Zealander, and T. J. S. George, an Indian, who had worked together at the Far Eastern Economic Review but had grown disenchanted with what they considered its ponderous style and perceived British stance.[2][3] Asiaweek's mission statement said it all: "To report accurately and fairly the affairs of Asia in all spheres of human activity, to see the world from an Asian perspective, to be Asia's voice in the world."[4]

Among the publication's many contributions to an understanding of the Asia-Pacific Rim region was the annual Asiaweek Short Story Competition, which ran from 1981 to 1988. Prizewinning Asian Fiction (edited and introduced by Leon Comber) was eventually published in book form in 1991 by Times Editions, Singapore, and Hong Kong University Press[5] In his Foreword, Asiaweek Managing Editor Salmon Wayne Morrison wrote: "The competition cast a body of writing that had not been given publicity before."[5]:viii

Asiaweek had only four editors during its 26 years period: co-founders T. J. S. George and Michael O'Neill, who conceived the magazine, Ann Morrison who succeeded O'Neill in 1994, and Dorinda Elliott, formerly Newsweek's Asia editor in Hong Kong, who took over in October 2000. The magazine had always moved with the times. As co-founder George wrote in an editorial statement in Asiaweek's first issue in December 1975: "Realities have changed, and so the values. It is now a new Asia, and this is a new magazine to report it."[6]

O'Neill was a founding Editor-in-Chief of Yazhou Zhoukan, which was launched by Asiaweek Limited in 1987, with Thomas Hon Wing Polin as its founding Managing Editor.[7]

In 1985, Time, Inc. (as it was then known) acquired 84% of Asiaweek, buying out Reader's Digest's 80% stake and 4% local interests. The remaining 16% was owned by Michael O'Neill.[8]

In 1994, Time ousted O'Neill and installed another editor, Ann Morrison, who came to Hong Kong from Fortune (a Time publication) based in New York.


George, who left Asiaweek before its troubles began, laments the death of the magazine after O'Neill was removed. With Asiaweek's demise, George said, his only regret was the way "the magazine was devalued by the very people who took it upon themselves to nurture it. That is why I shed no tears now as the concept itself was killed in 1994 when Mike was removed by the new management. Its closure [in 2001] is a mere burial."[4]

According to Time, the reason for the closure was due to an advertising slump. Executives at Time insist their decisions were based on economic, not editorial, considerations.[2]

The New York Times columnist Thomas Crampton writes, "Asiaweek and the Far Eastern Economic Review were the only weekly magazines with a strong Asia focus through the 1980s. But competition grew in the 1990s when global and local media companies expanded into regional editions. In addition to several small regionally financed magazines, The Economist, Fortune, BusinessWeek and Forbes all began aggressive expansions into Asia. These global titles could rely on skeletal staffs and economies of scale."[9]

According to Crampton, besides the "brutal competition for limited advertising revenue", another plausible reason for the shakeout was "the suffocating embrace of U.S.-based media giants with an American-centric perspective." For Asiaweek's founding editor, Time Warner's closure of the 26-year-old publication plays into Asian fears of a U.S.-centric world media. "The mandarins of Manhattan fully know Asia's potential," said T. J. S. George, who is now an editorial consultant for the New Indian Express Group. "They want a total monopoly for Time magazine."[9]

American involvement

'Asia through Asian eyes' was the slogan that helped Asiaweek rise. George is still nostalgic about the fresh and fearless style of the magazine during its heyday and is wary of American meddling in Asian affairs. He warns that "perhaps the most deep-going, subliminal – if also pernicious – mind control weapon at America's disposal is its news media."[3]

But Singapore-based Alejandro Reyes, long-time correspondent and contributing editor of Asiaweek, insists that the magazine retained its strongly Asian voice independent of whatever the bosses in New York might have wanted. He says the magazine's demise was due to the "failure of a pan-Asian marketing strategy impeded by limited resources and intense competition" and is hopeful of the revival of a niche market for media with an Asian perspective despite globalization trends.[4]

Reyes, who was educated in the United States, initially applauded the modern, business-oriented techniques and practices of AOL Time Warner. He was not too happy when he found out that Time deleted all Asiaweek articles from its online archives, including his. "This is all very tragic," says Reyes, "– misguided decisions by New York-centric media bureaucrats whose careers are probably soon to be deleted just as ruthlessly."[10]

M.G.G. Pillai, one of Asiaweek's casualties, says the magazine lost focus and became increasingly Americanised after Time took over. Unlike Reyes, he was not optimistic that it will be replaced because most magazines in Asia depend on the patronage of political rulers, and most financiers have an axe to grind.[11]

Philip Bowring, former editor of the Far Eastern Economic Review which was bought by Dow Jones in the late 1980s and merged with the Asian Wall Street Journal in 2001 and quartered into a monthly in 2004 before its final burial in 2009, commenting back in 2004 when the Review died as a weekly, said "there is a parallel here between Time and Asiaweek. Time bought locally born Asiaweek even though it appeared to be in direct competition for readers and advertising. Not so long afterwards, Time closed Asiaweek rather than its ailing Time Asia."[12]

T. J. S. George says, "In due course, Time Inc. killed Asiaweek and Dow Jones (now a Murdoch property) killed the Review. Murdoch-Dow's Wall Street Journal and Time Inc.'s Time magazine now fly the American flag over Asia, unchallenged by lesser flags."[3]


1. "Time shuts down Asiaweek magazine", Asian Economic News, 3 December 2001
2. Asian English-Language Journals Are Reeling as Advertising Slumps The New York Times, 3 December 2001
3. T. J. S. George, "Hail the all-American world!", 4 October 2009
4. Alejandro Reyes, "Epitaph for a magazine"Archived 8 September 2010 at the Wayback Machine, 24 February 2002
5. Comber, Leon (Ed.) Prizewinning Asian Fiction: an anthology of prizewinning short stories from Asiaweek 1981–1988, Hong Kong University Press and Times Editions, Singapore, 1991 – ISBN 9622092667 and ISBN 9812042830
6. "Opening a New Chapter for Asiaweek" Archived1 May 2001 at the Wayback Machine , Asiaweek, 27 October 2000 VOL. 26 NO. 42
7. CNN Asianow
8. Los Angeles Times, 23 September 1985
9. Thomas Crampton, The New York Times , 1 December 2001
10. Mainstream media: killing the past May 2009
11. M. G. G. Pillai, "The death of Asiaweek was one waiting to happen"[permanent dead link], 7 December 2001
12. Philip Bowring "Without Feer" October 2004.

External links

• The English magazine online archives can be searched
• Asiaweek archives at CNN: 2000 to 1995
• Yazhou Zhoukan (亞洲週刊), the Chinese edition of Asiaweek
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sun Dec 01, 2019 4:06 am

Voice of America
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 11/30/19



Declassified in Part -- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release

COUNTRY: Czechoslovakia
SUBJECT: Voice of America
DATE DISTR.: 16 Apr. 1952

1. Voice of America broadcasts are jammed so badly that many of the programs cannot be received; transmission on the 251 m band (medium ways) is jammed constantly. Because of this jamming [DELETE] unable to listen to either "American Calling Czechoslovakia" or "Report from America." It should be remembered that most Czechs do not have modern radio sets and therefore cannot receive shortwave transmissions during the day, or until about 2000 hours.

2. [DELETE] news items were well chosen and the presentation of the news by the announcers and newscasters was quite good. [DELETE] however, [DELETE] more attention should be devoted to the accuracy of the individual news items, particularly those originating in, or pertaining to, Czechoslovakia. [DELETE] such items arouse the greatest response among the Czechs.

3. [DELETE] the US presidential campaigns and elections will be of great interest in Czechoslovakia. The viewpoints and platforms of the various candidates regarding the USSR and, indirectly the CSR, should be emphasized.

4. Voice of America should give the greatest possible attention to the current purges in the CSR and within the Communist Party; this theme will be current and effective for some time to come. Since a large number of Czechs are affected by these purges, either directly or indirectly, a firm basis of confidence and a following of devoted listeners can be developed. Emphasis on purges will greatly damage the Communist Party within the CSR. VOA should be sure to give the background of each person purged, including the position he held. This should apply to individuals in minor positions as well as those in the more important ones. The facts leading up to the purge should be clearly stated. For example, a serious mistake in this connection would be to say of Bedrich Geminder, that he was "former party secretary general". Information on the background, job, etc. must be accurate. Anything but facts would destroy the confidence of the listeners who are dependent almost entirely on foreign news sources concerning purges within their own country.

5. To capture and hold the interest of the younger generation in Czechoslovakia, [DELETE] that the following points might well be covered by VOA:

(a) opportunities for American youth just out of school, such as complete freedom to study any subject or profession, and free choice of profession or vocation;

(b) comparative differences between wages and prices (cost of living) in the USA and the CSR. This subject has almost unlimited possibilities for expansion which have been unexploited;

(c) freedom of opinions and expression of ideas;

(d) freedom of movement and travel.


Voice of America
Type International public broadcaster
Country United States
Founded February 1, 1942; 77 years ago
Headquarters Wilbur J. Cohen Federal Building
Washington, D.C.
Official website

Voice of America headquarters in Washington, D.C.

Voice of America (VOA) is a U.S.[1] multimedia agency which serves as the United States non-government institution for non-military, external broadcasting. It is the largest U.S. international broadcaster. VOA produces digital, TV, and radio content in more than 40 languages which it distributes to affiliate stations around the globe. It is primarily viewed by foreign audiences, so VOA programming has an influence on public opinion abroad regarding the United States and its people.[2]

VOA was established in 1942,[1] and the VOA charter (Public Laws 94-350 and 103-415)[3] was signed into law in 1976 by President Gerald Ford. The charter contains its mission "to broadcast accurate, balanced, and comprehensive news and information to an international audience", and it defines the legally mandated standards in the VOA journalistic code.[4]

VOA is headquartered in Washington, D.C., and overseen by the U.S. Agency for Global Media, an independent agency of the U.S. government.[5] Funds are appropriated annually by Congress under the budget for embassies and consulates. In 2016, VOA broadcast an estimated 1,800 hours of radio and TV programming each week to approximately 236.6 million people worldwide with about 1,050 employees and a taxpayer-funded annual budget of US$218.5 million.[2][4]

Some commentators consider Voice of America to be a form of propaganda.[6][7] However, VOA's Best Practices Guide states that "The accuracy, quality and credibility of the Voice of America are its most important assets, and they rest on the audiences’ perception of VOA as an objective and reliable source of U.S., regional and world news and information."[8] Surveys show that 84% of VOA's audiences say they trust VOA to provide accurate and reliable information, and a similar percentage (84%) say that VOA helps them understand current events relevant to their lives.[9]

In response to the request of the United States Department of Justice that RT register as a foreign agent under the Foreign Agents Registration Act, Russia's Justice Ministry labeled Voice of America and Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty as foreign agents in December 2017.[10][11]

Current languages

The Voice of America website had five English language broadcasts as of 2014 (worldwide, Special English, Cambodia, Zimbabwe and Tibet). Additionally, the VOA website has versions in 46 foreign languages (radio programs are marked with an asterisk; TV programs with a plus symbol):

• Afan Oromo *
• Albanian * +
• Amharic *
• Armenian +
• Azerbaijani +
• Bambara *
• Bangla * +
• Bosnian +
• Burmese * +
• Cantonese * +
• Mandarin * +
• Dari Persian * +
• Filipino *
• French * +
• Georgian *
• Haitian Creole *
• Hausa *
• Indonesian * +
• Khmer * +
• Kinyarwanda *
• Kirundi *
• Korean *
• Kurdish *
• Lao *
• Lingala *
• Macedonian +
• Ndebele *
• Pashto +
• Persian * +
• Portuguese *
• Rohingya *
• Russian +
• Sango *
• Serbian +
• Shona *
• Somali *
• Spanish * +
• Swahili *
• Thai *
• Tibetan * +
• Tigrina *
• Turkish +
• Ukrainian +
• Urdu * +
• Uzbek * +
• Vietnamese * +
• Wolof
• English * +

The number of languages varies according to the priorities of the United States government and the world situation.[12][13]


American private shortwave broadcasting before World War II

Before World War II, all American shortwave stations were in private hands.[14] Privately controlled shortwave networks included the National Broadcasting Company's International Network (or White Network), which broadcast in six languages,[15] the Columbia Broadcasting System's Latin American international network, which consisted of 64 stations located in 18 different countries,[16] and the Crosley Broadcasting Corporation in Cincinnati, Ohio, all of which had shortwave transmitters. Experimental programming began in the 1930s, but there were fewer than 12 transmitters in operation.[17] In 1939, the Federal Communications Commission set the following policy:

A licensee of an international broadcast station shall render only an international broadcast service which will reflect the culture of this country and which will promote international goodwill, understanding and cooperation. Any program solely intended for, and directed to an audience in the continental United States does not meet the requirements for this service.[18]

This policy was intended to enforce the State Department's Good Neighbor Policy, but some broadcasters felt that it was an attempt to direct censorship.[19]

Shortwave signals to Latin America were regarded as vital to counter Nazi propaganda around 1940.[17] Initially, the Office of Coordination of Information sent releases to each station, but this was seen as an inefficient means of transmitting news.[14] The director of Latin American relations at the Columbia Broadcasting System was Edmund A. Chester, and he supervised the development of CBS's extensive "La Cadena de las Americas" radio network to improve broadcasting to South America during the 1940s.[20]

Also included among the cultural diplomacy programming on the Columbia Broadcasting System was the musical show Viva America (1942-1949) which featured the Pan American Orchestra and the artistry of several noted musicians from both North and South America, including Alfredo Antonini, Juan Arvizu, Eva Garza, Elsa Miranda, Nestor Mesta Chaires, Miguel Sandoval, John Serry Sr., and Terig Tucci.[21][22][23] By 1945, broadcasts of the show were carried by 114 stations on CBS's "La Cadena de las Americas" network in 20 Latin American nations. These broadcasts proved to be highly successful in supporting President Franklin Roosevelt's policy of Pan-Americanism throughout South America during World War II.[24]

World War II

Even before the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, the U.S. government's Office of the Coordinator of Information (COI, in Washington) had already begun providing war news and commentary to the commercial American shortwave radio stations for use on a voluntary basis through its Foreign Information Service (FIS, in New York) headed by playwright Robert E. Sherwood, the playwright who served as president Roosevelt’s speech writer and information advisor.[25] Direct programming began a week after the United States’ entry into World War II in December 1941, with the first broadcast from the San Francisco office of the FIS via a leased General Electric’s transmitter to the Philippines in English (other languages followed). The next step was to broadcast to Germany, which was called Stimmen aus Amerika ("Voices from America") and was transmitted on February 1, 1942. It was introduced by "The Battle Hymn of the Republic" and included the pledge: "Today, and every day from now on, we will be with you from America to talk about the war... The news may be good or bad for us – We will always tell you the truth."[26] Roosevelt approved this broadcast, which then-Colonel William J. Donovan (COI) and Sherwood (FIS) had recommended to him. It was Sherwood who actually coined the term "The Voice of America" to describe the shortwave network that began its transmissions on February 1, from 270 Madison Avenue in New York City.

The Office of War Information, when organized in the middle of 1942, officially took over VOA's operations. VOA reached an agreement with the British Broadcasting Corporation to share medium-wave transmitters in Britain, and expanded into Tunis in North Africa and Palermo and Bari, Italy as the Allies captured these territories. The OWI also set up the American Broadcasting Station in Europe.[27] Asian transmissions started with one transmitter in California in 1941; services were expanded by adding transmitters in Hawaii and, after recapture, the Philippines.[28]

By the end of the war, VOA had 39 transmitters and provided service in 40 languages.[28] Programming was broadcast from production centers in New York and San Francisco, with more than 1,000 programs originating from New York. Programming consisted of music, news, commentary, and relays of U.S. domestic programming, in addition to specialized VOA programming.[29]

About half of VOA's services, including the Arabic service, were discontinued in 1945.[30] In late 1945, VOA was transferred to the Department of State.

Cold War

In 1947, VOA started broadcasting to the Soviet citizens in Russia under the pretext of countering "more harmful instances of Soviet propaganda directed against American leaders and policies" on the part of the internal Soviet Russian-language media, according to John B. Whitton's treatise, Cold War Propaganda.[31] The Soviet Union responded by initiating electronic jamming of VOA broadcasts on April 24, 1949.[31]

Charles W. Thayer headed VOA in 1948–49.

Over the next few years, the U.S. government debated the best role of Voice of America. The decision was made to use VOA broadcasts as a part of its foreign policy to fight the propaganda of the Soviet Union and other countries.

The Arabic service resumed on January 1, 1950, with a half-hour program. This program grew to 14.5 hours daily during the Suez Crisis of 1956, and was six hours a day by 1958.[30]

In 1952, Voice of America installed a studio and relay facility aboard a converted U.S. Coast Guard cutter renamed Courier whose target audience was Soviet Union and other members of Warsaw Pact. The Courier was originally intended to become the first in a fleet of mobile, radio broadcasting ships (see offshore radio) that built upon U.S. Navy experience during WWII in using warships as floating broadcasting stations. However, the Courier eventually dropped anchor off the island of Rhodes, Greece with permission of the Greek government to avoid being branded as a pirate radio broadcasting ship. This VOA offshore station stayed on the air until the 1960s when facilities were eventually provided on land. The Courier supplied training to engineers who later worked on several of the European commercial offshore broadcasting stations of the 1950s and 1960s.

Control of VOA passed from the State Department to the U.S. Information Agency when the latter was established in 1953.[30] to transmit worldwide, including to the countries behind the Iron Curtain and to the People's Republic of China (PRC).

Starting in the 1950s, VOA broadcast American jazz, with Willis Conover hosting a daily program from 1955 until 1996, which was highly popular worldwide drawing 30 million listeners at its peak. A program aimed at South Africa in 1956 broadcast two hours nightly, and special programs such as The Newport Jazz Festival were also transmitted. This was done in association with tours by U.S. musicians, such as Dizzy Gillespie, Louis Armstrong, and Duke Ellington, sponsored by the State Department.[32] From August 1952 through May 1953, Billy Brown, a high school senior in Westchester County, New York, had a Monday night program in which he shared everyday happenings in Yorktown Heights, New York. Brown's program ended due to its popularity: his "chatty narratives" attracted so much fan mail, VOA couldn't afford the $500 a month in clerical and postage costs required to respond to listeners' letters.[33]

Throughout the Cold War, many of the targeted countries' governments sponsored jamming of VOA broadcasts, which sometimes led critics to question the broadcasts' actual impact. For example, in 1956, Polish People's Republic stopped jamming VOA transmissions[citation needed], but People's Republic of Bulgaria continued to jam the signal through the 1970s. Chinese language VOA broadcasts were jammed beginning in 1956 and extending through 1976.[34] However, after the collapse of the Warsaw Pact and the Soviet Union, interviews with participants in anti-Soviet movements verified the effectiveness of VOA broadcasts in transmitting information to socialist societies.[35] The People's Republic of China diligently jams VOA broadcasts.[36] Cuba has also been reported to interfere with VOA satellite transmissions to Iran from its Russian-built transmission site at Bejucal.[37] David Jackson, former director of Voice of America, noted: "The North Korean government doesn't jam us, but they try to keep people from listening through intimidation or worse. But people figure out ways to listen despite the odds. They're very resourceful."[38]

Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, VOA covered some of the era's most important news, including Martin Luther King, Jr.'s "I Have a Dream" speech and Neil Armstrong's first walk on the moon. During the Cuban missile crisis, VOA broadcast around-the-clock in Spanish.

In the early 1980s, VOA began a $1.3 billion rebuilding program to improve broadcast with better technical capabilities. Also in the 1980s, VOA also added a television service, as well as special regional programs to Cuba, Radio Martí and TV Martí. Cuba has consistently attempted to jam such broadcasts and has vociferously protested U.S. broadcasts directed at Cuba.

In September 1980, VOA started broadcasting to Afghanistan in Dari and in Pashto in 1982. At the same time, VOA started to broadcast U.S. government editorials, clearly separated from the programming by audio cues.

In 1985, VOA Europe was created as a special service in English that was relayed via satellite to AM, FM, and cable affiliates throughout Europe. With a contemporary format including live disc jockeys, the network presented top musical hits as well as VOA news and features of local interest (such as "EuroFax") 24 hours a day. VOA Europe was closed down without advance public notice in January 1997 as a cost-cutting measure.[39] It was followed by VOA Express, which from July 4, 1999 revamped into VOA Music Mix. Since November 1, 2014 stations are offered VOA1 (which is a rebranding of VOA Music Mix).

In 1989, Voice of America expanded its Mandarin and Cantonese programming to reach the millions of Chinese and inform the country about the pro-democracy movement within the country, including the demonstration in Tiananmen Square.

Starting in 1990, the U.S. consolidated its international broadcasting efforts, with the establishment of the Bureau of Broadcasting.

Post–Cold War

With the breakup of the Soviet bloc in Eastern Europe, VOA added many additional language services to reach those areas. This decade was marked by the additions of Tibetan, Kurdish (to Iran and Iraq), Croatian, Serbian, Bosnian, Macedonian, and Rwanda-Rundi language services.

In 1993, the Clinton administration advised cutting funding for Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty as it was felt post-Cold War information and influence was not needed in Europe. This plan was not well received, and he then proposed the compromise of the International Broadcasting Act. The Broadcasting Board of Governors was established and took control from the Board for International Broadcasters which previously oversaw funding for RFE/RL.[40]

In 1994, President Clinton signed the International Broadcasting Act into law. This law established the International Broadcasting Bureau as a part of the U.S. Information Agency and created the Broadcasting Board of Governors with oversight authority. In 1998, the Foreign Affairs Reform and Restructuring Act was signed into law and mandated that BBG become an independent federal agency as of October 1, 1999. This act also abolished the U.S.I.A. and merged most of its functions with those of the State Department.

In 1994, Voice of America became the first[41] broadcast-news organization to offer continuously updated programs on the Internet.

Cuts in services

The Arabic Service was abolished in 2002 and replaced by a new radio service, called the Middle East Radio Network or Radio Sawa, with an initial budget of $22 million. Radio Sawa offered mostly Western and Middle Eastern popular songs with periodic brief news bulletins. Today, the network has expanded to television with Alhurra and to various social media and websites.[42]

On May 16, 2004; Worldnet, a satellite television service, was merged into the VOA network.

Radio programs in Russian ended in July 2008.[43] In September 2008, VOA eliminated the Hindi language service after 53 years.[43] Broadcasts in Ukrainian, Serbian, Macedonian and Bosnian also ended.[44] These reductions were part of American efforts to concentrate more resources to broadcast to the Muslim world.[43][44]

In September 2010, VOA started radio broadcasts in Sudan. As U.S. interests in South Sudan have grown, there is a desire to provide people with free information.[45]

In 2013, VOA finished foreign language transmissions on shortwave and medium wave to Albania, Georgia, Iran and Latin America; as well as English language broadcasts to the Middle East and Afghanistan.[46] The movement was done due to budget cuts.[46]

On July 1, 2014, VOA cut most of its shortwave transmissions in English to Asia.[47] Shortwave broadcasts in Azerbaijani, Bengali, Khmer, Kurdish, Lao, and Uzbek were dropped too.[47] On August 11, 2014, the Greek service ended after 72 years on air.[48][49]

List of languages
Language[50] / from / to / Website / Remarks
/ --

English / 1942 / present /
Amoy / 1941 1951 / 1945 1963 / – / --
Cantonese / 1941 1949 1987 / 1945 1963 present / 美國之音 / see also Radio Free Asia
Mandarin Chinese / 1941 / present / 美国之音 / see also Radio Free Asia
Portuguese (to Latin America) / 1941 1946 1961 / 1945 1948 2001 / – / --
Spanish (to Latin America) / 1942 1946 1953 1961 / 1945 1948 1956 present / Voz de América / see also Radio y Televisión Martí
Tagalog / 1941 / 1946 / – / --
Afrikaans / 1942 / 1949 / – / --
Arabic / 1942 1950 / 1945 2002 / – / see also Radio Sawa and Alhurra
Bulgarian / 1942 / 2004 / – / see also Radio Free Europe
Czech / 1942 / 2004 / – / see also Radio Free Europe
Danish / 1942 / 1945 / – / --
Farsi / 1942 1949 1964 1979 / 1945 1960 1966 present / صدای آمریکا / see also Radio Farda
Finnish / 1942 1951 / 1945 1953 / – / --
Flemish / 1942 / 1945 / – / --
French (to France) / 1942 / 1961 / – / --
German / 1942 1991 / 1960 1993 / – / --
Greek / 1942 / 2014 / - / --
Hungarian / 1942 / 2004 / – / see also Radio Free Europe
Indonesian / 1942 / present / VOA Indonesia / --
Italian / 1942 1951 / 1945 1957 / – / --
Japanese / 1942 1951 / 1945 1962 / – / --
Korean / 1942 / present / VOA 한국어 / see also Radio Free Asia
Norwegian / 1942 / 1945 / – / --
Polish / 1942 / 2004 / – / see also Radio Free Europe
Portuguese (to Portugal) / 1942 1951 1976 1987 / 1945 1953 1987 1993 / – (for local radio stations) / --
Romanian / 1942 / 2004 / – / see also Radio Free Europe
Slovak / 1942 / 2004 / – / see also Radio Free Europe
Spanish (to Spain) / 1942 1955 / 1955 1993 / - (for local radio stations) / --
Thai / 1942 1962 1988 / 1958 1988 present / วอยซ์ ออฟ อเมริกา / --
Turkish / 1942 1948 / 1945 present A/ merika'nın Sesi / --
Albanian / 1943 1951 / 1945 present / Zëri i Amerikës / see also Radio Free Europe
Burmese / 1943 1951 / 1945 present / -- / see also Radio Free Asia
Croatian / 1943 / 2011 / – / see also Radio Free Europe
Serbian / 1943 / present / Glas Amerike / see also Radio Free Europe
Swedish / 1943 / 1945 / – / --
Vietnamese / 1943 1951 / 1946 present / Ðài Tiếng nói Hoa Kỳ / see also Radio Free Asia
Dutch / 1944 / 1945 / – / --
Icelandic / 1944 / 1944 / – / --
Wu Chinese (Shanghai) / 1944 / 1946 / – / --
Slovene / 1944 1949 / 1945 2004 / – / see also Radio Free Europe
Russian / 1947 / present / Голос Америки / see also Radio Liberty
Ukrainian / 1949 / present / Голос Америки / see also Radio Liberty
Tibetan / 1991 / present / ཨ་རིའི་རླུང་འཕྲིན་ཁང་། / see also Radio Free Asia
Armenian / 1951 / present (web) / Ամերիկայի Ձայն / see also Radio Liberty
Azerbaijani / 1951 1982 / 1953 present (web) / Amerikanın Səsi / see also Radio Liberty
Estonian / 1951 / 2004 / – / see also Radio Free Europe
Georgian / 1951 / present (web) / – / see also Radio Liberty
Hakka / 1951 / 1954 / – / --
Hebrew / 1951 / 1953 / – / --
Hindi / 1951 1954 / 1953 2008 / – / --
Latvian / 1951 / 2004 / – / see also Radio Free Europe
Lithuanian / 1951 / 2004 / – / see also Radio Free Europe
Malayan / 1951 / 1955 / – / --
Swatow / 1951 / 1953 / – / --
Tatar / 1951 / 1953 / – / see also Radio Liberty
Urdu / 1951 1954 / 1953 present / وائس آف امریک / --
Tamil / 1954 / 1970 / – / --
Khmer / 1955 1962 / 1957 present / វីអូអេ / /see also Radio Free Asia
Belarusian / 1956 / 1957 / – / see also Radio Liberty
Gujarati / 1956 / 1958 / – / --
Malayalam / 1956 / 1961 / – / --
Telegu / 1956 / 1958 / – / --
Bangla / 1958 / present / ভয়েস অফ আমেরিকা / --
Uzbek / 1972 / present / Amerika Ovozi / see also Radio Liberty
French (to Africa) / 1960 / present / VOA Afrique / --
Lao / 1962 / present / ສຽງອາເມຣິກາ ວີໂອເອ / see also Radio Free Asia
Swahili / 1962 / present / Sauti ya Amerika / --
English (to Africa) / 1963 / present / / --
Portuguese (to Africa) / 1976 / present / Voz da América / --
Hausa /1979 / present / Muryar Amurka / --
Dari / 1980 / present / صدای امریکا / --
Amharic / 1982 / present / የአሜሪካ ድምፅ / --
Pashto (to Afghanistan) / 1982 / present / اشنا راډیو / --
Creole / 1987 / present / Lavwadlamerik / --
Nepali / 1992 / 1993 / – / --
Somali / 1992 2007 / 1995 present / VOA Somali / --
Kurdish / 1992 / present / ده‌نگی ئه‌مه‌ریکا Dengê Amerîka / --
Afaan Oromo / 1996 / present / Sagalee Ameerikaa / --
Bosnian / 1996 / present / Glas Amerike / see also Radio Free Europe
Kinyarwanda/Kirundi / 1996 / present / Ijwi ry'Amerika / --
Tigrinya / 1996 / present / ድምፂ ረድዮ ኣሜሪካ / --
Macedonian / 1999 / 2008 / – / see also Radio Free Europe
Ndebele / 2003 / present / VOA Ndebele / --
Shona / 2003 / present / VOA Shona / --
Pashto (to Pakistan) / 2006 / present / ډیوه ریډیو / --
Bambara / 2013 / present / VOA Bambara / --

List of directors

• 1941–1942 Robert E. Sherwood (Foreign Information Service)
1. 1942–1943 John Houseman
2. 1943–1945 Louis G. Cowan
3. 1945–1946 John Ogilvie
4. 1948–1949 Charles W. Thayer
5. 1949–1952 Foy D. Kohler
6. 1952–1953 Alfred H. Morton
7. 1953–1954 Leonard Erikson
8. 1954–1956 John R. Poppele
9. 1956–1958 Robert E. Burton
10. 1958–1965 Henry Loomis
11. 1965–1967 John Chancellor
12. 1967–1968 John Charles Daly
13. 1969–1977 Kenneth R. Giddens
14. 1977–1979 R. Peter Straus
15. 1980–1981 Mary Bitterman
16. 1981–1982 James B. Conkling
17. 1982 John Hughes
18. 1982–1984 Kenneth Tomlinson
19. 1985 Gene Pell
20. 1986–1991 Dick Carlson
21. 1991–1993 Chase Untermeyer
22. 1994–1996 Geoffrey Cowan
23. 1997–1999 Evelyn S. Lieberman
24. 1999–2001 Sanford J. Ungar
25. 2001–2002 Robert R. Reilly
26. 2002–2006 David S. Jackson
27. 2006–2011 Danforth W. Austin
28. 2011–2015 David Ensor
29. 2016– Amanda Bennett


Voice of America has been a part of several agencies. From its founding in 1942 to 1945, it was part of the Office of War Information, and then from 1945 to 1953 as a function of the State Department. VOA was placed under the U.S. Information Agency in 1953. When the USIA was abolished in 1999, VOA was placed under the Broadcasting Board of Governors, or BBG, which is an autonomous U.S. government agency, with bipartisan membership. The Secretary of State has a seat on the BBG.[51] The BBG was established as a buffer to protect VOA and other U.S.-sponsored, non-military, international broadcasters from political interference. It replaced the Board for International Broadcasting (BIB) that oversaw the funding and operation of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, a branch of VOA.[40]


Smith–Mundt Act

From 1948 until its amendment in 2013, Voice of America was forbidden to broadcast directly to American citizens under § 501 of the Smith–Mundt Act.[6] The act was amended as a result of the passing of the Smith-Mundt Modernization Act provision of the National Defense Authorization Act for 2013.[7] The intent of the legislation in 1948 was to protect the American public from propaganda actions by their own government and to have no competition with private American companies.[52] The amendment had the intent of adapting to the Internet and allow American citizens to request access to VOA content.[53]

Internal policies

VOA charter

Under the Eisenhower administration in 1959, VOA Director Henry Loomis commissioned a formal statement of principles to protect the integrity of VOA programming and define the organization's mission, and was issued by Director George V. Allen as a directive in 1960 and was endorsed in 1962 by USIA director Edward R. Murrow.[54] The principles were signed into law on July 12, 1976, by President Gerald Ford. It reads:

The long-range interests of the United States are served by communicating directly with the peoples of the world by radio. To be effective, the Voice of America must win the attention and respect of listeners. These principles will therefore govern Voice of America (VOA) broadcasts. 1. VOA will serve as a consistently reliable and authoritative source of news. VOA news will be accurate, objective, and comprehensive. 2. VOA will represent America, not any single segment of American society, and will therefore present a balanced and comprehensive projection of significant American thought and institutions. 3. VOA will present the policies of the United States clearly and effectively, and will also present responsible discussions and opinion on these policies.[5]


The Voice of America Firewall was put in place with the 1976 VOA Charter and laws passed in 1994 and 2016 as a way of ensuring the integrity of VOA's journalism. This policy fights against propaganda and promotes unbiased and objective journalistic standards in the agency. The charter is one part of this firewall and the other laws assist in ensuring high standards of journalism.[55]

"Two-source rule"

According to former VOA correspondent Alan Heil, the internal policy of VOA News is that any story broadcast must have two independently corroborating sources or have a staff correspondent actually witness an event.[56]


Voice of America's central newsroom has hundreds of journalists and dozens of full-time domestic and overseas correspondents, who are employees of the U.S. government or paid contractors. They are augmented by hundreds of contract correspondents and stringers throughout the world, who file in English or in one of VOA's other radio and television broadcast languages.

In late 2005, VOA shifted some of its central-news operation to Hong Kong where contracted writers worked from a "virtual" office with counterparts on the overnight shift in Washington, D.C., but this operation was shut down in early 2008.

Shortwave frequencies

By December 2014, the number of transmitters and frequencies used by VOA had been greatly reduced. VOA still uses shortwave transmissions to cover some areas of Africa and Asia. Shortwave broadcasts still take place in these languages: Afaan Oromoo, Amharic, Bambara, Cantonese, Chinese, English, Indonesian, Korean and Swahili.

VOA Radiogram

VOA Radiogram was an experimental Voice of America program starting in March 2013 which transmitted digital text and images via shortwave radiograms.[57] There were 220 editions of the program, transmitted each weekend from the Edward R. Murrow transmitting station. The audio tones that comprised the bulk of each 30 minute program were transmitted via an analog transmitter, and could be decoded using a basic AM shortwave receiver with freely downloadable software of the Fldigi family. This software is available for Windows, Apple (OSX), Linux, and FreeBSD systems.

Broadcasts can also be decoded using the free TIVAR app from the Google Play store using any Android device.

The mode used most often on VOA Radiogram, for both text and images, was MFSK32, but other modes were also occasionally transmitted.

The final edition of VOA Radiogram was transmitted during the weekend of June 17–18, 2017, a week before the retirement of the program producer from VOA. An offer to continue the broadcasts on a contract basis was declined,[58] so a follow-on show called Shortwave Radiogram began transmission on June 25, 2017 from the WRMI transmitting site in Okeechobee, Florida.[59]

Shortwave Radiogram program schedule[60]
Day / Time (UTC) / Shortwave frequency (MHz) / Origin

Saturday / 1600–1630 / 9.4 / Space Line, Bulgaria
Sunday / 0600–0630 / 7.73 / WRMI, Florida
Sunday / 2030–2100 / 11.58 / WRMI, Florida
Sunday / 2330–2400 / 11.58 / WRMI, Florida

Transmission facilities

One of VOA's radio transmitter facilities was originally based on a 625-acre (2.53 km2) site in Union Township (now West Chester Township) in Butler County, Ohio, near Cincinnati. The site is now a recreational park with a lake, lodge, dog park, and Voice of America museum. The Bethany Relay Station operated from 1944 to 1994.[61] Other former sites include California (Dixon, Delano), Hawaii, Okinawa, (Monrovia) Liberia, Costa Rica, Belize, and at least two in Greece.[citation needed]

Between 1983 and 1990, VOA made significant upgrades to transmission facilities in Botswana, Morocco, Thailand, Kuwait, and Sao Tome.[62]

Currently, VOA and USAGM continue to operate shortwave radio transmitters and antenna farms at International Broadcasting Bureau Greenville Transmitting Station in the United States, close to Greenville, North Carolina, "Site B." They do not use FCC-issued callsigns, since they are overseen by the NTIA, which is the Federal Government equivalent of the FCC (which regulates state government and public & private communications) and they operate under different rules. The IBB also operates a transmission facility on São Tomé and (Tinang) Concepcion, Tarlac, Philippines for VOA.

Comparing VOA-RFE-RL-RM to other broadcasters

In 1996, the U.S.'s international radio output consisted of 992 hours per week by VOA, 667 by Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, and 162 by Radio Marti.


Mullah Omar interview

In late September 2001, VOA aired a report that contained brief excerpts of an interview with then Taliban leader Mullah Omar Mohammad, along with segments from President Bush's post-9/11 speech to Congress, an expert in Islam from Georgetown University,[who?] and comments by the foreign minister of Afghanistan's anti-Taliban Northern Alliance. State Department officials including Richard Armitage and others argued that the report amounted to giving terrorists a platform to express their views.In response, reporters and editors argued for the VOA's editorial independence from its governors. VOA received praise from press organizations for its protests, and the following year in 2002, it won the University of Oregon's Payne Award for Ethics in Journalism.[63]

Abdul Malik Rigi interview

On April 2, 2007, Abdul Malik Rigi, the leader of Jundullah, a militant group with possible links to al-Qaeda, appeared on Voice of America's Persian language service. VOA introduced Rigi as "the leader of popular Iranian resistance movement."[64] The interview resulted in public condemnation by the Iranian-American community, as well as the Iranian government.[65][66] Jundullah is a militant organization that has been linked to numerous attacks on civilians, such as the 2009 Zahedan explosion.[67][68]

Tibetan protester interview

In February 2013, a documentary released by China Central Television interviewed a Tibetan self-immolator who failed to kill himself. The interviewee said he was motivated by Voice of America's broadcasts of commemorations of people who committed suicide in political self-immolation. VOA denied any allegations of instigating self-immolations and demanded that the Chinese station retract its report.[69]

Trump presidency concerns

After the inauguration of US President Donald Trump, several tweets by Voice of America (one of which was later removed) seemed to support the widely criticized statements by White House press secretary Sean Spicer about the crowd size and biased media coverage. This first raised concerns over possible attempts by Trump to politicize the state-funded agency.[70][71][72][73] This amplified already growing propaganda concerns over the provisions in the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2017, signed into law by Barack Obama, which replaced the board of the Broadcasting Board of Governors with a CEO appointed by the president and to allow the VOA to broadcast to American audiences. Trump sent two of his political aides, Matthew Ciepielowski and Matthew Schuck, to the agency to aid its current CEO during the transition to the Trump administration. Criticism was raised over Trump's choice of aides; Schuck was a staff writer for right-wing website The Daily Surge until April 2015, while Ciepielowski was a field director at the conservative advocacy group Americans for Prosperity.[70] VOA officials responded with assurances that they would not become "Trump TV".[70] BBG head John F. Lansing told NPR that it would be illegal for the administration to tell VOA what to broadcast, while VOA director Amanda Bennett stressed that while "government-funded", the agency is not "government-run".[72]

Guo Wengui interview

On April 19, 2017, VOA interviewed the Chinese real estate tycoon Guo Wengui in a live broadcast. The whole interview was scheduled for 3 hours. After Guo Weigui alleged to own evidence of corruption among the members of the Politburo Standing Committee of China, the highest political authority of China, the interview was abruptly cut off, after only one hour and seventeen minutes of broadcasting. Guo's allegations involved Fu Zhenhua and Wang Qishan, the latter being a member of the Politburo Standing Committee and the leader of the massive anti-graft movement.[74] It was reported that Beijing warned VOA's representatives not to interview Guo for his "unsubstantiated allegations".[75] Four members of the U.S. Congress requested the Office of Inspector General to conduct an investigation into this interruption on August 27, 2017.[76] The OIG investigation concluded that the decision to curtail the Guo interview was based solely on journalistic best practices rather than any pressure from the Chinese government.[77]

Another investigation,[77] by Professor Mark Feldstein, Richard Eaton, Chair of Broadcast Journalism at the University of Maryland, College Park, and a journalist with decades of experiences as an award-winning television investigative reporter, concluded that "The failure to comply with leadership’s instructions during the Guo interview “was a colossal and unprecedented violation of journalistic professionalism and broadcast industry standards.” The report also said that "There had been “a grossly negligent approach” to pre-interview vetting and failure to “corroborate the authenticity of Guo’s evidence or interview other sources” in violation of industry standards. The interview team apparently “demonstrated greater loyalty to its source than to its employer — at the expense of basic journalistic standards of accuracy, verification, and fairness," the Feldstein report concluded.[77]

See also

• International broadcasting
o Alhurra
o BBC World Service
o France 24
o Propaganda in the United States
o State media
o Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty
o Radio Free Asia
o Russia Today TV
o Voice of America Indonesia
• VOA people
o Frank Shozo Baba
o Willis Conover
o George Kao


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2. Borchers, Callum (January 26, 2017). "Voice of America says it won't become Trump TV". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 11, 2017.
3. 90 Stat. 823, 108 Stat. 4299
4. VOA Public Relations (December 5, 2016). "The Largest U.S. International Broadcaster" (PDF). Voice of America. Retrieved August 11, 2017.
5. VOA Public Relations. "VOA Charter". Voice of America. Archived from the original on November 20, 2016.
6. Chuck, Elizabeth (July 20, 2013). "Taxpayer money at work: US-funded foreign broadcasts finally available in the US". NBC News.
7. Hudson, John (July 14, 2013). "U.S. Repeals Propaganda Ban, Spreads Government-Made News to Americans". Foreign Policy. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
8. "VOA Best Practices Guide". July 30, 2018.
9. "Broadcast Board of Governors Congressional Budget Justification, p. 21" (PDF).
10. Stahl, Lesley (January 7, 2018). "RT's editor-in-chief on election meddling, being labeled Russian propaganda". CBS News. Retrieved January 14, 2018.
11. Osborn, Andrew (January 14, 2018). "Russia designates Radio Free Europe and Voice of America as 'foreign agents'". Reuters. Retrieved January 14, 2018.
12. "FAQs, How do you make decisions to cut or add languages or programs?". Archived from the originalon December 1, 2014. Retrieved December 3, 2014.
13. ... 444dca.pdf
14. Berg, Jerome S. On the Short Waves, 1923–1945: Broadcast Listening in the Pioneer Days of Radio. 1999, McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-0506-6, 105
15. Library of Congress. "NBC Resources Held by the Recorded Sound Section." Library of Congress
16. Chamberlain, A.B. "CBS International Broadcast Facilities". Proceedings of the IRE, Volume 30, Issue 3, March 1942 pp. 118–29, abstract at IEEE
17. Dizard (2004), p. 24
18. Rose, Cornelia Bruère. National Policy for Radio Broadcasting. 1971, Ayer Publishing. ISBN 0-405-03580-2. p. 244
19. "NABusiness". Time Magazine.
20. Dissonant Divas In Chicana Music: The Limits of La Onda Deborah R. Vargas. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, 2012 ISBN 978-0-8166-7316-2 p. 152-153 Edmund Chester, CBS, Franklin Roosevelt and "La Cadena De Las Americas" on
21. A Pictorial History of Radio, Settel Irving Grosset & Dunlap Publishers, New York, 1960 & 1967, Pg. 146, Library of Congress #67-23789
22. Media Sound & Culture in Latin America. Editors: Bronfman, Alejanda & Wood, Andrew Grant. University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburg, PA, USA, 2012, Pg. 49 ISBN 978-0-8229-6187-1 See pg. 49
23. Anthony, Edwin D. Records of the Office of Inter-American Affairs. National Archives and Record Services - General Services Administration Washington D.C., 1937 p. 25-26 Library of Congress Catalog No. 73-600146 Records of the Office of Inter-American Affairs - Radio Division at the U.S. National Archive on
24. Dissonant Divas in Chicana Music: The Limits of La Onda Deborah R. Vargas. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, 2012 p. 152-155 ISBN 978-0-8166-7316-2 OCIAA (Office of the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs), FDR's Good Neighbor Policy, CBS, Viva America, La Cadena de las Americas on
25. Roberts, Walter R. "The Voice of America: Origins and Recollections". Archived from the original on April 26, 2018. Retrieved October 3, 2010.
26. Roberts, Walter R. See also: Kern, Chris. "A Belated Correction: The Real First Broadcast of the Voice of America". Retrieved October 3, 2010.
27. Dizard (2004), pp. 24–25
28. Dizard (2004), p. 25
29. Sterling, Christopher H.; Kittross, John Michael (2001). Stay Tuned: a History of American Broadcasting. LEA's Communication Series (3rd ed.). Lawernce Erlbaum Associates. p. 263. ISBN 978-0-8058-2624-1.
30. Rugh (2006), p. 13
31. John B. Whitton (1951). "Cold War propaganda". American Journal of International Law. 45 (1): 151–53. doi:10.2307/2194791. JSTOR 2194791.
32. Appy, Christian G. Cold War Constructions: The Political Culture of United States Imperialism. 2000, University of Massachusetts Press; ISBN 1-55849-218-6, p. 126.
33. Folsom, Merrill (May 28, 1953). "'Voice' to Drop Boy's Broadcasts; Can't Afford to Answer Fan Mail". The New York Times (Vol CII, No 34823, pg 1).
34. Broadcasting Yearbook, 1976 and 1979 editions.
35. Conference Report, Cold War Impact of VOA Broadcasts, Hoover Institution and the Cold War International History Project of the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Oct. 13–16, 2004
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38. Jackson, David. "The Future of Radio II." World Radio TV Handbook, 2007 edition. 2007, Billboard Books. ISBN 0-8230-5997-9. p 38.
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70. Voice of America says it won’t become Trump TV, Washington Post
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• Dizard, Wilson P. (2004). Inventing Public Diplomacy: The Story of the U.S. Information Agency. Lynne Rienner Publishers. ISBN 1-58826-288-X.
• Rugh, William A. (2006). American Encounters with Arabs: the "Soft Power" of U.S. Public Diplomacy in the Middle East. Praeger. ISBN 978-0-275-98817-3.

External links

• Official website
• Voice of America newscasts, science programs, editorials (Internet Archive)
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sun Dec 01, 2019 6:45 am

American Himalayan Foundation
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 11/30/19



American Himalayan Foundation
Founded: 1981
Founder: Richard C. Blum
Type: International organization
Focus" AHF works to bring life-changing education, healthcare, and opportunity for Tibetans, Sherpas, and Nepalis across the Himalaya.
Headquarters: San Francisco
Area served: Nepal

The American Himalayan Foundation (AHF) is a non-profit organization in the United States that helps Tibetans, Sherpas, and Nepalis living throughout the Himalayas. AHF builds schools, plants trees, trains doctors, funds hospitals, takes care of children and the elderly, and restores sacred sites. The San Francisco-based organization also helps Tibetans rebuild and maintain their culture both in exile and inside Tibet.

It was founded by Richard C. Blum. The late Sir Edmund Hillary was a Director of the foundation for more than 20 years.


The American Himalayan Foundation was established by San Francisco financier Richard Blum after his first trip through the mountains of Nepal in 1968. During this trip he developed an interest in the local people and the poverty in which they lived. Blum started helping Sherpa children informally, and in 1980 he set up the American Himalayan Foundation (AHF).[1] Because many people in Nepal and Tibet live without healthcare, education, clean water, or bridges connecting remote villages, Blum created the foundation to address these problems.

The foundation's first partner was Sir Edmund Hillary, assisting the Sherpas through his Himalayan Trust. Also in the early years, the 14th Dalai Lama requested that AHF help the growing number of Tibetan refugees in Nepal and India. AHF has provided education, healthcare, and basic assistance to Tibetans for over 20 years.[2] As AHF grew, the 501 (c)(3) charity continued to work with the Sherpas and Tibetans in exile, but expanded its geographic reach to people throughout Nepal, inside Tibet, and in Bhutan. The foundation helps the most vulnerable: poor children and the elderly, girls in remote villages at risk of being trafficked, disabled children, refugees, and people in need of medical care.

All AHF-supported projects involve community participation, in order to build local capacity and to ensure the foundation is responding to community needs. Funds are not used to pay for western volunteers. All the donations raised by the foundation go directly to helping Sherpas, Nepalis, and Tibetans inside Tibet and in exile.


AHF supports over 150 projects throughout the Himalayas and touches the lives of 300,000 people each year. The foundation provides healthcare through community clinics, the training of local healthcare workers, and the Hospital and Rehabilitation Center for Disabled Children in Banepa. AHF educates over fifteen thousand children a year, including ten thousand girls who would otherwise be vulnerable to being trafficked to brothels in India. The foundation developed the Tibetan Enterprise Fund to help Tibetan refugees in Nepal and India, who lack the same rights as citizens, start income generating businesses. AHF also supports orphanages, day care centers for the very young, care for the disabled, and clean water systems and bridges for nomads in Tibet. Beginning in 1995, the organization was involved with the restoration of 15th century Tibetan Buddhist monasteries in the former Kingdom of Mustang and is also extensively involved with humanitarian work in Mustang.[3]

See also

• Himalayan Trust


1. UC Berkeley. “The Blum Center: Q&A with Richard Blum.” ... m_qa.shtml University of California, Berkeley. 19 Apr. 2006. Web. 24 Mar. 2009
2. Coburn, Brot. Himalaya: Personal Stories of Grandeur, Challenge, and Hope. Washington D.C.: National Geographic, 2006.
3. NOVA | Transcripts | Lost Treasures of Tibet | PBS

External links

• Official website
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Edmund Hillary
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 11/30/19



The Aspen Institute and the Club of Rome

Part of the indoctrination process sought for through the Aquarian conspiracy was not only to degrade morals and immerse the public in numerous diversions, but also ]to inculcate the basic principles of the New Age cult, towards establishing a one-world-religion. The means of achieving this objective has been the Environmental movement. This movement was spearheaded by the Aspen Institute, who, together with the United Nations, the Club of Rome, the Tavistock, and other such organizations originating from the Round Table, began propagandizing around the issue of nuclear energy. [1] The reason being that proliferation of nuclear energy as an alternative posed a threat to the oil interests that were dominated by the Rockefellers and the Saudis. However, they claimed deceptively that it was the environment that was being destroyed, and therefore instead rallied against “industrialization” and for “limits to growth”.

The American oilman, Robert O. Anderson, was a central figure in this agenda. Anderson and his Atlantic Richfield Oil Co. funneled millions of dollars, through their Atlantic Richfield Foundation, into select organizations to confront nuclear energy. Robert O. Anderson’s major vehicle to spread his propaganda strategy among American and European establishment circles, was his Aspen Institute for Humanistic Studies. The Aspen Institute was founded in 1949, by Aldous Huxley, and John Maynard Hutchins, in commemoration of the 200th birthday of German philosopher and author of Faust, and a member of the Illuminati, Goethe.

Robert O. Anderson also contributed significant funds to a project initiated by the Rockefeller family, together with Aurelio Peccei and Alexander King, at the Rockefeller’s estate at Bellagio, Italy, called the Club of Rome. In 1972, this Club of Rome, and the U.S. Association of the Club of Rome, gave widespread publicity to their publication of the notorious “Limits to Growth.”. Supported by research done at MIT, this report concluded that industrialization had to be halted to save the planet from ecological catastrophe.

These organizations were exploiting the panic induced when Paul Ehrlich, a biologist at Stanford, and admirer of Bertrand Russell, in 1968, wrote his Malthusian projections in a best-selling book called The Population Bomb. In it, Ehrlich suggested, “a cancer is an uncontrolled multiplication of cells; the population explosion is an uncontrolled multiplication of people.... We must shift our efforts from the treatment of the symptoms to the cutting out of the cancer. The operation will demand many apparently brutal and heartless decisions.” [2] Ehrlich also advocated placing birth control chemicals into the world’s food supplies.

The chief individual in this agenda is director of the Aspen Institute, Canadian multi-millionaire Maurice Strong. Strong is being heralded as the “indispensable man” at the center of the U.N.’s global power. He has served as director of the World Future Society, trustee of the Rockefeller Foundation and Aspen Institute, and is a member of the Club of Rome. Strong is now Senior Advisor to UN Secretary General Kofi Annan, Senior Advisor to World Bank President James Wolfensohn, Chairman of the Earth Council, Chairman of the World Resources Institute, Co-Chairman of the Council of the World Economic Forum, and member of Toyota’s International Advisory Board.

However, Strong also now heads the Golden Dawn, operates an international drug ring, and is a top operative for British Intelligence. [3] He was a founding member of both the Planetary Citizens. Strong and other luminaries, like Queen Juliana of the Netherlands, Sir Edmund Hillary, Peter Ustinov, Linus Pauling, Kurt Vonnegut, Leonard Bernstein, John Updike, Isaac Asimov, Pete Seeger, are listed as original endorsers of Planetary Citizens. Founded by Donald Keys, a disciple of Alice Bailey and former UN consultant, and presided over for many years by the late Norman Cousins (CFR), the Planetary Citizens organization supports the expansion of UN power and institutions. In Earth At Omega, Keys maintains:

We have meditations at the United Nations a couple of times a week. The meditation leader is Sri Chinmoy, and this is what he said about this situation: “The United Nations is the chosen instrument of God; to be a chosen instrument means to be a divine messenger carrying the banner of God’s inner vision and outer manifestation. One day the world will ... treasure and cherish the soul of the United Nations as its very own with enormous pride, for this soul is all-loving, all-nourishing, and all-fulfilling”. [4]

Maurice Strong also sits on the board of directors, and serves as director of finance, for the Lindisfarne Center. Lindisfarne was founded by New Age philosopher William Irwin Thompson, a former professor of humanities from MIT and Syracuse University. Thompson said:

We have now a new spirituality, what has been called the New Age movement. The planetization of the esoteric has been going on for some time... This is now beginning to influence concepts of politics and community in ecology... This is the Gaia [Mother Earth] politique... planetary culture.” Thompson further stated that, the age of “the independent sovereign state, with the sovereign individual in his private property, [is] over, just as the Christian fundamentalist days are about to be over. [5]

-- Chapter Twenty-Two: One-World-Religion: The Aspen Institute and the Club of Rome, "Terrorism and the Illuminati," by David Livingston

Sir Edmund Hillary
c. 1953
Born: Edmund Percival Hillary, 20 July 1919, Auckland, New Zealand
Died: 11 January 2008 (aged 88), Auckland City Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand
Known for: With Tenzing Norgay, first to reach summit of Mount Everest
Spouse(s): Louise Mary Rose (m. 1953; died 1975)
June Mulgrew (m. 1989; his death 2008)
Children: Peter Sarah Belinda

Sir Edmund Percival Hillary KG ONZ KBE (20 July 1919 – 11 January 2008) was a New Zealand mountaineer, explorer, and philanthropist. On 29 May 1953, Hillary and Nepalese Sherpa mountaineer Tenzing Norgay became the first climbers confirmed to have reached the summit of Mount Everest. They were part of the ninth British expedition to Everest, led by John Hunt. From 1985 to 1988 he served as New Zealand's High Commissioner to India and Bangladesh and concurrently as Ambassador to Nepal.

Hillary became interested in mountaineering while in secondary school. He made his first major climb in 1939, reaching the summit of Mount Ollivier.[1] He served in the Royal New Zealand Air Force as a navigator during World War II. Prior to the Everest expedition, Hillary had been part of the British reconnaissance expedition to the mountain in 1951 as well as an unsuccessful attempt to climb Cho Oyu in 1952. As part of the Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition he reached the South Pole overland in 1958. He subsequently reached the North Pole, making him the first person to reach both poles and summit Everest.

Following his ascent of Everest, Hillary devoted himself to assisting the Sherpa people of Nepal through the Himalayan Trust, which he established.
His efforts are credited with the construction of many schools and hospitals in Nepal. Hillary had numerous honours conferred upon him, including the Order of the Garter in 1995. Upon his death in 2008, he was given a state funeral in New Zealand.

Early life

Hillary's mother Gertrude Clark, 1909

Hillary was born to Percival Augustus and Gertrude (née Clark) Hillary in Auckland, New Zealand, on 20 July 1919.[2][3] His father Percy had served at Gallipoli with the 15th (North Auckland) Regiment, and was discharged "medically unfit" from the Army in 1916; he had married Gertrude after his return to New Zealand. His grandparents had emigrated from Yorkshire to northern Wairoa in the mid-19th century.[4]

His family moved to Tuakau, south of Auckland, in 1920, after Percy was allocated eight acres (3.2 ha) of land there as a returned soldier.[3] Percy had been a journalist prewar, and soon became founding editor of the weekly Tuakau District News as well as an apiarist. Ed had a sister June (born 1917) and a brother Rex (born 1920).[5]

Hillary was educated at Tuakau Primary School and then Auckland Grammar School.[3] He finished primary school aged 11 or two years early, and at "Grammar" achieved average marks.[6] His mother wanted him to go to a "good school" and he commuted by train, cycling to Tuakau station before 7 am and returning after 6 pm for 3½ years (a one-hour and 40 minutes journey each way) until the family moved to Remuera, Auckland in 1935, his last of four years at "Grammar".[7]

He was initially smaller than his peers and shy, and did not enjoy "Grammar", where commuting barred him from after-school activities. He grew to be 6 feet 2 inches (188 cm)[8] and gained confidence after taking up boxing.

He became interested in climbing when he was 16 following a 1935 school trip to Mount Ruapehu, after which he showed more interest in tramping than in studying and said he "wanted to see the world".[9] He then attended Auckland University College, and joined the Tramping Club there. But in 1938 "after two notably unsuccessful years studying mathematics and science" he gave up on formal education.[10]

He then became an apiarist (beekeeper) with his father and brother Rex; with 1600 hives to attend, thousands of 90 lb (41 kg) boxes of honey comb to handle, and 12 to 100 bee-stings daily.[10][2][11] So he kept bees in summer, and concentrated on climbing in winter.[12] His father also edited the journal "The N.Z. Honeybee" and his mother Gertrude was famous for breeding and selling queen bees.[13][14][15]

In 1938 he went to hear Herbert Sutcliffe, the proponent of a life philosophy called "Radiant Living", with his family. The family all became foundation members, and his mother became its secretary in 1939. He went to Gisborne as Sutcliff's assistant, and in 1941 sat examinations to become a teacher of Radiant Living, getting a 100% pass mark. His test lecture was on "Inferiority – cause and cure". He said of his five-year association with the movement that "I learned to speak confidently from the platform; to think more freely on important topics; to mix more readily with a wide variety of people". Tenets included healthy eating (the salads that June took to university for lunch) and pacifism. He joined the Radiant Living Tramping Club, and further developed his love of the outdoors in the Waitakere Ranges.[16][17]

In 1939 he completed his first major climb, reaching the summit of Mount Ollivier, near Aoraki / Mount Cook in the Southern Alps.[3] Climbing brought new friends; Harry Ayres and George Lowe became "the first real friends I'd ever had".[18]

World War II

Hillary in Royal New Zealand Air Force uniform at Delta Camp, near Blenheim, New Zealand, during World War II

At the outbreak of World War II, Hillary applied to join the Royal New Zealand Air Force (RNZAF) but quickly withdrew the application, later writing that he was "harassed by [his] religious conscience".[19] In 1943, with the Japanese threat in the Pacific and the arrival of conscription, he joined the RNZAF as a navigator in No. 6 Squadron RNZAF and later No. 5 Squadron RNZAF on Catalina flying boats.[19][20] In 1945, he was sent to Fiji and to the Solomon Islands, where he was badly burnt in an accident.[19]


In January 1948, Hillary and others ascended the south ridge of Aoraki / Mount Cook, New Zealand's highest peak.[21] In 1951 he was part of a British reconnaissance expedition to Everest led by Eric Shipton,[22][a] before joining the successful British attempt of 1953. In 1952, Hillary and George Lowe were part of the British team led by Shipton, that attempted Cho Oyu.[23] After that attempt failed due to the lack of route from the Nepal side, Hillary and Lowe crossed the Nup La pass into Tibet and reached the old Camp II, on the northern side, where all the previous expeditions had camped.[24]

1953 Everest expedition

Main article: 1953 British Mount Everest expedition

In 1949, the long-standing climbing route to the summit of Everest was closed by Chinese-controlled Tibet. For the next several years, Nepal allowed only one or two expeditions per year.[26] A Swiss expedition (in which Tenzing took part) attempted to reach the summit in 1952, but was forced back by bad weather around 800 feet (240 m) below the summit.[27] In 1952 Hillary learned that he and Lowe had been invited by the Joint Himalayan Committee for the 1953 British attempt and immediately accepted.[28] Hunt wrote that Hillary's

testing in the Himalayas had shown that he would be a very strong contender, not only for Everest, but for an eventual summit party. When I met Shipton last autumn I well remember his prophesying this – and how right he was. Quite exceptionally strong and abounding in a restless energy, possessed of a thrusting mind which swept away all unproven obstacles, Ed Hillary's personality had made an imprint on my mind, through his Cho Oyu and Reconnaissance friends and through his letters to me.[29]

On the expedition, Hunt mentions several times discussing plans with Evans and Hillary.[30]

Shipton was named as leader but was replaced by Hunt. Hillary had objected but was immediately impressed by Hunt's energy and determination.[31] Hillary had intended to climb with Lowe, but Hunt named two teams for the ascent: Tom Bourdillon and Charles Evans; and Hillary and Tenzing.[32] Hillary, therefore, made a concerted effort to forge a working friendship with Tenzing.[31][33]

Tenzing and Hillary

The Hunt expedition totalled over 400 people, including 362 porters, 20 Sherpa guides, and 10,000 pounds (4,500 kg) of baggage.[34][35] Lowe supervised the preparation of the Lhotse Face, a huge and steep ice face, for climbing. Hillary forged a route through the treacherous Khumbu Icefall.[36][37]

The expedition set up base camp in March 1953 and, working slowly, set up its final camp at the South Col at 25,900 feet (7,890 m). On 26 May, Bourdillon and Evans attempted the climb but turned back when Evans' oxygen system failed. The pair had reached the South Summit, coming within 300 vertical feet (91 m) of the summit.[35][38] Hunt then directed Hillary and Tenzing to attempt the summit.[38]

Snow and wind delayed them at the South Col for two days. They set out on 28 May with the support of Lowe, Alfred Gregory, and Ang Nyima.[39] The two pitched a tent at 27,900 feet (8,500 m) on 28 May, while their support group returned down the mountain.[40] On the following morning Hillary discovered that his boots had frozen solid outside the tent. He spent two hours warming them over a stove before he and Tenzing, wearing 30-pound (14 kg) packs, attempted the final ascent.[41] The final obstacle was the 40-foot (12 m) rock face now called "Hillary Step"; Hillary later wrote:

I noticed a crack between the rock and the snow sticking to the East Face. I crawled inside and wriggled and jammed my way to the top ... Tenzing slowly joined me and we moved on. I chopped steps over bump after bump, wondering a little desperately where the top could be. Then I saw the ridge ahead dropped away to the north and above me on the right was a rounded snow dome. A few more whacks with my ice-axe and Tenzing and I stood on top of Everest.[42]

Hillary and Tenzing on return from the summit of Everest

Tenzing later wrote that Hillary took the first step onto the summit and he followed. They reached Everest's 29,028 ft (8,848 m) summit – the highest point on earth – at 11:30 am.[2][43]

They spent about 15 minutes at the summit. Hillary took a photo of Tenzing posing with his ice-axe, but there is no photo of Hillary. BBC News attributed this to Tenzing's having never used a camera;[44][45] Tenzing's autobiography says that Hillary simply declined to have his picture taken. They also took photos looking down the mountain.[45]

Hillary (left) and George Lowe (right) with Governor-General Sir Willoughby Norrie at Government House, Wellington, 20 August 1953

Tenzing left chocolates at the summit as an offering, and Hillary left a cross given to him by John Hunt.[46] Their descent was complicated by drifting snow which had covered their tracks. The first person they met was Lowe; Hillary said, "Well, George, we knocked the bastard off."[8]

They returned to Kathmandu a few days later and learned that Hillary had already been appointed a Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire and Hunt a Knight Bachelor.[47] News reached Britain on the day of Queen Elizabeth II's coronation, and the press called it a coronation gift.[48] The 37 members of the party later received the Queen Elizabeth II Coronation Medal with mount everest expedition engraved along the rim.[49] In addition to the knighting of Hillary and Hunt, Tenzing – ineligible for knighthood as a Nepalese citizen – received the George Medal.[50][51][52] Tenzing also received the Star of Nepal from King Tribhuvan.[53]

After Everest

In the cockpit of the Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition's DHC-2, 1956

Hillary climbed ten other peaks in the Himalayas on further visits in 1956, 1960–1961, and 1963–1965. He also reached the South Pole as part of the Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition, for which he led the New Zealand section, on 4 January 1958. His party was the first to reach the Pole overland since Amundsen in 1911 and Scott in 1912, and the first ever to do so using motor vehicles.[54]

In 1960 Hillary organized an expedition to search for the fabled abominable snowman.[55] Hillary was with the expedition for five months, although it lasted for ten.[56] No evidence of Yetis was found, instead footprints and tracks were proven to be from other causes. During the expedition, Hillary travelled to remote temples which contained "Yeti scalps"; however after bringing back three relics, two were shown to be from bears and one from a goat antelope.[57][58] Hillary said after the expedition: "The yeti is not a strange, superhuman creature as has been imagined. We have found rational explanations for most yeti phenomena".[59] In 1960-61 he was accompanied by Griffith Pugh in the Silver hut expedition, when Pugh showed that Mount Everest could be climbed without oxygen. An assault on Makalu, the world's fifth-highest mountain, was unsuccessful.

Hillary in 1957 after ac­com­pa­nying the first plane to land at the Marble Point ground air strip, Antarctica

In 1962 he was a guest on the television game show What's My Line?; he stumped the panel, comprising Dorothy Kilgallen, Arlene Francis, Bennett Cerf, and Merv Griffin.[60] In 1977, he led a jetboat expedition, titled "Ocean to Sky", from the mouth of the Ganges River to its source.[61] From 1977 to 1979 he commentated aboard Antarctic sightseeing flights operated by Air New Zealand.[62] In 1985, he accompanied Neil Armstrong in a small twin-engined ski plane over the Arctic Ocean and landed at the North Pole. Hillary thus became the first man to stand at both poles and on the summit of Everest.[63][64][65][66] This accomplishment inspired generations of explorers to compete over what later was defined as Three Poles Challenge. In January 2007, Hillary travelled to Antarctica as part of a delegation commemorating the 50th anniversary of the founding of Scott Base.[67][68][69]

Public recognition

Hillary on the New Zealand five-dollar note

On 6 June 1953, Hillary was appointed Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire, and he received the Queen Elizabeth II Coronation Medal the same year.[70] On 6 February 1987, he was the fourth appointee to the Order of New Zealand.[71] He was also awarded the Polar Medal in 1958 for his part in the Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition,[72][73] the Order of Gorkha Dakshina Bahu, 1st Class of the Kingdom of Nepal in 1953, and the Coronation Medal in 1975.[74] On 22 April 1995 Hillary was appointed Knight Companion of The Most Noble Order of the Garter.[75][76] On 17 June 2004 Hillary was awarded Commander's Cross of the Order of Merit of the Republic of Poland.[77] The Government of India conferred on him its second highest civilian award, the Padma Vibhushan, posthumously, in 2008.[78]

To mark the 50th anniversary of the first successful ascent of Everest, the Nepalese government conferred honorary citizenship upon Hillary at a special Golden Jubilee celebration in Kathmandu, Nepal. He was the first foreign national to receive that honour.[79][15]

Since 1992, New Zealand's $5 note has featured Hillary's portrait, making him the only living person not a current head of state ever to appear on a New Zealand banknote. In giving his permission, Hillary insisted that Aoraki / Mount Cook rather than Mount Everest be used as the backdrop.[80][81]

Statue of Hillary gazing towards Aoraki / Mount Cook, one of his favourite peaks[82]

Annual Reader's Digest polls from 2005 to 2007 named Hillary as "New Zealand's most trusted individual".[83][84]

Hillary's favoured New Zealand charity was the Sir Edmund Hillary Outdoor Pursuits Centre, of which he was patron for 35 years.[85] He was particularly keen on how this organisation introduced young New Zealanders to the outdoors in a very similar way to his first experience of a school trip to Mt Ruapehu at the age of 16. A 2.3-metre (7.5 ft) bronze statue of Hillary was erected outside The Hermitage Hotel at Mount Cook Village; it was unveiled by Hillary himself in 2003.[86] Various streets, institutions and organisations around New Zealand and abroad are named after him – for example, the Sir Edmund Hillary Collegiate in Otara, which was established by Hillary in 2001.[87]

Two Antarctic features are named after Hillary. The Hillary Coast is a section of coastline south of Ross Island and north of the Shackleton Coast.[88] The Hillary Canyon, an undersea feature in the Ross Sea, appears on the General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans, published by the International Hydrographic Organization.[89]

Personal life

Hillary, with first wife, Louise, and son, Peter, 1955

Sir Edmund with his second wife, Lady Hillary, 2000

Hillary married Louise Mary Rose on 3 September 1953, soon after the ascent of Everest; he admitted he was terrified of proposing to her and relied on her mother to propose on his behalf.[11][12][90] They had three children: Peter (born 1954), Sarah (born 1955) and Belinda (1959–1975).[2][38] In 1975 while en route to join Hillary in the village of Phaphlu, where he was helping to build a hospital, Louise and Belinda were killed in a plane crash near Kathmandu airport shortly after take-off.[11] In 1989 he married June Mulgrew, the widow of his close friend Peter Mulgrew, who died on Air New Zealand Flight 901 in 1979.[12][91]

His son Peter Hillary also became a climber, summiting Everest in 1990. In May 2002 Peter climbed Everest as part of a 50th anniversary celebration; Jamling Tenzing Norgay (son of Tenzing who had died in 1986) was also part of the expedition.[92]

Hillary's home for most of his life was a property on Remuera Road in Auckland City,[93] where he enjoyed reading adventure and science fiction novels in his retirement.[93] He also built a bach at Whites Beach,[94] one of Auckland's west coast beaches in the former Waitakere City, between Anawhata and North Piha;[95][96] a friend called it Hillary's place of solace, where he could escape media attention.[94]

The Hillary family has had a connection with the west coast of Auckland since 1925, when Louise's father built a bach at Anawhata.[97] The family donated land at Whites Beach that is now crossed by trampers on the Hillary Trail, named for Edmund.[98] Hillary said of the area: "That is the thing that international travel brings home to me – it's always good to be going home. This is the only place I want to live in; this is the place I want to see out my days."[99]


Following his ascent of Everest he devoted himself to assisting the Sherpa people of Nepal through the Himalayan Trust, which he established in 1960[100] and led until his death in 2008. His efforts are credited with the construction of many schools and hospitals in this remote region of the Himalayas. He was the Honorary President of the American Himalayan Foundation, a United States non-profit body that helps improve the ecology and living conditions in the Himalayas. He was also the Honorary President of Mountain Wilderness, an international NGO dedicated to the worldwide protection of mountains.[101]

Political involvement

Hillary supported the Labour Party in the 1975 New Zealand general election, as a member of the "Citizens for Rowling" campaign. His involvement in this campaign was seen as precluding his nomination as Governor-General;[102] the position was offered to Keith Holyoake in 1977. In 1985, Hillary was appointed New Zealand High Commissioner to India (concurrently High Commissioner to Bangladesh and Ambassador to Nepal) and spent four and a half years based in New Delhi.[103]

In 1975, Hillary served as a vice president for the Abortion Law Reform Association of New Zealand,[104] a national pro-choice advocacy group.[105] He was also a patron of REPEAL, an organization seeking repeal of the restrictive Contraception, Sterilisation, and Abortion Act 1977.[104]


People draped in the Flag of New Zealand as Hillary's hearse passes

On 22 April 2007, while on a trip to Kathmandu, Hillary suffered a fall, and was hospitalised after returning to New Zealand.[106] On 11 January 2008 he died of heart failure at Auckland City Hospital.[107] Flags were lowered to half-mast on New Zealand public buildings and at Scott Base in Antarctica,[108] and Prime Minister Helen Clark called Hillary's death a "profound loss to New Zealand".[109]

On 21 January, Hillary's casket was taken into Holy Trinity Cathedral, Auckland, to lie in state.[110] A state funeral was held on 22 January 2008,[111] after which his body was cremated. On 29 February 2008 most of his ashes were scattered in Auckland's Hauraki Gulf per his desire.[112] The remainder went to a Nepalese monastery near Everest; a plan to scatter them on the summit was cancelled in 2010.[113]

Posthumous tributes

In January 2008, Lukla Airport, in Lukla, Nepal, was renamed to Tenzing–Hillary Airport in recognition of their promotion of its construction.[114][115] On 2 April 2008, a service of thanksgiving in Hillary's honour at St George's Chapel at Windsor Castle was attended by Queen Elizabeth II, New Zealand dignitaries including Prime Minister Helen Clark, and members of Hillary's and Norgay's families; Gurkha soldiers from Nepal stood guard outside the ceremony.[116][117] In October 2008, it was announced that future rugby test matches between England and New Zealand would be played for the Hillary Shield.[118] In 2009 the Duke of Edinburgh's Award in New Zealand – formerly the Young New Zealanders' Challenge – was renamed "The Duke of Edinburgh's Hillary Award".[119] On 5 November 2008, a commemorative set of five stamps was issued by New Zealand Post.[120][121]

There have been many calls for lasting tributes to Hillary. The first major public tribute has been by way of the "Summits for Ed" tribute tour organised by the Sir Edmund Hillary Foundation.[122] This tribute tour went from Bluff at the bottom of the South Island to Cape Reinga at the tip of the North Island, visiting 39 towns and cities along the way. In each venue, school children and members of the public were invited to join together to climb a significant hill or site in their area to show their respect for Hillary. The public were also invited to bring small rocks or pebbles that had special significance to them, that would be included in a memorial to Hillary at the base of Mt Ruapehu, in the grounds of the Sir Edmund Hillary Outdoor Pursuits Centre. Funds donated during the tour are used by the foundation to sponsor young New Zealanders on outdoor courses. Over 8,000 persons attended these "Summit" climbs between March and May 2008.[123]

View from the Hillary Trail

The tribute song "Hillary 88", by the New Zealand duo The Kiwis, is the official world memorial song for Hillary, with the endorsement of Lady Hillary.[124]

A four-day track in the Waitakere Ranges, along Auckland's west coast, is named the Hillary Trail,[125] in honour of Hillary.[98] Hillary's father-in-law, Jim Rose, who had built a bach at Anawhata in 1925, wrote in his 1982 history of Anawhata Beach, "My family look forward to the time when we will be able to walk from Huia to Muriwai on public walking tracks like the old-time Maori could do".[97][126] Hillary loved the area, and had his own bach near Anawhata. The track was opened on 11 January 2010, the second anniversary of Hillary's death.[107][127] Rose Track, descending from Anawhata Road to Whites Beach, is named after the Rose family.[99][128]

The South Ridge of Aoraki / Mount Cook, New Zealand's highest mountain, was renamed Hillary Ridge on 18 August 2011. Hillary and three other climbers were the first party to successfully climb the ridge in 1948.[129] In September 2013 the Government of Nepal proposed naming a 7,681 metres (25,200 ft) mountain in Nepal Hillary Peak in his honour.[130] After the New Horizons mission discovered a mountain range on Pluto on 14 July 2015, it was informally named Hillary Montes (Hillary Mountains) by NASA.[131]

The Sir Edmund Hillary Mountain Legacy Medal, awarded by the Nepalese NGO Mountain Legacy "for remarkable service in the conservation of culture and nature in mountainous regions" was inaugurated in 2003, with the approval of Sir Edmund Hillary. A bronze bust of Hillary (circa 1953) by Ophelia Gordon Bell is in the Te Papa museum in Wellington, New Zealand.[132] The Sir Edmund Hillary Archive was added to the UNESCO Memory of the world archive in 2013,[133] it is currently held by Auckland War Memorial Museum.[134]


Coat of arms of Edmund Hillary

Crest: An azure kiwi grasping an ice axe.
Escutcheon: A stylised mountain range surrounded by three prayer wheels.
Supporters: A Fiordland crested penguin wearing a plain collar on either side.
Compartment: An iceflow proper.
Motto: Nothing venture, nothing win
Orders: The Order of the Garter ribbon.
Honi soit qui mal y pense
(Shame be to him who thinks evil of it)


Books written by Edmund Hillary

Title / Year / Publisher / ISBN/ASIN / Co-author / Ref

High Adventure[ b] 1955 Hodder & Stoughton[c] ISBN 1-932302-02-6[d] n/a [135][55]
East of Everest — An Account of the New Zealand Alpine Club Himalayan Expedition to the Barun Valley in 1954 1956 E. P. Dutton ASIN B000EW84UM George Lowe [135]
No Latitude for Error 1961 Hodder & Stoughton. ASIN B000H6UVP6 n/a [135][55]
The New Zealand Antarctic Expedition 1959 R.W. Stiles, printers. ASIN B0007K6D72 n/a
The Crossing of Antarctica: The Commonwealth Transantarctic Expedition, 1955–1958 1958 Cassell ASIN B000HJGZ08 Vivian Fuchs [135]
High in the thin cold air[e] 1962 Doubleday ASIN B00005W121 Desmond Doig [135]
Schoolhouse in the Clouds 1965 Hodder & Stoughton ASIN B00005WRBB n/a [135]
Nothing Venture, Nothing Win 1975 Hodder & Stoughton ISBN 0-340-21296-9 n/a [135]
From the Ocean to the Sky: Jet Boating Up the Ganges 1979 Viking ISBN 0-7089-0587-0 n/a [135]
Two Generations[f] 1984 Hodder & Stoughton ISBN 0-340-35420-8 Peter Hillary [g][135]
View from the Summit: The Remarkable Memoir by the First Person to Conquer Everest 2000 Pocket ISBN 0-7434-0067-4 n/a


1. Shipton had met Dan Bryant on the 1935 British Mount Everest reconnaissance expedition and had formed a positive view of New Zealand climbers
2. Also High Adventure: The True Story of the First Ascent of Everest
3. (reprinted Oxford University Press (paperback)
4. and ISBN 0-19-516734-1
5. the story of the Himalayan Expedition, led by Sir Edmund Hillary, sponsored by World Book Encyclopedia
6. reissued as Ascent: Two Lives Explored: The Autobiographies of Sir Edmund and Peter Hillary
7. (1992) Paragon House Publishers ISBN 1-55778-408-6.
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• Elish, Dan (2007). Edmund Hillary: First to the Top. Marshall Cavendish. ISBN 978-0-761-42224-2.
• Hillary, Edmund (1955). High Adventure. 649. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-195-16734-4.
• Johnston, Alexa; Larsen, David (2005). Reaching the Summit: Sir Edmund Hillary's Life of Adventure. DK Publishing. ISBN 978-0-756-61527-7.
• Johnston, Alexa (2013). Sir Edmund Hillary: An Extraordinary Life. Penguin Random House New Zealand Limited. ISBN 978-0143006466.
• Little, Paul (2012). After Everest: Inside the private world of Edmund Hillary. Sydney, Australia: Allen & Unwin. ISBN 978-1-877505-20-1.
• McKinnon, Lyn (2016). Only Two for Everest. Dunedin: Otago University Press. ISBN 978-1-972322-40-6.
• Tuckey, Harriet (2013). Everest: The First Ascent — How a Champion of Science Helped to Conquer the Mountain. Lyons Press. p. 424. ISBN 978-0-762-79192-7.
• Hunt, John (1953). The Ascent of Everest. London: Hodder & Stoughton. (The Summit (Chapter 16, pp 197–209) is by Hillary)

External links

• Edmund Hillary biography from the Dictionary of New Zealand Biography
• On top of the world: Ed Hillary at
• Videos (10) at the New Zealand National Film Unit
• Obituary of Edmund Hillary at
• Interview with Sir Edmund Hillary: Mountain Climbing at Smithsonian Folkways
• Edmund Hillary on BBC Radio 4's Desert Island Discs, 17 April 1979
• Edmund Hillary's collection at Auckland War Memorial Museum Tāmaki Paenga Hira
• Edmund Hillary addressing The New York Herald Tribune Book and Author Luncheon, February 10, 1954 broadcast by WNYC
• "Obituary: Sir Edmund Hillary". The Telegraph. 11 January 2008. Retrieved 19 October 2018.
• Works by or about Edmund Hillary at Internet Archive
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sun Dec 01, 2019 8:15 am

School of Radiant Living
by Hilary Stace
New Zealand History
Accessed: 12/1/19




Radiant Living magazine
A spread from Radiant Living, October/November 1949.

The School of Radiant Living was a movement active in New Zealand from the late 1930s until the late 1980s. Founder Dr Herbert Sutcliffe taught a holistic philosophy of physical, psychological and spiritual health. The School of Radiant Living had its international headquarters at Peloha in Havelock North from the early 1940s.

Sutcliffe, an English-born psychologist, was involved with the internationally popular Radiant Health Club movement in Australia before founding the first School of Radiant Living in Providence, Rhode Island, USA, in 1931. During the Second World War he migrated to New Zealand. A total of 36 schools (24 overseas and 12 in New Zealand) were eventually established.

By Hilary Stace

Herbert Sutcliffe

Herbert Sutcliffe, 1886-1971
Herbert Sutcliffe, founder of the Radiant Living movement in New Zealand

Herbert Sutcliffe was born in Louth, Lincolnshire, England, on 19 October 1886, the son of Elizabeth Easter Allen and her husband, John James Sutcliffe, an engineer. A lifelong love of singing came from involvement in the local cathedral choir. He worked as a telegraph engineer before migrating to Australia, apparently to work on new telegraph cable projects. On 5 June 1915, at Brunswick, Melbourne, he married Hilda Gertrude Wilson; they were to have two children. He maintained his interest in singing by conducting choirs, and was also an active Freemason.

Fascinated by the 'new' psychology of Freud, Adler, and particularly Jung, Sutcliffe joined the Australian Psychological Society, editing its magazine and acting as president from 1925 to 1930. By 1931 he had gained a doctorate in psychology. He introduced the society to Jungian ideas on the importance of personal counselling incorporating a metaphysical element.

Radiant Health and the International New Thought Alliance

Sutcliffe also edited the Radiant Health Messenger, which had an international readership, and lectured on healthy living on behalf of Radiant Health Clubs. Through this magazine he came to the notice of the United States-based International New Thought Alliance (INTA) and was invited to their 1931 conference in Cleveland, Ohio. An umbrella group of those following alternative spirituality or liberal Christian paths, the INTA also had links to the American 19th-century transcendentalist writers and incorporated the latest psychological theories. After being well received at the conference Sutcliffe studied for his doctorate in divinity at an INTA-affiliated Divine Science Church in New York State.

Radiant Living

Throughout this time Sutcliffe was developing the philosophy that he was soon to teach in his Schools of Radiant Living. He argued that each person has a spirit or soul and for successful psychoanalysis the relationship between mind and soul must be considered: fear, hate and feelings of inferiority, the causes of personal suffering, could not be overcome without facing the invisible world of soul, spirituality and the afterlife. By considering people as threefold beings - body, mind and spirit - he believed individual health and happiness could be achieved by changing diet, physical habits, attitudes and spiritual awareness, and by following the 'laws of nature'.

The first Sutcliffe School of Radiant Living was founded in Providence, Rhode Island, in 1931. During the next two decades Sutcliffe set up 36 schools - 24 in the United States, Canada, Hong Kong and Australia, and 12 in New Zealand. As he spent much of his time on lecture tours he provided detailed organisational requirements for each school and trained students to become teachers, resulting in a uniform structure and format. Annual Christmas schools provided refresher courses and regular council meetings were also held. The organisation of the schools, and associated tasks such as editing the magazine and arranging Sutcliffe's lecture tours, were mostly done by dedicated women.

Sutcliffe in New Zealand

Sutcliffe visited New Zealand in 1938. His mentor, the American New Thought activist and Radiant Health Club publicist Phoebe Marie Holmes, had visited earlier. Lecture tours by alternative health advocates found a ready audience in New Zealand, and by 1938 there was a Radiant Theatre in Christchurch, apparently financed by the baker Thomas Edmond. The rising sun symbol used by Edmond's company was popular with such movements, and was also used by Sutcliffe. One of New Zealand's first Schools of Radiant Living was founded in Auckland in 1938, with Gertrude Hillary as secretary. Her son Edmund was briefly Sutcliffe's assistant and also trained as a Radiant Living teacher.

Havelock North and Peloha

By 1942 Sutcliffe had made Havelock North, with its history of alternative spirituality and pleasant climate, his home and the international headquarters of the movement. He bought the large Quaker-built house Swarthmoor and renamed it Peloha (for Peace, Love and Harmony). For the next four decades it hosted summer schools, conferences and Easter observances, and also functioned as a commercial health retreat. Hilda Sutcliffe died in Australia in 1944, and on 25 February 1955 Herbert married his secretary, Phyllis Evelyn Farley.

Radiant Living thrived in New Zealand from the 1940s to the 1970s. Many schools built or purchased their own premises, and annual banquets, often attended by mayors, MPs and other dignitaries, celebrated the founding of each school. At a meeting in Wellington in the 1940s Prime Minister Peter Fraser apparently suggested that if more people followed Radiant Living health principles he would be closing hospitals rather than opening them. Public events included fitness displays by members.

The Eliminating Diet

Nutrition took a prominent place in Sutcliffe's teachings. To remove toxins from the body and mind the Eliminating Diet was commonly prescribed for a variety of ailments. The dietary theories of Radiant Living, based on food-combining and a high intake of fresh fruit, vegetables and their juices, foreshadows much later mainstream dietary advice. Correct breathing, exercises to improve eyesight, and singing and music were also encouraged. All were an embodiment of the philosophy that by following 'laws of nature' ailments could be cured and quality of life improved.

A colourful personality

Herbert Sutcliffe, usually dressed in a white suit, was a charismatic platform speaker, even known to turn cartwheels on stage in his 60s. For formal occasions at Peloha he wore a Masonic-style royal-blue gown. He taught that dark colours had negative associations and encouraged members to bring bright colour into their lives. He gave personal consultations to thousands of people, pioneered the use of wire recordings, offered postal courses and ran a mail-order business in herbs and vitamins. He was interested in homoeopathy, vitamin therapy and motivational sports psychology, and took a personal interest in the achievements of local sportsmen and women.

Radiant Living after Sutcliffe

Sutcliffe died at Havelock North on 27 October 1971, survived by Phyllis and the children of his first marriage. Phyllis ran Peloha until her death in 1981, and it was sold in the late 1980s. A large endowment was made to Victoria University of Wellington to establish the Herbert Sutcliffe scholarships for disadvantaged students in 1989. Other educational institutions, such as the Hohepa homes, also benefited.

Although sometimes authoritarian and overbearing, Sutcliffe lived simply at Peloha with the staff. Even those who fell out with him over various issues still respected his teachings. In 1998 one of his earliest texts, How to re-make your life (1931), was republished by Sally Fallon and the Ascended Master Teaching Foundation. Although no formal schools remain, the holistic teachings of Herbert Sutcliffe are still followed by many in New Zealand and overseas.

A biography of Herbert Sutcliffe can be found on the DNZB website


The teachings of Radiant Living

The teachings of Radiant Living were complex and involved holistic psychological, physical and spiritual health. Several textbooks and a large series of taped lectures are held in the Beaglehole Room at the Victoria University of Wellington Library. The Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, also holds some of Sutcliffe's books as well as a run of the magazine Radiant Living which chronicles issues of importance.

According to Herbert Sutcliffe, good mental health was the key to better physical health. He taught that nature cures and can be assisted to cure not only with fresh, naturally grown food but with mental analysis. He advocated personal counselling and held individual sessions wherever he went. Disease could be the result of fear, feelings of inferiority or hate, products of the human mind which cause problems all over the world. But anyone could be assisted back to normal life and health, according to Sutcliffe, by understanding the psychosomatic (the power of the mind) and psycho-cosmology (the power of the spirit). Tools such as affirmations would eliminate fears and retrain the mind. Music, singing and public-speaking were also important.

Sutcliffe devised his own stages of human development and also identified physical body types. He was particularly influenced by Jung's belief in the importance of the soul. He believed that one must acknowledge the existence of the soul, 'the invisible which can be visualised as a (radiant) source for good within us all and which outlasts our physical life on earth'.

Diet was of particular importance and the cleansing Eliminating Diet was frequently advocated. To keep the body healthy the 16 cell elements had to be kept in harmony. He believed fruit and vegetables were 'alkaline forming' and should form 80% of the diet and the remaining 20% should be 'acid forming' proteins, carbohydrates and fats. Vitamins and minerals were also important. Food should be colourful as well as healthy and organic and a good salad (a mainstay of diet) should contain at least 6 colourful fruits and vegetables.

Physical fitness was an important tenet of Radiant Living and each school taught a variety of exercises including ones for better breathing and eyesight.
Displays by members were a feature of publicity drives.

Radiant Living's spirituality was based on a liberal Christianity and rituals such as the 'rebirth' at Easter were important celebrations. People were seen as part of God - with unlimited positive potential. Evil was 'man-made - a result of fear and anxiety' - and could therefore be overcome.

These teachings were practised and promoted by the hundreds of people who qualified as Accredited Teachers of Radiant Living and ran the 36 schools around the world. Radiant Living teaching foreshadowed much of what is now labelled [url]'new age'.[/url]


Peloha - the home of Radiant Living

'On yonder hill you will pitch your tent' prophesied the daughter of Golden Dawn founder Robert Felkin to Herbert Sutcliffe, as she pointed towards Te Mata Peak. It was about 1940 and Sutcliffe was staying at her home, Whare-Ra, in Havelock North. Within a couple of years he had bought a large house, Swarthmoor, on the slopes of Te Mata Peak and set about turning it into a health retreat and teaching centre. He named it Peloha for the first two letters of the words PEace, LOve, HArmony.

The house had a fascinating history. It was built in 1904 for John Holdsworth and his wife, Margaret Chambers. Margaret's family were major landholders in the area and prominent Quakers. The large two-storeyed house in extensive grounds was named Swarthmoor after the English Quaker headquarters. It later belonged to a relation by marriage, Walter McLean. Sutcliffe bought the house with 26 acres from McLean's estate. Peloha's grounds, with its large citrus orchards and organic gardens, made the property almost self-sufficient. Areas of the property were named after other Radiant Living schools, such as the Providence Lawn. Radiant Living Summer Schools, Easter services and October Council Conferences were held at Peloha and for additional income it also functioned as a health retreat.

By the late 1980s, after the deaths of Sutcliffe and his wife, Peloha was no longer economic to run and was sold to Weleda, makers of herbal and homeopathic medicines in the Steiner tradition. Proceeds went to Victoria University of Wellington for the Herbert Sutcliffe Scholarships and other educational groups such as the local Hohepa School for children with special educational needs.

The Havelock work

Havelock North and 'The Havelock work'

Havelock North has long been a centre of 'alternative thought' or liberal theology in New Zealand. Some 19th-century landowning families like that of John Chambers were Quakers (members of the Society of Friends). Quakers have a long history of challenging established religious traditions and promoting gender, race and class equity, and religious tolerance. Other families in the Havelock North area were liberal Anglicans who encouraged mysticism and ceremony in their rituals.

Into this setting came an English medical doctor and High Mason, Robert Felkin and his family. The Felkins were Theosophists and brought with them an English movement, the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn. They set up the Smaragdum Thalasses temple of Stella Matutina in their house, Whare-Ra (House of the Sun) which was specially built for them by architect J.W. Chapman-Taylor.

Theosophy, popularised in the late 19th century by Russian mystic Helena Blavatsky and others such as English feminist socialist Annie Besant (who visited New Zealand), was a philosophical belief system which incorporated Eastern ideas of karma, reincarnation and nirvana, and was commonly known as spiritualism. The Felkins also incorporated the colour therapy ideas of Rudolph Steiner (1861-1925) and other ideas of Anthroposophy which Steiner founded in 1913 when he broke with Theosophy.

This liberal philosophical/spiritual grouping of like-minded people was known as the 'Havelock Work'. Their journal The Forerunner, (1909-14), discusses philosophical questions and documents gentle rituals, village fetes and Shakespearean pageants. The Havelock Work involved a large number of Havelock North residents mainly from the wealthy, educated and powerful landowning class.

Bessie Spencer and Amy Hutchinson were involved with the Havelock Work.
They lived a few miles south at Rissington but probably attended meetings at the Quaker-owned home Swarthmoor (which many years later became Peloha). Originally intending to set up a school, they turned their attention instead to empowering rural women and are remembered as the founders of the Country Women's Institutes.

Steiner ideas were also popular. It is not surprising therefore that the first Steiner and Hohepa Schools in New Zealand, incorporating the educational philosophies of Steiner, began at Havelock North.

After Felkin's death, his wife and others decided to buy land at Taupo and the Tauhara Centre there is their legacy. However, the elderly Harriot Felkin and her step-daughter were still living in Whare-Ra when Herbert Sutcliffe came to stay with them about 1940.

Origins of Radiant Living

An international movement

Radiant Living emerged from the American-based philosophical movement New Thought, which gained popularity in the late 19th century. The 'father' of New Thought was Phineas Parkhurst Quimby (1802-1866) who practised what he believed was the healing method of Jesus. Other names associated with New Thought are Mary Baker Eddy (who founded Christian Science), the transcendentalist writers Henry David Thoreau and Ralph Waldo Emerson, the theologist Levi H. Dowling (who wrote about the Aquarian Age and the Gospels), and Ernest Shurtleff Holmes. There were also links with the new European psychological theories, particularly those of Carl Jung, and nutritional ideas later publicised by Gayelord Hauser and others.

The International New Thought Alliance was formed in 1914 as an umbrella organisation for the many parts of the New Thought movement and is still active today. It had a significant influence on the development of the 12-point plan now used in treating addictions.

New Thought activist Phoebe Holmes travelled the world lecturing about Radiant Health Clubs. She advocated an Eliminating Diet which in a later form was to become an essential part of Radiant Living. She apparently visited New Zealand in the 1920s and 1930s. Christchurch's Radiant Theatre was built at this time by Thomas Edmond of baking powder fame. In Australia Herbert Sutcliffe, who was also active in the Radiant Health Club movement, came to her attention. Through her influence he was invited to attend the 1931 New Thought Alliance conference in Ohio. He went from there to complete a doctorate of divinity at a Divine Science Church (part of New Thought) in New York State and later that year set up his first School of Radiant Living in Providence, Rhode Island.

Edmund Hillary

Edmund Hillary and Herbert Sutcliffe
Edmund Hillary (left) and Herbert Sutcliffe, 1940

Edmund Hillary and Radiant Living

The Auckland School of Radiant Living was founded in 1938, and this was one of the first of these schools established in New Zealand. Everyone in the Hillary family was a member. Gertrude, Edmund Hillary's mother, was the first secretary and reported the early progress of the school's hall in the international Radiant Living magazine.

The atmosphere of the hall was distinctly associated with beauty and peace. After the first meeting, the vibrations were wonderful, and now the effect on any member entering the Hall is instantly spiritual and uplifting.

The ladies' dressing room is furnished with a large, handsome mirror, a special large electric toilet light over the mirror; 120 nickel-plated coat-hooks, and a long seat. The windows are curtained similarly to those of the Hall. The men's dressing room is similarly furnished, but smaller, with 90 hooks. The kitchen is furnished with a large gas stove (a gift), 120 cups and saucers of excellent china, benches and shelves. A servery opens direct into the hall.

All members were thrilled with the rooms, and their care of them, and their supply of a plentitude of beautiful fresh flowers in glass vases testify to their happiness in their new home. The school programmes have been dynamic and have created wonderful impressions on members and visitors. We will write you a special note shortly when we reach our 200th member. The new members are not being especially sought by us, they seek the school as a result of the school teaching.

The Hillary family was involved until the mid-1940s. The Wellington school was started in 1942 after a summer school at Marsden College. Percy Hillary reported:


A Wonderful Success.

New Zealand Bright sunshine, tempered by cool sea breezes, extensive views of hills and valleys clothed with trees and colourful gardens in which were set a myriad of pretty homes, created a most attractive environment for the Radiant Living International Summer School of 1940–41. Marsden College, in which the school was held, comprised a group of large red brick buildings of the latest design, relieved with the greenery of creepers, and set in spacious grounds that glowed with the colours of flowering shrubs and plants, with the great splashes of red of the native tree (Pohutukawa), and with various shades of green of many lovely trees. The lawns were very attractive in their bright green, and a large swimming pool and tennis courts, with playing fields, provided opportunity for recreation.


The many students arrived full of eagerness and enthusiasm to be given a radiant, smiling greeting by the Founder, Dr Herbert Sutcliffe, and Miss Dorothy Law, International Secretary … The daily menus were a revelation (in catering) to the students, comprising wonderful salads and tempting dishes prepared from fresh fruits, vegetables, eggs, etc. delivered daily. There were oranges, lemons, peaches, apples, cherries, raspberries, plums, lettuce, watercress, parsley, spring onions, carrots, parsnips, radishes, red beets, string beans, broad beans, vegetable marrow, baked potatoes etc. The meals were served in a spacious dining hall and were enlivened by spontaneous outbursts of happy, rhythmic songs in which all joined, creating a bright atmosphere of happiness and good comradeship.

Doctor Sutcliffe … gave his complete course of lessons in four series: Health Course, Character Types, Mental Science, and Psycho-Cosmology. The thoroughness, patience, depth of knowledge, logic and soundness of the Founder were easily discernable in these marvellous instructional courses. The students had to work, and work hard, in their endeavour to assimilate this veritable feast of knowledge. In the Physical Culture Class nineteen of the students passed a test by touching their toes (from lying-on-back position) 150 times, amongst them being Mrs. G., a lady 72 years of age. She was given a great ovation.

One of the first New Zealand schools of Radiant Living was established in Auckland. Its secretary was Gertrude Hillary who reported progress early in 1939. For a few years the whole Hillary family was involved with Radiant Living. A son, Edmund, aged 19 in 1939, trained as an Accredited Teacher of Radiant Living and was briefly Herbert Sutcliffe's assistant.

From Radiant Living Aug/Sept 1953:

Radiant Living, Hillary and Mount Everest
By Herbert Sutcliffe, D.Sc.

As Edmund Hillary (now Sir Edmund) is inevitably linked with the top of Mount Everest, so is Radiant Living connected with Sir Edmund. We all know that the past assuredly qualifies the present and influences the future. Therefore a few records of his association with Radiant Living Teaching, will enable us to glimpse the influence it has had upon him and thus upon his subsequent exploits.

Enthusiastic Student

In 1938, when Sir Edmund was 19 years of age he attended my classes in Auckland. He became an inaugural member of the School formed in September of that year. In fact all the members of the Hillary family, his father, mother, sister and brother enrolled as members, became teachers and subsequently four of the family sat for and passed the examination for Associated Teacher of Radiant Living. (A.T.R.L. degree).

Sir Edmund threw himself wholeheartedly into the Radiant Living, studies and it is interesting to note his remarkable success by the gaining of the following marks in his 1941 A.T.R.L. examination:

• Health: : 98%
• Everyday Psychology: 98%
• Psycho-Cosmology: 100%
• Letters to Students: 100%
• Physical Exercises: 91%
• Lecturing Ability*: 100%

*Inferiority-cause and cure It seems to be a tribute to this man, now world renowned, and to the Teaching itself that he became so highly qualified as a Teacher and that the value of the Science and Philosophy came to him at a very important period of his life, when he was 19 years old. For five years, from 1938 to 1943, he was closely associated with the Auckland School, as also were the other members of his family. I am glad to have on record the many times they testified to the fact that Radiant Living came into their lives bringing harmony and understanding to each member of the family and the family as a whole just when it was most needed.

Campaign Assistant

Father Percy Hillary was so appreciative that he requested me to take Edmund with me on lecture campaigns because he could not think of anything better for Edmund's future. I readily agreed to this and Edmund commenced as my assistant during the Gisborne Campaign in 1940. A photograph of the two of us was taken at that time. This link was unfortunately interrupted by war service. Therefore, as Teacher, and for a time, Secretary of the Auckland School, and as my campaign assistant, it can he rightly said that Radiant Living fashioned his life during his 20s and gave him a physical, psychological and philosophical background which took him to the top of Mount Everest. These facts as to the influence Radiant Living had upon his life may not interest the man in the street, but Radiant Livers will surely be interested in the link between Radiant Living and Mount Everest.

I Can

You will note that in 1941 his test lecture was entitled "Inferiority Cause and Cure". I remember his closing exhortation theme was "I can!" The subject of his extempore lecture was "Intuition and Inspiration". His closing declaration was "Nothing can prevent us from reaching our desired goal". It is not difficult to imagine that when he subsequently interested himself in mountain climbing, the letter to Students in the booklet Series 5 entitled "Service from the Heights" which was a par of his studies gave him a vision, an ideal and an aim.

Sir Edmund Hillary describes his own experience

‘A Dr Herbert Sutcliffe was in town and he was talking about a new philosophy - Radiant Living. My family and I went along to his first lecture and were very impressed. It was a combination of Christianity, psychology and health and fitness and it just seemed to fit our needs at the time. We became members and when Dr Sutcliffe introduced training classes I qualified first in the course and became a Teacher of Radiant Living. I gained quite a lot from Radiant Living - I learned to speak confidently from the platform and even started thinking more freely on important topics. But finally my enthusiasm faded, as it always seemed to do. I developed the conviction that I was trying to escape from ordinary life, so I reluctantly withdrew from the organisation.’

From Hillary, E. View from the Summit, Doubleday, London, 1999

The eliminating diet

Two Eliminating Diets


As recommended by: Herbert Sutcliffe, D.Sc.,Ph.D., F.F.Sc. (Lond.)

To obtain physical fitness, it is of vital importance that the right mental attitude should accompany the food diet to enable the emotions, nerves and glands to co-operate with the healing processes of the body.

The following 'Mental Diet' will be found of wonderful benefit to ensure success.


General Instructions:

For ten days, make a resolution to eliminate all fears from your mind. Affirm the following three times each, for the said ten days:

• MORNING: 'Thank God I am alive. I harmonise myself with the foods that cleanse and heal the body. I fill my mind with LIFE, LOVE and POWER.'
• TEN AM: 'All anxiety is passing from me to the Infinite Life, and congested body-cells are being dispersed NOW.'
• NOON: 'I maintain my PEACE WITH THE UNIVERSE, and with the vitalising processes of RADIANT LIVING.'
• FOUR PM: 'I unfold all problems and place them in the hands of DIVINE WISDOM. They are no longer mine. Nature is adjusting my physical body for perfect health".


Commence the day with the following Mental and Physical exercise:

Feet apart, toes gripping the floor, inhale and hold breath; clench hands, stretch left hand above head at an angle to correspond with 1 on the clock, while right hand, clenched, is stretched down to correspond with 7 on the clock. Look up, with head leaning towards left hand. Affirm with positive voice: "Thank God I am ALIVE!!!" Exhale and relax.

Then reverse the position, and stretch the clenched right hand above the head to correspond with 11 on the clock, with left hand at an angle to correspond with 5 on the clock. Breathe and affirm as before, and relax.

Repeat the exercise three times



INSTRUCTIONS: Read carefully.

The following menu is a scientific method of eating abundantly of foods calculated to impregnate the blood with vital health. It frees the tissues of mucus, toxic poisons and congested cells. Cold, catarrh, asthma, bronchitis, liver troubles, intestinal and stomach troubles, constipation, blood pressure and many other diseases can be eradicated by taking this wonderful menu of vital foods.

SPECIAL NOTE: For the specified period (except where specially stated) entirely refrain from eating proteins, i.e. meats, fish, eggs, peas, beans, lentils, poultry, cheese and etc., and carbohydrates, such as bread, biscuits, scones, cakes, potatoes and all sweets. Do NOT drink tea, coffee, cocoa, milk or any makes of soft drinks.

Endeavour to drink 2 quarts of the potassium broth each day. This, together with the fruit juices, will supply the body with the liquids required.

Symptoms, such as dizziness and temporary weakness are food signs that the diet is assisting the blood to cleanse the body of uric acid, congestion and mucus. Persevere, and they will pass away. Eat all you can of the right foods.


This menu consists of TWELVE CITRUS FRUITS - 6 oranges, 3 grapefruit and 3 lemons - taken every day for ten days, (for special cases a longer period may be necessary), together with salads, VEGETABLES and other FRUITS. Remember, No Additions are to be made to the Eliminating Menu. This is not a process of elimination through starvation.

The time stated hereafter for meals is an approximate time and can be adjusted to suit each person's requirements.

It is advisable to keep these fruit juices separate.

Clean the teeth and rinse the mouth well.

Half an hour before breakfast. 2 glasses of warm lemon water, (juice of half a medium sized lemon to a tumbler full of water.)


• 8.30 a.m. Breakfast: Juice of 3 good sized oranges or substitute (see below). Add yolk of one egg on first and alternate days.
• 9.30 a.m. One hour later: One whole grapefruit, or ¼ pint cocktail as substitute
• 10.30 a.m One hour later: Drink 1 ½ pints hot potassium broth. Eat broth vegetables if possible for roughage. Include two teaspoonfuls wheatgerm and two teaspoonsful alfalfa (if available).
• 12.00 noon: Another lemon drink, as before.
• 12.30 p.m. Lunch: 1 pint potassium broth; a salad of 6 to 10 fresh raw vegetables (grate root vegetables finely). Dressing of lemon juice, honey and olive oil. Also 1 cubic inch cheese on second and alternate days. One apple or other sub-acid fruit.
• 2.00 p.m: Three oranges or ¼ pint cocktail as substitute.
• 3.00 p.m. one hour later: One whole grapefruit or ¼ pint cocktail as substitute.
• 4.00 p.m. one hour later: If feeling hungry, eat any of the following fruits - apples, apricots, cherries, pears, peaches or other sub-acid fruits. (Not bananas.)
• One half hour before dinner: Lemon drink, as before
• 6.30 p.m. Dinner: 1 ½ pints potassium broth, add wheatgerm and alfalfa. Also 3 or 4 steamed or 'wilted' vegetables (roots and greens, not potatoes). Dessert: four or five prunes and juice (no cream), or fresh fruit. No nuts.
• Supper: One whole grapefruit, or ¼ pint cocktail as substitute.
• Last thing at night: To ensure full bowel movements take one or two teaspoonsful of the cleansing food.

If salt is desired, use only vegetable or celery salt.

The vegetables to be used for lunch and dinner can be chosen from: celery, carrots, spinach, lettuce, cucumbers, cabbage, parsley, sorrel, onions, watercress, cauliflower, radishes, spring onions, asparagus and tomatoes either cooked or raw, but NEVER USE flour or milk gravies on any vegetable.


Take equal parts of the following vegetables finely chopped or put through the mincer: About 2 cupfuls each of spinach, onions, celery, carrots,tomatoes; one quarter cup of parsley. Add 2 quarts of cold water and place over a suitable flame to boil in 20 minutes, then simmer slowly for 20 minutes. Flavour with either asparagus, carrot tops, marmite, beet tops, turnip tops or green pepper. DO NOT USE cabbage. Season with vegetable salt or celery salt. (If fresh vegetables quite unobtainable, tinned goods may be substituted.)

ALTERNATIVE: Make 1 quart of Potassium Broth. Take 1 pint at morning period and 1 pint at evening period. For lunch drink half a pint of cocktail. (See substitute.)

SUBSTITUTES: Breakfast: 1 medium to large apple, mild, grated or 'snitzled', 3 prunes and 1 dessertspoonful wheat-germ. (Add one beaten egg yolk as directed.)

COCKTAIL: Two parts of carrot juice and one part each of the following, spinach, beetroot, tomatoes, celery with a little lemon or apple juice to flavour, and vegetable salt. Stir well.

Sour oranges may be substituted for grapefruit.


To ensure thorough elimination through the bowels, make up the under-mentioned cleansing food to take before retiring. The bowels must work at least twice a day or the poisons will be re-absorbed into the system. Take one or two teaspoonsful.

One half pound of the following:

Dates, prunes, seeds raisins, figs. Put the fruit through a mincer and mix. Add 3 tablespoonsful of senna powder, also 4 tablespoonsful of black molasses or treacle.

Mix all very thoroughly, adding more of the molasses if the mixture is too dry. Bottle in air-tight jars. A tablespoonful of glycerine will help keep it moist, but it is not essential.

AFTER having taken the ELIMINATING DIET be careful to gradually return to a balanced diet. Reduce the quantity of fruit, vegetables and broth, adding 2 pieces of whole-wheat bread, butter, honey, olive oil, cream and egg yolks. Then, in general, let proteins, carbohydrates and fats be 20% of the total dietary.


Salad recipes

Making radiant salads

From Radiant Living Dec/Jan 1958-59


Crisp, Rejuvenating and Radiant with Life

Colour, beauty, exquisite artistry find joyous expression in the Art of Salad Making. The homemaker who serves salads so deliciously and artistically tempting that the family cannot resist is thereby blessing all with the glorious gift of health.

Cheese and Carrot

Serve Cottage Cheese or Cream Cheese rolled in grated carrot, on nests of lettuce, or watercress with Radiant French Dressing.

Sutcliffe French Dressing-Equal parts lemon juice and olive oil, with honey and vegetable salt to taste.

Stuffed Tomato Salad

Scoop out as many tomatoes as servings. Place shell in a bed of tender spinach, and fill with finely chopped celery, shredded cabbage, chopped apples and nuts. Garnish with parsley and serve with dressing.

Apple and Cheese Salad

• 4 red sweet Apples (unpeeled)
• Cream Cheese

Core and cut apples in ½ inch slices. Spread cream cheese thick between slices, arrange on bed of lettuce or watercress, and garnish with shredded beet or carrot.

May Salad

• 6 slices Fresh Pineapple
• 6 Strawberries
• 1 large Orange
• Sprigs of fresh mint
• 1 Banana
• Honey Salad Dressing

Individual plates-Place slice of pineapple on sprigs of mint. On this place a slice of orange, then a layer of banana discs, and on top a strawberry. Pour over the salad dressing. Let stand in a cool place for an hour before serving.

Further information

This web feature was written by Hilary Stace and produced by the team.


The following biographies related to this topic can be found on the Dictionary of NZ Biography website,

• Herbert Sutcliffe
• John Chambers
• J.W. Chapman-Taylor
• Bessie Spencer
• Amy Hutchinson

Other links:

• New Thought
• International New Thought Alliance
• Divine Science


Ellwood, R., Islands of the dawn: the story of alternative spirituality in New Zealand, University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, 1993

Hillary, E. View from the Summit, Doubleday, London, 1999

Radiant Living (newsletter)
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sun Dec 01, 2019 8:54 am

New Thought
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 12/1/19



The New Thought movement (also Higher Thought)[1] is a movement which developed in the United States in the 19th century, considered by many to have been derived from the unpublished writings of Phineas Quimby. There are numerous smaller groups, most of which are incorporated in the International New Thought Alliance.[2][3] The contemporary New Thought movement is a loosely allied group of religious denominations, authors, philosophers, and individuals who share a set of beliefs concerning metaphysics, positive thinking, the law of attraction, healing, life force, creative visualization, and personal power.[4]

New Thought holds that Infinite Intelligence, or God, is everywhere, spirit is the totality of real things, true human selfhood is divine, divine thought is a force for good, sickness originates in the mind, and "right thinking" has a healing effect.[5][6] Although New Thought is neither monolithic nor doctrinaire, in general, modern-day adherents of New Thought share some core beliefs:

• God or Infinite Intelligence is "supreme, universal, and everlasting";
• divinity dwells within each person, that all people are spiritual beings;
• "the highest spiritual principle [is] loving one another unconditionally... and teaching and healing one another"; and
• "our mental states are carried forward into manifestation and become our experience in daily living".[5][6]

William James used the term "New Thought" as synonymous with the "Mind cure movement," in which he included many sects with diverse origins, such as idealism and Hinduism. The teachings of Christian Science are in some ways similar to Quimby's teachings. Its founder, Mary Baker Eddy, was a student and patient of Quimby's but she later disavowed his influence on her Christian Science.


William James, in The Varieties of Religious Experience, described New Thought as follows:

...for the sake of having a brief designation, I will give the title of the "Mind-cure movement." There are various sects of this "New Thought," to use another of the names by which it calls itself; but their agreements are so profound that their differences may be neglected for my present purpose, and I will treat the movement, without apology, as if it were a simple thing.

It is an optimistic scheme of life, with both a speculative and a practical side. In its gradual development during the last quarter of a century, it has taken up into itself a number of contributory elements, and it must now be reckoned with as a genuine religious power. It has reached the stage, for example, when the demand for its literature is great enough for insincere stuff, mechanically produced for the market, to be to a certain extent supplied by publishers – a phenomenon never observed, I imagine, until a religion has got well past its earliest insecure beginnings.

One of the doctrinal sources of Mind-cure is the four Gospels; another is Emersonianism or New England transcendentalism; another is Berkeleyan idealism; another is spiritism, with its messages of "law" and "progress" and "development"; another the optimistic popular science evolutionism of which I have recently spoken; and, finally, Hinduism has contributed a strain. But the most characteristic feature of the mind-cure movement is an inspiration much more direct. The leaders in this faith have had an intuitive belief in the all-saving power of healthy-minded attitudes as such, in the conquering efficacy of courage, hope, and trust, and a correlative contempt for doubt, fear, worry, and all nervously precautionary states of mind. Their belief has in a general way been corroborated by the practical experience of their disciples; and this experience forms to-day a mass imposing in amount.[7]


Main article: History of New Thought


The New Thought movement was based on the teachings of Phineas Quimby (1802–1866), an American mesmerist and healer. Quimby had developed a belief system which included the tenet that illness originated in the mind as a consequence of erroneous beliefs and that a mind open to God's wisdom could overcome any illness.[8] His basic premise was:

The trouble is in the mind, for the body is only the house for the mind to dwell in [...] Therefore, if your mind had been deceived by some invisible enemy into a belief, you have put it into the form of a disease, with or without your knowledge. By my theory or truth, I come in contact with your enemy, and restore you to health and happiness. This I do partly mentally, and partly by talking till I correct the wrong impression and establish the Truth, and the Truth is the cure.[9][10]

During the late 19th century, the metaphysical healing practices of Quimby mingled with the "Mental Science" of Warren Felt Evans, a Swedenborgian minister.[citation needed] Mary Baker Eddy, the founder of Christian Science, has sometimes been cited as having used Quimby as inspiration for theology. Eddy was a patient of Quimby’s and shared his view that disease is rooted in a mental cause. Because of its theism, Christian Science differs from the teachings of Quimby.[11]

In the late 19th century, New Thought was propelled by a number of spiritual thinkers and philosophers and emerged through a variety of religious denominations and churches, particularly the Unity Church and Church of Divine Science (established in 1889 and 1888, respectively), followed by Religious Science (established in 1927).[12] Many of its early teachers and students were women; notable among the founders of the movement were Emma Curtis Hopkins, known as the "teacher of teachers", Myrtle Fillmore, Malinda Cramer, and Nona L. Brooks;[12] with many of its churches and community centers led by women, from the 1880s to today.[13][14]


See also: List of New Thought writers

New Thought is also largely a movement of the printed word.[15]

Prentice Mulford, through writing Your Forces and How to Use Them,[16] a series of essays published during 1886–1892, was pivotal in the development of New Thought thinking, including the Law of Attraction.

In 1906, William Walker Atkinson (1862–1932) wrote and published Thought Vibration or the Law of Attraction in the Thought World.[17] Atkinson was the editor of New Thought magazine and the author of more than 100 books on an assortment of religious, spiritual, and occult topics.[18] The following year, Elizabeth Towne, the editor of The Nautilus, published Bruce MacLelland's book Prosperity Through Thought Force, in which he summarized the "Law of Attraction" as a New Thought principle, stating "You are what you think, not what you think you are."[19]

These magazines were used to reach a large audience then, as others are now. Nautilus magazine, for example, had 45,000 subscribers and a total circulation of 150,000.[15] One Unity Church magazine, Wee Wisdom, was the longest-lived children's magazine in the United States, published from 1893 until 1991.[20] Today, New Thought magazines include Daily Word published by Unity and the Religious Science magazine, Science of Mind, published by the Centers for Spiritual Living.

Major gatherings

The 1915 International New Thought Alliance (INTA) conference – held in conjunction with the Panama–Pacific International Exposition, a world's fair that took place in San Francisco – featured New Thought speakers from far and wide. The PPIE organizers were so favorably impressed by the INTA convention that they declared a special "New Thought Day" at the fair and struck a commemorative bronze medal for the occasion, which was presented to the INTA delegates, led by Annie Rix Militz.[21] By 1916, the International New Thought Alliance had encompassed many smaller groups around the world, adopting a creed known as the "Declaration of Principles".[12] The Alliance is held together by one central teaching: that people, through the constructive use of their minds, can attain freedom, power, health, prosperity, and all good, molding their bodies as well as the circumstances of their lives. The declaration was revised in 1957, with all references to Christianity removed, and a new statement based on the "inseparable oneness of God and Man".[12]


The chief tenets of New Thought are:[22]

• Infinite Intelligence or God is omnipotent and omnipresent.
• Spirit is the ultimate reality.
• True human self-hood is divine.
• Divinely attuned thought is a positive force for good.
• All disease is mental in origin.
• Right thinking has a healing effect.

Evolution of thought

Adherents also generally believe that as humankind gains greater understanding of the world, New Thought itself will evolve to assimilate new knowledge. Alan Anderson and Deb Whitehouse have described New Thought as a "process" in which each individual and even the New Thought Movement itself is "new every moment". Thomas McFaul has claimed "continuous revelation", with new insights being received by individuals continuously over time. Jean Houston has spoken of the "possible human", or what we are capable of becoming.[23]

Theological inclusionism

The Home of Truth has, from its inception as the Pacific Coast Metaphysical Bureau in the 1880s, under the leadership of Annie Rix Militz, disseminated the teachings of the Hindu teacher Swami Vivekananda.[24] It is one of the more outspokenly interfaith of New Thought organizations, stating adherence to "the principle that Truth is Truth where ever it is found and who ever is sharing it".[25][failed verification] Joel S. Goldsmith's The Infinite Way incorporates teaching from Christian Science, as well.

Therapeutic ideas

Divine Science, Unity Church, and Religious Science are organizations that developed from the New Thought movement. Each teaches that Infinite Intelligence, or God, is the sole reality. New Thought adherents believe that sickness is the result of the failure to realize this truth. In this line of thinking, healing is accomplished by the affirmation of oneness with the Infinite Intelligence or God.[citation needed]

John Bovee Dods (1795–1862), an early practitioner of New Thought, wrote several books on the idea that disease originates in the electrical impulses of the nervous system and is therefore curable by a change of belief.[citation needed] Later New Thought teachers, such as the early-20th-century author, editor, and publisher William Walker Atkinson, accepted this premise. He connected his idea of mental states of being with his understanding of the new scientific discoveries in electromagnetism and neural processes.[26]

While the beliefs that are held by practitioners of the New Thought movement are similar to many mainstream religious doctrines, there have been concerns raised among scholars and scientists about some of the views surrounding health and wellness that are perpetuated by the New Thought movement. Most pressing is the New Thought movement’s rejection of empirically supported scientific theories of the causes of diseases. In scientific medicine, diseases can have a wide range of physical causes, from abnormalities in genes and in cell growth that cause cancer, to viruses, bacteria, and fungi that cause infections, to environmental toxins that can damage entire organ systems, human physical diseases are caused by physical issues.[27][28][29] While it has been empirically supported that the psychological and social health of a person can influence their susceptibility to disease (e.g., stress can suppress immune function which increases risk of infection),[30] mental states are not the cause of human disease, as is claimed by the New Thought movement.

Equally concerning is the New Thought movement’s emphasis on using faith and mental states as treatments for all human disease. While it has been supported that the use of relaxation therapy and other forms of alternative health practices are beneficial in improving the overall well-being of patients suffering from a wide variety of mental and physical health conditions (e.g., cancer, post-traumatic stress disorder), these practices are not effective in treating human disease alone, and should be undertaken in conjunction with modern medical therapies that have empirical support.[31] This rejection of scientifically supported theories of disease and disease treatment is worsened by the New Thought movement’s assertion that mental states, attitudes, and faith in New Thought are the sole determinants of health.

The New Thought movement has received criticism akin to that levied against the holistic health movement that in claiming that sickness is caused by a person’s attitudes, mental states, and faith, it is easy to place blame on patients for not adopting a correct attitude, thought processes, and/or lifestyle.[32] Blame can have powerful psychological effects – with stress and isolation seen in victim blaming being the largest issues that arise and the most concerning in terms of effect on patients’ health.[33] Further, holding beliefs that health and disease is controlled by faith in a higher power can create an external locus of control (i.e., believers may feel as though they themselves cannot prevent disease, and that any illness or disorder that they encounter is an act of the higher power’s will). This external locus of control can create learned helplessness in believers which has been shown to exacerbate mental and physical health conditions via several mechanisms – including reduced incidence of help-seeking behaviour.[34] Overall, the New Thought movement's position on the etiology and treatment of disease is not empirically supported.


New Thought publishing and educational activities reach approximately 2.5 million people annually.[35] The largest New Thought-oriented denomination is the Japanese Seicho-no-Ie.[36] Other belief systems within the New Thought movement include Jewish Science, Religious Science, Centers for Spiritual Living and Unity. Past denominations have included Psychiana and Father Divine.

Religious Science operates under three main organizations: the Centers for Spiritual Living; the Affiliated New Thought Network; and Global Religious Science Ministries. Ernest Holmes, the founder of Religious Science, stated that Religious Science is not based on any "authority" of established beliefs, but rather on "what it can accomplish" for the people who practice it.[37] The Science of Mind, authored by Ernest Holmes, while based on a philosophy of being "open at the top", focuses extensively on the teachings of Jesus Christ.[38] The American Christian Church International and its theological school, the Arnulf Seminary of Theology, are also deeply influenced by the ideology of the New Thought movement.[39]

Unity, founded by Charles and Myrtle Fillmore, identifies itself as "Christian New Thought", focused on "Christian idealism", with the Bible as one of its main texts, although not interpreted literally. The other core text is Lessons in Truth by H. Emilie Cady. The Universal Foundation for Better Living, or UFBL, was founded in 1974 by Johnnie Colemon in Chicago, Illinois after breaking away from the Unity Church for "blatant racism".[40]

See also

• Apotheosis
• Grace Mann Brown
• Christian Science
• Divinization (Christian)
• Idealism
• Iyanla Vanzant
• Ralph Waldo Emerson
• Emmet Fox
• Charles F. Haanel
• Napoleon Hill
• Law of attraction
• Joseph Murphy (author)
• New religious movement
• Panentheism
• Prosperity theology
• Ralph Waldo Trine
• Uell Stanley Andersen
• Religious Science
• The Secret: 2006 film and book
• Theosophy
• Transcendentalism
• Universalism
• Wallace Wattles
• Christian D. Larson


1. Dresser, Horatio Willis (1919), A History of the New Thought Movement, TY Crowell Co, p. 154, In England the term Higher Thought was preferred at first, and this name was chosen for the Higher Thought Centre, the first organization of its kind in England. This name did not however represent a change in point of view, and the movement in England has been similar to the therapeutic movement elsewhere.
2. Melton, J. Gordon, Jerome Clark & Aidan A. Kelly. New Age Almanac; New York: Visible Ink Press (1991); pg. 343. "The International New Thought Alliance, a loose association of New Thought institutions and individuals (approximately 350 institutional members), exists as a voluntary membership organization [to advance New Thought ideals]."
3. Conkin, Paul K. American Originals: Homemade Varieties of Christianity, The University of North Carolina Press: Chapel Hill, NC (1997); pg. 269. "An International New Thought Alliance still exists, with offices in Arizona, a periodical, and around 200 affiliated societies, some of which still use the label 'church'".
4. Lewis, James R; Peterson, Jesper Aagaard (2004), Controversial New Religions, p. 226.
5. Declaration of Principles, International New Thought Alliance, retrieved 2008–09 Check date values in: |accessdate= (help).
6. "Statement of beliefs", New Thought info, retrieved 2008–09 Check date values in: |accessdate= (help).
7. James, William (1929), The Varieties of Religious Experience, New York: U Virginia, pp. 92–93[permanent dead link].
8. "Phineas Parkhurt Quimby". MSN Encarta. Archived from the original on November 1, 2009. Retrieved Nov 16,2007.
9. Phineas, Quimby (2008). "Christ or Science". The Quimby Manuscripts. Forgotten Books. p. 183. ISBN 1-60506-915-9. Retrieved 2011-05-08.
10. "The Quimby Manuscripts". New Thought Library. Retrieved 3 June 2015.
11. ‘Quimby’s son and defender said categorically, “The religion which [Mrs. Eddy] teaches certainly is hers, for which I cannot be too thankful; for I should be loath to go down to my grave feeling that my father was in any way connected with ‘Christian Science.’...In [Quimby’s method of] curing the sick, religion played no part. There were no prayers, there was no asking assistance from God or any other divinity. He cured by his wisdom.” (Dresser, Horatio W., ed. The Quimby Manuscripts. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company Publishers, 1921. - p436). "Christian Science is a religious teaching and only incidentally a healing method. Quimbyism was a healing method and only incidentally a religious teaching. If one examines the religious implications or aspects of Quimby’s thought, it is clear that in these terms it has nothing whatever in common with Christian Science.” (Gottschalk, Stephen. The Emergence of Christian Science in American Religious Life. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1973 - p130). A good composite of both Quimby, and the incompatibility of his ideas and practice with those of Eddy, can be found in these sources: Taves, Ann, Fits, Trances, & Visions: Experiencing Religion and Explaining Experience from Wesley to James. Princeton University Press 1999 (pp 212-218); Peel, Robert. Mary Baker Eddy: The Years of Discovery. Boston: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1966 (chapter, “Portland 1862”); Gill, Gillian. Mary Baker Eddy. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Perseus Books, 1998 (pp 131-146 & 230-233).
12. Lewis, James R.; J. Gordon Melton (1992). Perspectives on the New Age. SUNY Press. pp. 16–18. ISBN 0-7914-1213-X.
13. Harley, Gail M.; Danny L. Jorgensen (2002). Emma Curtis Hopkins: Forgotten Founder of New Thought. Syracuse University Press. p. 79. ISBN 0-8156-2933-8.
14. Bednarowski, Mary Farrell (1999). The Religious Imagination of American Women. Indiana University Press. p. 81. ISBN 0-253-21338-X.
15. Moskowitz, Eva S. (2001) In Therapy We Trust, The Johns Hopkins University Press, ISBN 978-0-8018-6403-2, p. 19.
16. "Your Forces and How to Use Them, Vol. 1".
17. William Walker Atkinson. Thought Vibration or the Law of Attraction. Advanced Thought Publishing. 1906. Full text public domain version online.
18. "William Walter Atkinson", WorldCat. Retrieved June 10, 2011.
19. MacLelland, Bruce, Prosperity Through Thought Force, Elizabeth Towne, 1907
20. Miller, Timothy (1995) America's Alternative Religions, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0-7914-2397-4, p. 327.
21. Dresser, Horatio, History of the New Thought Movement, 1919
22. "New Thought". MSN Encarta. Archived from the original on November 1, 2009. Retrieved Nov 16, 2007.
23. Houston, Jean. The Possible Human. 1997.
24. The Home of Truth, Our History
25. Home of Truth home page. Retrieved on 2007-09-20 from
26. Dumont, Theron, Q. [pseudonym of William Walker Atkinson. Mental Therapeutics, or Just How to Heal Oneself and Others. Advanced Thought Publishing Co. Chicago. 1916.
27. Cohen, M. (2007). Environmental toxins and health: The health impact of pesticides. Australian Family Physician, 36(12), 1002-4.
28. Playfair, J., MyiLibrary, & ProQuest. (2007). Living with germs in health and disease. Oxford ; New York: Oxford University Press.
29. Tsiftsoglou, A., NATO Scientific Affairs Organization. Scientific Affairs Division, & NATO Science Institute "Regulation of Cell Growth, Differentiation, Genetics in Cancer". (1996). Tumor biology : Regulation of cell growth, differentiation, and genetics in cancer (NATO ASI series. Series H, Cell biology ; v. 99). Berlin ; New York: Springer.
30. Friedman, H., Klein, T., & Friedman, Andrea L. (1996). Psychoneuroimmunology, stress, and infection. Boca Raton: CRC Press.
31. Taylor, S., Thordarson, D., Maxfield, L., & Fedoroff, I. (2003). Comparative efficacy, speed, and adverse effects of three PTSD treatments: Exposure therapy, EMDR, and relaxation training. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71(2), 330-338.
32. Gilovich, T. (1993). How we know what isn't so : The fallibility of human reason in everyday life (1st Free Press paperback ed.). New York: Free Press.
33. Hortulanus, R., Machielse, A., & Meeuwesen, L. (2006). Social isolation in modern society (Routledge advances in sociology ; 19). London ; New York: Routledge.
34. Henninger, D., Whitson, H., Cohen, H., & Ariely, D. (2012). Higher Medical Morbidity Burden Is Associated with External Locus of Control. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 60(4), 751-755.
35. Goldberg, P. (2010) American Veda: From Emerson and the Beatles to Yoga and Meditation How Indian Spirituality Changed the West. Random House Digital, Inc. p 62.
36. "Masaharu Taniguchi." Religious Leaders of America, 2nd ed. Gale Group, 1999. Reproduced in Biography Resource Center. Farmington Hills, Mich.: Gale, 2008.
37. Vahle, Neal (1993). Open at the top: The life of Ernest Holmes, Open View Press, 190 pages, p7.
38. Holmes, Ernest (1926) The Science of Mind ISBN 0-87477-865-4, pp. 327–346 "What the Mystics Have Taught".
39. Seminary Website
40. DuPree, S.S. (1996) African-American Holiness Pentecostal movement: an annotated bibliography. Taylor & Francis. p 380.


• Albanese, Catherine (2007), A Republic of Mind and Spirit, Yale University Press.
• Anderson, Alan and Deb Whitehouse. New Thought: A Practical American Spirituality. 2003.
• Braden, Charles S. Spirits in Rebellion: The Rise and Development of New Thought, Southern Methodist University Press, 1963.
• Judah, J. Stillson. The History and Philosophy of the Metaphysical Movements in America. Philadelphia: The Westminster Press. 1967. Review by Neil Duddy.
• McFaul, Thomas R (September–October 2006), "Religion in the Future Global Civilization", The Futurist.
• Mosley, Glenn R (2006), The History and Future New Thought: Ancient Wisdom of the New Thought Movement, Templeton Foundation Press, ISBN 1-59947-089-6
• White, Ronald M (1980), "Abstract", New Thought Influences on Father Divine (Masters Thesis), Oxford, OH: Miami University.
• Albanese, Catherine (2016), The Spiritual Journals of Warren Felt Evans: From Methodism to Mind Cure, Indiana University Press.

External links

• INTA New Thought History Chart, Web site, archived from the original on 2000-08-24, retrieved 2007-09-18.
• Association For Global New Thought.
• New Thought Unity and Divine Science Writings, Piscean-Aquarian Ministry.
• Global Outreach.
• New Thought Library.
• New Thought at Curlie
• New Thought History.
Site Admin
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Mon Dec 02, 2019 4:12 am

Robert William Felkin
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 12/1/19



Dr Robert William Felkin, M.D.
Born: 1853, Nottingham, England
Died: 1926, Havelock North, New Zealand
Occupation: Medical Missionary and Explorer; Ceremonial Magician
Spouse(s:) Mary Mander; Harriet
Children: Ethelwyn Mary Felkin, Samuel Denys Felkin, Laurence Felkin
Parent(s): Robert Felkin Sr.

Dr Robert William Felkin FRSE LRCSE LRCP (13 March 1853 – 28 December 1926) was a medical missionary and explorer, a ceremonial magician and member of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, a prolific author on Uganda and Central Africa, and early anthropologist, with an interest in ethno-medicine and tropical diseases.

He was founder in 1903 of the Stella Matutina, a new Order based on the original Order of the Golden Dawn, with its Hermes Temple in Bristol, UK and, later, Whare Ra (or more correctly, the Smaragdum Thallasses Temple)[1] in Havelock North, New Zealand in 1912.[2]

The fullest account of his life is found in A Wayfaring Man, a fictionalised biography written by his second wife Harriet and published in serial form between 1936 and 1949.[2]

Early life

Robert William Felkin was born in Beeston, Nottinghamshire, on 13 March 1853, the son of Robert Felkin (1828-1899), a Nonconformist lace manufacturer.[2][3] His grandfather, William Felkin (1795-1874), son of a Baptist minister, remains one of the best known names in the Victorian lace industry and was mayor of Nottingham in 1851, when he exhibited at the Great Exhibition. But he overreached, and the business failed disastrously in 1864, when Felkin retired to write standard works on the lace and hosiery trades.[4] His son and partner Robert Felkin Sr settled in Wolverhampton to take up a position as manager of the home department of Mander Brothers, varnish manufacturers. Robert Jr was educated at Wolverhampton Grammar School, where he met the explorer David Livingstone, who inspired him to become a medical missionary.[2][5]

Medical missionary in Africa

A caesarean section performed by indigenous healers in Kahura, Uganda. As observed by Felkin in 1879.

He worked for a period in Chemnitz, Germany, after his schooling, where his uncle Henry Felkin lived, and became fluent in the language.[6] In about 1876 he began studying medicine at the University of Edinburgh.[2] In 1878, as yet unlicensed, he joined a mission led by the Church Missionary Society to Central Africa. He travelled up the Nile to Khartoum, where he met General Gordon, and then on through what was then wild and unmapped country to the African Great Lakes. Eventually he spent two years in Africa, and became personal physician to King M’tesa, who had previously tried to kill him. In Zanzibar, he actively campaigned against the slave trade.[2][5] He published several articles on tropical medicine and childbirth in medical journals,[7] and also wrote Uganda and the Egyptian Soudan (1882, with Rev.C.T. Wilson), Egypt Present and To Come (1885), Uganda (1886), and other African works.[2]

In 1881, he returned to Edinburgh when his health deteriorated to complete his medical studies (LRCP, LRCS, Ed, 1884). While still a medical student he became a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, a Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society, a member of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and a corresponding Fellow of the Berlin Anthropological Society.[5]

First marriage and medical practice

In 1882 Felkin married his first wife, Mary ("Polly"), daughter of Samuel Small Mander of Wolverhampton, his father's employer, who had been a friend since childhood, and became a collaborator in both his esoteric work and his work for child welfare. They had a son (Samuel) Denys and a daughter, Ethelwyn (1883-1962), who was to publish on the legacy of the Golden Dawn under the name "Ethel Felkin".[2][6]

In 1884 he studied further in Marburg, acquiring his M.D. there in 1885. Following this he practiced as a doctor in Edinburgh for some years, returning to Africa and travelling frequently with his wife in Europe.[2][5][8]

Theosophy and the Golden Dawn

Mary and Robert seem to have been introduced to esotericism through a Bible study circle they joined in Edinburgh; other scriptures were discussed, including the Tao te ching and the Bhagavad Gita, and some members of the group were Theosophists. Robert and Mary joined the Theosophical Society in Edinburgh in 1886, but found it lacking in terms of ritual, and eventually joined John William Brodie-Innes' Amen-Ra Temple of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn on 1894-03-12.[2]

He continued to write and publish: he edited (with others) a collection of the letters and journals of Mehmet Emin Pasha, whom he had met (translated by Mary), which appeared in 1888, and published Hypnotism, or Psycho-Therapeutics in 1890.[9] Following a breakdown from strain and overwork he transferred his practice to London in 1896.[2]

In 1903 Mary died and Robert reinforced his commitment to both Anglican Christianity and occultism. He made a retreat at the monastery of the Mirfield fathers, the Community of the Resurrection, and considered joining the order. Several of the Mirfield fathers had an interest in Rosicrucian and Golden Dawn Christian mysticism, and regarded Felkin as an eminent figure in that tradition. One of these priests, Father Fitzgerald, would later play a key role in bring Felkin to New Zealand.[2]

Also in 1903, a schism occurred within the Order of the Golden Dawn, when Felkin and Brodie-Innes split from A.E. Waite to form the magically-inclined Order of the Stella Matutina. The poet W.B. Yeats joined the Stella Matutina and was a member for 20 years. Felkin’s main temple in London was called Amoun.[10]

The Sun Masters

From the time that Felkin assumed leadership of the Stella Matutina, he came increasingly under the influence of the "Sun Masters", the fabled Secret Chiefs of the Order, and other supposed adepts on the astral plane. Having these supposed contacts reinforced his position as leader in the order. Around 1908 he also claimed to have contacted an "Arab Teacher" called Ara Ben Shemesh ("Lion Son of the Sun"), one of the "Sons of Fire" inhabiting a Near Eastern "temple in the desert", who had been given special permission to contact and teach Western students.[2] His first contact with Ara Ben Shemesh seems to be recounted in A Wayfaring Man, which describes how a conversation between Felkin and Waite was interrupted by the appearance of a "shadowy presence". Felkin called for Harriet, who was clairvoyant, and she saw "a tall man in Eastern dress, kuftan, galabieh, and turban. He has a smooth olive face, and large dark eyes." Apparently this figure, described in the account as "the Chaldean", was seeking someone to help in uniting Eastern and Western teaching. Upon learning that he "believed in the Lord Jesus Christ", Felkin and Waite agreed to collaborate with him.[2]

Another mystical teacher was Sri Parananda, whom Felkin claimed to have first seen materialising out of steam at the Bad Pyrmont baths in Germany. This apparition, described as a dark Eastern man with a beard and large black eyes, wearing a flowing robe and a peculiar conical cap, arranged with Felkin to meet him in exactly one month in the lounge of the Carlton Hotel in London. According to Felkin their subsequent meeting in the flesh was the start of a series of conversations that lasted for several years.[2]

Freemasonry and Rosicrucianism

Felkin was initiated Freemasonry in Mary Chapel Lodge, Edinburgh, on 8 January 1907, was passed to the Fellow Craft degree on 12 February and raised to Master Mason on 26 February. On 11 April that same year he was admitted to the Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia (SRIA), Metropolitan College, to which only Master Masons are admitted. The officiating celebrant was Dr. W. Wynn Westcott, Supreme Magus of that society and co-founder of the Golden Dawn.

According to R. Ellwood, by the time Felkin first visited New Zealand in 1912 he was already a 32° Freemason, one of the highest to visit the country thus far.[2] But according to K. Edney of the New Zealand SRIA, Felkin's interest in Freemasonry was probably slight; he was never Master of the Lodge nor joined the Holy Royal Arch, and it is unlikely that he joined any higher degrees; his motive for joining Freemasonry and the SRIA seems to have been to gain credibility with continental occultists and contact members of the original Rosicrucian society.[11] Anna Sprengel, a member of this fabled German society of nearly god-like adepts, had allegedly warranted the founding of the Golden Dawn, and Felkin believed that she and her order still existed deep under cover in Germany, along with the tomb of Christian Rosencreutz. In search of this group he and Harriet travelled to Europe in 1906, 1910 and 1914, and on one of these trips he met with Rudolf Steiner and claimed to have contacted other Rosicrucian adepts. Felkin considered Steiner to be an extremely high initiate, and after their meeting incorporated elements of Anthroposophy into his practice, including homeopathy.[2][8][11]

During their 1914 trip the Felkins became stranded in Germany when Britain declared war on Germany on 4 August. Harriet's fictionalised account of his life suggests that he had been sent there on an urgent mission by the "Sun Master" Ara Ben Shemesh, despite all warnings of impending war. They managed to avoid arrest, and escaped the country via the neutral Netherlands with the help of German Masons.[2][11]

New Zealand

Felkin's grave

In 1912 Felkin, together with Harriet and Ethelwyn, visited Havelock North, New Zealand at the invitation of the Society of the Southern Cross. This was a prayer and meditation group closely involved with the "Havelock Work", an arts and spirituality movement embraced by the whole town. Reginald and Ruth Gardiner and Harold Large, founders of both the Havelock Work and the Society of the Southern Cross, believed that eastern methods of spiritual training such as Theosophy were unsuitable for westerners, but also felt that the Church had lost the esoteric teachings of Jesus and his disciples. They were determined to undergo rigorous training and initiation to merit learning those hidden teachings. These three had started daily meditations together, and were soon joined by Miss M. M. McLean and Reginald's sister, Miss Rose Gardiner. Reginald Gardiner considered the Havelock Work to be a cultural society "built around this silent power station". The meditation group grew, and began to incorporate simple ritual, calling itself the Society of the Southern Cross.[2]

In 1910 the Mirfield Fathers sent a mission of help to New Zealand, preaching and conducting retreats. Miss McLean, who had met Father Fitzgerald in Britain, arranged for him to meet members of the Havelock prayer group, and he agreed to direct their spiritual work from Britain. He instructed them in an esoteric approach to Christianity, but soon decided they had reached a stage where personal instruction was necessary for further progress, and he recommended Dr. Robert Felkin for the task. Within a week the group had cabled £300 passage, supplied by Maurice Chambers and his father, Mason, and his uncle John, for Felkin, Harriet and Ethelwyn to visit New Zealand for three months. During this visit in 1912 Dr Felkin established the Smaragdum Thallasses Temple of the Stella Matutina. The New Zealand Order became known by the Maori name of Whare Ra or "the House of the Sun". Foundations of the house at Whare Ra were laid down by the architect Chapman-Taylor, who later became a member of both the Golden Dawn and the Order of the Table Round (Ordo Tabulae Rotundae), a neo-Arthurian mystical and chivalric order also brought to New Zealand by Felkin.[2]

Back in England in 1916 Felkin was appointed Inspector General of colonial colleges for the Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia, although he seems never to have functioned in this capacity.[11] In that same year he also founded three more daughter-Temples of the Stella Matutina, together with a side-order, and claimed to found the Guild of St. Raphael.[12] He published on the theme of 'Rosicrucian medicine' [13] and, at the height of the German U-boat activity, emigrated permanently with his family to New Zealand, as his health broke down with recurrent malaria and other tropical diseases.[5]

One year later, in September 1917, Felkin wrote to William Westcott, one of the two major founders of the Golden Dawn, that the Smaragdum Thallassess Temple had twenty members in the Second Order, thirty-four in the First Order, and ten people waiting to join.[1]

Felkin become involved in the Bahá'í Faith, through his meeting with `Abdu'l-Bahá in London in 1911 at Lady Blomfield's. Felkin introduced Maurice Chambers to the Faith and presented him with two Bahá'í ring stones that Abdu'l-Baha had given him. Felkin may have had an article on the Bahá'í Faith published in a local newspaper,[14] although there had been an earlier article by British Baha'i Alice Buckton published circa 1909 in the Havelock Journal "The Forerunner".

Felkin spent the rest of his life in New Zealand, where he continued to practise as a consulting physician as well as a magician between bouts of ill health. His strong personality and clinical acumen, combined with a kind and generous nature brought him patients from far afield, including Australia. On 28 December 1926, he died at Havelock North, and was buried in the Havelock North cemetery facing the Whare Ra, wearing the cloak, mantle and purple cross of a Knight of the Ordo Tabulae Rotundae.[11] He was survived by his second wife Harriet, his daughter Ethelwyn, and two sons;[5] Harriet and Ethelwyn were later buried with him.[11]

See also

• Hermeticism
• Magic (paranormal)
• List of residents of Wolverhampton


1. Anon (2012). The Lantern Volume I (A Wayfaring Man Part I). Sub Rosa Press New Zealand. ISBN 978-0-473-23184-2.
2. Ellwood, Robert S. (1993). Islands of the Dawn: The Story of Alternative Spirituality in New Zealand. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-8248-1487-8.
3. 1881 Census Online
4. William Felkin
5. Dunn, Peter M. (1999) "Robert Felkin MD (1853-1926) and Caesarean delivery in Central Africa (1879)" in Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Edn 1999; 80:F250-F251 (May). Bristol.
6. Pegg, Patricia (1996). A Very Private Heritage: the private papers of Samuel Theodore Mander, 1853-1900. Malvern: Images Publishing.
7. Medical History 3, no. 1, London 1959, cited in Ellic Howe, Magicians of the Golden Dawn, p. 240 n. 2.
8. "Ancient Rose Cross Order: Our History and Transmission". Archived from the original on 16 January 2006. Retrieved 20 March 2007.
9. Shamdasani, 'Psychotherapy: the invention of a word' in History of the Human Sciences, 2005,18, 1
10. History of the Golden Dawn Archived 25 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine
11. Edney, Ken. Dr. Robert William Felkim and the S.R.I.A.. From the website of the Felkin College of the Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia, Napier, New Zealand. Retrieved 2007-03-29.
12. Colquhoun, Ithel (1975). The Sword of Wisdom: MacGregor Mathers and the Golden Dawn. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons. ISBN 0-85435-092-6.
13. Rosicrucian Medicine. Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia, London, 1916.
14. Arohanui, Introduction by Collis Featherstone.


• Christina M. Stoddard, Inquire Within: Light-bearers of Darkness (Boswell, London, 1930)
• Christina M. Stoddard, The Trail of the Serpent (Boswell, London, 1935)
• Ellic Howe, The Magicians of the Golden Dawn: A Documentary History of a Magical Order 1887-1923 (Samuel Weiser 1978). ISBN 0-87728-369-9.
• Mittal Shruti, ‘True Impression or False Perception? A glimpse of 19th-century African medicine through the eyes of Robert Felkin, medical student and missionary’ (DHMSA, 2004)
• Biography from Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia — Felkin College.
• Judy Siers, "The Life and Times of James-Walter Chapman-Taylor", Millwood Heritage Productions, 2007. esp 169-182.
• Anon, The Lantern Volume I (A Wayfaring Man Part I), Sub Rosa Press New Zealand, 2012. ISBN 978-0-473-23184-2 - a reprint of A Wayfaring Man and historical essay on the Stella Matutina in New Zealand.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Mon Dec 02, 2019 5:08 am

Havelock Work
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 12/1/19



The Havelock Work was an arts and spirituality movement in the small town of Havelock North, New Zealand, begun in 1907 by Reginald and Ruth Gardiner and Harold Large, and embraced by the whole town. It culminated in the founding of the Smaragdum Thalasses temple, better known as the Whare Ra, the longest-standing temple of the Stella Matutina magical order.[1]


In 1908 a meeting of over 100 people was held to discuss cultural affairs in nearby Frimley, with Reginald Gardner as one of the main speakers, resulting in the commencement of the "Havelock Work". The first meetings in 1908 were attended by only half a dozen to a dozen people and consisted of readings from Shakespeare and Dickens in a church schoolroom. From this developed social afternoons and Wednesday night talent shows, then carving and drama classes, flower and fruit shows and arts and crafts exhibitions. A morris dancing side was formed by school children, the first in the country.[1]


A series of elaborate festivals were held. In 1911 the Old English Village Fete was held, opening with a procession of over 100 men, women and children in medieval costume and carrying banners. "King Arthur" and his court presided over morris and folk dances, tourneys and playlets, and there were stalls selling refreshments and crafts. In 1912 an even more elaborate Shakespearean Pageant was held, opening with a grand procession including "Queen Elizabeth" and her court and retinue, as well as "Shakespeare" and his group of players. Entertainments included teas and games, sixteenth century songs and dances, music by the Hastings Town Band and other concerts, a production of Much Ado About Nothing, scenes from Twelfth Night and The Merchant of Venice, and Shakespearean games. That weekend a ball was held in Shakespearean costume.[1]


A magazine called The Forerunner was produced, with its first issue in 1909-03-01. It contained numerous spiritually-inclined and often Theosophically-inspired articles. The first issue stated "We all seek expression for the ideals that well up from time to time from the deeps of our eternal self". Describing the festivities, an article in one issue stated that "they aimed at cultivating a feeling for what is beautiful and true"; "behind the outward manifestation of things lay the ideal"; and "it is by the 'power of harmony and the deep power of joy that we see into the life of things'".[1]

The three prime organisers of the Work, the Gardiners and Harold Large, believed that eastern methods of spiritual training such as Theosophy were unsuitable for westerners, but also felt that the Church had lost the esoteric teachings of Jesus and his disciples. They were determined to undergo rigorous training and initiation to merit learning those hidden teachings. These three were the prime organisers of many of the town's public events, and also meditated together on a daily basis
, in which they were soon joined by Miss M. M. McLean and Reginald's sister, Miss Rose Gardiner. Reginald Gardiner considered the Havelock Work to be a cultural society "built around this silent power station". The meditation group grew, and began to incorporate simple ritual, calling itself the Society of the Southern Cross.[1]

Felkin and the Temple

In 1910 the Community of the Resurrection at Mirfield sent a mission of help to New Zealand, preaching and conducting retreats. One of the visiting priests was a Father Fitzgerald, whom Miss McLean had met in Britain, and she arranged for him to meet members of the Havelock prayer group. He agreed to be the director of their spiritual work from Britain. After a period of instruction, focussing on an esoteric approach to Christianity, Father Fitzgerald told the group that they had reached a level where personal instruction would be necessary, and he recommended a Dr. Robert Felkin for the task, who was the head of the Stella Matutina. Within a week the group had cabled £300 passage, supplied by Maurice Chambers and his father, Mason, and his uncle John, for Felkin and his family to visit New Zealand for three months. During this visit in 1912 Dr Felkin established the Smaragdum Thalasses Temple of the Stella Matutina, and later emigrated permanently to NZ in 1916, when he took up the day-to-day running of the Temple until his death in 1926.

Whare Ra

The New Zealand Order became known by the Maori name of Whare Ra or "the House of the Sun". Foundations of the house at Whare Ra were laid down by the architect Chapman-Taylor, who later became a member of both the Golden Dawn and the Order of the Table Round (Ordo Tabulae Rotundae), a neo-Arthurian mystical and chivalric order also brought to New Zealand by Felkin.[1]

The Whare Ra attracted many members of the community, and by 1926 the inner order alone had over 100 members including many of the most wealthy and influential people in Havelock North and Hastings. The outer order numbered over 200 at its peak.[1] It continued to operate until 1978.[1]

Another outcome of the Havelock Work, albeit via Whare Ra, was the establishment in 1938 of the Tauhara Trust, which set aside money for the development of a conference centre for spiritual groups, particularly those engaging in meditation, mysticism, the New Age and deep ecology. This conference centre continues to operate, overlooking Acacia Bay in Taupo.[1]


1. Ellwood, Robert S. (1993). Islands of the Dawn: The Story of Alternative Spirituality in New Zealand. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-8248-1487-8.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Mon Dec 02, 2019 5:11 am

Stella Matutina
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 12/1/19



8 August 1901.

There are not only 21 letters; 28 is the proper number. [Note: the normal number in the Enochian Alphabet.] I am standing in the midst of green and see two symbols which represent the whole alphabet. These two in addition make 30. The guide shows a huge world of green transparent – like marble with veins running through it. I stand upon it. Guide takes Wand and the pavement seems to glow with innumerable stars which group themselves in the form of letters of the Cypher. They form in 4 groups representing 4 Elements and then 2 which make the 30 represented. The 2 Elements are unknown to us at present. The other elements are Air [x], Fire [x], Water [x], and not exactly Earth [x]. The Earth here is a mingling of Air with Fire. Water [is] to have no representation here. I see represented a medium which encloses everything. It is Ether, but it seems more. I stand and the letters group themselves from a circle midway between Earth and Heaven, and I am told to count 4 from the order of the letters shown.

This is the order and form shown:


The missing ones refer to the Astral Ether. The Trinity controls the angle. Each corner of 3 letters represents an Archangel or ruler of a 4th part of the Heaven. The lost letters partly belong to the dominion of Lucifer and cannot all be given – not in this dispensation – nor to a human being. His Kingdom is waiting for his restoration


Lucifer, Son of the Morning [Stella Matutina]; his was the region of the Higher Ether.

-- The Enochian Experiments of the Golden Dawn, Enochian Alphabet Clairvoyantly Examined (Golden Dawn Studies No. 7

The Stella Matutina (Morning Star) was an initiatory magical order dedicated to the dissemination of the traditional teachings of the earlier Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn. Originally, the outer order of the Stella Matutina was known as Mystic Rose or Order of the M.R. in the Outer.[1] When occult author Israel Regardie released documents of the Golden Dawn to the public it was the teachings of the Stella Matutina that he revealed, not those of the original order. The Stella Matutina was one of several daughter organisations into which the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn fragmented, including the Alpha et Omega led by John William Brodie-Innes and Macgregor Mathers, the Isis-Urania Temple led by A.E. Waite, and others.


After a revolt of London Adepts against the then-head of the Order (Samuel MacGregor Mathers) in early 1900, the Order segmented into two new groups. Those who remained loyal to Mathers took on the name Alpha et Omega, while the London group took on the name Hermetic Society of the Morgenrothe. The latter group retained such members as Robert Felkin (a British doctor), John William Brodie-Innes, A.E. Waite, William Alexander Ayton, W.B. Yeats and others.[2]

The Morgenrothe had a very short existence before it, too, schismed into two groups. Those who were most interested in Christian Mysticism (led by A.E. Waite) took over the remnants of Isis-Urania, and formed the Independent and Rectified Rite of the Golden Dawn, and later the Fellowship of the Rosy Cross. Those from the Morgerothe who were more interested in occultism (led by Dr. Felkin) formed the group "Stella Matutina"- naming their Mother Temple "Amoun."[2]

The outer order was changed by Dr. Felkin and other members of the Golden Dawn based in London.[1] Among others who helped form Stella Matutina was J.W. Brodie-Innes, though he soon made peace with Mathers and left for the Alpha et Omega.[2][

The first gesture of independence brought a committee of twelve to govern for a year. Further developments forced them to realise that this was far from satisfactory.[3] With pettiness and further dispute, they abandoned every reform and went back to the original scheme of appointing three chiefs to lead and govern them.[4]

While visiting New Zealand in 1912, Dr. Felkin issued a Warrant for the Smaragdum Thallasses Temple No. 49 (commonly referred to as Whare Ra (Maori for "House of the Sun")), which operated in the basement of his purpose built home at Havelock North, in the Hawke's Bay Region. Felkin's visit was closely associated with the New Zealand Province of the Societas Rosicruciana.[5] The stay was supposed to be permanent, but Mr. Meakin, who was to take over as chief of the Amoun Temple, died in the autumn of 1912.[5] Felkin returned to England, but moved to New Zealand permanently in 1916.

During the next few years, Felkin established Hermes Lodge in Bristol, the Secret College in London, and Merlin Lodge, also in London.

The Amoun Temple of the Stella Matutina in London closed its doors in 1919.[6] due to two members becoming schizophrenic, one of whom, a clergyman, was later to die in a mental institution.[6]

In 1933, Israel Regardie joined the Hermes Temple in Bristol,[7] and resigned from Amoun Temple in 1934, finding it, according to him, in a state of low morale and decay. Many of the original Golden Dawn's Knowledge Lectures had been "removed or heavily amended, largely because they were beyond the capacity of the chiefs."[8] These same chiefs claimed "extraordinarily exalted" grades, but Regardie found them lacking. As an example, he recounted that no one in the temple knew how to play Enochian chess, in fact the Order's chess set had never been used.[8] He constructed his own boards and he challenged his superiors in the Order to play: all refused with excuses.[8]

By 1939, Stella Matutina became largely dormant, although the Hermes Temple continued until 1970. Whare Ra in New Zealand continued until 1978.[2][9]

Asserting independence

From the very beginning, Felkin believed that the Order must in fact gain contact with the Secret Chiefs by the use of astral work and communications which were received through either trance or automatic writing,[10] as well as his wish that there should be unity among the Rosicrucians. Great importance was given to these messages, which were coming in considerable numbers, some of which gave approval to make changes to the rituals.[10] Felkin constructed new rituals for the Stella Matutina, which included Adeptus Major, Adeptus Exemptus, and Magister Templi, all of which bear resemblance to the original Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Degree rituals of Ordo Templi Orientis before they were rewritten by Aleister Crowley.[5]

At this point, according to Francis King, the chiefs of the Amoun Temple were addicted to mediumship and astral travel. Their interpretation of the Golden Dawn techniques of astral projection and travel appears to have been derived from Florence Farr's Sphere group.[6]

There were two main astral entities contacted. The first group were Rosicrucian, in which at times the medium believed to be controlled by Christian Rosenkreuz himself. The second were called Arabs, said to be the teachers of the Rosicrucians.[6] The orders given by these "Arabs" had a substantial effect on the policies. For example, instructions received on January 9, 1915 was put into effect by the foundation of the Anglican spiritual healers organisation called the
Guild of St. Raphael, as Francis King notes, "were almost without exception, members of the Stella Matutina".[11] Recent documentary evidence, however, suggests King may have been mistaken and the Guild was not linked to Felkin (Chrism, 2006, p2)

Some Internet sources place the founding of the Guild by some of the members of the Stella Matutina, including Robert Felkin. There is little documentary evidence available to support this assertion outside of the book by Francis X. King, (1989), and he asserts that the Guild rapidly became completely separate from any of the practices of Stella Matutina. The available evidence suggests it never was connected.

Recent minutes (published in Chrism, 2006) show that the driving personalities behind the foundation of the Guild in 1915 were a Miss Caroline Biggs, recorded as Secretary of the newly formed Guild, with the Reverend Canon R. P. Roseveare of St Paul's Deptford, recorded as its first Warden.

-- Guild of St Raphael, by Wikipedia

Changing The Subject (Digression, Red Herring, Misdirection, False Emphasis):

this is sometimes used to avoid having to defend a claim, or to avoid making good on a promise. In general, there is something you are not supposed to notice.

For example, I got a bill which had a big announcement about how some tax had gone up by 5%, and the costs would have to be passed on to me. But a quick calculation showed that the increased tax was only costing me a dime, while a different part of the the bill had silently gone up by $10.

This is connected to various diversionary tactics, which may be obstructive, obtuse, or needling. For example, if you quibble about the meaning of some word a person used, they may be quite happy about being corrected, since that means they've derailed you, or changed the subject. They may pick nits in your wording, perhaps asking you to define "is". They may deliberately misunderstand you: "You said this happened five years before Hitler came to power. Why are you so fascinated with Hitler? Are you anti-Semitic?"

-- A List Of Fallacious Arguments, by Don Lindsay

25 July 1901.

The Temple seems Astral, i.e. Transparent and the building is self luminous. The walls of the chamber form the circle and the points of the Pentagram touch them. I face the [E]ast, (i.e., the Eastern point, the water angle). On [the] Eastern Point of [the] Pentagram I see a downward pointing triangle with [a] dot in the centre (apex of triangle down). The triangle expands into a luminous Angelic figure with the sign of the triangle upon its forehead (The part of the walls appears to have dissolves or become transparent as the vision proceeded.) Two sides of the triangle seem to be produced to the two corners of Heaven in two luminous rays which seem to embrace a fourth part of the Universe including the Astral and regions above it. The Rays become wider as they ascend. Influences like waves of light, which form Angels, descend to the point and then ascend from the apex up [as] waves of light. The Angle which stands on the point is the personification of the Influences and Lord of that Quarter of the Universe. The Influences descend from the point in the Heavens as wings and the undulating waves ascend – the latter are in 3 bands coloured Rose, White and Golden. The waves seem subdivided to 7 by bands of colours which intermingle. Starting from the foot of the Angel (where [the] apex now is) and forming itself inside the large triangle is a circle. I hear the words, “Raphael, Giver of Light.” Symbols of the nature of Libra [x] are round the triangle. One seems like a horse shoe thus. [x] [Mals] a horseshoe also with a bar across the horse. The symbols are in light in [the] centre of [the] circle just above the heads of the Angels....

Raphael seems to rule the right hand [or] N]orth]-E[ast] angle, Michael left [or] Western angle, Gabriel lower East angle, and Auriel at bottom lower angle to it. Each is an embodied essence of a manifestation of the Deity.

-- The Enochian Experiments of the Golden Dawn, Enochian Alphabet Clairvoyantly Examined (Golden Dawn Studies No. 7, part of Florence Farr, by Wikipedia

In 1910 the Community of the Resurrection at Mirfield sent a mission of help to New Zealand, preaching and conducting retreats. One of the visiting priests was a Father Fitzgerald, whom Miss McLean had met in Britain, and she arranged for him to meet members of the Havelock prayer group. He agreed to be the director of their spiritual work from Britain. After a period of instruction, focussing on an esoteric approach to Christianity, Father Fitzgerald told the group that they had reached a level where personal instruction would be necessary, and he recommended a Dr. Robert Felkin for the task, who was the head of the Stella Matutina. Within a week the group had cabled £300 passage, supplied by Maurice Chambers and his father, Mason, and his uncle John, for Felkin and his family to visit New Zealand for three months. During this visit in 1912 Dr Felkin established the Smaragdum Thalasses Temple of the Stella Matutina, and later emigrated permanently to NZ in 1916, when he took up the day-to-day running of the Temple until his death in 1926.

-- Havelock Work, by Wikipedia

Sacramentalists held a high view of the place of the sacraments in the ministry of healing. Their theology made them sensitive to the interpenetration of the spiritual and the material worlds, whereby spiritual reality finds expression in a tangible or visual form. The Incarnation is the most comprehensive expression of such interpenetration.84 The incarnational principle has its counterpart in the sacraments of the Eucharist (wine and bread) and Baptism (water) and Unction (oil), the benefits of which become available when approached in the right manner, and engaged in sincere intention. When such conditions are met, then the due performance of the act is deemed normally to convey divine grace. Such a view offers a framework for the continuation of divine activity in healing with the conveyance of divine succor through anointing with oil and the laying on of hands.85 Evelyn Frost in her classic study of Christian healing from this sacramental/liturgical angle, expressed it with precision: “The sacraments are the means by which the nature of the old order becomes interpenetrated and hence transformed by [the new order]… The church, then, in Holy Unction, has been entrusted with a sacrament which exists primarily for the sick in body and mind.”86 At the Anglican Conference on “Spiritual Healing,” Father J.G. FitzGerald, Community of the Resurrection, Mirfield, Yorkshire, expressed the view that healing is “the extension of the Incarnate Life in the Church.”87 With this understanding the body of Christ, the incarnational dimension of the Christian message, with its acute sense of divine “presence,” played a central role in the High Church understanding of spiritual healing.

The Guild of St. Raphael was formed in 1915, when the High Church members of Anson’s Guild of Health withdrew after it sought to expand beyond its Anglican roots. Another sticking point was the Guild of Health’s commitment to the alignment of religion with medicine and psychology, while less emphasis given to sacramental grace. The Guild of St. Raphael accentuated healing as mediated through the priesthood and the sacraments, without undue regard of the claims of modern psychology and, unlike the Emmanuel movement, did not limit itself to functional disorders. Its declared object was to forward a healing ministry both “by sacramental means and by intercessory prayer, until the Church, as a whole, accepts Divine Healing as part of its normal work.” The Guild started under the patronage of the two Archbishops and thirty English diocesan bishops as well as twenty-five overseas bishops. It adopted three measures: To prepare the sick for all ministries of healing by teaching the need for repentance and faith; to make use of the sacrament of Holy Unction and the rite of Laying on of Hands for healing; to bring to the aid of the Ministry of Healing the power of intercession, individual and corporate, and the other spiritual forces of Meditation and Silence.88 The administration of Holy Unction was confined to the priesthood, and then only after careful preparation of the patient that included teaching on the nature of repentance and faith. The Laying on of Hands, not being a sacrament, could be administered by lay members of the Guild under the direction of a priest or member of the Guild, and with the approval of the bishop of the diocese.

That the issue of unction was a pressing one for some readers of Confidence is hinted at in an article published in 1922. A letter writer wanted to know, with reference to Jas 5:14, what “form of procedure” Boddy used when anointing with oil.89 Boddy acknowledged that “it is admittedly a help with some to have their anointing in Church,” thinking perhaps of those from a High Church background. He made reference to a booklet that enclosed an order of service for healing that he considered some might find helpful. The booklet was written by Herbert Pakenham Walsh (1871-1951_, the first Bishop of Assam, India, to whom reference was made above. It is of some relevance that Walsh was the son of Bishop Willian Pakenham Walsh. The Bishop’s second wife was Annie Frances Hackett, the daughter of the vicar of St. James’s, Bray, Co. Dublin. The second Mrs. Walsh was the sister of Thomas Edmund Hackett (1850-1939), who followed his father as incumbent of St. James. Thomas Hackett retired in 1903 but his spiritual journey was not complete. After a Keswick-type experience c. 1906, he attended the first Pentecostal Sunderland Conference in 1907. It is likely that he received his Spirit-baptism in the classical Pentecostal understanding. It is eminently probable that with the friendship of Boddy and Hackett, the latter would have drawn attention to his nephew’s booklet. It carried the title Divine Healing (1921), and ended with the sixteen-page text of “A Service of Anointing.” Whether Boddy used Walsh’s liturgy is not clear, though possibly not, because he confessed that he felt it “rather long.” Despite that, he was prepared to recommend it to the writer of the letter.

Boddy made it clear that for individuals seeking healing it was preferable, if the sufferer was physically able, to meet in the Vicarage and not in the church. Ceremonial propriety was deliberately downplayed to keep faith with his evangelical churchmanship: “No robes[,]…[t]he sick one kneeling perhaps at the dining room table.” A tiny bottle of olive oil was ready, though he felt the need to explain that “only half a dozen drops or so were used,” as if to underscore evangelical minimalism. The ministration of the sick person began with family and friends kneeling, and the elder standing and seeking God “for the promised Presence.” The Jas 5:13=16 passage was then read, followed by the supplicant making confession of sins (v. 16). On one occasion a sufferer’s “trouble instantly disappeared” after his/her confession was made. In Boddy’s account, the elder then

rebukes the sickness, and all the evil powers behind the disease, (Luke 4:39), next placing the sufferer under the Precious Blood for cleansing…. Also [for] protection from all evil powers and for victory (Rev. 12:11). Thus the sick one is prepared to receive the Blessed Quickening Spirit, the Lord, and Giver of Life and Health, the Holy Ghost Himself. [Then], pouring a few drops of olive oil into his left palm, the Elder prays that God will graciously sanctify the oil, and that He will use it as a channel of spiritual blessing to the sufferer for Christ’s sake …. Then with a finger of his right hand dipped into the oil, he touches the forehead in the ‘Name of the Lord,’ and then in the full name of the Trinity, placing his left hand with the oil in it on the head of the sufferer, with such oil as remains. As in Mk. 16:18, he lays on both his hands, and asks that the hands of Christ – the Pierced Hands – may also rest on the sick one to impart His Life …. Then he asks the person to thank God and praise, and praise.90

The act concludes with the Aaronic Blessing, with the patient still kneeling the elder again placed his hands upon the head of the believer.

The whole procedure clearly was liturgically structured, sensitive to scriptural guidance and vindication, strongly affirming of the merits of the shed blood and the power of the Spirit, with an allusion to the sacramental efficacy of unction, expressed in the prayer that “God will graciously sanctify the oil, and He will use it as a channel of spiritual blessing.” The article was written in 1922, but he let it be known that the procedure outlined above had been followed since 1892. The more Pentecostal elements in the ceremony come out in the call for the patient “to thank God and praise and praise,” an act assuredly prolonged and volumetrically vibrant. Such was the sense of blessing on these occasions that he could report that “some at this service have received a Baptism of the Holy Ghost, when they came for healing.”

Two episodes in Boddy’s life are recorded in Confidence, where contact was made with healers with Anglo-Catholic sympathies, viz., John Maillard and Dorothy Kerin.

-- Divine Healing: The Years of Expansion, 1906–1930: Theological Variation in the Transatlantic World, by James Robinson

Felkin was not satisfied with astral meetings as he wished for physical contact with the Secret Chiefs. From 1901 onwards, he traveled extensively in hoping to meet authentic Rosicrucians.[12] In 1906, he believed he had found what he was looking for: a professor, his adopted daughter, and another gentleman, all who he believed were in fact Rosicrucians. The professors' adopted daughter had claimed to be the niece of Anna Sprengel (the Secret Chief who authorised the founding of the original Golden Dawn), and also claimed that her aunt was a member of the same organization as herself.[13]

The purported Rosicrucian group which Felkin had made contact with was led by Rudolf Steiner, founder of the Anthroposophical Society, and at that time, still head of the German section of the Theosophical Society. King explains that it didn't appear as though this group was Theosophical, nor did it appear to be any later form of Anthroposophy. He speculates that, since Steiner was at that time also the Austrian Chief of Ordo Templi Orientis, his first Rosicrucian grade bore resemblance to the original first Degree of O.T.O.[13]

Known members

• Robert Felkin - Frater Finem Respice: Imperator
• Harriet Felkin - Soror Quaestor Lucis
• Ethlewyn Felkin (daughter of Robert and Harriet Felkin)
• Mr. Meakin - Frater Ex Orient Lux
• Israel Regardie - Frater Ad Maiorem Adonai Gloriam
• Baron Walleen
• James Walter Chapman-Taylor
• W. B. Yeats - Irish poet and winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature
• Dion Fortune - Deo, non fortuna - writer and founder of the Society of the Inner Light
• Frank Metterton - Entertainer'

See also

• The Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, Inc.
• The Ordo Stella Matutina
• Universal Order of the Morning Star


1. King, 1989, page 96
2. "Golden Dawn Time Line". Llewellyn Encyclopedia.
3. Regardie, 1989, page 18
4. Regardie, 1989, page 19
5. King, 1989, page 106
6. King, 1989, page 127
7. Regardie, 1989, page 208
8. King, 1989, page 154
9. Gilbert, 1986,
10. King, 1989, page 97
11. King, 1989, page 129
12. King, 1989, page 98
13. King, 1989, page 99


• Gilbert, R. A. Golden Dawn Companion. Aquarian Press, 1986. ISBN 0-85030-436-9
• King, Francis (1989). Modern Ritual Magic: The Rise of Western Occultism. Avery Publishing Group. ISBN 1-85327-032-6
• Regardie, Israel (1993). What you should know about the Golden Dawn (6th edition). New Falcon Publications. ISBN 1-56184-064-5
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Mon Dec 02, 2019 5:14 am

Stella Matutina (Jesuit school)
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 12/1/19



8 August 1901.

There are not only 21 letters; 28 is the proper number. [Note: the normal number in the Enochian Alphabet.] I am standing in the midst of green and see two symbols which represent the whole alphabet. These two in addition make 30. The guide shows a huge world of green transparent – like marble with veins running through it. I stand upon it. Guide takes Wand and the pavement seems to glow with innumerable stars which group themselves in the form of letters of the Cypher. They form in 4 groups representing 4 Elements and then 2 which make the 30 represented. The 2 Elements are unknown to us at present. The other elements are Air [x], Fire [x], Water [x], and not exactly Earth [x]. The Earth here is a mingling of Air with Fire. Water [is] to have no representation here. I see represented a medium which encloses everything. It is Ether, but it seems more. I stand and the letters group themselves from a circle midway between Earth and Heaven, and I am told to count 4 from the order of the letters shown.

This is the order and form shown:


The missing ones refer to the Astral Ether. The Trinity controls the angle. Each corner of 3 letters represents an Archangel or ruler of a 4th part of the Heaven. The lost letters partly belong to the dominion of Lucifer and cannot all be given – not in this dispensation – nor to a human being. His Kingdom is waiting for his restoration


Lucifer, Son of the Morning [Stella Matutina]; his was the region of the Higher Ether.

-- The Enochian Experiments of the Golden Dawn, Enochian Alphabet Clairvoyantly Examined (Golden Dawn Studies No. 7

[W]e should review some of the bizarre beliefs and airy stereotypes that Westerners have held about Tibetans for the last four hundred years. Martin Brauen's book Dreamworld Tibet catalogs many of these, complete with illustrations. Let us take a quick sample: The first Jesuit missionaries, Father Antonio de Andrade and Father Manuel Marques, traveled to Tibet in the seventeenth century, as they believed, to reestablish contact with an isolated pocket of Nestorian Christians who had been brought into the fold by the mythical Prester John and place them under the umbrella of Rome.

-- Buddha's Not Smiling: Uncovering Corruption at the Heart of Tibetan Buddhism Today, by Erik D. Curren

Stella Matutina
Stella Matutina in Feldkirch
Feldkirch, Austria
Established 1651; 368 years ago
Closed 1979
Affiliation Jesuit (Catholic)

Stella Matutina in Feldkirch, Austria, was a Jesuit school that operated in 1651–1773, 1856–1938, and 1946–1979.

History, scholarship, international flair

The “Kolleg” began in 1649 but opened formally in 1651. In 1773, when Pope Clement XIV discontinued the order of the Society of Jesus, the school closed.[1] It was reopened under Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria in 1856 with the support of Pope Pius IX in Feldkirch by Fr. Clemens Faller, S.J.


It contains in it, after the Preparatory Prayer and two Preludes, five Points and one Colloquy:

Prayer. Let the Preparatory Prayer be the usual one.

First Prelude. The first Prelude is the composition, which is here to see with the sight of the imagination the length, breadth and depth of Hell.

Second Prelude. The second, to ask for what I want: it will be here to ask for interior sense of the pain which the damned suffer, in order that, if, through my faults, I should forget the love of the Eternal Lord, at least the fear of the pains may help me not to come into sin.

First Point. The first Point will be to see with the sight of the imagination the great fires, and the souls as in bodies of fire.

Second Point. The second, to hear with the ears wailings, howlings, cries, blasphemies against Christ our Lord and against all His Saints.

Third Point. The third, to smell with the smell smoke, sulphur, dregs and putrid things.

Fourth Point. The fourth, to taste with the taste bitter things, like tears, sadness and the worm of conscience.

Fifth Point. The fifth, to touch with the touch; that is to say, how the fires touch and burn the souls.



... Second Addition. The second: When I wake up, not giving place to any other thought, to turn my attention immediately to what I am going to contemplate in the first Exercise, at midnight, bringing myself to confusion for my so many sins, setting examples, as, for instance, if a knight found himself before his king and all his court, ashamed and confused at having much offended him, from whom he had first received many gifts and many favors: in the same way, in the second Exercise, making myself a great sinner and in chains; that is to say going to appear bound as in chains before the Supreme Eternal Judge; taking for an example how prisoners in chains and already deserving death, appear before their temporal judge. And I will dress with these thoughts or with others, according to the subject matter....

Sixth Addition. The sixth: Not to want to think on things of pleasure or joy, such as heavenly glory, the Resurrection, etc. Because whatever consideration of joy and gladness hinders our feeling pain and grief and shedding tears for our sins: but to keep before me that I want to grieve and feel pain, bringing to memory rather Death and Judgment.

Seventh Addition. The seventh: For the same end, to deprive myself of all light, closing the blinds and doors while I am in the room, if it be not to recite prayers, to read and eat.

Eighth Addition. The eighth: Not to laugh nor say a thing provocative of laughter.

Ninth Addition. The ninth: To restrain my sight, except in receiving or dismissing the person with whom I have spoken.

Tenth Addition. The tenth Addition is penance. This is divided into interior and exterior. The interior is to grieve for one’s sins, with a firm purpose of not committing them nor any others. The exterior, or fruit of the first, is chastisement for the sins committed, and is chiefly taken in three ways.

First Way. The first is as to eating. That is to say, when we leave off the superfluous, it is not penance, but temperance. It is penance when we leave off from the suitable; and the more and more, the greater and better -- provided that the person does not injure himself, and that no notable illness follows.

Second Way. The second, as to the manner of sleeping. Here too it is not penance to leave off the superfluous of delicate or soft things, but it is penance when one leaves off from the suitable in the manner: and the more and more, the better -- provided that the person does not injure himself and no notable illness follows. Besides, let not anything of the suitable sleep be left off, unless in order to come to the mean, if one has a bad habit of sleeping too much.

Third Way. The third, to chastise the flesh, that is, giving it sensible pain, which is given by wearing haircloth or cords or iron chains next to the flesh, by scourging or wounding oneself, and by other kinds of austerity.

Note. What appears most suitable and most secure with regard to penance is that the pain should be sensible in the flesh and not enter within the bones, so that it give pain and not illness. For this it appears to be more suitable to scourge oneself with thin cords, which give pain exteriorly, rather than in another way which would cause notable illness within.


Take, Lord, and receive all my liberty, my memory, my intellect, and all my will -- all that I have and possess. Thou gavest it to me: to Thee, Lord, I return it! All is Thine, dispose of it according to all Thy will. Give me Thy love and grace, for this is enough for me.



First Rule. The first Rule: In the persons who go from mortal sin to mortal sin, the enemy is commonly used to propose to them apparent pleasures, making them imagine sensual delights and pleasures in order to hold them more and make them grow in their vices and sins. In these persons the good spirit uses the opposite method, pricking them and biting their consciences through the process of reason.

Second Rule. The second: In the persons who are going on intensely cleansing their sins and rising from good to better in the service of God our Lord, it is the method contrary to that in the first Rule, for then it is the way of the evil spirit to bite, sadden and put obstacles, disquieting with false reasons, that one may not go on; and it is proper to the good to give courage and strength, consolations, tears, inspirations and quiet, easing, and putting away all obstacles, that one may go on in well doing.

Third Rule. The third: OF SPIRITUAL CONSOLATION. I call it consolation when some interior movement in the soul is caused, through which the soul comes to be inflamed with love of its Creator and Lord; and when it can in consequence love no created thing on the face of the earth in itself, but in the Creator of them all....

Fourth Rule. The fourth: OF SPIRITUAL DESOLATION. I call desolation all the contrary of the third rule, such as darkness of soul, disturbance in it, movement to things low and earthly, the unquiet of different agitations and temptations, moving to want of confidence, without hope, without love, when one finds oneself all lazy, tepid, sad, and as if separated from his Creator and Lord. Because, as consolation is contrary to desolation, in the same way the thoughts which come from consolation are contrary to the thoughts which come from desolation.

Fifth Rule. The fifth: In time of desolation never to make a change; but to be firm and constant in the resolutions and determination in which one was the day preceding such desolation, or in the determination in which he was in the preceding consolation. Because, as in consolation it is rather the good spirit who guides and counsels us, so in desolation it is the bad, with whose counsels we cannot take a course to decide rightly.

Sixth Rule. The sixth: Although in desolation we ought not to change our first resolutions, it is very helpful intensely to change ourselves against the same desolation, as by insisting more on prayer, meditation, on much examination, and by giving ourselves more scope in some suitable way of doing penance.

Seventh Rule. The seventh: Let him who is in desolation consider how the Lord has left him in trial in his natural powers, in order to resist the different agitations and temptations of the enemy; since he can with the Divine help, which always remains to him, though he does not clearly perceive it: because the Lord has taken from him his great fervor, great love and intense grace, leaving him, however, grace enough for eternal salvation.

Eighth Rule. The eighth: Let him who is in desolation labor to be in patience, which is contrary to the vexations which come to him: and let him think that he will soon be consoled, employing against the desolation the devices, as is said in the sixth Rule.

Ninth Rule. The ninth: There are three principal reasons why we find ourselves desolate.

The first is, because of our being tepid, lazy or negligent in our spiritual exercises; and so through our faults, spiritual consolation withdraws from us.

The second, to try us and see how much we are and how much we let ourselves out in His service and praise without such great pay of consolation and great graces.

The third, to give us true acquaintance and knowledge, that we may interiorly feel that it is not ours to get or keep great devotion, intense love, tears, or any other spiritual consolation, but that all is the gift and grace of God our Lord, and that we may not build a nest in a thing not ours, raising our intellect into some pride or vainglory, attributing to us devotion or the other things of the spiritual consolation.

Tenth Rule. The tenth: Let him who is in consolation think how he will be in the desolation which will come after, taking new strength for then.

Eleventh Rule. The eleventh: Let him who is consoled see to humbling himself and lowering himself as much as he can, thinking how little he is able for in the time of desolation without such grace or consolation.

On the contrary, let him who is in desolation think that he can do much with the grace sufficient to resist all his enemies, taking strength in his Creator and Lord.

Twelfth Rule. The twelfth: The enemy acts like a woman, in being weak against vigor and strong of will. Because, as it is the way of the woman when she is quarrelling with some man to lose heart, taking flight when the man shows her much courage: and on the contrary, if the man, losing heart, begins to fly, the wrath, revenge, and ferocity of the woman is very great, and so without bounds; in the same manner, it is the way of the enemy to weaken and lose heart, his temptations taking flight, when the person who is exercising himself in spiritual things opposes a bold front against the temptations of the enemy, doing diametrically the opposite. And on the contrary, if the person who is exercising himself commences to have fear and lose heart in suffering the temptations, there is no beast so wild on the face of the earth as the enemy of human nature in following out his damnable intention with so great malice.

Thirteenth Rule. The thirteenth: Likewise, he acts as a licentious lover in wanting to be secret and not revealed. For, as the licentious man who, speaking for an evil purpose, solicits a daughter of a good father or a wife of a good husband, wants his words and persuasions to be secret, and the contrary displeases him much, when the daughter reveals to her father or the wife to her husband his licentious words and depraved intention, because he easily gathers that he will not be able to succeed with the undertaking begun: in the same way, when the enemy of human nature brings his wiles and persuasions to the just soul, he wants and desires that they be received and kept in secret; but when one reveals them to his good Confessor or to another spiritual person that knows his deceits and evil ends, it is very grievous to him, because he gathers, from his manifest deceits being discovered, that he will not be able to succeed with his wickedness begun.

Fourteenth Rule. The fourteenth: Likewise, he behaves as a chief bent on conquering and robbing what he desires: for, as a captain and chief of the army, pitching his camp, and looking at the forces or defences of a stronghold, attacks it on the weakest side, in like manner the enemy of human nature, roaming about, looks in turn at all our virtues, theological, cardinal and moral; and where he finds us weakest and most in need for our eternal salvation, there he attacks us and aims at taking us.



First Rule. The first: It is proper to God and to His Angels in their movements to give true spiritual gladness and joy, taking away all sadness and disturbance which the enemy brings on. Of this latter it is proper to fight against the spiritual gladness and consolation, bringing apparent reasons, subtleties and continual fallacies.

Second Rule. The second: It belongs to God our Lord to give consolation to the soul without preceding cause, for it is the property of the Creator to enter, go out and cause movements in the soul, bringing it all into love of His Divine Majesty. I say without cause: without any previous sense or knowledge of any object through which such consolation would come, through one’s acts of understanding and will.

Third Rule. The third: With cause, as well the good Angel as the bad can console the soul, for contrary ends: the good Angel for the profit of the soul, that it may grow and rise from good to better, and the evil Angel, for the contrary, and later on to draw it to his damnable intention and wickedness.

Fourth Rule. The fourth: It is proper to the evil Angel, who forms himself under the appearance of an angel of light, to enter with the devout soul and go out with himself: that is to say, to bring good and holy thoughts, conformable to such just soul, and then little by little he aims at coming out drawing the soul to his covert deceits and perverse intentions.

Fifth Rule. The fifth: We ought to note well the course of the thoughts, and if the beginning, middle and end is all good, inclined to all good, it is a sign of the good Angel; but if in the course of the thoughts which he brings it ends in something bad, of a distracting tendency, or less good than what the soul had previously proposed to do, or if it weakens it or disquiets or disturbs the soul, taking away its peace, tranquillity and quiet, which it had before, it is a clear sign that it proceeds from the evil spirit, enemy of our profit and eternal salvation.

Sixth Rule. The sixth: When the enemy of human nature has been perceived and known by his serpent’s tail and the bad end to which he leads on, it helps the person who was tempted by him, to look immediately at the course of the good thoughts which he brought him at their beginning, and how little by little he aimed at making him descend from the spiritual sweetness and joy in which he was, so far as to bring him to his depraved intention; in order that with this experience, known and noted, the person may be able to guard for the future against his usual deceits.

Seventh Rule. The seventh: In those who go on from good to better, the good Angel touches such soul sweetly, lightly and gently, like a drop of water which enters into a sponge; and the evil touches it sharply and with noise and disquiet, as when the drop of water falls on the stone.

And the above-said spirits touch in a contrary way those who go on from bad to worse.

The reason of this is that the disposition of the soul is contrary or like to the said Angels. Because, when it is contrary, they enter perceptibly with clatter and noise; and when it is like, they enter with silence as into their own home, through the open door.

Eighth Rule. The eighth: When the consolation is without cause, although there be no deceit in it, as being of God our Lord alone, as was said; still the spiritual person to whom God gives such consolation, ought, with much vigilance and attention, to look at and distinguish the time itself of such actual consolation from the following, in which the soul remains warm and favored with the favor and remnants of the consolation past; for often in this second time, through one’s own course of habits and the consequences of the concepts and judgments, or through the good spirit or through the bad, he forms various resolutions and opinions which are not given immediately by God our Lord, and therefore they have need to be very well examined before entire credit is given them, or they are put into effect.



Let the following Rules be observed.

First Rule. The first: All judgment laid aside, we ought to have our mind ready and prompt to obey, in all, the true Spouse of Christ our Lord, which is our holy Mother the Church Hierarchical.

Second Rule. The second: To praise confession to a Priest, and the reception of the most Holy Sacrament of the Altar once in the year, and much more each month, and much better from week to week, with the conditions required and due.

Third Rule. The third: To praise the hearing of Mass often, likewise [40] hymns, psalms, and long prayers, in the church and out of it; likewise the hours set at the time fixed for each Divine Office and for all prayer and all Canonical Hours.

Fourth Rule. The fourth: To praise much Religious Orders, virginity and continence, and not so much marriage as any of these.

Fifth Rule. The fifth: To praise vows of Religion, of obedience, of poverty, of chastity and of other perfections of supererogation. And it is to be noted that as the vow is about the things which approach to Evangelical perfection, a vow ought not to be made in the things which withdraw from it, such as to be a merchant, or to be married, etc.

Sixth Rule. To praise relics of the Saints, giving veneration to them and praying to the Saints; and to praise Stations, pilgrimages, Indulgences, pardons, Cruzadas, and candles lighted in the churches.

Seventh Rule. To praise Constitutions about fasts and abstinence, as of Lent, Ember Days, Vigils, Friday and Saturday; likewise penances, not only interior, but also exterior.

Eighth Rule. To praise the ornaments and the buildings of churches; likewise images, and to venerate them according to what they represent.

Ninth Rule. Finally, to praise all precepts of the Church, keeping the mind prompt to find reasons in their defence and in no manner against them.

Tenth Rule. We ought to be more prompt to find good and praise as well the Constitutions and recommendations as the ways of our Superiors. Because, although some are not or have not been such, to speak against them, whether preaching in public or discoursing before the common people, would rather give rise to fault-finding and scandal than profit; and so the people would be incensed against their Superiors, whether temporal or spiritual. So that, as it does harm to speak evil to the common people of Superiors in their absence, so it can make profit to speak of the evil ways to the persons themselves who can remedy them.

Eleventh Rule. To praise positive and scholastic learning. Because, as it is more proper to the Positive Doctors, as St. Jerome, St. Augustine and St. Gregory, etc., to move the heart to love and serve God our Lord in everything; so it is more proper to the Scholastics, as St. Thomas, St. Bonaventure, and to the Master of the Sentences, etc., to define or explain for our times the things necessary for eternal salvation; and to combat and explain better all errors and all fallacies. For the Scholastic Doctors, as they are more modern, not only help themselves with the true understanding of the Sacred Scripture and of the Positive and holy Doctors, but also, they being enlightened and clarified by the Divine virtue, help themselves by the Councils, Canons and Constitutions of our holy Mother the Church.

Twelfth Rule. We ought to be on our guard in making comparison of those of us who are alive to the blessed passed away, because error is committed not a little in this; that is to say, in saying, this one knows more than St. Augustine; he is another, or greater than, St. Francis; he is another St. Paul in goodness, holiness, etc.

Thirteenth Rule. To be right in everything, we ought always to hold that the white which I see, is black, if the Hierarchical Church so decides it, believing that between Christ our Lord, the Bridegroom, and the Church, His Bride, there is the same Spirit which governs and directs us for the salvation of our souls. Because by the same Spirit and our Lord Who gave the ten Commandments, our holy Mother the Church is directed and governed.

Fourteenth Rule. Although there is much truth in the assertion that no one can save himself without being predestined and without having faith and grace; we must be very cautious in the manner of speaking and communicating with others about all these things.

Fifteenth Rule. We ought not, by way of custom, to speak much of predestination; but if in some way and at some times one speaks, let him so speak that the common people may not come into any error, as sometimes happens, saying: Whether I have to be saved or condemned is already determined, and no other thing can now be, through my doing well or ill; and with this, growing lazy, they become negligent in the works which lead to the salvation and the spiritual profit of their souls.

Sixteenth Rule. In the same way, we must be on our guard that by talking much and with much insistence of faith, without any distinction and explanation, occasion be not given to the people to be lazy and slothful in works, whether before faith is formed in charity or after.

Seventeenth Rule. Likewise, we ought not to speak so much with insistence on grace that the poison of discarding liberty be engendered.

So that of faith and grace one can speak as much as is possible with the Divine help for the greater praise of His Divine Majesty, but not in such way, nor in such manners, especially in our so dangerous times, that works and free will receive any harm, or be held for nothing.

Eighteenth Rule. Although serving God our Lord much out of pure love is to be esteemed above all; we ought to praise much the fear of His Divine Majesty, because not only filial fear is a thing pious and most holy, but even servile fear -- when the man reaches nothing else better or more useful -- helps much to get out of mortal sin. And when he is out, he easily comes to filial fear, which is all acceptable and grateful to God our Lord: as being at one with the Divine Love.

-- The Spiritual Exercises of St. Ignatius of Loyola

Students came from today’s Austria, Hungary, Poland, Czech Republic, Italy, Croatia, and also Germany, France, England, Switzerland, and the USA. The highly-international teacher and student body flourished there until the outbreak of World War I.[2] The conversational language was Latin.

The Stella Matutina scholars were well-known at the time. Achille Ratti, later Pope Pius XI, and Ludwig von Pastor went to Feldkirch to conduct joint research with Jesuit professors of the Stella.[3] The Jesuit professors were expected to publish in their respective fields and not a few of them taught at the Gregorian University before or after their time at the Stella. A 1931 volume of 26 publications shows a wide range of topics, from theology to law and natural sciences.[4] After the outbreak of World War I, the Stella lost much of its international flair[2] and educated mainly students from German-speaking countries, including much of the Catholic aristocracy.

The religious spirit of Stella Matutina manifested itself in occupational choices after graduation. Over twenty of the graduates (1896–1938) entered the priesthood, in many cases the Jesuits. It operated until 1938, when the Nazis forced the closing of the school.[5] With the help of French occupation forces, headed by a former student, Stella Matutina reopened in 1946 and continued until 1979. Today the building houses the Vorarlberger Landeskonservatorium, with over 400 students of music.

Stilts game and soccer

According to Feldkirch authorities, in the late 19th century, English students introduced soccer to the Stella and thus to Austria.[6] This is debatable. From 1856 on, sports at the Stella was dominated by the now defunct stilts game, "soccer on stilts". The stilts, usually made from wood, were relatively short. They reached "with a transverse grab handle up to the middle of the thigh ... where they were clasped with a firm grip." Arm and leg muscles were activated by running on stilts and particularly by striking the ball with them.[2]:18

On the playground there was ... only a gang of savage boys who, a big stalk in each hand, fought like possessed for a leather ball. ... There were some real masters among us, at home on the stalks just as on their own legs. ... As far as I am concerned, I was soon able to overtake in a race a good foot runner, to take obstacles jumping, to hop on one stalk - the other one swinging - across the whole width of the yard.[7]

Since the stilt "was played with fanaticism", there were dangerous wounds – broken legs, lost teeth, etc. – and there were always quarrels among the players, who had the habit of hitting each other with the stilts. Because of these violent consequences, the stilts game was forbidden at the Stella Matutina and the "entombment of the stilts did not take place without streams of tears." The students went on strike, and the Jesuits permitted the less violent soccer version to be played. Unlike today's soccer, the players were allowed to use hands and there was no referee.[8]

Not only soccer was popular. The pride of the school was a larger-than-Olympic size indoor pool, which was completed in 1912, the only one in Austria-Hungary at the time. A delegation from the ministry in Vienna complained in 1912 that there is no other school in Austria with an indoor pool, not to mention such a large one.[9] Ninety minutes were available in the afternoon on a daily basis for sports. The students had six large play grounds, which were converted for ice skating and hockey in winter.[10]

Famous faculty and alumni

Alfred Delp, SJ

Stella Matutina had a series of well known professors and educators;[7] among them, hymnodist and hymnoogist Joseph Hermann Mohr, Franz Xavier Wernz, the General of the Jesuit Order; the Swiss theologian Hans Urs von Balthasar; Cardinal Franz Ehrle, Professor and Rector of Innsbruck University; Hugo Rahner; social reformer Pesch; Max Pribilla and Erich Przywara, liberal authors; Otto Faller, Papal advisor, scholar and superior; Johann Georg Hagen, Jesuit priest and astronomer; Niklaus Brantschen, Zen master, author, and founder of the Lassalle-Institute; Michael Czinkota, Professor of International Business Economics at Georgetown University (Washington, D.C.);[11] Thomas Baumer, Swiss interculturalist and personality assessor; and Arthur Conan Doyle, the Scottish physician and writer.[12] Other notable characters include Alfred Delp and Alois Grimm, resistance fighters against the Nazis and martyrs; others survived concentration camps, including Friedrich Muckermann, Augustin Rösch, and professors Oswald von Nell-Breuning and Rudolf Cornely. Some professors and educators were previous students, such as Jesuit General Franz Xavier Wernz, Cardinal Franz Ehrle, and Professor Johann Baptist Singenberger.[7] Other Stella Matutina students include Aloys Prinz zu Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rosenberg, President of the German Catholic Association; "The Lion of Münster", Blessed Cardinal Clemens August Graf von Galen; Kurt Schuschnigg, last Chancellor of Austria before Hitler's take-over in 1938; and Heiner Geißler.


Director Otto Faller, left (1924-1934)), and Generalpräfekt Augustin Rösch, right (1929-1935) headed Stella Matutina

• Alex Blöchlinger SJ Die Bewegte Geschichte des Kollegs Stella Matutina von 1856–1938 und 1946–1979; Illustrierte Buchausgabe: Bucher Verlag, Hohenems 2006, 155 Seiten, ISBN 978-3-902525-52-9
• Otto Faller SJ 25 Jahre Kolleg St.Blasien, in: "Kollegbrief 1959" Kolleg St. Blasien (Hrsg), St. Blasien 1959, Seiten 20–25
• Albert Heitlinger SJ Über alte Jesuitenkollegien und ihre Pädagogik in: "Kollegbrief Weihnachten 1954" Kolleg St. Blasien (Hrsg), St. Blasien 1954
• Josef Knünz SJ 100 Jahre Stella Matutina 1856–1956 J.N.Teutsch, Bregenz 1956
• Alois Koch SJ, Play and Sport at the Jesuit College "Stella Matutina" in Feldkirch, Published in: W. Schwank (and others ed.): Begegnung. Schriftenreihe zur Geschichte der Beziehung zwischen Christentum und Sport, volume 4. Aachen 2003
• Josef Stiglmayr SJ Festschrift zur Feier des Fünfzigjährigen Pensionats U L F Stella Matutina in Feldkirch Feldkirch, Austria, 1906
• Stella Matutina (Hrsg.) 75 Jahre Stella Matutina Band 1-3; Selbstverlag, Feldkirch, Austria, 1931; Band I: Abhandlungen von Mitgliedern des Lehrkörpers; Band II: Abhandlungen von ehemaligen Zöglingen; Band III: Stellazeiten und Stellaleben, geschildert von Zöglingen mit 103 Bildtafeln
• Stella Matutina Jahresberichte, Stella Matutina Feldkirch, (annual reports)
• Anton Ludewig SJ Briefe und Akten zur Geschichte des Gymnasiums und des Kollegs der Gesellschaft Jesu in Feldkirch (1649–1773) in: Jahresberichten des Privatgymnasiums Stella Matutina (1908–1911)

See also

Stella Matutina College of Education in Chennai, India


1. Josef Knünz SJ 100 Jahre Stella Matutina 1856-1956 J.N.Teutsch, Bregenz 1956; p.10
2. Josef Knünz SJ 100 Jahre Stella Matutina 1856-1956 J.N.Teutsch, Bregenz 1956; p.178
3. Stella Matutina (Hrsg.), introduction Band III: Stellazeiten und Stellaleben, geschildert von Zöglingen mit 103 Bildtafeln V
4. Stella Matutina (Hrsg.), introduction Band I Abhandlungen von Mitgliedern des Lehrkörpers
5. Josef Knünz SJ 100 Jahre Stella Matutina 1856-1956 J.N.Teutsch, Bregenz 1956; pp. 180, 149
6. de:Feldkirch#Wiege des .C3.B6sterreichischen Fu.C3.9Fballs
7. Index of Names, Stella Matutina (ed.) 75 Jahre Stella Matutina Band III: Stellazeiten und Stellaleben, geschildert von Zöglingen mit 103 Bildtafeln
8. Alois Koch, Play and Sport at the Jesuit College "Stella Matutina" in Feldkirch, p.19
9. Stella Matutina Jahresbericht 1912, p. 31
10. Stella Matutina Jahresbericht, 1909, p. 29
11. Liechtenstein Embassy Newsletter (Fall 2007)
12. Holmes at Stella Matutina. In:, 15. Mai 2009
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