Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

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John Claude White
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 2/2/20

John Claude White around 1908

John Claude White (1 October 1853 – 1918) CIE was an engineer, photographer, author and civil servant in British India.

Early life

The son of army surgeon John White (1871-1920) and Louise Henriette (Claude) Pfeffer White, he was born in Calcutta (now Kolkata), India. His education included a period at Rugby School for six months in 1868. White later studied at the Royal Indian Engineering College in Cooper's Hill, Surrey before joining the Bengal Public Works Department as Assistant Engineer in 1876.[1]

India and Sikkim

White originally worked in Bengal, Nepal and Darjeeling. In 1883, he was assigned to the British Residency in Kathmandu, Nepal where he photographed the architecture and monuments.[2] He was appointed Political Officer in the north east Indian Kingdom of Sikkim in 1889.[1] He became chairman of the council that advised Sikkim's Chogyal Thutob Namgyal whereafter he reorganised Sikkim's administration before going on to order land and mineral surveys and develop unused wasteland. He also established a forestry department and the first police post in Aritar as well as introduced English apple cultivation in the northern towns of Lachung and Lachen.[3]

Following the 1890-1893 Convention of Calcutta signed by Britain and Qing dynasty China, White was despatched to Yatong at the foot of the Chumbi Valley in Tibet to assess the trade situation at the new outpost. He subsequently reported that although the Chinese were friendly towards him, they "had no authority whatever" and were unable to control the Tibetans. White concluded that "China was suzerain over Tibet only in name".[4]

In 1903, under orders from Viceroy of India Lord Curzon, White became Deputy Commissioner of the Tibet Frontier Commission under Francis Younghusband, a Political Officer on secondment to the British Army,[5] which led the 1903-04 British expedition to Tibet. The putative aim of the expedition was to settle disputes over the Sikkim-Tibet border but in reality it became (by exceeding instructions from London) a de facto invasion of Tibet. White was unhappy with his secondment to the mission as he would lose the benefits of his current role and went so far as to cable Viceroy Lord Curzon and Indian Army Commander-in-Chief Lord Kitchener to have the order cancelled. Younghusband saw this as insubordination, as did his masters in Shimla, and the appointment was confirmed. Younghusband would have his revenge for White's truculence when he later left him in the leech-infested jungles of Sikkim to arrange mule and coolie transport to Tibet.[5]

White is claimed to have been the only member of the Tibet expedition permitted to photograph Lhasa's monasteries.[2]

He made five trips to Bhutan and in 1907 photographed the coronation of the country's first king.[2]

Personal life

On 12 September 1876, before departing for India, White married his distant cousin Jessie Georgina Ranken at All Saints Church in Kensington, London. They had a daughter, Beryl born in Bengal in 1877.[1]


White created a rich and detailed photographic account of the culture and scenery of the Himalayas during his travels through the region. John Falconer, curator of photographs at the British Library’s Oriental and India Office Collections described White's work as "probably one of the last, and certainly among the most impressive products of a tradition of quasi-amateur photography which had flourished among administrators and military personnel in India since the 1850’s."[6]

The 2005 book In the Shadow of the Himalayas: Tibet, Bhutan, Nepal, Sikkim : a Photographic Record by John Claude White, 1883-1908 contains an anthology of Himalayan photos taken by White.


• Sikhim & Bhutan: Twenty-one years on the North East Frontier 1887-1908. London: Edward Arnold. 1909.

See also

• History of Sikkim


1. "John Claude White - career". King's College London. Retrieved 19 August 2015.
2. Hannavy, John (2013). Encyclopedia of Nineteenth-Century Photography. Routledge. p. 1496. ISBN 978-1-135-87327-1.
3. Rajiv Rai (2015). The State in the Colonial Periphery: A Study on Sikkim’s Relation with Great Britain. Partridge Publishing India. ISBN 978-1-4828-4871-7.
4. Younghusband 1910, p. 54.
5. Patrick French (2011). Younghusband: The Last Great Imperial Adventurer. Penguin Books Limited. p. 269. ISBN 978-0-14-196430-0.
6. "John Claude White - politics". King's College London. Retrieved 19 August 2015.


• Younghusband, Francis (1910). India and Tibet: a history of the relations which have subsisted between the two countries from the time of Warren Hastings to 1910; with a particular account of the mission to Lhasa of 1904. London: John Murray.

Further reading

• Meyer, Kurt; Meyer, Pamela Deuel (2005). In the Shadow of the Himalayas: Tibet, Bhutan, Nepal, Sikkim : a Photographic Record by John Claude White, 1883-1908. Mapin. ISBN 978-1-89-020661-1.

External links

• Media related to John Claude White at Wikimedia Commons
• Works written by or about John Claude White at Wikisource
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sun Feb 02, 2020 7:45 am

Sir James Ronald Leslie Macdonald (British Army officer)
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 2/2/20

Sir James Ronald Leslie Macdonald
Commissioner of Uganda (acting)
In office
30 May 1893 – 4 November 1893
Preceded by Gerald Herbert Portal
Succeeded by Henry Edward Colville
Personal details
Born: 8 February 1862, Rajamundry, Madras, India [1][2]
Died: 27 June 1927 (aged 65), Bournemouth, Hampshire, England
Profession: Soldier, engineer

Sir James Ronald Leslie Macdonald KCSI KCIE CB DL (8 February 1862 – 27 June 1927) was a Scottish engineer, explorer and cartographer. He served as a British Army engineer, rose to the rank of Brigadier-General and was knighted. A balloon observer as a young man, he surveyed for railways in India and East Africa, explored the upper Nile region, commanded balloon sections during wars in South Africa and China and led a major expedition into Tibet in 1903–1904.

Early career

Macdonald was born on 8 February 1862 in Rajahmundry in the Madras Presidency, India, the son of Surgeon-Major James Macdonald (1828–1906) of Aberdeen and Margaret Helen Leslie née Collie (1841-1876); his younger sister was the Egyptologist and archaeologist Nora Griffith. He was educated at Aberdeen Grammar School and the University of Aberdeen.[3] He passed through the Royal Military Academy and was gazetted to the Royal Engineers in 1882.[4]

As a lieutenant, on 15 May 1885 Macdonald was appointed to the corps of Bengal Sappers and Miners, Torpedo service, Calcutta on special duty as a balloon photographer.[5] He served in the Hazara campaign of 1888, and also working in the Indian railway organization.[4] Macdonald had spent seven years in service in India and was in Bombay in 1891 ready to embark for England on leave when he was offered the job of Chief Engineer of "the proposed railway survey from Mombasa to the Victoria Nyanza". He accepted, and continued to England to find out what would be involved.[6]

Uganda railway

The Imperial British East Africa Company (IBEA Co) commission was to survey a railway route from Mombasa on the Indian Ocean to Port Florence on the shores of Lake Victoria, roughly following the existing caravan route.[7] The Survey began in December 1891, and took more than a year.[8] Macdonald encountered many difficulties in his survey of 27,000 miles of possible route for the railway including sickness, attacks by ants, bees, lions and elephants, formidable physical obstacles and hostile Africans. All these took their toll on his carriers and other followers.[9]

The survey's findings confirmed that the caravan route to the Great Rift Valley was the best path for the line, followed by the easiest gradient to be found over the Mau Escarpment and down to Lake Victoria. Macdonald and John Wallace Pringle, his second in command, recommended construction of a three-foot six inch gauge railway. They suggested that Kikuyuland would be a suitable place for whites to live, and their civilizing effect would drive out slavery, but the railway was needed to give access to the new colony.[10] The IBEA Co did not have enough money to undertake construction before handing over the protectorate to the British government in 1895.[7] Construction of the line began in 1895 under the direction of George Whitehouse, a young English engineer.[11]

British East Africa 1895–1896. The Nile runs northwest from Lake Victoria to Lake Albert, then north into Sudan

While conducting the survey, Macdonald had been favorably impressed by the intelligent and sophisticated Baganda people living to the north of the lake.[12] In May 1893 Macdonald was appointed Acting British Commissioner of the Uganda Protectorate by General Gerald Herbert Portal with directions to stay away from the internal affairs of Buganda.[13] He accordingly withdrew all the Sudanese troops from the west of the country.[14] In 1894 he was chief Staff Officer of an expedition to the neighboring kingdom of Bunyoro, now in northern Uganda.[15] Later he was posted back to India.[4]

Nile expedition

In 1897 Macdonald was in London when he was appointed leader of another expedition to Uganda, ostensibly to review the northern boundaries.[15] Although Uganda had been declared a British Protectorate the British were concerned that France or Italy would claim some of the unoccupied territory.[16] General Herbert Kitchener was advancing up the Nile towards Khartoum, which he would capture at the Battle of Omdurman on 2 September 1898. However, a French column under Jean-Baptiste Marchand was striking across Africa from Senegal to Fashoda, south of Khartoum on the Nile, and would get there well before Kitchener. Macdonald`s instructions were to reach Fashoda first.[17]

The expedition's officers reached Mombasa in July 1897. After moving inland to a base camp at Ngara Nyuki, in September the force was divided into three columns. Captain Herbert H. Austin would lead 300 men north to uncover the source of the Juba River, thought to be connected with Lake Rudolph. The second column, under Macdonald, would go northwest to the Nile and then downstream to Fashoda, arriving there before the French. A third column would supply the first two. However these plans were thrown into disarray when the escort of Nubian troops from Sudan deserted and fled to Lake Victoria.[18]

The Nubian troops had been the Egyptian garrison of Equatoria in the south of Sudan under the leadership of Emin Pasha. In 1885 they were threatened by the forces of Muhammad Ahmad, the self-proclaimed Mahdi whom Kitchener was now preparing to attack, and retreated south to Lake Albert. Emin was "rescued" in 1888 by Henry Morton Stanley. With nowhere else to go, the Nubians had accepted the offer of Captain Frederick Lugard to sign up with the British in 1891, but over the years they had accumulated many grievances.[17] Macdonald spent the next seven months trying to suppress their mutiny, finally handing over responsibility for this task in May 1898 to troops that had been dispatched from India.[19]After the mutiny was put down, Macdonald recommended retaining a force of Indians in the country on the basis that the Sudanese troops could be useful, but only if there was an independent body of sepoys.[20]

By the end of May 1898, Macdonald decided he did not have enough people or supplies to reach his original objective of Fashoda. Instead, his column would aim for Lado, further south on the Nile, while Austin's column would pursue its original objective of exploring around Lake Rudolf.[19] On the route to Lado Macdonald's column passed through Lotuko country in what is now the Eastern Equatoria state of South Sudan, where he was given a friendly reception by the Lotuko chief Lomoro Xujang.[21] Macdonald saw a resemblance between the Maasai people and the Lotuko, and for this reason later recommended incorporation of the Lotuko lands into Uganda.[22]

Both of Macdonald's columns managed to return to Mombasa by December 1898, having completed their revised tasks, and the force was disbanded early in 1899.[19] This was one of the last incidents in the Scramble for Africa, in which almost the entire continent was brought under European rule.[16] He was appointed a Companion of the Order of the Bath (CB) in the 1900 New Year Honours list on 1 January 1900[23] (the order was gazetted on 16 January 1900),[24] and invested by Queen Victoria at Windsor Castle on 1 March 1900.[25]


British artillery during Boer War – 4.7 inch field guns

Macdonald had become a fellow of the Royal Geographical Society in 1891, and gave an account of his African Expedition to the society at a meeting in June 1899.[4] He was next posted to South Africa, where he was responsible for introducing most of the new sections of balloon observers, which made a significant contribution to British progress in the Second Boer War.[26] In this war, the British required over 450,000 men to subdue settlers of Dutch origin who were seeking to preserve their independence. The Boer forces never numbered more than 60,000.[27] The war introduced innovations such as the field telephone, searchlights and barbed wire. Creeping artillery barrages supported infantry advances against entrenched opponents armed with rifles and machine guns, a technique later developed to the extreme during the First World War.[28]

Macdonald left in August 1900 to take up the command of the fourth Balloon section with the British imperial troops fighting the Boxer Rebellion in China.[26] He was then appointed Director of Railways for the China expeditionary force.[3] The fighting in China was the result of growing assertiveness by European powers in China over trade, religion and control of territory during the dying days of the Manchu Qing Dynasty, aggravated by poverty due to harvest failures. A widespread popular uprising led to a siege of Europeans in Beijing. The European colonial powers cooperated in military action to suppress the uprising and imposed harsh indemnities and conditions.[29] From China, Macdonald was posted to Mauritius as general officer commanding later in 1900.[3]

Tibet expedition

Francis Younghusband

In 1903 the British were suspicious of the intentions of the Russian Empire in the lands bordering India. As a demonstration of strength, the British determined to send a diplomatic and trade mission to Tibet under Colonel Francis Younghusband. Originally peaceful, the project was transformed into an armed invasion when the Tibetans refused to accept the mission.[30] In October 1903 the strength of the mission's escort was brought up to a brigade with about 2,500 British and Indian troops under Macdonald, who had been temporarily promoted from Colonel to Brigadier-General. He was instructed to avoid aggression and act in a strictly defensive role as the mission advanced into Tibet to Gyantse and occupied the Chumbi valley.[31] 10,000 unskilled laborers were attached to the expedition.[32]

The British army left Sikkim on 11 December 1903, and occupied Phari at the northern end of the 60-mile long Chumbi Valley on 22 December. They reached Tuna in mid-January and remained there until the end of March hoping to negotiate with the Tibetans.[33] On 31 March the force advanced, soon coming in contact with a force of about 3,000 Tibetans armed with antique matchlock muskets defending the Guru (or Gura) Pass on the road to Gyantse, about 15,000 feet (4,600 m) above sea level. Macdonald insisted that the Tibetans surrender their arms, a brawl broke out, the British opened fire and the Tibetans were forced to retreat leaving 600–700 dead. The British-led troops had superior discipline and greatly superior weapons including machine guns. The engagement was completely one-sided and the British themselves expressed disgust with the slaughter of their helpless opponents. About 200 Tibetan wounded were carried to makeshift hospitals. Many had been shot in the back.[34]

The advance continued, reaching the original destination of Gyantse on 12 April 1904. Macdonald then took half the force back 150 miles to New Chumbi to check communications and arrangements for supply, earning the nickname "Retiring Mac".[35] There may have been tensions between MacDonald as military leader, backed by Herbert Kitchener, and the younger and more junior Younghusband as political leader, backed by George Curzon. One of the officers in the expedition thought that Macdonald was much more timid than his reputation had led him to expect, perhaps due to illness.[36] Younghusband was so exasperated by Macdonald's cautious approach that he twice threatened to resign. However, caution may have been justified by the extremely challenging terrain and climate, with logistical problems increasing exponentially as the supply chain lengthened.[37] According to one account, 40,000 pounds (18,000 kg) of supplies were needed daily.[32]

The Gyantse Dzong today

In Macdonald's absence, Younghusband authorized more aggressive action. He achieved some tactical successes, but the situation remained confused. On the grounds of having exceeded his authority, Younghusband was made subordinate to Macdonald, returning to New Chumbi to report to Macdonald on 10 June 1904. The reinforced escort advanced again, reaching the powerful fortress of Gyantse Dzong by 24 June 1904.[35] On 6 July a breach was made in the fortress walls and troops stormed in, forcing the Tibetans to abandon the position. Macdonald had succeeded in his mission of clearing the road, and handed over command to Younghusband for the advance to Lhasa.[38] He received a K.C.I.E. (Knight Commander of the Indian Empire) decoration for his services in Tibet.[4]

Later life

Macdonald was the general officer commanding in Mauritius from 1900 until he retired from active service in 1912.[3][4] On 22 July 1908 the University of Aberdeen conferred an honorary decree in the Faculty of Law on Macdonald.[39] Macdonald died on 27 June 1927 in Bournemouth, Hampshire, England at the age of 65.[40]


• Macdonald, James Ronald Leslie (1892). East Central African customs.
• Macdonald, James Ronald Leslie (1897). Soldiering and surveying in British East Africa, 1891–1894. Dawsons of Pall Mall. p. 333.
• Macdonald, James Ronald Leslie (1899). Journeys to the north of Uganda. Royal Geographical Society, London.

See also

• Scramble for Africa
• Fashoda incident
• Second Boer War
• Boxer Rebellion
• The Great Game
• British Expedition to Tibet


1. "India Births and baptisms 1786-1947". India, Births and Baptisms, 1786-1947," index, FamilySearch ( : accessed 27 Jan 2013), James Ronald Leslie Macdonald, 08 Feb 1862; citing reference v 43 p 18, FHL microfilm 521852. Familysearch. Retrieved 27 January 2013. External link in |work= (help)
2. "Source Citation: Parish: New Machar; ED: 4; Page: 5; Line: 3; Roll: CSSCT1871_41. Source Information: 1871 Scotland Census [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Operations Inc, 2007. Original data: Scotland. 1871 Scotland Census. Reels 1-191. General Register Office for Scotland, Edinburgh, Scotland". Missing or empty |url= (help)
3. Macdonald & Pringle 1892.
4. Geographical Journal 1927.
5. India Office 1888.
6. NY Times 1897.
7. Maina, Oboka & Makong'o 2004, pp. 78.
8. Nicholls 2005, pp. 17–18.
9. Gann & Duignan 1978, pp. 326.
10. Nicholls 2005, pp. 18.
11. Ellis 2001, pp. 69.
12. Mozer.
13. Okoth 2006, pp. 188.
14. Ingham 1975, pp. 77.
15. Sharf 2005, pp. 13.
16. Naval & Military Press.
17. Collins 1996, pp. 59.
18. Sharf 2005, pp. 16.
19. Sharf 2005, pp. 17.
20. Metcalf 2008, pp. 212.
21. Hill 1967, pp. 216.
22. Simonse 1992, pp. 83.
23. "New Year Honours". The Times (36027). London. 1 January 1900. p. 9.
24. "No. 27154". The London Gazette. 16 January 1900. p. 285.
25. "Court Circular". The Times (36079). London. 2 March 1900. p. 6.
26. Driver 1997, pp. 177.
27. Fremont-Barnes 2003, pp. 7.
28. Fremont-Barnes 2003, pp. 8–9.
29. Bodin 1979, pp. 1ff.
30. Waddell 2007, pp. 55–56.
31. Waddell 2007, pp. 58–59.
32. Grunfeld 1996, pp. 56.
33. Raugh 2004, pp. 321.
34. Waddell 2007, pp. 154ff.
35. Raugh 2004, pp. 322.
36. Gould 1999, pp. 169.
37. Meyer & Brysac 2006, pp. 298.
38. Waddell 2007, pp. 265ff.
39. British Medical Journal 1908.
40. Encyclopædia Britannica.


• Bodin, Lynn (1979). The Boxer Rebellion. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-0-85045-335-5.
• "Aberdeen". British Medical Journal. 1 August 1908. Retrieved 8 July 2011.
• Carrington, Michael. Officers Gentlemen and Thieves: The Looting of Monasteries during the 1903/4 Younghusband Mission to Tibet, Modern Asian Studies 37, 1 (2003), PP 81–109.
• Collins, Robert O. (1996). The waters of the Nile: hydropolitics and the Joglei Canal, 1900–1988. Markus Wiener Publishers. ISBN 978-1-55876-099-8.
• Driver, Hugh (1997). The birth of military aviation: Britain, 1903–1914. Boydell & Brewer Ltd. ISBN 978-0-86193-234-4.
• Ellis, Reuben J. (2001). Vertical margins: mountaineering and the landscapes of neoimperialism. Univ of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 978-0-299-17004-2.
• Encyclopædia Britannica. "Sir James Ronald Leslie Macdonald". Retrieved 8 July 2011.
• Fremont-Barnes, Gregory (2003). The Boer War 1899–1902. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84176-396-5.
• Gann, Lewis H.; Duignan, Peter (1978). The rulers of British Africa, 1870–1914. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-85664-771-0.
• Gregory, J. W. (November 1927). "Major-General Sir J.R.L. Macdonald". Geographical Journal. Royal Geographical Society. 70 (5): 509–511. doi:10.2307/1783519. JSTOR 1783519.
• Gould, Tony (1999). Imperial warriors: Britain and the Gurkhas. Granta Books. ISBN 978-1-86207-365-4.
• Grunfeld, A. Tom (1996). The making of modern Tibet. M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 978-1-56324-714-9.
• Hill, Richard Leslie (1967). A biographical dictionary of the Sudan. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-7146-1037-5.
• India Office (1888). The India office and Burma office list.
• Ingham, Kenneth (1975). The kingdom of Toro in Uganda. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-416-80210-8.
• Macdonald, James Ronald Leslie; Pringle, John Wallace (1892). "Uganda Railway Survey Diaries". Janus. Retrieved 11 July 2011.
• Maina, Ephalina; Oboka, Wycliffe; Makong'o, Julius (2004). History and Government Form 2. East African Publishers. ISBN 978-9966-25-333-0.
• Metcalf, Thomas R. (2008). Imperial Connections: India in the Indian Ocean Arena, 1860–1920. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-25805-1.
• Meyer, Karl Ernest; Brysac, Shareen Blair (2006). Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia. Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-465-04576-1.
• Mozer, David. "Uganda: Bicycle Tour Travel Guide". International Bicycle Fund. Retrieved 8 July 2011.
• Naval & Military Press. "WITH MACDONALD IN UGANDA A Narrative Account of the Uganda Mutiny and Macdonald Expedition in the Uganda Protectorate and Territories to the North". Retrieved 8 July 2011.
• Nicholls, Christine Stephanie (2005). Red strangers: the white tribe of Kenya. Timewell Press. ISBN 978-1-85725-206-4.
• "Africa: Surveying and fighting in that country in recent years" (PDF). The New York Times. 24 April 1897. Retrieved 8 July 2011.
• Okoth, Assa (2006). A History of Africa: African societies and the establishment of colonial rule, 1800–1915. East African Publishers. ISBN 978-9966-25-357-6.
• Raugh, Harold E. (2004). The Victorians at war, 1815–1914: an encyclopedia of British military history. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-57607-925-6.
• Sharf, Frederic A. (2005). Expedition from Uganda to Abyssinia (1898): the diary of Lieutenant R.G.T. Bright with annotations and introductory text. Tsehai Publishers. ISBN 978-1-59907-007-0.
• Simonse, Simon (1992). Kings of disaster: dualism, centralism, and the scapegoat king in southeastern Sudan. BRILL. ISBN 978-90-04-09560-1.
• Waddell, Laurence A. (2007). Lhasa and Its Mysteries: With a Record of the Expedition of 1903–1904. Cosimo. ISBN 978-1-60206-724-0.

Further reading

• Austin, Herbert Henry 1868–1937 (1903). With Macdonald in Uganda]: a narrative account of the Uganda mutiny and Macdonald expedition in the Uganda Protectorate and the territories to the north. Edward Arnold, London. p. 314.
• William John Ottley (Brevet-Major 34th Sikh Pioneers): With mounted infantry in Tibet. Publisher: Smith, Elder & Co. London, 1906
• Sir Francis Edward Younghusband: India and Tibet; a history of the relations which have subsisted between the two countries from the time of Warren Hastings to 1910; with a particular account of the mission to Lhasa of 1904. Publisher: J. Murray London, 1910
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sun Feb 02, 2020 9:16 am

Gerard Mackworth Young
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 2/2/20

The founding members [of the Himalayan Club] were:[2]

• Mr. G. Mackworth Young, Army Secretary

-- The Himalayan Club, by Wikipedia

Gerard Mackworth Young CIE (1884–1965) was director of the British School at Athens from 1936 to 1946.[1]

He was the eldest of four sons of Sir William Mackworth Young (1840–1924), KCSI, JP, of the Indian Civil Service, who was Lieutenant-Governor of the Punjab from 1897 to 1902, and his second wife Frances Mary, daughter of Sir Robert Eyles Egerton, KCSI, JP, Lieutenant-Governor of the Punjab from 1877 to 1882.[2][3] Sir Robert Egerton was nephew of the 8th and 9th Grey Egerton baronets.[4] Gerard's paternal grandfather was Sir George Young, 2nd Baronet; the name 'Mackworth' came from his paternal grandmother, Susan, daughter of William Mackworth-Praed, Serjeant-at-law, of that gentry family of Mickleham, Surrey.[5][6]

Gerard Mackworth Young assumed the surname of Mackworth-Young by deed poll in 1947. In 1916, he married Natalie Leila Margaret, daughter of Rt Hon Sir Walter Francis Hely Hutchinson, GCMG, PC, Governor-General and Commander-in-Chief, Cape of Good Hope from 1901 to 1910, son of the 4th Earl of Donoughmore. The elder of their two sons (there being also two daughters) was the royal librarian Sir Robin Mackworth-Young.[7]

His brothers Sir Hubert Winthrop Young, KCMG and Sir Mark Aitchison Young, GCMG were also colonial administrators.


1. Dilys Powell, "Young, Gerard Mackworth- (1884–1965)", rev. Katherine Prior, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn, May 2012.
2. Burke's Peerage, Baronetage and Knightage, 107th edition, vol. 1, Burke's Peerage Ltd, 2003, p. 1164
3. Dilys Powell, "Young, Gerard Mackworth- (1884–1965)", rev. Katherine Prior, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn, May 2012.
4. Burke's Peerage, Baronetage and Knightage, 107th edition, vol. 2, Burke's Peerage Ltd, 2003, p. 1674
5. Burke's Landed Gentry 18th edition, vol. 2, ed. Peter Townend, Burke's Peerage Ltd, 1969, p.505
6. Burke's Peerage, Baronetage and Knightage, 107th edition, vol. 3, Burke's Peerage Ltd, 2003, p. 4274
7. Burke's Peerage, Baronetage and Knightage, 107th edition, vol. 1, Burke's Peerage Ltd, 2003, pp. 1163-1164
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sun Feb 02, 2020 9:33 am

List of governors of Punjab (British India)
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 2/2/20

The Governor of the Punjab was head of the British administration in the province of the Punjab. In 1849 the East India Company defeated the Sikh Empire and annexed the Punjab region. The Governor-General of India, Lord Dalhousie implemented a three-member Board of Administration to govern the province.[1] The Board of Administration was abolished in 1853 and replaced by the office of Chief Commissioner.[2] Following the liquidation of the East India Company and the transfer of its assets to the British Crown, the office of lieutenant-governor was instituted in 1859. This lasted until it was replaced by the office of governor in the aftermath of the Montagu–Chelmsford Reforms.

In 1947, the British Raj came to an end and the countries of India and Pakistan were created. The Punjab was partitioned into West Punjab and East Punjab, with the former joining Pakistan and the latter India. In Pakistan, the first governor of West Punjab was Sir Francis Mudie. In 1955, West Punjab was dissolved, and became Punjab province. In 1956 East Punjab was divided into the present-day Indian states of Haryana, Himachal Pradesh and Punjab.

List of Heads of the Punjab (1849-1947)

# / Namen(birth–death) / Took office / Left office / Notes

President of the Board of Administration

1 / Sir Henry Montgomery Lawrence (1806-1857) / 1 Apr 1849 / 1853 / Assisted by John Lawrence and Charles Grenville Mansel; Creation of the Punjab Irregular Force

Chief Commissioners

1 / John Laird Mair Lawrence (1811-1879) / 1853 / 31 Dec 1858 / Creation of the Punjab Railway; Indian Mutiny of 1857; Government of India Act 1858


1 / Sir John Laird Mair Lawrence, Bt(1811-1879) / 1 Jan 1859 / 25 Feb 1859 / Delhi transferred from the North-Western; Provinces to the Punjab

2 / Robert Montgomery (1809-1887) / 25 Feb 1859 / 10 Jan 1865 / Upper Doab famine of 1860–61; Establishment of Lawrence College, Murree, King Edward Medical University, Government College University, Lahore, Glancy Medical College and Forman Christian College; Founding of the town of Montgomery

3 / Donald Friell McLeod (1810-1872) / 10 Jan 1865 / 1 Jun 1870 / Establishment of the Lahore Museum; Punjab Murderous Outrages Act 1867

4 / Sir Henry Marion Durand (1812-1871) / 1 Jun 1870 / 20 Jan 1871 / --

5 / Robert Henry Davies (1824-1902) / 20 Jan 1871 / 2 Apr 1877 / Murree made summer capital in 1873; Singh Sabha Movement ; Etablishment of the Mayo School of Industrial Arts; Opening of Lahore Zoo; Simla made summer capital in 1876; Delhi Durbar of 1877

6 / Robert Eyles Egerton (1857-1912) / 2 Apr 1877 / 3 Apr 1882 / --

7 / Sir Charles Umpherston Aitchinson (1832-1896) / 3 Apr 1882 / 2 Apr 1887 / Commencement of the Sidhnai and Sohag Para Colonies; Establishment of Aitchison College, University of the Punjab and University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences; Creation of the Lahore Bar Association; Opening of the Punjab Public Library

8 / James Broadwood Lyall (1845-1920) / 2 Apr 1887 / 5 Mar 1892 / Commencement of the Chenab Colony; Founding of Lyallpur; Ahmadiyya movement

9 / Sir Dennis Fitzpatrick (1827-1920) / 5 Mar 1892 / 6 Mar 1897 / Commencement of the Chunian Colony; Establishment of Khalsa College, Amritsar and School of Medicine for Christian Women

10 / William Mackworth Young (1840-1924) / 6 Mar 1897 / 6 Mar 1902 / Punjab Land Alienation Act, 1900; Frontier districts transferred to newly created North-West Frontier Province; Commencement of the Jhelum Colony

11 / Sir Charles Montgomery Rivaz (1845-1926) / 6 Mar 1902 / 36 Mar 1907 / Delhi Durbar of 1903; Founding of Sargodha; Establishment of the Punjab Agricultural College and Research Institute; Colonisation Bill, 1906; 1907 Punjab unrest

12 / Sir Denzil Charles Jelf Ibbetson (1847-1908) / 6 Mar 1907 / 26 May 1907 / --

- / Thomas Gordon Walker (1849-1917) / 26 May 1907 / 12 Aug 1907 / Acting Lieutenant-Governor

12 / Sir Denzil Charles Jelf Ibbetson (1847-1908) / 12 Aug 1907 / 22 Jan 1908 / Creation of the Punjab Muslim League

- / Thomas Gordon Walkern(1849-1917) / 22 Jan 1908 / 25 May 1908 / Acting Lieutenant-Governor

13 / Sir Louis William Dane (1856-1948) / 25 May 1908 / 28 Apr 1911 / Anand Marriage Act, 1909

- / James McCrone Douie (1854-1935) / 28 Apr 1911 / 4 Aug 1911 / Acting Lieutenant-Governor

13 Sir Louis William Dane (1856-1948) / 4 Aug 1911 / 26 May 1913 / Delhi Durbar of 1911; Delhi transferred from the Punjab and designated the capital of British India; Establishment of Kinnaird College for Women; Colonisation of Government Lands Act, 1912

14 / Sir Michael Francis O'Dwyer (1864-1940) / 26 May 1913 / 26 May 1919 / First World War; Commencement of the Lower Bari Doab, Upper Chenab, Upper Jhelum, Nili Bar Colonies; Lahore Conspiracy Case trial; Government of India Act, 1919; Rowlatt Act; Jallianwala Bagh massacre

15 / Sir Edward Douglas Maclagan (1864-1952) / 26 May 1919 / 3 Jan 1921 / Akali movement


1 / Sir Edward Douglas Maclagan (1864-1952) / 3 Jan 1921 / 31 May 1924 / Nankana massacre; Creation of the Unionist Party; Establishment of Maclagan Engineering College and Lahore College for Women University; Members of Executive Council: John Maynard (Finance), Sundar Singh Majithia (Revenue)[3]; Ministers: Fazl-i-Hussain (Education, Health and Local government), Lala Harkishan Lal (Agriculture)[4]

2 / Sir William Malcolm Hailey (1872-1969) / 31 May 1924 / 9 Aug 1928 / Ministers: Manohar Lal (Education) (1927-1930), Joginder Singh (Agriculture) (1927-1930), Feroz Khan Noon (Local Self-government) (1927-1930)

3 Sir Geoffrey Fitzhervey de Montmorency (1876-1955) / 9 Aug 1928 / 19 Jul 1932 / Birth of Lollywood; Execution of Bhagat Singh; Khaksar movement

- / Sikandar Hayat Khan (1892-1942) / 19 Jul 1932 / 19 Oct 1932 / Acting Governor

3 Sir Geoffrey Fitzhervey de Montmorency (1876-1955) / 19 Oct 1932 / 12 Apr 1933 / --

4 / Sir Herbert William Emerson (1881-1962) / 12 Apr 1933 / 1 Feb 1934 / --

- / Sir Sikandar Hayat Khan (1892-1942) / 15 Feb 1934 / 9 Jun 1934 / Acting Governor

4 / Sir Herbert William Emerson (1881-1962) / 9 Jun 1934 / 4 Apr 1938 / Government of India Act, 1935; 1937 Indian provincial elections

5 / Sir Henry Duffield Craik, Bt (1876-1955) / 4 Apr 1938 / 7 Apr 1941 / Lahore Resolution

6 / Sir Bertrand James Glancy (1882-1953) / 7 Apr 1941 / 8 Apr 1946 / Simla Conference; 1946 Indian provincial elections

7 / Sir Evan Meredith Jenkins (1896-1985) / 8 Apr 1946 / 15 Aug 1947 / Partition of India

See also

• Governor of Punjab, Pakistan
• List of governors of Punjab (India)
• List of governors-general of India


1. Col. H. C. Wylly, History of the 5th Battalion 13th Frontier Force Rifles: 1849–1926, Andrews UK Limited, 20 Dec 2011, p.1
2. K. M. Sarkar, The Grand Trunk Road in the Punjab: 1849-1886, Atlantic Publishers & Distri, 1927, p.13
3. Nijjar, Bakshish Singh. History of the United Panjab, Volume 1.
4. Singh, Virinder. Dyarchy In Punjab. National Book Organisation.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sun Feb 02, 2020 9:47 am

Sir James Glasgow Acheson
by Who's Who

The founding members [of the Himalayan Club] were:[2]

• Mr. James Glasgow Acheson, Deputy Foreign Secretary

-- The Himalayan Club, by Wikipedia


ACHESON, James Glasgow, C.I.E., born 1889, son of John Acheson, J.P. Portadown, Co. Armagh, N. Ireland. [Carrickblacker Road, Portadown, Armagh, Ireland]

Educated: St Andrews College and Trinity College, Dublin.

Married 1917 in Meerut, St John, Bengal, India, to Violet Catherine French Field. Two sons, two daughters. [Father of Janet Mary (Acheson) Ironside, James Glasgow Irwin Acheson, and Catherine Acheson]

Entered Indian Civil Service, 1913; posted to United Provinces in 1917; transferred to Political Service in 1921; Political Agent, North Waziristan 1924-26; Deputy Secretary to Government of India in the Foreign Department on Deputation to Imperial Defence College, 1929-30. Deputy Commissioner, Peshawar, 1932-34; Resident (in this case 'Resident' meaning the senior political official for the British Government) in Waziristan, 1935-37; Political Resident on the North West Frontier, 1937-39; Revenue and Judicial Commissioner in Baluchistan, 1939-42; Adviser to the Governor, North West Frontier Province, 1942; Resident in Kashmir 1942-45. Control Commission for Germany Schleswig-Holstein (Kiel), 1946.

Partner in fruit farm in Herefordshire, 1949-73.

Died 1973.

His granddaughter stated that family legend had it he was an excellent sportsman both at school and college. He was also a linguist speaking German and later, Urdu/Hindustani.


James Glasgow Acheson
Born 1889 in Carrickblacker Road, Portadown, Armagh, Ireland
Died 1973 [location unknown]
Son of [father unknown] and [mother unknown]
[sibling(s) unknown]
Husband of Violet Catherine French (Field) Acheson — married 1917 in Meerut, St John, Bengal, India.
Father of Janet Mary (Acheson) Ironside, James Glasgow Irwin Acheson and Catherine Acheson


Entered Indian Civil Service aged 21.

Became Governor of Agra Gaol at age 22

Deputy Foreign Secretary (Indian Service) in 1951 New Delhi


p.8-9 "Janey & Me" by Virginia Ironside
The Ironside Dictionary by Mike Kay & James Sanderson

-- James Glasgow Acheson (1889-1973), by WikiTree

Member Sworn: Mr. James Glasgow Acheson, C.I.E., M.L.A. (Foreign Secretary)

-- Legislative Assembly Debates, Thursday, 22nd January, 1931, Official Report, Delhi, Government of India Press
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sun Feb 02, 2020 10:34 am

Brigadier Sir Edward Oliver Wheeler MC
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 2/2/20

The founding members [of the Himalayan Club] were:[2]

• Major Edward Oliver Wheeler of the Survey of India

-- The Himalayan Club, by Wikipedia

Edward Oliver Wheeler
Born: April 18, 1890, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
Died: March 19, 1962 (aged 71), Vernon, British Columbia, Canada
Allegiance: Canada
Service/branch: Corps of the Royal Engineers
Rank: Brigadier
Awards: He was Knighted in 1943, Military Cross, Croix de Chevalier de la Legion d'Honneur
Relations: Arthur Oliver Wheeler, father,
John Oliver Wheeler, son
Other work: mountain climber, surveyor

Brigadier Sir Edward Oliver Wheeler MC (April 18, 1890 – March 19, 1962) was a Canadian surveyor, mountain climber and soldier. Wheeler participated in the first topographical survey of Mount Everest in 1921.[1] As a Brigadier in the British Army he was appointed Surveyor General of India in 1941. He was knighted for the work he did surveying India. He was an accomplished mountain climber and on the 1921 expedition was one of the team to reach the 7000-metre North Col.

Early life

Edward Oliver Wheeler was the son of a surveyor and renowned alpinist, Arthur Oliver Wheeler a Dominion Land Surveyor, who co-founded the Alpine Club of Canada and mapped British Columbia’s Selkirk Mountains and the British Columbia-Alberta border.[2] His mother was Clara (née Macoun), daughter of Canadian botanist John Macoun. While still a teenager, he accompanied his father to the Selkirk Mountains and learned both how to climb and the Canadian method of photo-topography developed by Dr. Edouard Deville[3]. As a founding member of the Alpine Club of Canada, he guided new members on the initial climbs in the Rockies[4].


He attended Trinity College School where he was chosen Head Boy. Having finished first on the admission exams to the Royal Military College of Canada in Kingston, Ontario, he attended that university for three years from 1907-1910[5]. He finished first of his class in all three years at RMC[6][7][8]. In his graduating year he was the Battalion Sergeant Major, the highest rank attainable by a Gentleman Cadet. He was given a choice of commissions in the British Army. He became a Royal Engineer and attended the School of Military Engineering in Chatham, UK[9]. Upon this graduation he was posted to the 1st King George V's Own Bengal Sappers and Miners.


During the First World War he served with 1st King George V's Own Bengal Sappers and Miners as part of the Indian Expedition Forces in 1914 and with the same forces in Mesopotamia campaign 1916-19. He was Mentioned in Despatches 7 times for actions both in France and Mesopotamia[10][11][12][13][14][15][16]. He was awarded the Military Cross[17] and a Croix de Chevalier de la Legion d'Honneur[18].

In 1919, he was seconded to the Survey of India. During this time he was a member of the 1921 Everest reconnaissance expedition, using photographic surveying techniques.[19] His exploration of the East Rongbuk glacier led him on 3 August 1921 to realise that this provided the key to a viable route to the summit of Everest. He was one of the climbing team to reach the North Col.[20]

He married Dorothea Sophia Danielson in 1921. His son John Oliver Wheeler (1925–2015) was an award-winning Canadian geologist with the Geological Survey of Canada.

Edward came to Canada on sick leave in 1922 but returned to India in 1923. During this stay he toured Canada discussing his adventure on Everest including an Address to the Empire Club of Canada[21]. In 1925 further convalescing in Canada was necessary after another operation in London. He then returned to India. He rose through the positions of Superintendent (1927), Director (1939) and finally to Surveyor-General of India (1941–1947). He was knighted in 1943[22].

Personal life

Upon his retirement, he returned to Canada with his wife, and lived in Lavington, near Vernon. He was active with the Alpine Club of Canada. From 1950 to 1954, Wheeler served as President of the Alpine Club of Canada. He was a life membership of the Alpine Club (UK) and a member of the American Alpine Club.

Brigadier Sir Edward Oliver Wheeler died following a stroke.

Mountain Ascents of Note

Ascent / Year / Significance

Mount Hector and Observation Peak in Alberta, Canada / 1903 / --

Hungabee Mountain on the Alberta, British Columbia border, Canada / 1909 / with Val Fynn

Mount Babel in Alberta, Canada / 1910 / the first ascent

Mount Tupper and Mount Sir Donald in Glacier National Park in Canadian Rockies / 1910 / guideless climbs

Pyrenees Mountains and Lakes District in southwest Europe / 1911 / with his father, Arthur Oliver Wheeler

Strathcona Provincial Park on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada / 1912 / led the Expedition, first ascent of Elkhorn Mountain

Mount Assiniboine on the Alberta, British Columbia border/ 1920 / planned, erected, and directed base camp

Mount Everest, on the Nepal, Tibet border / 1921 / mapped possible mountain climbing routes (e.g. northern, eastern and western sides, Tibetan Plateau and East Rongbuk Glacier) under Colonel Charles Howard-Bury


• Wheeler, E.O. "Mt. Babel and Chimney Peak." The Canadian Alpine Journal, vol. 3, The Alpine Club of Canada. Banff, Alberta. 1911. p. 73-79.
• Wheeler, E.O. "Mount Elkhorn, Strathcona Park." The Canadian Alpine Journal, vol. 5, The Alpine Club of Canada. Banff, Alberta. 1913. p. 44-48.
• Wheeler, E.O. "Traverse of Terrapin and West Ridge of Magog." The Canadian Alpine Journal, vol. 12, The Alpine Club of Canada. Banff, Alberta. 1921-22. p. 53-55.
• Wheeler, E. O. "The Photographic Survey", Mount Everest the Reconnaissance, Edward Arnold, London, 1922. p. 329-337.
• Wheeler, E. O. "The "Canadian" Photo-topographical Method of Survey", The Royal Engineers Journal, vol. 35, The Institution of Royal Engineers, Chatham, UK , March 1922. p. 177-185.
• Wheeler, E.O. "Mt. Everest Expedition/1921." The Canadian Alpine Journal, vol. 13. The Alpine Club of Canada. Banff, Alberta. 1923. p. 1-25.
• Wheeler, E.O. "ACC Golden Jubilee." The Canadian Alpine Journal, vol. 39, The Alpine Club of Canada. Banff, Alberta. 1956. p. 3-24.
• Wheeler, E. O. The Survey of India during War and Early Reconstruction 1939-1946, The Surveyor General of India, Dehra Dun, India, 1955.


1. Canadian geographer conquered Mount Everest in ‘epic quest’ National Post (Canada) 13 Nov. 2011
2. Arthur Oliver Wheeler ... eler_e.asp
3. Wheeler, A. O. The Selkirk Range, Department of the Interior, Government Printing Bureau, Ottawa 1905,
4. Report of Chief Mountaineer, Canadian Alpine Journal, Vol. 1 No 2, pp 329-334
5. No. 758 Brigadier Sir Edward Oliver Wheeler, Kt MC, "Royal Military College of Canada Review, Log of the Stone Frigate", Kingston, Ontario,1963
6. Report of the Militia Council for the Dominion of Canada for the Fiscal Year Ending March 31 1908, Printed by Order of Parliament, Ottawa 1909
7. Report of the Militia Council for the Dominion of Canada for the Fiscal Year Ending March 31 1909, Printed by Order of Parliament, Ottawa 1909
8. Report of the Militia Council for the Dominion of Canada for the Fiscal Year Ending March 31 1910, Printed by Order of Parliament, Ottawa 1910
9. Recorded in The Gazette (London Gazette), issue 28409, 23 August 1910
10. Recorded in The Gazette (London Gazette), issue 29072, 16 February 1915
11. Recorded in The Gazette (London Gazette), issue 29200, 18 June 1915
12. Recorded in The Gazette (London Gazette), issue 29422, 31 December 1915
13. Recorded in The Gazette (London Gazette), issue 29789, 17 October 1916
14. Recorded in The Gazette (London Gazette), issue 30867, 23 August 1918
15. Recorded in The Gazette (London Gazette), issue 31195, 18 February 1919
16. Recorded in The Gazette (London Gazette), issue 31386, 3 June 1919
17. Recorded in The Gazette (London Gazette), issue 29438, 11 January 1916
18. Recorded in The Gazette (London Gazette), issue 29486, 24 February 1916
19. McMillan, Margaret, "Risk Taking", Massey Lecture Series, Victoria, British Columbia. broadcast on Ideas, August 15 3016,9:00 p.m. EST. CBC Radio
20. Wade Davis - Into the silence, Vintage Books, London, 2012.
22. Recorded in The Gazette (London Gazette), issue 35841, 1 January 1943

Further reading

• In Memoriam. The Canadian Alpine Journal. Vol. 45. The Alpine Club of Canada. Banff, Alberta. 1962. p. 160-163.
• Wheeler, A.O. "The Alpine Club of Canada in Strathcona Park." The Canadian Alpine Journal. Vol. 5. The Alpine Club of Canada. Banff, Alberta. 1913. p. 82-95.


Sir Edward O. Wheeler
by Historic Camera
Accessed: 2/2/20


Edward Oliver Wheeler was born to Arthur and Clara Macoun Wheeler on April 18, 1890 in Ottawa, Canada. His grandfather, John Macoun, was a respected botanist and his father was a surveyor and mountain-climbing enthusiast who founded the Alpine Club of Canada. His own passion for the mountains began when he accompanied his father to survey the Selkirk Range, and would spend subsequent school holidays as his father's assistant. He received his education in Ottawa's public school system, and attended Ontario's Trinity College. After graduating from Kingston's Royal Military Academy, Cadet Wheeler garnered the highest grades ever received by an officer in training, was awarded the Governor General's medal and the Sword of Honor. At the age of 20, he received a commission to the Royal Canadian Engineers, and was deployed to India in 1913. The young officer saw considerable action during World War I, serving with King George V's Bengal Sappers and Miners in 1915, and fought in Mesopotamia (now Iraq) from 1916-1918. For his efforts, he was awarded the Military Cross, and became a member of the French Legion of Honor.

After the war, he returned to India, working as a surveyor, and in 1921, married Dorothea Danielson. Their son John later became a celebrated geologist. Captain Wheeler's mountain-climbing prowess and skills as a map maker led to an invitation to join the first British Expedition to Mount Everest. Under the leadership of Colonel Charles Howard-Bury, Captain Wheeler, along with other experienced climbers like George Leigh Mallory (who would die tragically in 1924 on another Everest Expedition), investigated various routes to determine the most expedient approach, which Captain Wheeler's group determined to be the East Rongbuk Glacier that led to the North Col. He constructed the first map of Mount Everest and surrounding area, and also created a photographic record of the expedition. His daily travel kit included a cumbersome knapsack, which consisted of a camera, 11 glass plates, notebooks and pencils, weighing about 30 pounds; a tripod; disassembled theodolite telescope housed in a wooden box; along with spare plate holders, extra glass negatives, tape measures, and stone-filled bags to steady the tripod, tipped the scales at 100 pounds. Over the next five months, Captain Wheeler would capture and develop 240 images of the majestic Everest.


Captain Wheeler made a triumphant returned to India, but was considerably weakened by illness, resulting from the high altitudes and drinking contaminated water. After regaining his health, he was named Deputy Superintendent of the Survey of India, promoted to Major, and eventually achieved the rank of Brigadier General. He was knighted in 1943, and though he was eligible for retirement two years' later, he stayed with the Survey of India, before finally retiring and returning to Canada in 1947. He and his wife settled in Lavington, British Columbia, where he resumed his mountain climbing activities, and served as President of the Alpine Club of Canada from 1950 until 1954. On March 18, 1962, 71-year-old Sir Edward Oliver Wheeler suffered a massive stroke, and died the next day. He is fondly remembered for his military service, as a mountain climber and surveyor, and for his landmark expedition photographs. Exhibiting a gift for understatement, Sir Wheeler once observed, "I was in this camp for five days; most of them spent huddled under rocks waiting for the clouds to lift. I had one beautiful day… and got some very nice photographs of Mount Everest and its West ridge." Those "very nice photographs" remain some of the most impressive and breathtaking panoramic views of Mount Everest well into the twenty-first century.



2006 Among the Great Hills: Three Generations of Wheelers by R.W. Sandford (Alberta, Canada: The Alpine Club of Canada), pp. 4, 20-21.

2004 Canada’s Everest? Rethinking the First Ascent of Mount Logan and the Politics of Nationhood, 1925 by Zac Robinson and PearlAnn Reichwein Sport History Review, Vol. XXXV, pp. 95-121.

2007 The Canadian Rockies: Pioneers, Legends and True Tales by Roger W. Patillo (Aldergrove, British Columbia: Amberlea Press), p. 285.

2001 Edward Oliver Wheeler (URL:

2009 West Rongbuk (URL: ... uk-glacier).

2010 Yale University: Environment 360 (URL: ... -team.html).
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sun Feb 02, 2020 10:53 am

Charles Granville Bruce
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 2/2/20

The founding members [of the Himalayan Club] were:[2]

• Captain Charles Granville Bruce, 6th Gurkhas

-- The Himalayan Club, by Wikipedia

Charles Granville Bruce
Bruce as leader of the 1922 Everest expedition
Born: 7 April 1866, London, England
Died: 12 July 1939 (aged 73), London, England
Allegiance: United Kingdom United Kingdom
Service/branch: British Indian Army
Rank: Brigadier-General
Commands held 1st Bn the 6th Gurkha Rifles
Battles/wars: World War I
Awards: Companion of the Order of the Bath
Member of the Royal Victorian Order

Brigadier-General The Honourable Charles Granville Bruce, CB, MVO (7 April 1866 – 12 July 1939) was a Himalayan veteran and leader of the second and third British expeditions to Mount Everest in 1922 and 1924. He was given a special prize at the end of the first ever Winter Olympics in France for mountaineering as the leader of the British expedition that tried to climb Mount Everest in 1922.

Background and early life

Charles Granville Bruce was the youngest of the fourteen children of Henry Bruce, 1st Baron Aberdare (1815–1895) and Norah Napier (1827–1897). His father was born at Duffryn, Aberdare, attended Swansea Grammar School, and trained as a barrister. In the 1830s, coal was discovered beneath the family's land, and with the development of the industry they became rich. Henry Bruce was stipendiary magistrate for Merthyr Tydfil, 1847 to 1854, Liberal member of parliament for Merthyr Tydfil, 1852 to 1869, and Home Secretary in Gladstone's government, 1868 to 1873. He was created first Baron Aberdare, of Duffryn, in 1873. His mother was youngest daughter of General Sir William Francis Patrick Napier.

Bruce was educated at Harrow and Repton. His early life alternated between the 'pompous formality' of Queen's Gate, London, the family home in Aberdare, and a Scottish estate.

In Wales, his mentor was a local farmer and inn-keeper, who in his youth had worked as a hunter in California and British Columbia. He taught the young Bruce how to hunt, find his way around the local hills, and drink. One of Bruce’s most notable achievements was running down a “rough crew” of local poachers. Half a century later he was proud to list their names in his memoirs; "Bill the Butcher, Shoni Kick-O-Top, Billie Blaen Llechau, Dick Shon Edwards & Dai Brass-Knocker". Bruce and the local game-keepers chased one poacher to the narrow alleyways and courts of Georgetown. The poacher was only caught when a furious husband found him snoring in his wife’s bed and threw him out on the street. The gang were duly punished, but gained revenge by returning to Bruce’s house and stealing all the weapons from his father’s gun-room.

After leaving school, Bruce entered military college. He had huge physical strength, was an enthusiastic boxer and 300 yard runner, and in the 1880s represented England against France in an international running meeting.

In 1894 he married Finetta Madelina Julia Campbell, daughter of Sir Edward Campbell, 2nd Baronet.


In 1888, Bruce joined the Indian Army and became a career soldier serving with the 5th Gurkha Rifles from 1889 to 1920, rising to the rank of Brigadier-General. As a young lieutenant he was posted to Abbotabad, a British hill station in the Panjab, where he developed a passion for the locality, wrestling and climbing. Bruce had an akhara (wrestling pit) dug near his residence, where he practised on most days. Both the British and the Rajahs wagered thousands of rupees on professional wrestling matches and took pride in having the strongest sides. In the 1910s, Bruce was patron of the wrestler Rahim Sulaniwala, who went on to become a renowned champion (Summers 2000).

Bruce took a special interest in his Gurkha soldiers and became fluent in Nepali. He introduced hill racing to his Gurkha regiment and in 1891 took his champion runner Pabir Thapa to Zermatt, in Switzerland, to learn ice-climbing.
On the way there, the two stayed at Aberdare, where Thapa enjoyed “running down” poachers. Despite his poor English, he was very popular with the locals. He disappeared for the last three days of his visit and was found living it up with some coal miners in Tonypandy. Bruce went on to train the Gurkhas in mountain-warfare. In 1897 he equipped his troops on the Northern Frontier with shorts, and is widely credited with their introduction to the British Army.

Bruce’s climbing experience was impressive. He spent ten climbing seasons in the European Alps and took part in three of the earliest climbing expeditions to the Himalaya. In 1892, with a troop of Gurkha soldiers he accompanied Conway in his exploration of the Baltoro region of the Karakorum, visiting Muztagh Tower, Broad Peak and K2. In 1893 he was with Francis Younghusband on a mission to the Hindu Kush to bestow recognition on Nizam-uk-Mulk as Mehtar. He and Younghusband were probably the first to discuss mounting an expedition to climb Everest. In Himalayan Wanderer, Bruce says that it was Younghusband's idea. Younghusband says that it was Bruce's.[1] In 1895, Bruce joined Albert F. Mummery and Collie in their attempt on Nanga Parbat, but he had to leave early because his army leave was up. In 1906–1907, he and Longstaff took another troop of Gurkhas to the Nanda Devi group, visiting Dunagiri and Kanchenjunga, and climbing Trisul.

It is impossible to enumerate all the peaks seen, but when I state that in a country no greater than Carmarthenshire and Glamorgan, there are some 80 peaks all in the neighbourhood of 20,000 ft… it will give an idea… of that mighty range.

In 1915, Bruce went to Gallipoli, in command of the 1st Battalion the 6th Gurkha Rifles. After two months in the front line he was severely wounded and was transferred back to India.

He had perpetual good humour, enthusiasm, and love of alcohol, coupled with competence and shrewdness. He was a superb raconteur, and a fount of bawdy stories. Younghusband described him as "an extraordinary mixture of man and boy..... you never know which of them you are talking to".

Between 1923 and 1925 Bruce was president of the Alpine Club. Because of his experience in the Himalaya he was appointed leader of the 1922 British Mount Everest Expedition, the first attempt to summit Everest. He was skilful in bridging the cultural divide between Sahib and Sherpa, and had long advocated training Indians in mountain techniques, with a view to forming a body of porters and guides like those in the European Alps. He called his men porters rather than coolies. He was particularly liked by the local peoples, and for the 1922 expedition collected a cohort of local men, and enthused them with an esprit de corps. He later christened an elite group of high altitude porters the "Tigers". He was universally admired by the expedition team; George Mallory in particular, liked and trusted him. Bruce was wary of oxygen apparatus, nevertheless, George Finch and Geoffrey Bruce (Charles’s nephew) used oxygen to set a new altitude record of 27,300 feet on Everest, via the North Col.

Bruce was appointed leader of the next effort to summit Everest, the 1924 British Mount Everest expedition. Several stories of him survive the trip. On the trek to Tibet, two of his muleteers got drunk and bit a local Tibetan woman. As punishment he fined them, and made them carry the 36-kilogram (80 lb) "treasury" (double the normal load carried) on a three-day march. Arthur Hinks, the rather mean-spirited secretary of the expedition committee seated in London, was exasperated by the official correspondence reaching London from the Himalayas.

Captain Noel will be arriving in Darjeeling with a box forty foot long and I am currently scouring the country for an adequate mule.

Please note that I am doing my best for this expedition. I have interviewed the Viceroy, I have preached to Boy Scouts, and I have emptied the poes in a Dak Bungalow. This is the meaning of the term General. They are cheap at home, they are more expensive out here. Hurry up with that thousand [pounds] please.

Bruce contracted malaria while tiger shooting in India before the expedition, and had to be stretchered out of Tibet. Edward Felix Norton took on leadership, and would set a new height record of 8,570 m (28,120 ft) on the mountain, less than 280 m (920 ft) below the summit. Two days later Mallory and Andrew Irvine disappeared on their summit attempt, and it is still argued that they may have succeeded in completing Bruce's goal of having an expedition member reach the summit.

Bruce did not return to Everest. Between 1931 and 1936 he was Honorary Colonel of the 5th Royal Gurkha Rifles of the Indian Army. He died of a stroke in 1939.


Charles Granville Bruce in 1910

• 1892: Karakoram, with William Martin Conway
• 1895: Nanga Parbat, with Albert F. Mummery
• 1907: Trisul, with Tom George Longstaff
• 1922: 1922 British Mount Everest expedition, with Edward Lisle Strutt
• 1924: 1924 British Mount Everest expedition

Works by Bruce

• Twenty Years in the Himalaya. London: Edward Arnold, 1910
• Kulu and Lahoul. An account of my latest climbing journeys in the Himalaya. London: Edward Arnold, 1914
• The Assault on Mount Everest 1922. London: Longmans, Green & Co, 1922
• Himalayan Wanderer. London: Alexander Maclehose & Co, 1934
• Bruce, C.G. (16 October 1922). "Darjeeling to the Rongbuk Glacier Base Camp" . The Geographical Journal. 60 (6): 385–394. doi:10.2307/1781075. JSTOR 1781075.

See also

• Timeline of climbing Mount Everest


1. Younghusband, Epic of Mount Everest, 1926
• Summers, J., Fearless on Everest (Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2000)
• Younghusband, F., The Epic of Mount Everest (London: Arnold, 1926)

External links

• Works by Charles Granville Bruce at Project Gutenberg
• Kenneth Mason, ‘Bruce, Charles Granville (1866–1939)’, rev. Peter H. Hansen, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004
• The Peerage of Britain: Charles Granville Bruce
• Rees, Ioan Bowen. "Bruce, Charles Granville". Welsh Biography Online. The Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion. Retrieved 11 July 2014.
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sun Feb 02, 2020 11:16 am

Edward Aldborough Tandy (1871-1950)
Surveyor General of India, 1924-28

The founding members [of the Himalayan Club] were:[2]

• Brigadier Edward Aldborough Tandy, Surveyor General of India

-- The Himalayan Club, by Wikipedia
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Mon Feb 03, 2020 9:10 am

T. E. T. Upton
Solicitor to the Government of India

The founding members [of the Himalayan Club] were:[2]

• Mr. T. E. T. Upton, Solicitor to the Government of India

-- The Himalayan Club, by Wikipedia

Minutes of the Ordinary Monthly meeting of the Council of the Agri-Horticultural Society of India held on the 27th June, 1913 at the Society's Gardens at 7:30 a.m.


Geo. Girard, Esq., I.S.O., F.R.H.S., in the Chair.

F.G. Clarke, Esq.
G.S.E. Colville, Esq.
F. Carter, Esq.
G.L. Sidey, Esq.
T.E.T. Upton, Esq.
E.A. Watson, Esq.

F.H. Abbott, Esq., Secretary
S. Percy-Lancaster, Esq., F.R.H.S., Asst. Secretary

-- Proceedings and Journal of the Agricultural and Horticultural Society of India for January-June, 1980. Founded 1820. Calcutta: Published by the Agri-Horticultural Society of India, 17 Alipur Road, Alipur.

The first ordinary general meeting of Thornycroft (India) Limited was held at Calcutta on Friday, the 27th August, Mr. S. Bergersen presiding. The Directors report and the audited accounts were passed unanimously. Mr. T.E.T. Upton was unanimously re-elected a director of the company, and Messrs. Pent and Co. auditors.

-- Pioneer Mail and Indian Weekly News, Volume 47, September 3, 1920


The Thornycroft was the first successful commercial motor vehicle in 1896, and still leads on the merit of its 25 years' reputation. None other offers such an assurance of lasting and efficient service.

100 new vehicles for immediate delivery from stock in India. These vehicles are built to conform with Indian Government Subsidy requirements.

Thornycroft (India), Ltd.
7, Old Court House Street, Calcutta.


-- Indian Motor News, November, 1920, Indian Industries and Power, Volume 18

by Wikipedia
Accessed: 2/3/20

Preserved 1934 Thornycroft Handy dropside lorry
Former type
Industry Road vehicles
Fate Taken over
Successor Scammell
Founded 1896; 124 years ago in Chiswick, England
Founder John Isaac Thornycroft
Defunct 1977

Thornycroft was a United Kingdom-based vehicle manufacturer which built coaches, buses, and trucks from 1896 until 1977.


Thornycroft Steam Wagon of 1897 with tipper body to act as a dust-cart

Thornycroft steam wagon of 1905

John Isaac Thornycroft, the naval engineer, also formed the Thornycroft Steam Carriage and Van Company which built its first steam van in 1896. This was exhibited at the Crystal Palace Show, and could carry a load of 1 ton. It was fitted with a Thornycroft marine launch-type boiler (Thornycroft announced a new boiler designed for their steam carriages in October 1897[1]). The engine was a twin-cylinder compound engine arranged so that high-pressure steam could be admitted to the low-pressure cylinder to give extra power for hill-climbing.[2] A modified version of the steam wagon with a 6-cubic-yard tipper body was developed for Chiswick council in 1896 and went into service as a very early self-propelled dust-cart. While the original 1896 wagon had front-wheel drive with rear-wheel steering, the tipper dust-cart had rear-wheel drive and front-wheel steering. The Thornycroft tipper was built by the Bristol Wagon and Carriage Company, though engined by Thornycroft.[3]

Thornycroft's first petrol vehicle was built in 1902,[4] and the company completed the move into internal combustion engine power in 1907.

First World War

Thornycroft's Basingstoke factory supplied nearly 5,000 motor vehicles for war purposes. They also provided "quite a large number of engines of various powers" to the Admiralty, the War Office and to other Government Departments at the beginning of the war and for the next two years. Thereafter they manufactured marine motors for the coastal motor-boats built at the Woolston, Southampton works. They also made the Thornycroft depth-charge thrower for anti-submarine warfare.[5]

From 1931, Thornycroft used names for their vehicle range – descriptive and colourful ones. During World War II the company designed the Terrapin[6] and other war-related vehicles.

In 1948, the company name was changed to Transport Equipment (Thornycroft) Ltd to prevent confusion with the shipbuilding Thornycroft company. The company was well known for providing fire-engine chassis, with multi-axle drive for uses such as airports. A limited number of 4x4 chassis were also provided to Worcester-based fire engine manufacturer, Carmichael for sale to civilian brigades in the 1950s.

They were taken over in 1961 by AEC parent Associated Commercial Vehicles Ltd,[7][8] and production was limited to Nubians, Big Bens and Antars, although the Thornycroft-designed six-speed constant mesh gearbox was used in AEC and later medium weight Leyland and Albion trucks. ACV was then taken over by Leyland in 1962. They already had a specialist vehicle unit in Scammell, another manufacturer of large haulage vehicles. Thornycroft's Basingstoke factory was closed in 1969[9] and specialist vehicles transferred to Scammell at Watford.


Bus and coach

Thornycroft Type J bus

• "Type J"
• Beautyride
• Boudicea
• Cygnet (Single Deck)
• Daring (Double Deck)
• Lightning
• Nippy
• Patrician


Thornycroft Nubian

Thornycroft Big Ben

Thornycroft Antar

Thornycroft Swift

Thornycroft Trident

• "Type J" 40 hp, 1913
• "Type K" 30 hp, 1913
• Hathi, 1924
four-wheel drive artillery tractor for the army
• A1 RSW / A3 RSW, an off-road capable rigid six-wheeler to an army specification, 1926[10]
• QC / Dreadnought, 1930
12 ton rigid six-wheel chassis.[11]
• Hardy
• Dandy
• Sturdy - 5/6 tonner
• Trusty - 8 ton forward control 4 wheeler
• Bullfinch
• Strenuous
• Mastiff
• Tartar 3-ton 6x4, both civilian & military versions and production (3,000 - 4,000) between 1938 and 1945.
(see Thornycroft Bison for an unusual variant)
• Taurus
• Iron Duke
• Amazon
• Stag
• Bulldog
• Jupiter - 6.5 ton
• Nubian
o 3-ton vehicle
o Available as 4 x 4, 6 x 4, 6 x 6
• Big Ben
• Antar
o 85-ton
o 6 x 4 pipeline and tank transporter
• Swift
• Trident

See also

• Terrapin - design only, built by Morris Commercial
• Nubian airport crash tender
• Thornycroft military vehicles
• Thornycroft Athletic F.C.


1. "Messrs Thornycroft's new Automotor boiler", The Automotor and Horseless Carriage Journal, October 1897, pp2-4
2. "Recent Developments in Mechanical Road Carriages", The Automotor and Horseless Vehicle Journal, Dec 1896, pp89-91
3. "An automobile dust-cart", The Automotor and Horseless Carriage Journal, Oct 1897, p24
4. Richard Twelvetrees (1946). Thornycroft Road Transport Golden Jubilee: 50 Years of Commercial and Military Vehicle Development by Private Enterprise. J.I. Thornycroft.
5. Chairman's report (John E Thornycroft) to Annual General Meeting of John I. Thornycroft & Co. (Limited). The Times, Saturday, Jun 14, 1919; pg. 20; Issue 42126
6. Chris Bishop (2002). The Encyclopedia of Weapons of World War II. Sterling Publishing Company, Inc. pp. 66–. ISBN 978-1-58663-762-0.
7. Commercial Motor Archives ... or-present
8. Passenger Transport. Ian Allan, Modern Transport Publishing Company. 1961.
9. John Carroll; Peter James Davies (2007). Complete Book Tractors and Trucks. Hermes House. ISBN 978-1-84309-689-4.
10. "Type A1 RSW". Hants gov, Thornycroft. Archived from the original on 29 May 2008.
11. "Type QC lorry". Hants gov, Thornycroft. Archived from the original on 13 March 2012.

External links

• 'Thornycroft of Basingstoke' - (Hampshire Cultural Trust) - extensive coverage of history and vehicles
• Thornycroft vehicle preservation group
• Thorneycroft Classic Motor History
• Youtube video of an existing Thorneycroft rifle in the Royal Armories in Leeds, England
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Re: Freda Bedi, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Mon Feb 03, 2020 9:58 am

Sir Denys Bray
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 2/3/20


Sir Denys de Saumarez Bray, KCSI, KCIE, CBE (29 November 1875 – 19 November 1951) was an etymologist and British colonial civil servant in the Empire of India, who served as Secretary of the Foreign Department of the Government of India.

Bray's publications evidence his deep understanding of the Brahui language, and his later work on Shakespeare re-arranged the much disputed argument on the basis of the discovery of a hitherto unexpected rhyme-link or word-link, joining sonnet to sonnet to form an orderly and smoothly flowing whole.

Early life

Bray was born in Aberdeen when his father, the Rev. Thomas William Bray, a Church of England cleric, was serving a cure in the Scottish Episcopal Church. He grew up there and in England and Germany, and was educated at a Realgymnasium in Stuttgart, Blundell's School in Tiverton, and at Balliol College, Oxford (where he was Taylorian Scholar).

Diplomatic career

Bray passed the Indian Civil Service examination of 1898, and served in the Punjab, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, and Baluchistan.

After serving as Deputy Secretary of the Foreign Department at New Delhi for four years, Bray was appointed Secretary in 1920, and filled the position with distinction for nearly a decade. He had a large share in shaping the treaty with Afghanistan negotiated at Kabul by Sir Henry Dobbs in 1921 (which amended the Treaty of Rawalpindi, agreed originally in August 1919, and reaffirmed Britain's recognition of Afghanistan's complete independence, and restored to the Afghans the privilege of importing munitions through India).

King Amanullah’s impatient forcing of Western ways on his people after visiting Europe in 1928 led to a revolt, and grave danger to the inmates of the British Legation at Kabul. Early in 1929, Bray was responsible for the plans for the evacuation by air (a novel method at that time) of the women and children, and then of the Minister, Sir Francis Humphreys, and his staff as part of the Kabul Airlift.

On leaving India in 1930, Bray was appointed a member of the Council of the Secretary of State for the India Office, which was transformed before the completion of his seven years into a body of advisers. Throughout the time, he was on the Indian delegation to the annual Assembly of the League of Nations. Bray also represented India at the international broadcasting conference in 1936, at the diplomatic conference on terrorism in 1937, and in the mission to Spain on refugee relief in 1938.

Etymological research and publications

Bray’s publications included:

• 1909: The Brahui Language, Part I. Calcutta: Superintendent Government Printing (Reprinted 1977–78, Quetta: Brahui Academy, Bib ID 1174990).
• 1913: Life History of a Brahui. London: Royal Asiatic Society (Reprinted 1977, Karachi: Royal Book Co., Bib ID 2902021).
• 1925: The Original Order of Shakespeare’s Sonnets. London: Methuen, Bib ID 2535453.
• 1934: The Brāhūī Language. Part II. The Brāhūī problem. Part III. Etymological vocabulary. Delhi: Manager of Publications.


• Obituary of Sir Denys Bray, The Times, Wednesday, Nov 21, 1951 (pg. 8; Issue 52164; col E).
• The India list and India Office list, 1905
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