Round Table Movement, by Wikipedia

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Re: Round Table Movement, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sun Oct 13, 2019 5:04 am

Waldorf Astor, 2nd Viscount Astor
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 10/12/19

The Right Honourable
The Viscount Astor
Parliamentary Secretary to the Ministry of Health
In office
24 June 1919 – 7 April 1921
Monarch George V
Prime Minister David Lloyd George
Preceded by office established
Succeeded by The Earl of Onslow
Parliamentary Secretary to the Local Government Board
In office
27 January 1919 – 24 June 1919
Monarch George V
Prime Minister David Lloyd George
Preceded by Stephen Walsh
Succeeded by office abolished
Parliamentary Secretary to the Ministry of Food Control
In office
18 July 1918 – 27 January 1919
Monarch George V
Prime Minister David Lloyd George
Preceded by J. R. Clynes
Succeeded by Charles McCurdy
Member of the House of Lords
Lord Temporal
In office
18 October 1919 – 30 September 1952
Hereditary Peerage
Preceded by The 1st Viscount Astor
Succeeded by The 3rd Viscount Astor
Member of Parliament
for Plymouth Sutton
In office
14 December 1918 – 18 October 1919
Preceded by Constituency Created
Succeeded by Nancy Astor
Member of Parliament
for Plymouth
In office
19 December 1910 – 25 November 1918
Preceded by Charles Edward Mallet
and Aneurin Williams
Succeeded by Constituency Abolished
Personal details
Born 19 May 1879
New York City, U.S.
Died 30 September 1952 (aged 73)
Taplow, Buckinghamshire, England
Political party Conservative
Spouse(s) Nancy Witcher Langhorne (m. 1906)
William Waldorf Astor II
Nancy Phyllis Louise Astor
Francis David Langhorne Astor
Michael Langhorne Astor
John Jacob Astor VII
William Waldorf Astor
Mary Dahlgren Paul
Relatives See Astor family
Alma mater Eton College
New College, Oxford

Coronet of a British Viscount.svg
Blasón del Vizcondado Astor.svg

Waldorf Astor, 2nd Viscount Astor, DL (19 May 1879 – 30 September 1952) was an American-born English politician and newspaper proprietor. He was also a member of the Astor family.

Early life

Astor was born in New York City. He was the eldest son of William Waldorf Astor, 1st Viscount Astor and Mary Dahlgren Paul. His younger brothers were John Rudolph Astor (who died young) and John Jacob Astor V, Baron Astor of Hever. He spent much of his life traveling and living in Europe before his family settled in Great Britain in 1889. There Waldorf attended Eton College and New College, Oxford, where he did not distinguish himself academically but excelled as a sportsman, earning accolades for both fencing and polo.[1] For the Oxford University Polo Club he played side on side with Devereux Milburn in successive Varsity Matches, winning by a margin of 14 goals on both occasions.[2]

Marriage and children

In 1905, while a passenger on an Atlantic voyage returning to Britain, Astor met Nancy Langhorne Shaw, a divorced woman with a young son (Robert Gould Shaw III). Coincidentally, both he and Mrs. Shaw shared the same birthdate, May 19, 1879, and both were American.[3] After a rapid courtship, the two married in May 1906. As a wedding gift, Waldorf's father gave him and his bride the family estate at Cliveden, which Nancy redecorated and modernized with the installation of electricity. Theirs proved a close marriage, and they had five children:[4]

• William Waldorf Astor II, 3rd Viscount Astor (born 13 August 1907, died 7 March 1966)
• Hon Nancy Phyllis Louise Astor (born 22 March 1909, died 2 March 1975)
• Hon Francis David Langhorne Astor (born 5 March 1912, died 6 December 2001)
• Hon Michael Langhorne Astor (born 10 April 1916, died 1980)
• Major Hon Sir John Jacob "Jakie" Astor VII (born 29 August 1918, died 10 September 2000)

Astor valued his wife; through her, Astor developed an interest in social reform.[5]

Public career

Nancy also encouraged her husband to launch a career in politics. Though defeated in an initial attempt to win election to the House of Commons in the January 1910 general election, Astor won election as a Unionist for the borough of Plymouth in the December 1910 general election. He held the seat until the constituency was abolished in 1918, after which he moved to the borough of Plymouth Sutton. Despite his political affiliation, Astor quickly demonstrated his independence by his support for the so-called "People's Budget" and the National Insurance Act of 1911.[6]

In 1911, Astor was approached by James Louis Garvin, the editor of The Observer, about purchasing the newspaper from its owner, the press baron Lord Northcliffe. Northcliffe and Garvin had a disagreement over the issue of Imperial Preference, and Northcliffe had given Garvin the option of finding a buyer for the paper. Astor convinced his father to purchase the paper, which William did on the condition that Garvin also agree to edit the Pall Mall Gazette, which was also a property of the Astor family.[7] Though his father provided the funds, it was Waldorf who was in charge of the paper, and he developed a harmonious working relationship with Garvin. William formally turned over ownership of both papers to his son in 1915, who promptly sold the Pall Mall Gazette but retained ownership of The Observer.

Like many of his class, Astor joined the army at the start of the First World War. Having been diagnosed with a bad heart, Astor was unable to serve in combat and instead fought waste and inefficiency in munitions production. When his friend David Lloyd George became prime minister and formed a new coalition government, Astor became his parliamentary private secretary. In 1918 he served as Parliamentary Secretary to the Ministry of Food and from 1919 until 1921 he served as Parliamentary Secretary to the Ministry of Health while also playing a prominent role as a member of Lloyd George's "garden suburb" of advisers.[6]

In 1916, father William Waldorf Astor was elevated to the peerage as Viscount Astor. Upon the death of his father in October 1919, Waldorf Astor succeeded to the viscountcy and became the 2nd Viscount Astor despite Waldorf's attempts to disclaim the title.[8] Now a member of the House of Lords, Astor was forced to forfeit his seat in the House of Commons, though he remained active in the government. The seat was won subsequently in a by-election by Astor's wife Nancy, who became the second woman elected to the House of Commons and the first woman to take her seat in the House, after the first woman elected, Constance Markievicz, had declined in accordance with her (Sinn Féin) party's policy. Nancy retained the seat until she stepped down in the 1945 general election.[9]

Later years

With his political career eclipsed by that of his wife, Waldorf turned to greater involvement in charitable causes. He became governor of the Peabody Trust and Guy's Hospital, while his interest in international relations fuelled his involvement with the Royal Institute of International Affairs, and he served as its chairman from 1935 to 1949. He was also a considerable benefactor to the city of Plymouth, and served as its Lord Mayor from 1939 to 1944. He was appointed Honorary Colonel of the Devonport, Plymouth-based Devonshire Heavy Brigade, Royal Artillery of the Territorial Army on 5 April 1929.[10]

Astor first got involved in horseracing, whilst an undergraduate, when he purchased a filly called Conjure for 100 guineas. He later bought two other fillies/mares called Maid of the Mist and Popinjay and these three became the foundation mares of Astor’s Cliveden Stud that he established near to his home. He became a successful owner-breeder and in all won 11 Classic races. These were; Two Thousand Guineas Stakes:- Craig an Eran (1921), Pay Up (1936) and Court Martial (1945); One Thousand Guineas Stakes:- Winkipop (1910) and Saucy Sue (1925); Oaks Stakes:- Sunny Jane (1917), Pogrom (1922), Saucy Sue (1925), Short Story (1926) and Pennycomequick (1929); and St Leger Stakes:- Book Law (1927). He famously never won the Derby but had the second placed horse 5 times. In addition to these successes he had 4 winners of the Eclipse Stakes, 3 winners of the St. James's Palace Stakes and 2 winners of the Champion Stakes. To this day he still holds the record for the number of winners (7) of Royal Ascot's important Coronation Stakes. He bred all of these horses and they all emanated from his three foundation mares.

In 1950, in poor health, he decided to withdraw from racing. He handed over his stud to his eldest son William and divided his bloodstock between William and his youngest son Jakie (John Jacob). The two brothers tossed a coin and then took alternate choices of the thoroughbred stock. The eldest son continued using his racing colours of pale blue and pink and Jakie’s colours were a variation on this.

During the military buildup in Germany in the 1930s, the Astors promoted entente with Germany, seen by some as appeasement of Hitler. Many of their associates felt sympathy for the state of Germany after World War I, feared Communism, and supported the position of the British government. Astor had anti-Semitic views and in the 1930s he told Thomas Jones that Germany was criticised because, "Newspapers are influenced by those firms which advertise so largely in the press and are frequently under Jewish control."[11] However, Nancy was critical of the Nazis, mostly on women's rights. Viscount Astor's anti-Semitism was non-violent and he protested to Hitler about treatment of the Jews.

In 1940, they urged Neville Chamberlain to resign and supported Churchill as replacement. He also supported war against Germany when it came although both remained uncomfortable with Joseph Stalin as an ally (from 1941). His son David Astor, who became owner and editor of The Observer in 1948, never forgave Claud Cockburn and his newssheet The Week for attacks on the "Cliveden Set".

The Astor family donated Cliveden Estate in Buckinghamshire to the National Trust in 1942.

Viscount Astor died on 30 September 1952 at Cliveden near Taplow, England,[8][12] and was buried in the Octagon Temple at Cliveden.[13] His eldest son Bill succeeded him as Viscount.


1. R.J.Q. Adams, "Astor, Waldorf, second Viscount Astor", in The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, H.C.G. Matthew and Brian Harrison, eds. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004), vol. 2, p. 801.
2. "The Polo Monthly" (PDF). July 1909: 375. Retrieved 11 August 2013.
3. "Lady Astor, 84, Dies in Castle", Chicago Tribune, May 2, 1964, p1
4. The Peerage, entry for 2nd Viscount Astor
5. Christopher Sykes, Nancy: The Life of Lady Astor (New York: Harper & Row, 1972), pgs. 79–82, 87, 146.
6. Adams, op cit.
7. Alfred M. Gollin, The Observer and J. L. Garvin, 1908–1914 (London: Oxford University Press, 1960), pgs. 300–303.
8. "Viscount Astor, 73, Dead at Cliveden. American-Born Peer Was One of Set in 1930's That Failed to Recognize Nazi Threat. Astor One of Virginia's Langhorne Sisters. Father Had Been U. S. Diplomat". New York Times. 1 October 1952. Retrieved 21 March 2010. In 1919, on his father's death, he became the second Viscount and Baron Astor
9. Sykes, op cit, pgs. 187–209
10. Army Lists.
11. A Reevaluation of Cockburn's Cliveden Set
12. "Death Claims British Peer". Eugene Register-Guard. 30 September 1952. Retrieved 21 March 2010.
13. "Astor Mausoleum - Mausolea & Monuments Trust". Retrieved 11 August 2017.
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Re: Round Table Movement, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sun Oct 13, 2019 5:18 am

John Jacob Astor, 1st Baron Astor of Hever
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 10/12/19

The real circle of initiates in the twentieth century, however, would appear to include the following names: [Alfred] Milner, Abe Bailey, George Parkin, Lord Selborne, Jan Smuts, A. J. Glazebrook, R. H. Brand (Lord Brand), Philip Kerr (Lord Lothian), Lionel Curtis, Geoffrey Dawson, H. A. L. Fisher, Edward Grigg, Leopold Amery, and Lord Astor. Since 1925, when Milner died, others have undoubtedly been added. This circle, with certain additional names, we shall call the "inner core" or the "inner circle" of the Milner Group....

-- The Anglo-American Establishment: From Rhodes to Cliveden, by Carroll Quigley

Lieutenant Colonel The Right Honourable The Lord Astor of Hever, DL
John Jacob Astor V, 1st Baron Astor of Hever
Personal details
Born: 20 May 1886, Manhattan, New York City, U.S.
Died: 19 July 1971 (aged 85), Cannes, France
Political party: Conservative
Spouse(s): Lady Violet Mary Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound (m. 1916; died 1965)
Children: Gavin Astor; Hugh Waldorf Astor; John Astor
Parents: William Waldorf Astor; Mary Dahlgren Paul
Relatives: See Astor family
Alma mater: Eton College; New College, Oxford

Lieutenant-Colonel John Jacob Astor V, 1st Baron Astor of Hever, DL (20 May 1886 – 19 July 1971) was an American-born English newspaper proprietor, politician, sportsman, military officer, and a member of the Astor family.[1]


Astor was born in Manhattan, New York City, in 1886, the fourth child of William Waldorf Astor, 1st Viscount Astor (1848–1919), and Mary Dahlgren Paul (1858–1894). He was five years old when his family left New York to live in England.[1] He was raised on an estate purchased by his father at Cliveden-on-Thames in Buckinghamshire and was educated at Eton College and at New College, Oxford.[2] Upon his father's death in 1919, John Jacob V inherited Hever Castle near Edenbridge, Kent, where he lived the life of an English country gentleman.

Olympic Games

John Jacob Astor V represented Great Britain in rackets at the 1908 Summer Olympics, winning the gold medal in the men's doubles competition together with Vane Pennell, and winning bronze in the men's singles event.[citation needed]

Astor had been the British Public Schools rackets champion in 1904–1905, and in the same year as his Olympic competition he played singles and doubles in the British Army rackets championships.[3]

Despite a later loss of leg, he was able to play and win against younger opponents at squash on a prosthetic limb.[2]

Military service

He served in the 1st Life Guards, which he joined in 1906[3] after a year at Oxford, and was Aide-de-Camp to Baron Hardinge, Viceroy of India between 1911 and 1914. Within his regiment he was promoted Captain in 1913 and Major in 1920.[3]

In World War I, he was wounded serving with his regiment at Messines in October 1914. After recovering he returned to the Western Front, rising to the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel commanding 520 Household Siege Battery of the Royal Garrison Artillery and awarded the Légion d'Honneur as a Chevalier. In September 1918, near Cambrai, his right leg was shattered by a shell and later amputated.[2]

He was Honorary Colonel of the Kent and Sussex Heavy Regiment, Royal Artillery, between 1927 and 1946 and Honorary Colonel of the 23rd London Regiment, between 1928 and 1949. In World War II he was Lieutenant-Colonel of the 5th Battalion, City of London Home Guard, a unit drawn from newspaper employees,[4] between 1940 and 1944.[3]

Marriage and children

Astor married Lady Violet Mary Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound (born 28 May 1889, died 3 January 1965) on 28 August 1916. She was the third daughter of Gilbert Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound, 4th Earl of Minto and his wife Lady Mary Caroline Grey. From her previous marriage to Major Lord Charles George Francis Mercer Nairne Petty-Fitzmaurice, who was killed in action at Ypres in 1914, Lady Violet had two children, Margaret and George.[5]

Lord and Lady Astor had three sons:[6]

• Gavin Astor, 2nd Baron Astor of Hever (1 June 1918 - 28 June 1984), married Lady Irene Haig, youngest daughter of Douglas Haig, 1st Earl Haig, and Dorothy Maud Vivian, and had five children including John Jacob "Johnny" Astor VIII.
• Lt Col Hon Hugh Waldorf Astor (born 20 November 1920, died 7 June 1999), married Emily Lucy Kinloch, a niece of Diana Vreeland, and had five children.
• Hon John Astor (born 26 September 1923, died 27 December 1987), married Diana Kathleen Drummond, a grandniece of Herbert Samuel Holt, and had three children.


He was a director of the Great Western Railway between 1929 and 1946. He held the office of Lieutenant of the City of London in 1926. He held the offices of Justice of the Peace from 1929 and Deputy Lieutenant of Kent from 1936 until 1962. He was a director of Hambros Bank between 1934 and 1960. He was Vice-Chairman of Phoenix Insurance between 1941 and 1952 and Chairman of between 1952 and 1958. He was a director of Barclays Bank between 1942 and 1952.[citation needed] on page 117 of "some recollections by A.W. Tuke AND R.J.H Gillman" Barclays Bank Limited 1926-1969 (c) Barclays Bank Limited 1972 under appendix I (Directors of Barclays Bank Limited from 1896 to 1969 Printed in Great Britain at the University Press, Oxford by Vivian Ridler Printer to the University.

In 1922, he purchased The Times newspaper following the death of its owner, Alfred Harmsworth, 1st Viscount Northcliffe. During his tenure as head of The Times, Lord Astor had the newspaper sponsor Edmund Hillary's expedition that made the first successful climb to the summit of Mount Everest. Astor remained chairman of the paper until 1959 when his son Gavin took over. In 1966, The Times was sold to Canadian newspaper tycoon, Roy Thomson.

Astor served as the first chairman of the General Council of the Press, which was established in 1953. He resigned from the position in April 1955 due to ill-health.[7]

In addition to his newspaper business, John Jacob V served in politics, as Alderman of the London County Council between 1922 and 1925, and in the Parliament of the United Kingdom for 23 years as Unionist Member of Parliament (MP) for Dover from 1922 to 1945. On 21 January 1956 he was created Baron Astor of Hever, of Hever Castle, in the County of Kent.[8] In 1962, he moved from England to France.


He died on 19 July 1971 in Cannes, France.[1]


Selected artworks from the family's vast collection were bequeathed to the National Gallery including the prized "Thames below Westminster" by Claude Monet. John Jacob V and Violet are buried together on the grounds of Hever Castle, which, since 1983, has been owned by Broadland Properties Limited and is a major tourist attraction. Eldest son Gavin succeeded him as Baron.[citation needed]

Further reading

• [1]
• Leigh Rayment's Peerage Pages [self-published source][better source needed]
• Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs
• John Jacob Astor, 1st Baron Astor of Hever at Find a Grave
• profile
• [2]


1. "Lord Astor of Hever Is Dead, Published The Times of London. American-Born Press Lord Headed Newspaper for 37 Years. Served in House of Commons 1922-1945". New York Times. 20 July 1971. Retrieved 27 July 2014. Lord Astor of Hever, former publisher of The Times of London, died today ...
2. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Volume 2. Oxford University Press. 2004. p. 796. ISBN 0-19-861352-0.Article by Derek Wilson.
3. Who Was Who, 1971-1980. A and C Black. 1982. p. 30. ISBN 0-7136-2176-1.
4. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Volume 2. p. 797.
5. Burke's Peerage 2003[page needed]
6. Burke's Peerage 1999, page 131
7. The Press and the People. General Council of the Press. 1955. p. 2.
8. "No. 40692". The London Gazette. 24 January 1956. p. 499.
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Re: Round Table Movement, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sun Oct 13, 2019 5:40 am

Sir Michael Sadler [Sadleir](educationist)
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 10/12/19

Milner was the creator of the Round Table Group (since this is but another name for the Kindergarten) and remained in close personal contact with it for the rest of his life. In the sketch of Milner in the Dictionary of National Biography, written by Basil Williams of the Kindergarten, we read: "He was always ready to discuss national questions on a non-party basis, joining with former members of his South African 'Kindergarten' in their 'moot,' from which originated the political review, The Round Table, and in a more heterogeneous society, the 'Coefficients,' where he discussed social and imperial problems with such curiously assorted members as L. S. Amery, H. G. Wells, (Lord) Haldane, Sir Edward Grey, (Sir) Michael Sadler, Bernard Shaw, J. L. Garvin, William Pember Reeves, and W. A. S. Hewins.""

-- The Anglo-American Establishment: From Rhodes to Cliveden, by Carroll Quigley

Michael Ernest Sadler
Sadler in 1914
Born 3 July 1861
Barnsley, England
Died 14 October 1943 (aged 82)
Occupation Writer
Subject Education
Spouse Mariam Olaa

Sir Michael Ernest Sadler KCSI CB (3 July 1861 – 14 October 1943) was an English historian, educationalist and university administrator.[1] He worked at the universities of Manchester and was the Vice-Chancellor of the University of Leeds. He also was a champion of the English public school system.[2]

Early life and education

Michael Ernest Sadler, born into a radical home in 1861 at Barnsley in the industrial north of England, died in Oxford in 1943.[3]

His early youth was coloured by the fact that one of his forebears, Michael Thomas Sadler, was among the pioneers of the Factory Acts. His early memories were full of associations with the leaders of the working-class movement in the north of England. Remembering these pioneers, Sadler recorded: "I can see how much religion deepened their insight and steadied their judgement, and saved them from coarse materialism in their judgement of economic values. This common heritage was a bond of social union. A social tradition is the matrix of education."[4]

Sadler's schooling was typical of his times. It gave him a diverse background, which was to be reflected throughout his life in his interpretation of the process and content of education. When he was 10 years old, he was sent to a private boarding school at Winchester, where the atmosphere was markedly conservative. Sadler recalls:

Think of the effect on my mind of being swug from the Radical West Riding... where I never heard the Conservative point of view properly put, to where I was thrown into an entirely new atmosphere in which the old Conservative and Anglican traditions were still strong.[4]

From this preparatory school he moved to Rugby in the English Midlands, where he spent his adolescence in an atmosphere entirely different from that of the Winchester school. His masters were enthusiastic upholders of Oliver Cromwell and the Puritan Revolution. The young Sadler soon found himself in critical revolt against the Cavalier and Anglican traditions.

He went to Trinity College, Oxford in 1880. There he soon came under the spell of leading historians such as T. H. Green and Arnold Toynbee, but it was John Ruskin who overwhelmed him as an undergraduate. Sadler has left on record how, in his second year at Trinity, a short course of lectures by Ruskin was announced, to be given in the Oxford University Museum. Tickets were difficult to get because of the popularity of the speaker. After a warm description of Ruskin's picturesque appearance, Sadler articulates a favourite conviction when he writes:

Nominally these lectures of Ruskin's were upon Art. Really they dealt with the economic and spiritual problems of English national life. He believed, and he made us believe, that every lasting influence in an educational system requires an economic structure of society in harmony with its ethical ideal.[4]

That belief persisted to the end of Sadler's life and is recurrent in his many analyses of foreign systems of education.[3] When, in July 1882, the examinations lists were issued, Sadler had gained a first-class degree in Literae Humaniores. A month earlier he had become President Elect of the Oxford Union, a field of public debating experience that has produced many English politicians.


In 1885, he was elected Secretary of Oxford's Extensions Lectures Sub-Committee, providing outreach lectures. He was a "student" (the equivalent of a fellow) at Christ Church, Oxford from 1890–95. In 1895, he was appointed to a government post as Director of the Office of Special Inquiries and Reports, resigning from the Board of Education in 1903. A special professorship in History and Administration of Education was created for him at the University of Manchester, where he was impressed by the work of the educational theorist Catherine Isabella Dodd and her experimental school.[5]

He became Vice-Chancellor of the University of Leeds in 1911, where he now has a building named in his honour, and returned to Oxford in 1923 as Master of University College, Oxford. There he continued to influence national educational policy and promote the work of various modernist artists.

Leeds Arts Club

The Michael Sadler building at the University of Leeds was named in his honour.

Whilst in Leeds, Sadler became President of the avant-garde modernist cultural group the Leeds Arts Club. Founded in 1903 by Alfred Orage, the Leeds Arts Club was an important meeting ground for radical artists, thinkers, educationalists and writers in Britain, and had strong leanings to the cultural, political and theoretical ideas coming out of Germany at this time.[6]

Using his personal links with Wassily Kandinsky in Munich, Sadler built up a remarkable collection of expressionist and abstract expressionist art
at a time when such art was either unknown or dismissed in London, even by well-known promoters of modernism such as Roger Fry. Most notable in his collection was Kandinsky's abstract painting Fragment for Composition VII, of 1912,[7] a painting that was in Leeds and on display at the Leeds Arts Club in 1913. Sadler also owned Paul Gauguin's celebrated painting "The Vision After the Sermon", and according to Patrick Heron, Sadler even had Kandinsky visit Leeds before the First World War, although this claim is uncorroborated by other sources.[8]

With Frank Rutter, Sadler also co-founded the Leeds Art Collections Fund to help Leeds City Art Gallery. In particular the aim of the Fund was to bypass the financial restraints placed on the Gallery by the municipal authorities in Leeds, who had, in the opinion of Sadler, a dislike of modern art.[6]

The Sadler Commission

In 1917 to 1919, Sadler led the "Sadler Commission" which looked at the state of Indian Education.[2]

Towards the end of the First World War, the Secretary of State for India, Austen Chamberlain, invited Sadler to accept the chairmanship of a commission the government proposed to appoint to inquire into the affairs of the University of Calcutta. Chamberlain wrote: "Lord Chelmsford [the Viceroy] informs me that they hope for the solution of the big political problems of India through the solution of the educational problems."[4] After some hesitation, Sadler accepted the invitation. Under his direction the Commission far exceeded its initial terms of reference.[9] The result was thirteen volumes issued in 1919,[10] providing a comprehensive sociological account of the context in which Mahatma Gandhi was campaigning for the end of the British Raj and the independence of India. From the lines of inquiry pursued, it is possible to deduce a conception of expanding higher education that goes far beyond the traditional university image in its search to relate higher education to the 20th century, with its increasing availability of educational opportunities to women. Sir Ashutosh Mukherjee, known as the Tiger of Bengal, was a member of this commission.

Before the publication of the Calcutta University Report, Sadler delivered a private address to the Senate of the University of Bombay. He put forward his personal conclusions as he surveyed The Educational Movement in India and Britain. It was characteristic of Sadler's belief in the inter-relationship of all the various levels of education and the importance of teacher training. He warned his listeners about producing an academic proletariat with job expectations that could not be fulfilled. And finally he told the members of the Senate:

And in India you stand on the verge of the most hazardous and inevitable of adventures—the planning of primary education for the unlettered millions of a hundred various races. I doubt whether the European model will fit Indian conditions. If you want social dynamite, modern elementary education of the customary kind will give it to you. It is the agency that will put the masses in motion. But to what end or issue no one can foretell.[4]


Sadler received the honorary degree LL.D. from Columbia University in June 1902.[11] He was awarded CB in the 1911 Coronation Honours.[12]

In 1919, Sadler was appointed a Knight Commander of the Order of the Star of India (KCSI).

Later life

From 1923 to 1934, Sadler served as Master of University College, Oxford. He collected paintings and encouraged artists.

Personal life

Sadler was married to Mary Ann Harvey Sadler, "a wealthy Yorkshire heiress".[13] Their only child was Michael Sadleir (1888–1957), a British publisher, novelist, book collector and bibliographer.

See also

• Leeds Arts Club


• The text above calls freely on the text published by UNESCO below, which "may be reproduced free of charge as long as acknowledgement is made of the source."[3]


1. "Sadler, Sir Michael Ernest", The Concise Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 1992.
2. Sir Michael Ernest Sadler at J. H. Higginson accessed July 2007
3. A detailed biography from UNESCO accessed July 2007
4. J. H. Higginson (ed.), Selections from Michael Sadler, p. 11. Liverpool: Dejall & Meyorre, 1980. The article In the Days of My Youth is reproduced in full.
5. Visit to a School with a New Work (1904). Cited in A. B. Robertson, "Dodd, Catherine Isabella (1860–1932)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford, UK: OUP, 2004 Retrieved 1 October 2017. Subscription required.
6. Tom Steele, Alfred Orage and the Leeds Arts Club 1893–1923 (Mitcham, Orage Press, 2009) 218f
7. Michael Sadler, The Avant-Garde in Interwar England (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999) 52
8. see Heron interview in B. Read and D. Thistlewood, Herbert Read: A British Vision of World Art, London 1993
9. The report was meant to be about "the affairs of Calcutta University"... amongst other things it created Lucknow University.
10. Chakraborty, Rachana (2012). "University of Calcutta". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. (eds.). Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
11. "Court Circular". The Times (36792). London. 12 June 1902. p. 12.
12. "No. 28505". The London Gazette (Supplement). 19 June 1911. p. 4593.
Michael Sadler Papers, 1797-1958, Retrieved 15 July 2017.

External links

A detailed biography from UNESCO
• Archival material at Leeds University Library
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Re: Round Table Movement, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sun Oct 13, 2019 7:40 am

Michael Sadleir [Sadler]
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 10/13/19

Micheal Sadleir
Born December 25, 1888
Oxford, England
Died December 13, 1957 (aged 68)
Bisley, Gloucestershire
Occupation Writer (novelist)
Nationality British
Period 20th century
Genre History, fiction

Michael Sadleir (25 December 1888 – 13 December 1957[1]), born Michael Thomas Harvey Sadler, was a British publisher, novelist, book collector, and bibliographer.


Bookplate of Michael Sadleir

Michael Sadleir

Michael Sadleir was born in Oxford, the son of Sir Michael Ernest Sadler and Mary Ann Harvey.[2] He adopted the older variant of his surname to differentiate himself from his father, a historian, educationist, and Vice-Chancellor of the University of Leeds. Sadleir was educated at Rugby School and was a contemporary of Rupert Brooke, with whom he was romantically involved,


Rupert Chawner Brooke (3 August 1887 – 23 April 1915[1]) was an English poet known for his idealistic war sonnets written during the First World War, especially "The Soldier". He was also known for his boyish good looks, which were said to have prompted the Irish poet W. B. Yeats to describe him as "the handsomest young man in England".[2][3]

-- Rupert Brooke, by Wikipedia

and Geoffrey Keynes.


Sir Geoffrey Langdon Keynes (/ˈkeɪnz/ KAYNZ; 25 March 1887, Cambridge – 5 July 1982, Cambridge) was an English surgeon and author.[2] He began his career as a medic in World War I, before becoming a doctor at St. Bartholomew's Hospital in London, where he made notable innovations in the fields of blood transfusion and breast cancer surgery. Keynes was also a publishing scholar and bibliographer of English literature and English medical history, focussing primarily on William Blake and William Harvey.... Geoffrey Keynes was the third child, after his older brother, the prominent economist John Maynard Keynes.

-- Sir Geoffrey Langdon Keynes, by Wikipedia

He then attended Balliol College, Oxford, where he read history and won the 1912 Stanhope prize. Before the First World War, Sadleir and his father were keen collectors of contemporary art, and purchased works by young English artists such as Stanley Spencer and Mark Gertler. They were amongst the first collectors (and certainly the first English collectors) of the paintings of the Russian-born German Expressionist artist Wassily Kandinsky. In 1913, both Sadleir and his father travelled to Germany to meet Kandinsky in Munich.[3] This visit led to Sadleir translating into English Kandinsky's seminal written work on expressionism, Concerning the Spiritual In Art in 1914. This was one of the first coherent arguments for abstract art in the English language and its effects were profound. Extracts from it were published in the Vorticist literary magazine BLAST in 1914, and it had a major impact on the development of abstract art in Britain and North America right up until the 1960s. Sadleir's translation is still in print, and it remains one of the most commonly used versions of Kandinsky's book in the English language.

Sadleir began to work for the publishing firm of Constable & Co. in 1912, becoming a director in 1920, and chairman in 1954. In 1920 as editor of Bliss and Other Stories by Katherine Mansfield for Constable he insisted on censoring sections of her short story Je ne parle pas français which show the cynical attitudes to love and sex of the narrator. Her husband John Middleton Murry persuaded Sadlier to reduce the cuts slightly (Murry and Sadleir had founded the avant-garde quarterly Rhythm in 1912) [4]

After the end of World War I, he served as a British delegate to the Paris Peace Conference, 1919, and worked at the secretariat of the newly formed League of Nations. As a literary historian, he specialized in 19th century English fiction, notably the work of Anthony Trollope. Together with Ian Fleming and others, Sadleir was a director and contributor to The Book Handbook, later renamed The Book Collector, published by Queen Anne Press. He also conducted research on Gothic fiction and discovered rare original editions of the Northanger Horrid Novels mentioned in the novel Northanger Abbey by Jane Austen. Beforehand, some of these books, with their lurid titles, were thought to be figments of Austen's imagination.[5] Sadleir and Montague Summers demonstrated that they did really exist. He was President of the Bibliographical Society from 1944 to 1946.[6]

Sadleir's best known novel was Fanny by Gaslight (1940), a fictional exploration of prostitution in Victorian London. It was adapted under that name as a 1944 film. The 1947 novel Forlorn Sunset further explored the characters of the Victorian London underworld. His writings also include a biography of his father, published in 1949, and a privately published memoir of one of his sons, who was killed in World War II.

Michael Sadleir book sticker

The remarkable collection Victorian fiction compiled by Sadleir, now at the UCLA Department of Special Collections, is the subject of a catalogue published in 1951. His collection of Gothic fiction is at the University of Virginia Albert and Shirley Small Special Collections Library.

Sadleir lived at Througham Court, Bisley, in Gloucestershire, a fine Jacobean farmhouse altered for him by the architect Norman Jewson, c. 1929.


• Excursions in Victorian Bibliography (London: Chaundy & Cox, 1922)
• Desolate Splendour (1923)
• The Noblest Frailty (1925)
• Trollope: A Commentary (1927)
• Trollope: A Bibliography (1928)
• Evolution of Publishers' Binding Styles (1930)
• Bulwer: A Panorama (1931)
• Authors and Publishers: A Study in Mutual Esteem (1932)
• Blessington D'Orsay: A Masquerade (1933)
• Archdeacon Francis Wrangham (1937)
• These Foolish Things (1937)
• Fanny by Gaslight (Constable & Co., 1940)
• Things Past (1944)
• Forlorn Sunset (1947)
• XIX Century Fiction: A Bibliographical Record (Constable & Co. and University of California Press, 1951)

See also

• Leeds Arts Club
• Bibliographical Society


1. "Derek Hudson, 'Sadleir, Michael Thomas Harvey (1888–1957)', rev. Sayoni Basu, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004 (subscriber access only)". Retrieved 2008-05-09.
2. Michael Sadleir Papers, 1797-1958, Retrieved 15 July 2017.
3. Tom Steele, Alfred Orage and the Leeds Arts Club (1893-1923) (Aldershot, Ashgate 1990) 179
4. Alpers (editor), Antony (1984). The Stories of Katherine Mansfield. Auckland: Oxford University Press. pp. 551, 560. ISBN 0-19-558113-X.
5. Sadleir, Michael (1927). A Footnote to Jane Austen. Oxford: OUP.
6. The Bibliographical Society -- Past Presidents Archived 2009-08-04 at the Wayback Machine, (archived webpage). Retrieved 15 July 2017.

External links

• Online text of a brief autobiography, Passages from the Autobiography of a Bibliomaniac

Library collections

• "Nineteenth Century Literature". UCLA Library Research Guides. University of California, Los Angeles. Retrieved 7 April 2017. More than 4600 titles mainly from the 19th century including important novelists, series, and cheaply published yellowbacks.
• The Sadleir-Black Collection of Gothic Fiction, Albert and Shirley Small Special Collections Library at the University of Virginia. collection of Gothic fiction titles assembled by Sadleir, Arthur Hutchinson and Robert Kerr Black.
• Michael Sadleir Papers, 1797-1958 description of archival material held in the Wilson Library at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
• Michael Sadleir papers, MSS 2053 at L. Tom Perry Special Collections, Brigham Young University
• Sadleir MSS and Sadleir MSS III brief descriptions of manuscripts at the Lilly Library, Indiana University

Online editions

• Works by Michael Sadleir at Project Gutenberg
• Works by Michael Sadleir at Faded Page (Canada)
• Works by or about Michael Sadleir at Internet Archive
• Works by Michael Sadleir at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
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Re: Round Table Movement, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sun Oct 13, 2019 8:59 am

Lionel George Curtis
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 10/13/19

Lionel George Curtis
Born 1872
Died 1955
Nationality British
Alma mater University of Oxford
Occupation Professor
Known for Leading Milner's Kindergarten

Lionel George Curtis CH (1872–1955) was a British official and author. He advocated British Empire Federalism[1] and, late in life, a world state. His ideas concerning dyarchy were important in the development of the Government of India Act 1919 and more generally, his writings influenced the evolution of the Commonwealth of Nations.


Curtis was born at Coddington, Herefordshire in 1872, the youngest of the four children of an Anglican rector.[2] He was educated at Haileybury College and then at New College, Oxford, where he read law. He fought in the Second Boer War with the City Imperial Volunteers and served as secretary to Lord Milner (a position that had also been held by adventure-novelist John Buchan), during which time he dedicated himself to working for a united self-governing South Africa. Following Milner's death in 1925, he became the second leader of Milner's Kindergarten until his own death in 1955. His experience led him to conceptualize his version of a Federal World Government, which became his life work. In pursuit of this goal, he founded (1910) the quarterly Round Table. He was appointed (1912) Beit lecturer in colonial history at the University of Oxford, and a Fellow of All Souls College.

In 1919 Curtis led a delegation of British and American experts to organize the Royal Institute of International Affairs during the Peace Conference of Paris.[3]

In 1947, Curtis was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize; in 1949, he was appointed a Companion of Honour, on the thirtieth anniversary of the founding of Chatham House.[4]


Curtis' most important books were:

• The Commonwealth of Nations (1916);
• Dyarchy (1920); and,
• Civitas Dei: The Commonwealth of God (1938), arguing that the United States must rejoin the British commonwealth and that the Commonwealth must evolve into a world government.


1. Fromkin, David (1989). A Peace to End All Peace. p. 232.
2. Tom Cargill: How to build a better world. History Today, Vol. 63, No. 2 (February 2013).
3. Edgar Trevor Williams, A. F. Madden, David Kenneth Fieldhouse. Oxford and the Idea of Commonwealth. Routledge, 1982. (Pages 39, 98)
4. May, Alex (2006). Curtis, Lionel George (1872–1955). Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press.


• World Revolution In The Cause of Peace, Basil Blackwell, Oxford (1949)
• From Empire to International Commonwealth: A Biography of Lionel Curtis by Deborah Lavin, Oxford University Press (1995), ISBN 0-19-812616-6
• The Round Table movement and imperial union by John Edward Kendle, University of Toronto Press (1975), ISBN 0-8020-5292-4
• The Anglo-American Establishment by Professor Carroll Quigley
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Re: Round Table Movement, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Sun Oct 13, 2019 9:10 am

Wickham Steed
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 10/13/19

On May 8, 1920, an article[56] in The Times followed German translation and appealed for an inquiry into what it called an "uncanny note of prophecy". In the leader (editorial) titled "The Jewish Peril, a Disturbing Pamphlet: Call for Inquiry", Wickham Steed wrote about The Protocols:

What are these 'Protocols'? Are they authentic? If so, what malevolent assembly concocted these plans and gloated over their exposition? Are they forgery? If so, whence comes the uncanny note of prophecy, prophecy in part fulfilled, in part so far gone in the way of fulfillment?".[57]

Steed retracted his endorsement of The Protocols after they were exposed as a forgery.[58]

-- The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, by Wikipedia

Another well-known author in the 1920s, Henry Wickham Steed describes in the second volume of his Through 30 Years 1892-1922 (p. 302) how he attempted to bring the Jewish-conspiracy concept to the attention of Colonel Edward M. House and President Woodrow Wilson. One day in March 1919 Wickham Steed called Colonel House and found him disturbed over Steed's recent criticism of U.S. recognition of the Bolsheviks. Steed pointed out to House that Wilson would be discredited among the many peoples and nations of Europe and "insisted that, unknown to him, the prime movers were Jacob Schiff, Warburg and other international financiers, who wished above all to bolster up the Jewish Bolshevists in order to secure a field for German and Jewish exploitation of Russia." [1] According to Steed, Colonel House argued for the establishment of economic relations with the Soviet Union.

-- Wall Street and the Bolshevik Revolution, by Antony C. Sutton


Mr. Wickham Steed, columnist for the Manchester Guardian in England, states: "Two Nazi or Hungarian agents called on the Allies with a certain extortion proposal, which the Allies scorned with indignation."

This mysterious item about Joel Brand and his desperate mission was reprinted in Ben-Gurion's newspaper Davar on July 28, 1944. This and no more ... before Joel Brand's Banquo-like appearance in Judge Halevi's court room nine years later.

The mysterious item was on view in the government press after emissary Joel Brand had been handed over to the British, and after Hungarian Jewry had been dumped into the German ash barrels....

Ben-Gurion's Davar reportage quoting the illusive "Wickham Steed" did not even mention the B.B.C. broadcast, made in London on June 20, 1944, on which the item was based. Communist dictators, too, consider it correct procedure to keep their constituencies uninformed about what the wretched world outside is saying. This outside world is usually saying things of a derogatory nature. But what is there derogatory about the B.B.C. broadcast? Why is it cut down to unintelligibility by Ben-Gurion's paper? Here is the broadcast:

"Two emissaries of the Hungarian Government arrived in Turkey to present the Allied representatives with the following offer from the Hungarian Government -- all the Jews remaining alive in Hungary will receive exit permits in return for a certain quantity of medical supplies and transport trucks from England and America. The promise was also made that these materials would not be used on the Western Front.

"At this time, the names of the emissaries cannot be revealed.

"Authoritative British circles consider this offer as a crude attempt to weaken the Allies, whose sympathy for the Hungarian Jews is well known; also to create dissension among the Allies.

"There is not the slightest possibility that the British and American governments will agree to enter into any negotiations of this short, although they would like to help the Hungarian Jews."

This was not entirely bad reporting. The emissaries were from the Germans, not the Hungarians. And there was only one emissary, sent out to the world's Jews, not to the Allies. The objective cited, "a crude attempt to weaken the Allies," was one of the possible reasons involved. And the British, speaking for the Allies, do not quite "scorn with indignation" as Davar states. Instead they make a cool and cautious statement that cannot be nailed as a lie. They "would like to help the Hungarian Jews."

Who wouldn't "like to help" a million human beings about to be tortured and murdered? The myriad of men, women, and children entering the death houses in Auschwitz don't know about this Christian wish "to help" them, but it is there, spoken with true British restraint by the B.B.C. announcer.

The princes of Israel are so efficient in their silence technique that Tamir, in Judge Halevi's court room, has never even heard of the Joel Brand story.

But the Joel Brand Story comes now to Tamir.

It comes as the whisper of a nightmare. A friend brings him word that there is a certain man in Tel Aviv who has a story to tell about the slaughter of the Hungarian Jews and the connivance of Israel's leaders in it -- a story that might fit into the trial.

-- Perfidy, by Ben Hecht

The Milner Group did not own The Times before 1922, but clearly controlled it at least as far back as 1912. Even before this last date, members of the innermost circle of the Milner Group were swarming about the great newspaper. In fact, it would appear that The Times had been controlled by the Cecil Bloc since 1884 and was taken over by the Milner Group in the same way in which All Souls was taken over, quietly and without a struggle. The midwife of this process apparently was George E. Buckle (1854-1935), graduate of New College in 1876, member of All Souls since 1877, and editor of The Times from 1884 to 1912. (2) The chief members of the Milner Group who were associated with The Times have already been mentioned. Amery was connected with the paper from 1899 to 1909. During this period he edited and largely wrote the Times History of the South African War. Lord Esher was offered a directorship in 1908. Grigg was a staff writer in 1903-1905, and head of the Imperial Department in 1908-1913. B. K. Long was head of the Dominion Department in 1913-1921 and of the Foreign Department in 1920-1921. Monypenny was assistant editor both before and after the Boer War (1894-1899, 1903-1908) and on the board of directors after the paper was incorporated (1908-1912). Dawson was the paper's chief correspondent in South Africa in the Selborne period (1905-1910), while Basil Williams was the reporter covering the National Convention there (1908-1909). When it became clear in 1911 that Buckle must soon retire, Dawson was brought into the office in a rather vague capacity and, a year later, was made editor. The appointment was suggested and urged by Buckle. (3) Dawson held the position from 1912 to 1941, except for the three years 1919-1922. This interval is of some significance, for it revealed to the Milner Group that they could not continue to control The Times without ownership. The Cecil Bloc had controlled The Times from 1884 to 1912 without ownership, and the Milner Group had done the same in the period 1912-1919, but, in this last year, Dawson quarreled with Lord Northcliffe (who was chief proprietor from 1908-1922) and left the editor's chair. As soon as the Milner Group, through the Astors, acquired the chief proprietorship of the paper in 1922, Dawson was restored to his post and held it for the next twenty years. Undoubtedly the skillful stroke which acquired the ownership of The Times from the Harmsworth estate in 1922 was engineered by Brand. During the interval of three years during which Dawson was not editor, Northcliffe entrusted the position to one of The Time's famous foreign correspondents, H. W. Steed.

-- The Anglo-American Establishment: From Rhodes to Cliveden, by Carroll Quigley

Henry Wickham Steed
Wickham Steed in 1920
Born Henry Wickham Steed
10 October 1871
Long Melford, Suffolk, England
Died 13 January 1956 (aged 84)
Wootton, England
Occupation Journalist, editor, and historian

Henry Wickham Steed (10 October 1871 – 13 January 1956) was an English journalist and historian. He was editor of The Times from 1919 until 1922.

Early life

Born in Long Melford, England, Steed was educated at Sudbury Grammar School and the universities of Jena, Berlin and Paris. While in Europe, he demonstrated an early interest in social democracy and met with a range of left-wing figures, including Friedrich Engels, Wilhelm Liebknecht, August Bebel, and Alexandre Millerand. His encounters formed the basis of his first book, The Socialist and Labour Movement in England, Germany & France (1894).[citation needed]

Foreign correspondent

Appointed by Joseph Pulitzer as Paris correspondent for the New York World, Steed joined The Times in 1896 as a foreign correspondent, working briefly out of Berlin before transferring successively to Rome (from 1897 until 1902) and then Vienna (1902–13). In 1914, he moved to London to take over as foreign editor of The Times. During his time in Vienna he acquired a deep contempt for Austria-Hungary.[1] An anti-Semite and a Germanophobe, in an editorial published in The Times on 31 July 1914, Steed labelled efforts to stop the impending war as "a dirty German-Jewish international financial attempt to bully us into advocating neutrality".[2] From 22 July 1914 on, Steed, in close agreement with The Times' proprietor, Lord Northcliffe, took a very bellicose line and in editorials written on 29 and 31 July, Steed urged that the British Empire should enter the coming war.[3]

Seen as a leading expert on Eastern Europe, Steed's views had much influence with decision-makers such as high-level bureaucrats and Cabinet politicians in the First World War and its aftermath. During the war, Steed befriended anti-Habsburg émigrés such as Edvard Beneš, Ante Trumbić, Tomáš Masaryk and Roman Dmowski and advised the British government to seek the liquidation of Austria-Hungary as a war aim. In particular, Steed was a very strong advocate of uniting all of the South Slavic peoples such as the Croats, the Serbs and the Slovenes into a federation to be called Yugoslavia. The British Ambassador to Italy claimed in a diplomatic dispatch that Steed's fondness for the Yugoslav concept derived from a relationship he maintained for a number of years "filially I believe rather maritally" with a Slavic woman from the Balkans.[1] In October 1918, Steed met with the Serbian Prime Minister Nikola Pašić to gain his support for the Yugoslav concept; Steed was deeply angered when he learned that Pašić saw the new state as merely as extension of Greater Serbia and had no intention of sharing power with the Croats or the Slovenes.[1] Steed charged Pašić with being a new "sultan" and severed his friendship with him.[1]

Editor of The Times

When the editor of The Times, Geoffrey Dawson, resigned from his post in February 1919, Steed was Northcliffe's first choice to succeed him. Steed had worked closely with Northcliffe during the war, becoming an adviser to him on foreign affairs. Steed was forced to contend with Northcliffe throughout most of his tenure as editor, as the press baron retained considerable control over the affairs of the newspaper.[citation needed]

After the war, Steed strongly disapproved of the Bolshevik regime in Russia. In an editorial written in another Northcliffe paper, the Daily Mail on 28 March 1919, Steed accused the British Prime Minister David Lloyd George, whom Steed detested, of betraying the White Russians because of a plot by "international Jewish financiers" and the Germans to help the Bolsheviks stay in power.[4]

In 1920, Steed endorsed as genuine a notorious anti-Semitic forgery, The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion, writing in an editorial in The Times, where he blamed the Jews for World War I and the Bolshevik regime, and called them the greatest threat to the British Empire. However, he retracted his view on the Protocols in 1921, when his paper's Constantinople correspondent proved them a forgery.[5]

Although Steed was Northcliffe's personal choice for the editorship, by 1922 the press baron was increasingly frustrated by Steed's failure to return The Times to profitability. After Northcliffe's death in August 1922, the new owners, John Jacob Astor and John Walter, dismissed Steed on 24 October and brought back Dawson as editor.[citation needed]

Final years

In 1923, Steed became editor of Review of Reviews (1923–30), the journal established by William Thomas Stead in 1890. In the early 1930s, he was one of the first English speakers to express alarm about the new German dictatorial chancellor, Adolf Hitler. In 1934, he caused sensation with an article claiming to have evidence of secret German experiments in airborne biological warfare.[6] The British government was sufficiently alarmed to start stockpiling vaccines,[7] although a retrospective analysis by the epidemiologist Martin Hugh-Jones has suggested that Steed's evidence could not have amounted to much.[8] On the title page of his 1934 work, Hitler Whence and Whither?, Steed is described as a lecturer in Central European History at King's College London.

He died in Wootton, West Oxfordshire.

In media

Steed, played by actor Andrew Keir, appears in the 1974 miniseries Fall of Eagles, bringing a rumour of the impending Bosnian crisis to the attention of King Edward VII, Georges Clemenceau, and Alexander Izvolsky.


• The Habsburg Monarchy (1913)
• A Short History of Austria-Hungary and Poland (1914)
• Through Thirty Years, 1892-1922: A personal narrative (1924)
• Journalism (1928)
• The Real Stanley Baldwin (1930)
• The Antecedents of Post-war Europe (1932)
• A Way to Social Peace (1934)
• Hitler Whence and Whither? (1934)
• The Meaning of Hitlerism (1934)
• Vital Peace: A study of risks (1936)
• The Doom of the Habsburgs (1937)
• The Press (1938)
• Our War Aims (1939)

See also

• Robert William Seton-Watson



1. Margaret Macmillan, Paris 1919, p. 114f.
2. Niall Ferguson, The Pity of War, p. 32, 195.
3. Niall Ferguson, The Pity of War, p. 217.
4. Margaret Macmillan, Paris 1919, p. 80.
5. Andre Liebich: "The Antisemitism of Henry Steed", Patterns of Prejudice, Vol. 46, No. 2, 2002. Retrieved 21 December 2016.
6. H. Wickham Steed, "Aerial warfare: secret German plans", Nineteenth Century and After 116 (1934), 1–15.
7. Brett Holman, Airminded: The Wickham Steed affair in popular culture, 17 February 2007
8. Martin Hugh-Jones, 'Wickham Steed and German biological warfare research', Intelligence and National Security 7 (1992), 379–402.


• Ferguson, Niall The Pity of War, London: Basic Books, 1999.
• Macmillan, Margaret Paris 1919 New York: Random House, 2002.

External links

• Works by or about Wickham Steed at Internet Archive
• The Habsburg Monarchy (1913)) eLibrary Austria Project (eLib Projekt) full text
• A Short History of Austria-Hungary and Poland (1914) Historical Text Archive full text
• Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
• Works written by or about Wickham Steed at Wikisource
• Newspaper clippings about Wickham Steed in the 20th Century Press Archives of the ZBW
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Re: Round Table Movement, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Wed Dec 11, 2019 4:02 am

Arnold Toynbee
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 12/10/19

The Toynbee group was a group of political intellectuals formed at Balliol about 1873 and dominated by Arnold Toynbee and Milner himself....

Although the outlines of the Milner Group existed long before 1891, the Group did not take full form until after that date. Earlier, Milner and Stead had become part of a group of neo-imperialists who justified the British Empire's existence on moral rather than on economic or political grounds and who sought to make this justification a reality by advocating self-government and federation within the Empire. This group formed at Oxford in the early 1870s and was extended in the early 1880s. At Balliol it included Milner, Arnold Toynbee, Thomas Raleigh, Michael Glazebrook, Philip Lyttelton Gell, and George R. Parkin. Toynbee was Milner's closest friend. After his early death in 1883, Milner was active in establishing Toynbee Hall, a settlement house in London, in his memory. Milner was chairman of the governing board of this establishment from 1911 to his death in 1925. In 1931 plaques to both Toynbee and Milner were unveiled there by members of the Milner Group. In 1894 Milner delivered a eulogy of his dead friend at Toynbee Hall, and published it the next year as Arnold Toynbee: A Reminiscence. He also wrote the sketch of Toynbee in the Dictionary of National Biography. The connection is important because it undoubtedly gave Toynbee's nephew, Arnold J. Toynbee, his entree into government service in 1915 and into the Royal Institute of International Affairs after the war.

-- The Anglo-American Establishment: From Rhodes to Cliveden, by Carroll Quigley

Arnold Toynbee
Born: 23 August 1852, Savile Row, London, England
Died: 9 March 1883 (aged 30), Wimbledon, London, England
Nationality: British
Alma mater: Balliol College, Oxford
Scientific career
Fields: Economic history

Arnold Toynbee (/ˈtɔɪnbi/; 23 August 1852 – 9 March 1883) was a British economic historian also noted for his social commitment and desire to improve the living conditions of the working classes.[1]

Life and career

Toynbee was born in London, the son of the physician Joseph Toynbee, a pioneering otolaryngologist. His sister was the bacteriologist Grace Frankland.[2]

Toynbee was the uncle, via his brother Harry Valpy Toynbee, of universal historian Arnold Joseph Toynbee (1889–1975). The two are often confused for each other due to the similarity of their names.

Toynbee attended public schools in Blackheath and Woolwich. In 1873 he began to study political economy at Oxford University, first at Pembroke College and from 1875 at Balliol College, where he went on to teach after his graduation in 1878. His lectures on the history of the Industrial Revolution in 18th- and 19th-century Britain proved widely influential; in fact, Toynbee coined,[3] or at least effectively popularised, the term "Industrial Revolution" in the Anglophone world—in Germany and elsewhere it had been brought into circulation earlier by Friedrich Engels, also under the impression of the industrial changes in Britain.

He married Charlotte Atwood, 12 years his senior and a cousin of Harold Davidson, the famous rector of Stiffkey.

Toynbee died in 1883, at age 30. His health had rapidly deteriorated, probably due to exhaustion by excessive work .[citation needed] Frederick Rogers notes that the publication of Henry George's Progress and Poverty may be said to have brought about Toynbee's death:[4]

As [Toynbee] saw the book, it was full of economic heresies, and he resolved to answer them. Of weak physique, but full of a passionate spiritual enthusiasm, he gave two lectures at St. Andrew's Hall, Oxford Street, against the book and the effort ended his career. He died for truth as he knew it, and those who knew him felt that his death was a national loss...

Toynbee genealogy

The Toynbees have been prominent in British intellectual society for several generations (this diagram is not a comprehensive Toynbee family tree):


Economic history

According to Toynbee, applying the historical method in economics would reveal how supposedly universal economic laws were, in fact, relative. For example, he argued that, despite commonly held beliefs, free trade was not generally advantageous in itself, but only under certain circumstances, which should not be considered absolute. Toynbee considered few laws universally true, such as the law of diminishing returns. Therefore, there were no universal rules as to how strongly the state should interfere in the marketplace; all depended on the situation and varying degrees of regulation could be appropriate.

Another idea Toynbee dismissed was that free competition was universally beneficial to economic and societal progress, especially as reflected in its apotheosis in Social Darwinism, which promoted laissez-faire capitalism. Toynbee did not equate "a struggle for mere existence and a struggle for a particular kind of existence". From the very beginning of history, he argued, all human civilisation was essentially designed to "interfere with this brute struggle. We intend to modify the violence of the fight, and to prevent the weak being trampled under foot."[5] Although economic competition does have its advantages, being the driving force behind technical progress, these were "gained at the expense of an enormous waste of human life and labour, which might be avoided by regulation". Toynbee suggested a differentiation between competition in production on the one hand, and competition in the distribution of goods on the other:

... the struggle of men to outvie one another in production is beneficial to the community; their struggle over the division of the joint produce is not. The stronger side will dictate its own terms; and as a matter of fact, in the early days of competition, the capitalists used all their power to oppress the labourers, and drove down wages to starvation point. This kind of competition has to be checked; there is no historical instance of its having lasted long without being modified either by combination or legislation, or both. In England both remedies are in operation, the former through Trades Unions, the latter through factory legislation.[6]

In itself, a market based on competition was neither good nor bad, but like "a stream whose strength and direction have to be observed, that embankments may be thrown up within which it may do its work harmlessly and beneficially". However, in the early phase of industrial capitalism "it came to be believed in as a gospel, ... from which it was regarded as little long of immoral to depart".

Social commitment

Toynbee Hall settlement house, Whitechapel, founded 1884, pictured in 1902

For Toynbee, early industrial capitalism and the situation of the working class in it was not just a subject of ivory-tower studies; he was actively involved in improving the living conditions of the labourer. He read for workers in large industrial centres and encouraged the creation of trade unions and co-operatives. A focal point of his commitment was the slum of Whitechapel, in East London, where he helped to establish public libraries for the working-class population. Toynbee also encouraged his students to offer free courses for working-class audiences in their own neighbourhoods.

Inspired by his ideas, Samuel Augustus Barnett and Henrietta Barnett founded the first university settlement in 1884, shortly after Toynbee's death; it was named Toynbee Hall in his honour. A centre for social reform, Toynbee Hall was on Commercial Street, Whitechapel. It remains active today. The concept was to bring upper and middle class students into lower-class neighbourhoods, not only to provide education and social aid, but to actually live and work together with their inhabitants. This soon inspired a worldwide movement of university settlements. The idea was to help members of the future elite understand the problems of British society; this was especially important at a time when class divisions were much stronger, social mobility was minimal, and the living conditions of the poor were completely unknown to many members of the upper class. Early chairs of trustees included Philip Lyttelton Gell and Lord Alfred Milner. Toynbee Hall attracted many students, especially from Oxford's Wadham College and Balliol College, where Toynbee had taught.

In 1916, the Arnold Toynbee House in New York was founded by a group of young adults who were part of the Stevenson Club at Madison House and with the help of philanthropist Rose Gruening. Eight years later, the settlement house was renamed Grand Street Settlement.

Views on the Industrial Revolution

Toynbee's name on the Reformers Monument, Kensal Green Cemetery

Toynbee is widely accepted as the historian who ushered the expression "the industrial revolution" into the English language. Although French and German commentators had used this term in the early nineteenth century, English use had been rare and inconsistent until the posthumous publication of Toynbee's Lectures on the Industrial Revolution in England.[7]

According to Toynbee, "the essence of the Industrial Revolution" was "the substitution of competition for the medieval regulations which had previously controlled the production and distribution of wealth". Among its components were an "agrarian revolution" that produced "the alienation between farmer and labourer" and in the manufacturing world, the appearance of a "new class of great capitalist employers". "The old relations between masters and men disappeared, and a 'cash nexus' was substituted for the human tie." Summing up his interpretation, Toynbee wrote, "the Wealth of Nations and the steam-engine...destroyed the old world and built a new one." For Toynbee, this coupling seemed self-evident. Steam-powered factories, the Wealth of Nations, competition, the cash-nexus and the rise of pauperism formed part of a single phenomenon.

In response to this bleak scenario, Toynbee proposed a test for when the state should become involved in the regulation of an economic or social sphere of society to even the balance between industry and labour. He proposed the "Radical Creed", which,

as I understand it, is this: We have not abandoned our old belief in liberty, justice, and Self-help, but we say that under certain conditions the people cannot help themselves, and that then they should be helped by the State representing directly the whole people. In giving this State help, we make three conditions: first, the matter must be one of primary social importance; next, it must be proved to be practicable; thirdly, the State interference must not diminish self-reliance. Even if the chance should arise of removing a great social evil, nothing must be done to weaken those habits of individual self-reliance and voluntary association which have built up the greatness of the English people.[8]


• 1884: Lectures on the Industrial Revolution In England: Public Addresses, Notes and Other Fragments, together with a Short Memoir by B. Jowett, London, Rivington's (1884); Whitefish, Montana: Kessinger Publishing (pb 2004). ISBN 1-4191-2952-X.
• 1908: 1908 edition, revised and expanded

See also

• Industrial Revolution
• Settlement movement
• Toynbee Hall
• University extension


1. F. C. Montague, "Arnold Toynbee", in Social Science, Municipal and Federal Government, Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University (1889), pp. 5–53.
2. Cohen, S. (2004-09-23). Frankland [née Toynbee], Grace Coleridge (1858–1946), bacteriologist. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 30 Jan. 2018, See link
3. Susan J. Winter and S. Lynn Taylor, The Role of Information Technology in the Transformation of Work: A Comparison of Postindustrial, Industrial and Protoindustrial Organization, in DeSanctis, Gerardine, Janet Fulk. Shaping Organization Form: Communication, Connection, and Community, Sage Publications Inc, 1999, p.105. ISBN 0-7619-0495-6
4. Rogers, Frederick (1913). Labour, Life and Literature. London: Smith, Elder & Co. p. 109.
5. Lectures on the Industrial Revolution of the 18th Century in England, 2nd ed., London, Rivington's (1887), p. 86.
6. Lectures on the Industrial Revolution of the 18th Century in England, 2nd ed., London, Rivington's (1887), p. 87.
7. Griffin, Emma. "The 'industrial revolution': interpretations from 1830 to the present". Retrieved 31 January 2013.
8. Arnold Toynbee and Prof Benjamin Jowett, Lectures on the Industrial Revolution in England; Popular Addresses, Notes and Other Fragments (1884), pp. 85, 88, 92–93, 189, 219.


• Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Toynbee, Arnold" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 27 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
• Milner, Alfred (1899). "Toynbee, Arnold" . In Lee, Sidney (ed.). Dictionary of National Biography. 57. London: Smith, Elder & Co.
• Millar, Fergus. "Toynbee, Arnold Joseph (1889–1975)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/31769.(Subscription or UK public library membership required.)

External links

• Alfred Marshall, "On Arnold Toynbee", ed. John K. Whitaker, Marshall Studies Bulletin 6 (1996): 45–48.
• SocioSite: Toynbee links
• Great Thinkers: Rana Mitter FBA on Arnold Toynbee FBA podcast, The British Academy
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Re: Round Table Movement, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Wed Dec 11, 2019 4:10 am

Toynbee Hall
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 12/10/19

Toynbee Hall
Toynbee Hall, circa 1902
Named after: Arnold Toynbee
Formation 1884; 135 years ago
Founder: Henrietta and Samuel Barnett
Purpose: Social reform
28 Commercial Street, London, E1 6LS
Coordinates 51°30′58″N 0°4′21″W

Toynbee Hall was the first university-affiliated institution of the worldwide Settlement movement—a reformist social agenda that strove to get the rich and poor to live more closely together in an interdependent community.[1] Founded by Henrietta and Samuel Barnett in 1884 in the economically depressed East End of London, it was named in memory of their friend and fellow reformer, Oxford historian Arnold Toynbee, who had died the previous year.

Toynbee Hall works to bridge the gap between people of all social and financial backgrounds, with a focus on working towards a future without poverty. It continues to serve that purpose in the present day.

The Settlement movement

An East End street in 1902 (Dorset Street, Spitalfields), photographed for Jack London's book The People of the Abyss.

Toynbee Hall was the first university settlement house of the world-wide settlement movement.[2] Students from Oxford and Cambridge University lived there, to undertake social work in the deprived areas of the East End.[3] By 1900 there were over 100 settlements in the United States and across the UK,[4] and in 1911 the leaders of the social settlement movement founded the National Federation of Settlements.[5]

Current activity

Today, Toynbee Hall provides a range of programmes and activities, broadly broken down into: youth, the elderly, financial inclusion, debt, advice, free legal advice and community engagement.[2]

Each year over 400 volunteers help to deliver the charity’s services.

In 2007 the Toynbee Studios opened in part of the building offering dance and media studios and a theatre.


Toynbee Hall, the building that houses the organization of the same name, is located in Spitalfields and is in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets, in the East End of London.

The building was designed by Elijah Hoole in Tudor-gothic style. It was designated a Grade II listed building in 1973.[6][7] It was adjacent to the church of St Jude, Whitechapel (demolished in 1927), and was on the site of a disused industrial school.[8]



• 1884–1906 Samuel Barnett[9]
• 1906–11 Thomas Edmund Harvey[10]
• 1914-17 John St George Currie Heath[11]
• 1919–54 James Joseph Mallon[12]
• Arthur Eustace Morgan[13]
• 1964–72 Walter Birmingham[14]
• 1977–87 Donald Piers Chesworth[15]

Chair of trustees

• 1884–96 Philip Lyttelton Gell, first chairman[16]
• Charles Alfred Elliott[17]
• 1911–25 Alfred Milner
• 1933–45 Cosmo Lang[18]
• 1966 Lord Blakenham[19]
• 1982–5 John Profumo[20]
• 1985–90 Sir Harold Atcherley
• 1990–2002 Roger Harrison[21]
• 2002–2009 Christopher Coombe
• 2009–2015 Ben Rowland[22]
• 2015– Julian Corner

Notable associated people

• Toynbee residents included RH Tawney and Clement Attlee
• William Beveridge began his career by working as Sub-Warden at Toynbee Hall from 1903 to 1905
• Visitors to Toynbee Hall included Lenin and Guglielmo Marconi
• Lionel Ellis (1885–1970), the military historian, was an Associate Warden of Toynbee Hall after the Second World War.[23] Between the two World Wars, he had been General Secretary of the National Council of Social Service and then Secretary of the National Fitness Council.
• John Profumo dedicated much of his time to the Hall from the 1960s onwards after the Profumo affair forced him out of politics
• Social reformers from the United States, such as Jane Addams and Gaylord Starin White, visited Toynbee Hall, which inspired their work to establish Hull House in Chicago and Union Settlement in New York City, respectively.
• Sir Nicolas Bratza, was a volunteer at Toynbee Hall's Free Legal Advice Centre in the 1970s. He went on to become the President of the European Court of Human Rights from November 2011 to October 2012. In 2014, Sir Nicolas became an Ambassador for Toynbee Hall
• Marie-Jeanne Bassot visited Hull House, which inspired her establishment of "la Résidence sociale" in Levallois-Perret (France)

Associated organisations

• Charles Robert Ashbee created his Guild of Handicraft whilst a resident at Toynbee Hall in the late 1880s
• The Whitechapel Art Gallery (founded 1901) grew out of annual free art exhibitions organised by Henrietta Barnett
• The Workers Educational Association (WEA) was founded here in 1903
• Child Poverty Action Group was founded at a meeting held at Toynbee Hall in 1965
• Stepney Children's Fund


1. ^ Chapin, Henry Dwight (28 October 1894). "WORK FOR THE POOR IN LONDON". New York Times. p. 20. Retrieved 9 April2019.
2. ^ Jump up to:a b "About us". Toynbee Hall. 3 November 2019. Retrieved 3 November 2019.
3. ^ Article in the 'University Review' 919050, quoted in H. O. Barnett, op. cit., p.311
4. ^ National Federation of Settlements accessed 10 July 2013
5. ^ Social Welfare History website.[permanent dead link]
6. ^ Toynbee Hall: The First Hundred Years by A. Briggs and A. Macartney, Routledge & Kegan Paul, London, 1984, p. 1
7. ^ Historic England. "Details from listed building database (1065201)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 8 August2009.
8. ^ Stewart Angas Weaver (1997). The Hammonds: A Marriage in History. Stanford University Press. p. 33. ISBN 978-0-8047-3242-0.
9. ^ Koven, Seth. "Barnett, Samuel Augustus". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/30612.(Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
10. ^ Hope Hay Hewison (1989). Hedge of Wild Almonds: South Africa, the Pro-Boers & the Quaker Conscience, 1890–1910. James Currey Publishers. p. 373. ISBN 978-0-85255-031-1.
11. ^ The Annual Monitor for 1919-20 being an obituary of members of the Society of Friends, Headley Bros, 1920 p 168-177
12. ^ Briggs, Asa. "Mallon, James Joseph". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/34846.(Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
13. ^ Stanley Brice Frost (1 May 1984). McGill University: For the Advancement of Learning, Volume II, 1895–1971. McGill-Queen's Press – MQUP. pp. 209 note 14. ISBN 978-0-7735-6094-9.
14. ^ Moonman, Eric (6 September 2004). "Obituary: Walter Birmingham". The Guardian. Retrieved 2 April 2014.
15. ^ Who Was Who, Oxford Index
16. ^ Gerald Grace (17 June 2013). Education and the City: Theory, History and Contemporary Practice. Routledge. p. 146. ISBN 978-1-135-66876-1.
17. ^ Washbrook, David. "Elliott, Charles Alfred". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/33004.(Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
18. ^ Katherine Bentley Beauman (15 September 1996). Women and the Settlement Movement. The Radcliffe Press. pp. 199–. ISBN 978-1-86064-129-9.
19. ^ Briggs, Asa; Macartney, Anne (1984). Toynbee Hall: the first hundred years. Routledge & K. Paul. p. 155. ISBN 9780710202833.
20. ^ Heffer, Simon. "Profumo, John Dennis". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/97107.(Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
21. ^, Board of Directors. Archived 7 April 2014 at the Wayback Machine
22. ^, Trustees.
23. ^ Social Service: A Quarterly Review, Volumes 27–28 (1953), p. 1: "For the Well-Being of Mankind, Lionel F. Ellis, c.v.o., c.b.e., d.s.o. Associate Warden, Toynbee Hall".

Further reading

• "Stephen Bayley on the opening of the new Toynbee Studios". The Observer. London. 25 February 2007. Retrieved 25 February 2007.
• Briggs, A. and Macartney, A. (1984) Toynbee Hall. The first hundred years, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
• Nunn, Thomas Hancock (1892). "The Universities' Settlement in Whitechapel". The Economic Review. Oxford University Branch of the Christian Social Union. 2: 478–495. Retrieved 14 August 2016.
• "The Barnetts and Toynbee Hall". INFED – informal education and lifelong learning. Archived from the original on 5 February 2007. Retrieved 1 February 2007.
• Meacham, Standish. (1987) Toynbee Hall and Social Reform, 1880–1914: The Search for Community (1987) online review
• "Toynbee Hall, Commercial Street". An educational resource created by the Pevsner Architectural Guides. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 1 March 2007.
• Pimlott, J. A. R. (1935) Toynbee Hall. Fifty years of social progress 1884 – 1934, London: Dent.
• "Toynbee Hall history". Retrieved 1 February 2007.
• White, Gaylord S. (1911). "The Social Settlement after Twenty-Five Years". The Harvard Theological Review. 4 (1): 47–70. ISSN 0017-8160.

External links

• Toynbee Hall
• Toynbee Art Club Website for the club that was established in 1886 by C.R. Ashbee during his residence at Toynbee Hall.
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Re: Round Table Movement, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Thu Dec 12, 2019 4:10 am

Archibald Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 12/11/19

The Milner Group could never have been built up by Milner's own efforts. He had no political power or even influence. All that he had was ability and ideas. The same thing is true about many of the other members of the Milner Group, at least at the time that they joined the Group. The power that was utilized by Milner and his Group was really the power of the Cecil family and its allied families such as the Lyttelton (Viscounts Cobham), Wyndham (Barons Leconfield), Grosvenor (Dukes of Westminster), Balfour, Wemyss, Palmer (Earls of Selborne and Viscounts Wolmer), Cavendish (Dukes of Devonshire and Marquesses of Hartington), and Gathorne-Hardy (Earls of Cranbrook). The Milner Group was originally a major fief within the great nexus of power, influence, and privilege controlled by the Cecil family. It is not possible to describe here the ramifications of the Cecil influence. It has been all-pervasive in British life since 1886. This Cecil Bloc was built up by Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil, Viscount Cranborne and third Marquess of Salisbury (1830-1903). The methods used by this man were merely copied by the Milner Group. These methods can be summed up under three headings: (a) a triple-front penetration in politics, education, and journalism; (b) the recruitment of men of ability (chiefly from All Souls) and the linking of these men to the Cecil Bloc by matrimonial alliances and by gratitude for titles and positions of power; and (c) the influencing of public policy by placing members of the Cecil Bloc in positions of power shielded as much as possible from public attention.

The triple-front penetration can be seen in Lord Salisbury's own life. He was not only Prime Minister for a longer period than anyone else in recent history (fourteen years between 1885 and 1902) but also a Fellow of All Souls (from 1853) and Chancellor of Oxford University (1869-1903), and had a paramount influence on The Quarterly Review for many years. He practiced a shameless nepotism, concealed to some extent by the shifting of names because of acquisition of titles and female marital connections, and redeemed by the fact that ability as well as family connection was required from appointees...

The Cecil Bloc did not disappear with the death of Lord Salisbury in 1903 but was continued for a considerable period by Balfour. It did not, however, continue to grow but, on the contrary, became looser and less disciplined, for Balfour lacked the qualities of ambition and determination necessary to control or develop such a group. Accordingly, the Cecil Bloc, while still in existence as a political and social power, has largely been replaced by the Milner Croup. This Group, which began as a dependent fief of the Cecil Bloc, has since 1916 become increasingly the active portion of the Bloc and in fact its real center. Milner possessed those qualities of determination and ambition which Balfour lacked, and was willing to sacrifice all personal happiness and social life to his political goals, something which was quite unacceptable to the pleasure-loving Balfour. Moreover, Milner was intelligent enough to see that it was not possible to continue a political group organized in the casual and familiar way in which it had been done by Lord Salisbury. Milner shifted the emphasis from family connection to ideological agreement. The former had become less useful with the rise of a class society based on economic conflicts and with the extension of democracy. Salisbury was fundamentally a conservative, while Milner was not. Where Salisbury sought to build up a bloc of friends and relatives to exercise the game of politics and to maintain the Old England that they all loved, Milner was not really a conservative at all. Milner had an idea — the idea he had obtained from Toynbee and that he found also in Rhodes and in all the members of his Group. This idea had two parts: that the extension and integration of the Empire and the development of social welfare were essential to the continued existence of the British way of life; and that this British way of life was an instrument which unfolded all the best and highest capabilities of mankind. Working with this ideology derived from Toynbee and Balliol, Milner used the power and the general strategic methods of the Cecil Bloc to build up his own Group. But, realizing that conditions had changed, he put much greater emphasis on propaganda activities and on ideological unity within the Group. These were both made necessary by the extension of political democracy and the rise of economic democracy as a practical political issue. These new developments had made it impossible to be satisfied with a group held together by no more than family and social connections and animated by no more far-sighted goal than the preservation of the existing social structure.

The Cecil Bloc did not resist this change by Milner of the aims and tactics of their older leader. The times made it clear to all that methods must be changed. However, it is possible that the split which appeared within the Conservative Party in England after 1923 followed roughly the lines between the Milner Group and the Cecil Bloc.

It should perhaps be pointed out that the Cecil Bloc was a social rather than a partisan group — at first, at least. Until 1890 or so it contained members of both political parties, including the leaders, Salisbury and Gladstone. The relationship between the two parties on the topmost level could be symbolized by the tragic romance between Salisbury's nephew and Gladstone's niece, ending in the death of the latter in 1875. After the split in the Liberal Party in 1886, it was the members of the Cecil Bloc who became Unionists — that is, the Lytteltons, the Wyndhams, the Cavendishes. As a result, the Cecil Bloc became increasingly a political force. Gladstone remained socially a member of it, and so did his protege, John Morley, but almost all the other members of the Bloc were Unionists or Conservatives. The chief exceptions were the four leaders of the Liberal Party after Gladstone, who were strong imperialists: Rosebery, Asquith, Edward Grey, and Haldane. These four supported the Boer War, grew increasingly anti-German, supported the World War in 1914, and were close to the Milner Group politically, intellectually, and socially...

Socially, the Cecil Bloc could be divided into three generations. The first (including Salisbury, Gladstone, the seventh Duke of Devonshire, the eighth Viscount Midleton, Goschen, the fourth Baron Lyttelton, the first Earl of Cranbrook, the first Duke of Westminster, the first Baron Leconfield, the tenth Earl of Wemyss, etc.) was not as "social" (in the frivolous sense) as the second. This first generation was born in the first third of the nineteenth century, went to both Oxford and Cambridge in the period 1830-1855, and died in the period 1890-1915. The second generation was born in the second third of the nineteenth century, went almost exclusively to Oxford (chiefly Balliol) in the period 1860-1880, and died in the period 1920-1930. This second generation was much more social in a spectacularly frivolous sense, much more intellectual (in the sense that they read books and talked philosophy or social problems) and centered on a social group known at the time as "The Souls." The third generation of the Cecil Bloc, consisting of persons born in the last third of the nineteenth century, went to Oxford almost exclusively (New College or Balliol) in the period 1890-1905 and began to die off about 1940. This third generation of the Cecil Bloc was dominated and organized about the Milner Group. It was very serious-minded, very political, and very secretive.

The first two generations did not regard themselves as an organized group but rather as "Society." The Bloc was symbolized in the first two generations in two exclusive dining clubs called "The Club" and "Grillion's." The membership of the two was very similar, with about forty persons in each and a total of not over sixty in both together. Both organizations had illustrious pasts. The Club, founded in 1764, had as past members Joshua Reynolds (founder), Samuel Johnson, Edmund Burke, Oliver Goldsmith, James Boswell, Edward Gibbon, Charles Fox, David Garrick, Adam Smith, Richard B. Sheridan, George Canning, Humphry Davy, Walter Scott, Lord Liverpool, Henry Hallam, Lord Brougham, T. B. Macauley, Lord John Russell, George Grote, Dean Stanley, W. E. H. Lecky, Lord Kelvin, Matthew Arnold, T. H. Huxley, Bishop Wilberforce, Bishop Stubbs, Bishop Creighton, Gladstone, Lord Salisbury, Balfour, John Morley, Richard Jebb, Lord Goschen, Lord Acton, Lord Rosebery, Archbishop Lang, F. W. Pember (Warden of All Souls), Lord Asquith, Edward Grey, Lord Haldane, Hugh Cecil, John Simon, Charles Oman, Lord Tennyson, Rudyard Kipling, Gilbert Murray, H. A. L. Fisher, John Buchan, Maurice Hankey, the fourth Marquess of Salisbury, Lord Lansdowne, Bishop Henson, Halifax, Stanley Baldwin, Austen Chamberlain, Lord Carnock, and Lord Hew art. This list includes only members up to 1925. There were, as we have said, only forty members at any one time, and at meetings (dinner every fortnight while Parliament was in session) usually only about a dozen were present.

Grillion's was very similar to The Club. Founded in 1812, it had the same members and met under the same conditions, except weekly (dinner when Parliament was in session). The following list includes the names I can find of those who were members up to 1925: Gladstone, Salisbury, Lecky, Balfour, Asquith, Edward Grey, Haldane, Lord Bryce, Hugh Cecil, Robert Cecil, Curzon, Neville Lyttelton, Eustace Percy, John Simon, Geoffrey Dawson, Walter Raleigh, Balfour of Burleigh, and. Gilbert Murray.(8)

The second generation of the Cecil Bloc was famous at the time that it was growing up (and political power was still in the hands of the first generation) as "The Souls," a term applied to them partly in derision and partly in envy but used by themselves later. This group, flitting about from one great country house to another or from one spectacular social event to another in the town houses of their elders, has been preserved for posterity in the autobiographical volumes of Margot Tennant Asquith and has been caricatured in the writings of Oscar Wilde. The frivolity of this group can be seen in Margot Tennant's statement that she obtained for Milner his appointment to the chairmanship of the Board of Inland Revenue in 1892 merely by writing to Balfour and asking for it after she had a too brief romantic interlude with Milner in Egypt. As a respected scholar of my acquaintance has said, this group did everything in a frivolous fashion, including entering the Boer War and the First World War.

One of the enduring creations of the Cecil Bloc is the Society for Psychical Research, which holds a position in the history of the Cecil Bloc similar to that held by the Royal Institute of International Affairs in the Milner Group. The Society was founded in 1882 by the Balfour family and their in-laws, Lord Rayleigh and Professor Sidgwick. In the twentieth century it was dominated by those members of the Cecil Bloc who became most readily members of the Milner Group. Among these we might mention Gilbert Murray, who performed a notable series of experiments with his daughter, Mrs. Arnold J. Toynbee, in the years before 1914, and Dame Edith Lyttelton, herself a Balfour and widow of Arthur Balfour's closest friend, who was president of the Society in 1933-1934.

The third generation was quite different, partly because it was dominated by Milner, one of the few completely serious members of the second generation. This third generation was serious if not profound, studious if not broadly educated, and haunted consistently by the need to act quickly to avoid impending disaster. This fear of disaster they shared with Rhodes and Milner, but they still had the basic weakness of the second generation (except Milner and a few other adopted members of that Group), namely that they got everything too easily. Political power, wealth, and social position came to this third generation as a gift from the second, without the need to struggle for what they got or to analyze the foundations of their beliefs. As a result, while awake to the impending disaster, they were not able to avoid it, but instead tinkered and tampered until the whole system blew up in their faces.

This third generation, especially the Milner Group, which formed its core, differed from its two predecessors in its realization that it formed a group. The first generation had regarded itself as "England," the second regarded itself as "Society," but the third realized it was a secret group — or at least its inner circles did. From Milner and Rhodes they got this idea of a secret group of able and determined men, but they never found a name for it, contenting themselves with calling it "the Group," or "the Band," or even "Us."...

In each of his seven wills, Rhodes entrusted his bequest to a group of men to carry out his purpose. In the first will, as we have seen, the trustees were Lord Carnarvon and Sidney Shippard. In the second will (1882), the sole trustee was his friend N. E. Pickering. In the third will (1888), Pickering having died, the sole trustee was Lord Rothschild. In the fourth will (1891), W. T. Stead was added, while in the fifth (1892), Rhodes's solicitor, B. F. Hawksley, was added to the previous two. In the sixth (1893) and seventh (1899) wills, the personnel of the trustees shifted considerably, ending up, at Rhodes's death in 1902, with a board of seven trustees: Lord Milner, Lord Rosebery, Lord Grey, Alfred Beit, L. L. Michell, B. F. Hawksley, and Dr. Starr Jameson. This is the board to which the world looked to set up the Rhodes Scholarships...

Another prominent political figure who may have been an initiate in the period before 1902 is Lord Rosebery. Like his father-in-law, Lord Rothschild, who was an initiate, Rosebery was probably not a very active member of The Society of the Elect, although for quite different reasons. Lord Rothschild held aloof because to him the whole project was incomprehensible and unbusinesslike; Lord Rosebery held aloof because of his own diffident personality and his bad physical health. However, he cooperated with the members of the society and was on such close personal relationships with them that he probably knew of the secret society. Brett was one of his most intimate associates and introduced him to Milner in 1885. As for Rhodes, Rosebery's official biographer, the Marquess of Crewe, says that he "both liked and admired Cecil Rhodes who was often his guest." He made Rhodes a Privy Councillor, and Rhodes made him a trustee of his will. These things, and the fact that the initiates generally assumed that Rosebery would grant their requests, give certain grounds for believing that he was a member of their society. If he was, he played little role in it after 1900.

-- The Anglo-American Establishment: From Rhodes to Cliveden, by Carroll Quigley

The Right Honourable, The Earl of Rosebery, KG KT PC FRS FBA
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
In office: 5 March 1894 – 22 June 1895
Monarch: Victoria
Preceded by: William Ewart Gladstone
Succeeded by: The Marquess of Salisbury
Leader of the Opposition
In office: 22 June 1895 – 6 October 1896
Monarch: Victoria
Prime Minister: The Marquess of Salisbury
Preceded by: The Marquess of Salisbury
Succeeded by: Sir William Harcourt
Lord President of the Council
In office: 10 March 1894 – 21 June 1895
Monarch: Victoria
Prime Minister: Himself
Preceded by: The Earl of Kimberley
Succeeded by: The Duke of Devonshire
Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs
In office: 18 August 1892 – 10 March 1894
Monarch: Victoria
Prime Minister: William Ewart Gladstone
Preceded by: The Marquess of Salisbury
Succeeded by: The Earl of Kimberley
In office
6 February 1886 – 3 August 1886
Monarch: Victoria
Prime Minister: William Ewart Gladstone
Preceded by: The Marquess of Salisbury
Succeeded by: The Earl of Iddesleigh
Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal
In office: 5 March 1885 – 9 June 1885
Monarch: Victoria
Prime Minister: William Ewart Gladstone
Preceded by: The Lord Carlingford
Succeeded by: The Earl of Harrowby
First Commissioner of Works
In office: 13 February 1885 – 9 June 1885
Monarch: Victoria
Prime Minister: William Ewart Gladstone
Preceded by: George Shaw-Lefevre
Succeeded by: David Plunket
Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for the Home Department
In office: August 1881 – June 1883
Monarch: Victoria
Prime Minister: William Ewart Gladstone
Preceded by: Leonard Courtney
Succeeded by: J. T. Hibbert
Member of the House of Lords, Lord Temporal
In office: 7 May 1868 – 21 May 1929
Hereditary peerage
Preceded by: The 4th Earl of Rosebery
Succeeded by: The 6th Earl of Rosebery
Personal details
Born: Archibald Philip Primrose, 7 May 1847, Mayfair, Middlesex, England
Died: 21 May 1929 (aged 82), Epsom, Surrey, England
Resting place: Dalmeny Parish Church, Edinburgh, Scotland
Political party: Liberal
Spouse(s): Hannah de Rothschild (m. 1878; died 1890)
Children: 4, including Sybil, Harry, and Neil
Parents: Archibald Primrose, Lord Dalmeny
Wilhelmina Powlett, Duchess of Cleveland
Alma mater: Christ Church, Oxford

Garter encircled shield of arms of Archibald Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery, KG, as displayed on his Order of the Garter stall plate in St. George's Chapel, viz. Quarterly, 1st and 4th, vert three primroses within a double tressure flory counterflory or, for PRIMROSE; 2nd and 3rd, argent a lion rampant double-queued sable, for CRESSY.

Archibald Philip Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery, 1st Earl of Midlothian, KG, KT, PC, FRS, FBA (7 May 1847 – 21 May 1929), was a British Liberal politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from March 1894 to June 1895. Between the death of his father, in 1851, and the death of his grandfather, the 4th Earl of Rosebery, in 1868 he was known by the courtesy title of Lord Dalmeny.

Rosebery first came to national attention in 1879 by sponsoring the successful Midlothian campaign of William Ewart Gladstone. He briefly was in charge of Scottish affairs. His most successful performance in office came as chairman of the London County Council in 1889. He entered the cabinet in 1885 and served twice as foreign minister, paying special attention to French and German affairs. He succeeded Gladstone as prime minister and leader of the Liberal Party in 1894; the Liberals lost the 1895 election. He resigned the party leadership in 1896 and never again held political office.

Rosebery was widely known as a brilliant orator, an outstanding sportsman and marksman, a writer and historian, connoisseur and collector. All of these activities attracted him more than politics, which grew boring and unattractive. Furthermore, he drifted to the right of the Liberal party and became a bitter critic of its policies. Winston Churchill, observing that he never adapted to democratic electoral competition, quipped: "He would not stoop; he did not conquer."[1]

Rosebery was a Liberal Imperialist who favoured strong national defence and imperialism abroad and social reform at home, while being solidly anti-socialist. Historians judge him a failure as foreign minister[2] and as prime minister.[3][4]

Origins and early life

Archibald Philip Primrose was born on 7 May 1847 in his parents' house in Charles Street, Mayfair, London.[5] His father was Archibald Primrose, Lord Dalmeny (1809–1851), son and heir apparent to Archibald Primrose, 4th Earl of Rosebery (1783–1868), whom he predeceased. Lord Dalmeny was a courtesy title used by the Earl's eldest son and heir apparent, during the Earl's lifetime, and was one of the Earl's lesser Scottish titles. Lord Dalmeny (died 1851) was MP for Stirling from 1832 to 1847 and served as First Lord of the Admiralty under Lord Melbourne.[6]

Rosebery's mother was Lady (Catherine Lucy) Wilhelmina Stanhope (1819–1901), a historian who later wrote under her second married name "the Duchess of Cleveland", a daughter of Philip Stanhope, 4th Earl Stanhope. Lord Dalmeny died on 23 January 1851, having predeceased his father, when the courtesy title passed to his son, the future Rosebery, as the new heir to the earldom.[7] In 1854 his mother remarried to Lord Harry Vane (later after 1864 known as Harry Powlett, 4th Duke of Cleveland).[8] The relationship between mother and son was very poor. His elder and favourite sister Lady Leconfield was the wife of Henry Wyndham, 2nd Baron Leconfield.[9]

Education and youth

Dalmeny attended preparatory schools in Hertfordshire and Brighton, and then Eton College (1860–65[10]). At Eton, he formed a close attachment to his tutor William Johnson Cory: they visited Rome together in 1864, and maintained correspondence for years afterwards.[11] Dalmeny proceeded to Christ Church, Oxford, matriculating in January 1866.[12] He left Oxford in 1868:[13] Dalmeny bought a horse named Ladas, although a rule banned undergraduates from owning horses. When he was found out, he was offered a choice: to sell the horse or to give up his studies. He chose the latter, and subsequently was a prominent figure in British horseracing for 40 years.

The three Prime Ministers from 1880 to 1902, namely Gladstone, Salisbury and Rosebery, all attended both Eton and Christ Church.

Rosebery toured the United States in 1873, 1874 and 1876. He was pressed to marry Marie Fox, the sixteen-year-old adopted daughter of Henry Fox, 4th Baron Holland. She declined him and later married Prince Louis of Liechtenstein.

Succession to earldom

When his grandfather died in 1868, Dalmeny became 5th Earl of Rosebery. The earldom did not however entitle Archibald Primrose to sit in the House of Lords, nor disqualify him from sitting in the House of Commons, as the title is part of the old Peerage of Scotland, from which 16 members (representative peers) were elected to sit in the Lords for each session of Parliament. However, in 1828, Rosebery's grandfather had been created 1st Baron Rosebery in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, which did entitle Rosebery to sit in the Lords like all peers of the United Kingdom, and barred him from a career in the House of Commons.[citation needed]


Rosebery is reputed to have said that he had three aims in life: to win the Derby, to marry an heiress, and to become Prime Minister.[14] He managed all three.

Early political career

At Eton, Rosebery notably attacked Charles I of England for his despotism, and went on to praise his Whig forebears – his ancestor, James Stanhope, 1st Earl Stanhope, was a minister to George I of Great Britain. Benjamin Disraeli often met with Rosebery in the 1870s to try to recruit him for his party, but this proved futile. Disraeli's major rival, William Ewart Gladstone, also pursued Rosebery, with considerable success.

As part of the Liberal plan to get Gladstone to be MP for Midlothian, Rosebery sponsored and largely ran the Midlothian Campaign of 1879. He based this on what he had observed in elections in the United States. Gladstone spoke from open-deck trains, and gathered mass support. In 1880, he was duly elected Member for Midlothian and returned to the premiership.[15][16]

Rosebery served as Foreign Secretary in Gladstone's brief third ministry in 1886. He served as the first chairman of the London County Council, set up by the Conservatives in 1889. Rosebery Avenue in Clerkenwell is named after him.[17][18]

He served as President of the first day of the 1890 Co-operative Congress.[19]

Rosebery's second period as Foreign Secretary, 1892–1894, predominantly involved quarrels with France over Uganda. To quote his hero Napoleon, Rosebery thought that "the Master of Egypt is the Master of India"; thus he pursued the policy of expansion in Africa.[citation needed]

Rosebery helped Gladstone's Second Home Rule Bill in the House of Lords; nevertheless it was defeated overwhelmingly in the autumn of 1893.[20] The first bill had been defeated in the House of Commons in 1886.[21]

Prime Minister

Further information: Rosebery ministry

Rosebery became a leader of the Liberal Imperialist faction of the Liberal Party and when Gladstone retired, in 1894, Rosebery succeeded him as Prime Minister, much to the disgust of Sir William Harcourt, the Chancellor of the Exchequer and leader of the more left-wing Liberals. Rosebery's selection was largely because Queen Victoria disliked most of the other leading Liberals. Rosebery was in the Lords, but Harcourt controlled the Commons, where he often undercut the prime minister. Rosebery was the only one of the ten Prime Ministers to serve during Queen Victoria's reign who was born after her accession to the throne in 1837.

Rosebery's government was largely unsuccessful, as in the Armenian crisis of 1895–96. He spoke out for a strongly pro-Armenian and anti-Turkish policy.[22] Gladstone, a prime minister in retirement, called on Britain to intervene alone. The added pressure weakened Rosebery.[23]

His designs in foreign policy, such as expansion of the fleet, were defeated by disagreements within the Liberal Party. He angered all the European powers.[24]

The Unionist-dominated House of Lords stopped the whole of the Liberals' domestic legislation. The strongest figure in the cabinet was Rosebery's rival, Harcourt.[citation needed] He and his son Lewis were perennial critics of Rosebery's policies. There were two future prime ministers in the Cabinet, Home Secretary H. H. Asquith, and Secretary of State for War Henry Campbell-Bannerman. Rosebery rapidly lost interest in running the government. In the last year of his premiership, he was increasingly haggard: he suffered insomnia due to the continual dissension in his Cabinet.[citation needed]

On 21 June 1895, the government lost a vote in committee on army supply by just seven votes. While this might have been treated merely as a vote of no confidence in Secretary for War Campbell-Bannerman, Rosebery chose to treat it as a vote of censure on his government. On 22 June, he and his ministers tendered their resignations to the Queen, who invited the Unionist leader, Lord Salisbury, to form a government. The following month, the Unionists won a crushing victory in the 1895 general election, and held power for ten years (1895–1905) under Salisbury and Arthur Balfour. Rosebery remained the Liberal leader for another year, then permanently retired from politics.

Lord Rosebery's government, March 1894 – June 1895

• Lord Rosebery – First Lord of the Treasury, Lord President of the Council, and Leader of the House of Lords
• Lord Herschell – Lord Chancellor
• Lord Tweedmouth – Lord Privy Seal
• H. H. Asquith – Secretary of State for the Home Department
• Lord Kimberley – Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs
• Lord Ripon – Secretary of State for the Colonies
• Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman – Secretary of State for War
• Sir Henry Hartley Fowler – Secretary of State for India
• Sir William Harcourt – Chancellor of the Exchequer and Leader of the House of Commons
• Lord Spencer – First Lord of the Admiralty
• Anthony John Mundella – President of the Board of Trade
• Arnold Morley – Postmaster-General
• George John Shaw-Lefevre – President of the Local Government Board
• James Bryce – Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster
• John Morley – Chief Secretary for Ireland
• Sir George Otto Trevelyan – Secretary for Scotland
• Sir Arthur Herbert Dyke Acland – Vice-President of the Council


• May 1894: James Bryce succeeds A. J. Mundella at the Board of Trade. Lord Tweedmouth succeeds Bryce at the Duchy of Lancaster, remaining also Lord Privy Seal.

Later life

Rosebery caricatured by Spy for Vanity Fair, 1901

Liberal Imperialists

Rosebery resigned as leader of the Liberal Party on 6 October 1896, to be succeeded by Harcourt and gradually moved further and further from the mainstream of the party. With the Liberals in opposition divided over the Boer War which started in 1899, Rosebery, although officially politically inactive, emerged as the head of the “Liberal Imperialists” faction of the party, opposed to Irish Home rule. He supported the war, and brought along many nonconformists likewise.[25][26] However the war was opposed by a younger faction of Liberals, including David Lloyd George and the party leader Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman.[27] Rosebery's acolytes, including H. H. Asquith and Edward Grey, regularly implored him to return as party leader and even Campbell-Bannerman said he would serve under Rosebery, if he accepted fundamental Liberal party doctrine.[28] In a much trailed speech to the Chesterfield Liberal Association in December 1901, Rosebery was widely expected to announce his return but instead delivered what Harcourt's son and private secretary Loulou described as "an insult to the whole past of the Liberal party", by telling the party to, "clean its slate".[29][30] In 1902 Rosebery was installed as president of the newly formed “Liberal League” which superseded the Liberal Imperialist League and counted amongst its vice presidents Asquith and Grey.[31]

1905 onwards

Rosebery's positions made it impossible to join the Liberal government that returned to power in 1905. Rosebery turned to writing, including biographies of Lord Chatham, Pitt the Younger, Napoleon, and Lord Randolph Churchill. Another one of his passionate interests was the collecting of rare books.

The last years of his political life saw Rosebery become a purely negative critic of the Liberal governments of Campbell-Bannerman and Asquith. His crusade "for freedom as against bureaucracy, for freedom as against democratic tyranny, for freedom as against class legislation, and ... for freedom as against Socialism"[32] was a lonely one, conducted from the crossbenches in the Lords. He joined the die-hard unionist peers in attacking Lloyd George's redistributive People's Budget in 1909 but stopped short of voting against the measure for fear of bringing retribution upon the Lords. The crisis provoked by the Lords' rejection of the budget encouraged him to reintroduce his resolutions for Lords reform, but they were lost with the dissolution of parliament in December 1910.

After assaulting the "ill-judged, revolutionary and partisan" terms of the 1911 Parliament Bill,[33] which proposed to curb the Lords' veto, he voted with the government in what proved to be his last appearance in the House of Lords. This was effectively the end of his public life, though he made several public appearances to support the war effort after 1914 and sponsored a "bantam battalion" in 1915. Though Lloyd George offered him "a high post not involving departmental labour" to augment his 1916 coalition, Rosebery declined to serve.[34]

Death and burial

Durdans, Woodcote End, Epsom, Surrey, England was the place of Rosebery's demise in 1929, shown in 2011. Its gardens are smaller than when engraved by John Hassell in 1816.

The last year of the war was clouded by two personal tragedies: his son Neil's death in Palestine in November 1917 and Rosebery's own stroke a few days before the armistice. He regained his mental powers, but his movement, hearing, and sight remained impaired for the rest of his life. His sister Constance described his last years as a "life of weariness, of total inactivity, and at the last of almost blindness". John Buchan remembered him in his last month of life, "crushed by bodily weakness" and "sunk in sad and silent meditations".[35]

Rosebery died at The Durdans, Epsom, Surrey, on 21 May 1929, to the accompaniment, as he had requested, of a gramophone recording of the "Eton Boating Song". Survived by three of his four children, he was buried in the small church at Dalmeny. By the time of his death, he was the last Victorian-era British Prime Minister alive.

His estate was probated at £1,500,122 3s. 6d.; (equivalent to £89,573,000 in 2018) and he was thus the richest prime minister ever, followed by Salisbury, then by Palmerston.[citation needed]


Hannah de Rothschild, portrait by Frederic Leighton, 1st Baron Leighton

On 20 March 1878 in the Board of Guardians in Mount Street, London, at the age of 31 Rosebery married the 27-year-old Hannah de Rothschild (1851–1890), only child and sole heiress of the Jewish banker Mayer Amschel de Rothschild, and the wealthiest British heiress of her day. Her father had died four years previously in 1874, and bequeathed to her the bulk of his estate. Later on the same day the marriage was blessed in a Christian ceremony in Christ Church, Down Street, Piccadilly.

In January 1878 Rosebery had told a friend that he found Hannah "very simple, very unspoilt, very clever, very warm-hearted and very shy ... I never knew such a beautiful character." Both Queen Victoria's son the Prince of Wales and her cousin, the army commander George, Duke of Cambridge attended the ceremony. Hannah's death in 1890 from typhoid, compounded by Bright's disease, left him distraught.

Following his wife's death it was speculated that Rosebery intended to marry the widowed Princess Helena, Duchess of Albany, widow of Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany, 4th son of Queen Victoria.[36]

It was also speculated that Rosebery was homosexual or bisexual. Like Oscar Wilde, he was hounded by John Douglas, 9th Marquess of Queensberry, for his association with Francis Douglas, Viscount Drumlanrig, one of Queensberry's sons[37] – who was his private secretary.

On 18 October 1894, sixteen months after his ennoblement, Drumlanrig died from injuries received during a shooting party. The inquest returned a verdict of "accidental death", but his death was rumoured potentially to be suicide or murder.[38] It was speculated at the time, and indeed evidence suggests,[39] that Drumlanrig may have had a romantic or sexual relationship with Rosebery. The suggestion was that Queensberry had threatened to expose the Prime Minister if his government did not vigorously prosecute Wilde for Wilde's relationship with Drumlanrig's younger brother, Lord Alfred Douglas. Queensberry believed, as he put it in a letter, that "Snob Queers like Rosebery" had corrupted his sons, and he held Rosebery indirectly responsible for Drumlanrig's death.[40]


By his wife Hannah de Rothschild, Rosebery had two sons and two daughters, with whom, according to Margot Asquith, he loved to play:

• Albert Edward Harry Meyer Archibald Primrose, 6th Earl of Rosebery known as Harry (8 January 1882 – 30 May 1974) he married Lady Dorothy Grosvenor (granddaughter of Hugh Lupus Grosvenor, 1st Duke of Westminster through his third son Lord Henry Grosvenor) on 15 April 1909 and was divorced from her in 1919. They had two children. He married Hon. Eva Isabel Bruce (daughter of Henry Campbell Bruce, 2nd Baron Aberdare) on 24 June 1924. They had two children.
• Neil James Archibald Primrose (14 December 1882 – 18 November 1917) he married Lady Victoria Stanley (daughter Edward Stanley, 17th Earl of Derby) on 7 April 1915. They had one daughter: Ruth Wood, Countess of Halifax.
• Lady Sybil Primrose (1879–25 February 1955) she married General Sir Charles Grant on 28 March 1903. They had one son.
• Lady Margaret "Peggy" ,[41] Etrenne Hannah Primrose (1881–13 March 1967) she married Robert Crewe-Milnes, 1st Marquess of Crewe on 20 April 1899. They had two children.

Sporting interests

Horse racing

As a result of his marriage to Hannah de Rothschild, Rosebery acquired the Mentmore Towers estate and Mentmore stud near Leighton Buzzard which had been built by Mayer Amschel de Rothschild. Rosebery built another stable and stud near Mentmore Towers at Crafton, Buckinghamshire, called Crafton Stud.

Rosebery won several of the five English Classic Races. His most famous horses were Ladas who won the 1894 Derby, Sir Visto who did it again in 1895 (Rosebery was Prime Minister on both occasions), and Cicero in 1905.


Rosebery became the first president of the London Scottish Rugby Football Club in 1878, also developed a keen interest in association football and was an early patron of the sport in Scotland. In 1882 he donated a trophy, the Rosebery Charity Cup, to be competed for by clubs under the jurisdiction of the East of Scotland Football Association. The competition lasted over 60 years and raised thousands of pounds for charities in the Edinburgh area.

Rosebery also became Honorary President of the national Scottish Football Association, with the representative Scotland national team and Honorary President of Heart of Midlothian FC. The national team occasionally forsook their traditional dark blue shirts for his traditional racing colours of primrose and pink. This occurred 9 times during Rosebery's lifetime, most notably for the 1900 British Home Championship match against England, which the Scots won 4–1. These colours were used for the away kit of the Scotland national team in 2014[42][43] and were Heart of Midlothian's away colours for season 2016/17.

Literary interests

He was a keen collector of fine books and amassed an excellent library. It was sold on 29 October 2009 at Sothebys, New Bond Street. Rosebery unveiled the statue of Robert Burns in Dumfries on 6 April 1882.[44]


Dalmeny House was the ancestral seat of the Earls of Rosebery and the setting for Lord and Lady Rosebery's political houseparties.

Mentmore Towers

Villa Delahente now Villa Rosebery

Rosebery was the owner of twelve houses. By marriage, he acquired:

• Mentmore Towers in Buckinghamshire, a huge neo-Renaissance stately home, sold in the 1970s
• Number 40, Piccadilly, in London.

With his fortune, he bought:

• a shooting lodge at Carrington in Midlothian
• a Georgian villa at Postwick in Norfolk
• In 1897, he bought Villa Delahente in Posillipo, overlooking the Bay of Naples, currently an official residence of the President of the Italian Republic, still known as Villa Rosebery
• 38 Berkeley Square, London
• The Durdans, Epsom, where he died in 1929.

As Earl of Rosebery, he was laird of:

• Dalmeny House on the banks of the Firth of Forth (pictured)
• Barnbougle Castle in the grounds of Dalmeny Estate, used by Rosebery (an insomniac) for privacy.

He rented:

• a home in Randolph Crescent, Edinburgh, during World War I
• Lansdowne House, in London, from the Marquess of Lansdowne.

Place-name tributes

The Oatlands area in the South Side of Glasgow was laid out in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, contemporary with Rosebery's most prominent period. Several of the street names have an association with him or areas around his estate to the northwest of Edinburgh: Rosebery Street, Dalmeny Street, Queensferry Street, Granton Street and Cramond Street.[45]

In London, Rosebery avenue passing through Clerkenwell was named after him, in recognition of his service as the London County Council's first chairman.[46]

Rosebery, New South Wales, a suburb of Sydney, is named after him. A major street, Dalmeny Avenue, runs through the area. Rosebery, Tasmania is also named after him, via the name of a mining company. Dalmeny, New South Wales, a suburb on the New South Wales South Coast, is named after him. Roseberry Avenue in the suburb of South Perth, Western Australia, is also named after him. The former township of Rosebery in South Australia (now part of Collinswood) was named for him, as was modern-day Rosebery Lane in Collinswood.[47] Rosebery in the north west of Victoria, some 15 km south of Hopetoun is also named after him.

Rosebery House, Epsom College, in Epsom, is named after him. Rosebery School sits on an area of land given to the borough by Lord Rosebery.

In October 1895 Lord Rosebery opened the new Liberal Club on Westborough, in Scarborough, only months after being Prime Minister. The building now houses a Wetherspoons, which is named in his honour.

See also

• Lady Stair's House
• In his fraudulent memoirs, Sir Edmund Backhouse, 2nd Baronet claimed to be Rosebery's lover.



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6. Rhodes James (paperback), p. 4.
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17. Dick, David (1998). Who Was Who in Durban Street Names. Clerkington Pub. Co. pp. 150–151. ISBN 978-0620200349. ROSEBERY Avenue, off High Ridge Road, is named after Archibald Philip Primrose, 5"1 Earl of Rosebery who (...)
18. Turcotte, Bobbi (26 August 1982). "Former English PM's name, title still in use". Ottawa Citizen: 2. Retrieved 30 May 2016. But Primrose Avenue is named after Archibald Philip Primrose, fifth Earl of Roserbery (1847–1929), who was primse minister of England in 1894–95.
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60. Cokayne, Complete Peerage, vol. 6, 1895, p. 415; she was sister of the fourth Duke of Argyll and daughter of Hon. John Campbell and Elizabeth, daughter of John Elphinstone, eighth Lord Elphinstone.
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62. Cokayne, Complete Peerage, vol. 6, 1895, p. 415; she was the daughter of Lt-Gen. Thomas Howard.
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66. Lodge, British Peerage, 1832, p. 24; she was the daughter of John Wyndham of Ashcombe, Wiltshire.
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69. Burke and Burke, A Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Extinct and Dormant Baronetcies, 1841, pp. 34–35; M. M. Drummond, "Grenville, Henry (1717–84), of Shrub Hill, Dorking, Surr.", The History of Parliament: the House of Commons 1754–1790, ed. L. Namier, J. Brooke., 1964; Daughter of Sir Joseph Banks of Revesby Abbey, Lincolnshire.
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72. Cokayne and Gibbs, Complete Peerage, 2nd ed., vol. 3, 1913, p. 63; of Cave Castle, Yorkshire.
73. Cokayne and Gibbs, Complete Peerage, 2nd ed., vol. 3, 1913, p. 63; she was the daughter of William Popplewell of Monk Hill, near Pontefract.


• Leonard, Dick. Nineteenth-Century British Premiers: Pitt to Rosebery (Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, 2008)
• McKinstry, Leo. Rosebery: Statesman in Turmoil (2005) ISBN 0-7195-5879-4.
• Raymond, E. T. The Life of Lord Rosebery (1923) online

External links

• Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by the Earl of Rosebery
• Earl Of Rosebery 1847–1929 biography from the Liberal Democrat History Group
• More about The Earl of Roseberry on the Downing street website.
• Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Rosebery, Archibald Philip Primrose, 5th Earl of" . Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
• "Archival material relating to Archibald Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery". UK National Archives.
• Works by Archibald Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
• Portraits of Archibald Philip Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery at the National Portrait Gallery, London
• Newspaper clippings about Archibald Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery in the 20th Century Press Archives of the ZBW
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Re: Round Table Movement, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Wed Mar 04, 2020 7:58 am

Albert Grey, 4th Earl Grey
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 3/4/20

Continuing their discussion of the membership of "The Society of the Elect," Stead asked permission to bring in Milner and Brett. Rhodes agreed, so they telegraphed at once to Brett, who arrived in two hours. They then drew up the following "ideal arrangement' for the society:

1. General of the Society: Rhodes
2. Junta of Three: (1) Stead, (2) Brett, (3) Milner
3. Circle of Initiates: (1) Cardinal Manning, (2) General Booth, (3) Bramwell Booth, (4) "Little" [Harry] Johnston, (5) Albert Grey, (6) Arthur Balfour
4. The Association of Helpers
5. A College, under Professor Seeley, to be established to train people in the English-speaking idea."

Within the next few weeks Stead had another talk with Rhodes and a talk with Milner, who was "filled with admiration" for the scheme, according to Stead's notes as published by Sir Frederick Whyte.

-- The Anglo-American Establishment: From Rhodes to Cliveden, by Carroll Quigley

Captain the Right Honourable, The Earl Grey, GCB GCMG GCVO PC
9th Governor General of Canada
In office: 10 December 1904 – 13 October 1911
Monarch: Edward VII; George V
Prime Minister
• Wilfrid Laurier
• Robert Borden
• Arthur Balfour
• Henry Campbell-Bannerman
• H. H. Asquith
Preceded by: The Earl of Minto
Succeeded by: Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn
Personal details
Born: 28 November 1851, London, England, United Kingdom
Died: 29 August 1917 (aged 65), Howick Hall, England, United Kingdom
Spouse(s): Alice Holford
Children: 5, including Charles Grey, 5th Earl Grey and Lady Sybil Grey
Parents: General Sir Charles Grey; Caroline Eliza Farquhar
Alma mater: Trinity College, Cambridge

Albert Henry George Grey, 4th Earl Grey GCB GCMG GCVO PC (28 November 1851 – 29 August 1917) was a British nobleman and politician who served as Governor General of Canada, the ninth since Canadian Confederation. He was a radical Liberal aristocrat, founder of the Society of Apostles[clarification needed], and Aricles Club[clarification needed] and a member of a string of liberal high society clubs in London. An active and articulate campaigner in late Victorian England he was associated with many of the leading Imperialists seeking change.

Albert Grey was born into a noble and political family, though at birth not in direct line to inherit the earldom. His father General Charles Grey was a younger brother of the 3rd earl, who died without issue. As General Grey was deceased, the titles descended to his eldest living son Albert, then in his forties. Albert was educated at Harrow School before going up to Trinity College, Cambridge, where he graduated MA and LLM.[1]

In 1878, he entered into politics as a member of the Liberal Party and, after relinquishing a tied vote to his opponent, eventually won a place in the British House of Commons in 1880. In 1894 Grey inherited the Earldom Grey from his uncle, the third Earl, and thereafter took his place in the House of Lords, while simultaneously undertaking business ventures around the British Empire as Director of the British South Africa Company from 1898, he experienced a steep learning curve during high tension with the Boers. As administrator in Rhodesia he was directly responsible to Cecil Rhodes for conduct of the colony's business from 1894 to 1897. On his return in 1899 he was appointed Lord Lieutenant of his native Northumberland.[2]

The 4th Earl was in 1904 appointed as Governor General of Canada by King Edward VII, on the recommendation of Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Arthur Balfour, to replace the Earl of Minto as viceroy and occupied that post until succeeded by Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, in 1911. Grey travelled extensively in Canada and was active in Canadian political affairs, including national unity, leaving behind him a number of legacies, the most prominent being the Grey Cup.

Youth, education, and early career

At Harrow

Grey in 1873 (front row, second from right), Shakespeare Society, Trinity College, Cambridge

Grey was the younger and only surviving son of General Sir Charles Grey—a younger son of former British prime minister the second Earl Grey and later the private secretary to Prince Albert and later still to Queen Victoria—and his wife, Caroline Eliza Farquhar, eldest daughter of Sir Thomas Harvie Farquhar, Bt, at Cadogan House, Middlesex. Many members of the family had enjoyed successful political careers based on reform, including to colonial policies; Grey's grandfather, while prime minister, championed the Reform Act 1832 and in 1846, Grey's uncle, the third Earl Grey, as Secretary of State for War and the Colonies during the first ministry of Lord John Russell, was the first to suggest that colonies should be self-sustaining and governed for the benefit of their inhabitants, instead of for the benefit of the United Kingdom.[3]

Grey was educated at Harrow School and then Trinity College, Cambridge, where he studied history and law.[3][4] After graduating in 1873, Grey became private secretary to Sir Henry Bartle Frere and, as Frere was a member of the Council of India, Grey accompanied Prince Albert Edward, Prince of Wales, on his tour of India. In 1877, Grey married Alice Holford, daughter of Robert Stayner Holford, the Member of Parliament for East Gloucestershire. Together, they had five children, one of whom died in early childhood.[3]


Earl and Countess Grey

Grey married Alice Holford (d. 22 September 1944), daughter of Robert Stayner Holford, of Westonbirt House (Gloucestershire) and Dorchester House (London) on 9 June 1877 and had five children, one of whom died in early childhood:

1. Lady Victoria Mary Sybil Grey (9 June 1878 – 3 February 1907) married Lt-Col. Arthur Morton Grenfell, of Wilton Park in 1901, and had children.
2. Charles Robert Grey, 5th Earl Grey (15 December 1879 – 2 April 1963), who had two daughters by his wife Lady Mabel Laura Georgiana Palmer, daughter of William Palmer, 2nd Earl of Selborne. The elder daughter Mary (1907–2002) married the 1st Baron Howick of Glendale.
3. Lady Sybil Grey (15 July 1882 – 4 June 1966) O.B.E. married Lambert William Middleton (1877–1941) of Lowood House, Melrose, Scotland, nephew of Sir Arthur Middleton, 7th Baronet and Frederick Edmund Meredith. She was invested as an Officer, Order of the British Empire in 1918, having served as the Commandant of the Dorchester House Hospital for Officers. She was well known for her work with the Red Cross in Russia during WWI, and for her work with tuberculosis sufferers (founding the Lady Grey Society). She was an amateur photographer and filmmaker of note, and recorded village life at Darnick and St. Boswells.[5] After her husband died she sold Lowood House and moved to Burley, Hampshire. They had a son and a daughter.
4. Lady Evelyn Alice Grey (14 Mar 1886–15 Apr 1971) married Sir Lawrence Evelyn Jones, 5th Bt. M.C., grandson of Sir Willoughby Jones.
5. Lady Lillian Winifred Grey (11 June 1891 – 7 April 1895)

Parliamentary and administrative career

Grey stood for parliament at South Northumberland in 1878 and polled in the election the same number of votes as his opponent Edward Ridley, but Grey declined a scrutiny and was not returned.[6] It was not until the general election of 1880 that Grey, the Liberal Party candidate, was elected as a Member of Parliament (MP) for South Northumberland, a seat he held until it was replaced under the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885 and he moved to be the MP for Tyneside, following that year's election. In 1884 he wrote to the Manchester-based Women's Suffrage Journal declaring his support for women's suffrage, writing that "[t]here are no questions which receive so little attention, or which, in my opinion, so urgently call for the close and serious consideration of social reformers, as those affecting the condition of women. The possession of a vote by women who are heads of households will lead to the formation of associations and unions for the protection and advancement of the interests of their sex."[7]

Inspired by the theories of Giuseppe Mazzini, Grey became an advocate of imperialism and was one of the founders of the Imperial Federation League, which sought to transform the British Empire into an Imperial Federation. Grey thus split with Prime Minister William Gladstone in 1886 over Irish home rule and became a Liberal Unionist, but the shift was short-lived as Grey failed to win his constituency again in the 1886 general election.[8]

Eight years later,[3] Grey succeeded his uncle, Henry George Grey, as the 4th Earl Grey and returned to parliament when taking his seat in the House of Lords. As a friend of Cecil Rhodes, Grey became one of the first four trustees responsible for the administration of the scholarship funds which established the Rhodes Scholarship and he was invited by Rhodes to be a member of the board of directors and director of the British South Africa Company, coming to serve as the main liaison between Rhodes and Secretary of State for the Colonies Joseph Chamberlain in the periods immediately before and after the Jameson Raid on the Transvaal. As the Administrator of Southern Rhodesia, Sir Leander Starr Jameson, was disgraced by the Jameson Raid, the British government, then headed by the Marquess of Salisbury, in 1896 asked Grey to serve as Jameson's immediate replacement, staying in that role until 1897.[3] Two years later, Grey was also appointed as Lord Lieutenant of Northumberland and published a brief biography of a young relative,[9] Hubert Hervey, who was killed in the Second Matabele War.[10]

Governor General of Canada

Grey in the governor general's office at Rideau Hall, Ottawa

In office

It was on 4 October 1904 announced that King Edward VII had,[11] by commission under the royal sign-manual and signet, approved the recommendation of his British prime minister, Arthur Balfour, to appoint Grey as his representative, replacing Grey's brother-in-law, the Earl of Minto. (Minto was married to Grey's sister, Mary Caroline Grey.) The appointment came at a good time for Grey, as a series of failed investments in South Africa had left him penniless; a gift from his wife's aunt, Lady Wantage (widow of the Lord Wantage), was used to supplement his salary as governor general.

The time during which Grey occupied the viceregal office was one of increasing immigration, industrialisation, and economic development in Canada.[3] A sign of Canada's increasing independence from Britain, Grey was on 16 June 1905 designated as "Governor General of Canada and Commander-in-Chief of the Dominion of Canada," which followed on the passing of the Militia Act in 1904. At the request of Sir Robert Baden-Powell, Grey also undertook the role of Chief Scout of Canada. Further, it was with Grey's granting of Royal Assent to the appropriate Acts of Parliament that Alberta and Saskatchewan joined Canadian Confederation, also in 1905—the Governor General writing to the King at the time: "[each one] a new leaf in Your Majesty's Maple Crown"[12]—and he travelled extensively around the ever-growing country. He also journeyed abroad to the Dominion of Newfoundland (then not yet a part of Canada) and several times to the United States to visit President Theodore Roosevelt, with whom Grey developed a strong bond.[3]

Grey with Prince George, Prince of Wales, at the celebrations of the tercentenary of Quebec in Quebec City, 24 July 1908

Grey often exercised his right, as representative of a constitutional monarch, to advise, encourage, and warn. He desired social reform and cohesion, putting his support behind prison reforms in Canada to provide greater social justice. He also encouraged his prime minister, Sir Wilfrid Laurier, to support the Imperial Federation he had long championed, but Laurier was uninterested. However, Grey's years of urging Laurier to get the Cabinet and parliament to agree to the idea of a Canadian navy proved themselves to be more fruitful. At the Governor General's urging, the Canadian and British governments agreed to have Canada assume control of the former British garrisons at Halifax, Nova Scotia, and Esquimalt, British Columbia, after which the Royal Canadian Navy was created by the Naval Service Act. The Act was so identified with Grey that, in Quebec, it was referred to as Grey's Bill and opposed by Henri Bourassa and his Ligue nationaliste canadienne. Another of Grey's suggestions was a railway hotel for the federal capital, which eventuated in the Château Laurier, completed in 1912.[3]

Though Grey strongly promoted national unity among French and English Canadians, as well as advocating unity within the entire British Empire, his causes frequently raised the ire of Bourassa and the Quebec nationalists. Grey was involved in the planning for the tercentennial of Quebec in 1908, marking the 300th anniversary of the landing of Samuel de Champlain at what later became Quebec City. At Grey's suggestion, the Cabinet agreed to Grey's plan to have the Plains of Abraham designated as a national park; this would be done to coincide with the Quebec celebrations and Grey saw the official ceremony as being an event that would promote Franco-Anglo-American friendship. The government arranged for the attendance of the Prince of Wales (later King George V), American and French warships, and a host of visiting dignitaries. Still, the Ligue saw this as solely a tribute to the Empire; Bourassa and other nationalists complained that Grey had transformed a day intended to celebrate Samuel de Champlain into a celebration of James Wolfe.

At other times, and unlike future viceroys, the Governor General's influence expanded more blatantly into government policy: Grey opposed the head tax imposed by the Chinese Immigration Act of 1885 on Chinese immigrants to Canada and, at one point, was invited to visit the province of British Columbia, but declined in protest of what he thought to be exclusionary measures implemented by the provincial cabinet under premier Richard McBride. Grey also initially supported Asian immigration to Canada, though, following the Japanese victory in the Russo-Japanese War, he became concerned about the so-called Yellow Peril and worked with the federal Cabinet to explore alternatives to the head tax as a restriction on Asian immigration. He was nevertheless appalled by the 1907 anti-Asian riots in Vancouver, organised by the Asiatic Exclusion League, and, later in the same year, arranged a visit to Canada by Prince Fushimi Sadanaru of the Empire of Japan.[13]


From 1911 the Earl Grey was President of Armstrong College. He acquired a number of honorary degrees, a Hon DCL Oxford, Hon LLD Camb, Hon LLD McGill and Queen's University, Ontario, and Grand Knight of the Order of St John (KGStJ).


The Grey Cup

Throughout his tenure as governor general, Grey supported the arts and, when he departed Canada in 1911, he left behind him the Grey Competition for Music and Drama, first held in 1907. He was also a patron of sport, his feelings on health and fitness a part of his broader desire for a reform movement.[13] He gave his support to Canadian football and established the Grey Cup, to be awarded to the winner of the Senior Amateur Football Championship of Canada; it is today presented to the champions of the Canadian Football League and, in 1963, Grey was elected to the Canadian Football Hall of Fame for his contributions to the game. Grey further donated trophies to the Montreal Horse Show and for figure skating.[13] As well, he gave to the Crown a horse-drawn carriage he purchased from the Governor-General of Australia, which is still today used as the state landau,[14] and added a study and conservatory to Rideau Hall, the sovereign's and governor general's Ottawa residence; the latter was torn down in 1924.[3] Grey and his wife were commended for their work in Canada and for their championing social reforms. Laurier said Lord Grey gave "his whole heart, his whole soul, and his whole life to Canada."[3]

Final years

On leaving office in 1911 Earl Grey and his family returned to the United Kingdom, where he became president of the Royal Colonial Institute (now the Royal Commonwealth Society). On 28 March 1916, he was appointed by King George V as Chancellor of the Order of St. Michael and St. George.[15] However, Grey died the following year at his family residence.

Titles, styles, honours, and arms


• 9 October 1894 – 2 April 1896: The Right Honourable the Earl Grey
• 2 April 1896 – 5 December 1898: The Right Honourable the Earl Grey, Administrator of Southern Rhodesia
• 5 December 1898 – 1 March 1899: The Right Honourable the Earl Grey
• 13 March 1899 – 10 December 1904: The Right Honourable the Earl Grey, Lord Lieutenant of Northumberland
• 10 December 1904 – 13 December 1904: His Excellency the Right Honourable the Earl Grey, Governor General of Canada and Lord Lieutenant of Northumberland
• 13 December 1904 – 31 July 1905: His Excellency the Right Honourable the Earl Grey, Governor General of Canada
• 31 July 1905 – 4 May 1910: His Excellency the Right Honourable the Earl Grey, Governor General and Commander-in-Chief of Canada[16]
• 4 May 1910 – 13 October 1911: His Excellency the Right Honourable the Earl Grey, Governor General and Commander-in-Chief of the Militia and Naval Forces of Canada
• 13 October 1911 – 29 August 1917: The Right Honourable the Earl Grey


Albert Grey, 4th Earl Grey
Born: 28 November 1851
London, UK
Died: 29 August 1917 (aged 65)
London, United Kingdom
Career highlights and awards
Honors KGStJ, Hon DCL Oxford, Hon LLD Cantab, Hon LLD McGill, Hon LLD Queen's, Chancellor of Order of St Michael and St George, Hon Col 6th bn Northumberland Fusiliers.
Career stats
Canadian Football Hall of Fame, 1963


• 13 March 1899 – 22 January 1901: Her Majesty's Lieutenant and Custos Rotulorum of the County of Northumberland
o 22 January 1901 – 13 December 1904: His Majesty's Lieutenant and Custos Rotulorum of the County of Northumberland[9]
• 7 October 1904 – 28 March 1916: Knight Commander of the Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George (KCMG)[17]
o 28 March 1916 – 29 August 1917: Chancellor of the Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George (KCMG)[15]
• 1907 – 13 October 1911: Chief Scout for Canada
• 23 July 1908 – 29 August 1917: Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order (GCVO)[18]
• 29 June 1909 – 29 August 1917: Member of His Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council (PC)[19]
• 3 March 1910 – 29 August 1917: Knight of Grace of the Most Venerable Order of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem (KStJ)[20]
• 18 March 1910 – 29 August 1917: Honorary Colonel of the Northumberland Fusiliers 6th Battalion[21]
• 23 October 1911 – 29 August 1917: Knight Grand Cross of the Most Honourable Order of the Bath (GCB)[22]


• 1902: King Edward VII Coronation Medal
• 1911: King George V Coronation Medal

Honorary military appointments

• 10 December 1904 – 13 October 1911: Colonel of the Governor General's Horse Guards
• 10 December 1904 – 13 October 1911: Colonel of the Governor General's Foot Guards
• 10 December 1904 – 13 October 1911: Colonel of the Canadian Grenadier Guards

Honorific eponyms

Statue of the Earl Grey at Parc des Champs de Bataille, Quebec City

Geographic locations

• Saskatchewan: Earl Grey
• British Columbia: Mount Earl Grey
• British Columbia: Earl Grey Pass


• Manitoba: Earl Grey Public School, Winnipeg
• Saskatchewan: Earl Grey School, Earl Grey
• Ontario: Earl Grey Senior Public School, Toronto


1. Master of Arts, Master of Law - Burke's Peerage and Baronetage (1999), p.1225
2. Burke's Peerage and Baronetage (1999), p.1225
3. Office of the Governor General of Canada. "The Governor General > Former Governors General > Earl Grey". Queen's Printer for Canada. Retrieved 13 December 2010.
4. "Grey, Albert Henry George (GRY870AH)". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge.
5. ... story.html[permanent dead link]
6. Debrett's House of Commons and the Judicial Bench. London: London Dean. 1886. p. 65.
7. Grey, Albert (2 June 1884). "Letters from Members of Parliament: Hon. Albert Grey, M.P." Women's Suffrage Journal. XV: 124 – via Nineteenth Century Collections Online.
8. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Albert Grey
9. "No. 27062". The London Gazette. 14 March 1899. p. 1756.
10. The Earl Grey (1899), Hubert Hervey, Student and Imperialist, London: Edward Arnold
11. "No. 27719". The London Gazette. 4 October 1904. p. 6363.
12. Grey, Albert (1 September 1905). "Grey to Edward VII". In Doig, Ronald P. (ed.). Earl Grey's papers: An introductory survey (1 ed.). London: Private Libraries Association.
13. Miller, Carman. "Biography > Governors General of Canada > Grey, Albert Henry George, 4th Early Grey". In Marsh, James H. (ed.). The Canadian Encyclopedia. Toronto: Historica Foundation of Canada. Retrieved 28 December 2010.
14. Bousfield, Arthur; Toffoli, Gary (2002). Fifty Years the Queen. Toronto: Dundurn Press. p. 13. ISBN 1-55002-360-8.
15. "No. 29529". The London Gazette. 28 March 1916. p. 3458.
16. "No. 27823". The London Gazette. 1 August 1905. p. 5297.
17. "No. 27720". The London Gazette. 7 October 1904. p. 6439.
18. "No. 28166". The London Gazette. 11 August 1908. p. 5894.
19. "No. 28265". The London Gazette. 29 June 1909. p. 4953.
20. "No. 28345". The London Gazette. 4 March 1910. p. 1593.
21. "No. 28349". The London Gazette. 18 March 1910. p. 1958.
22. "No. 28544". The London Gazette. 24 October 1911. p. 7700.

External links

• Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by the Earl Grey
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