Freda Bedi Cont'd (#2)

This is a broad, catch-all category of works that fit best here and not elsewhere. If you haven't found it someplace else, you might want to look here.

Re: Freda Bedi Cont'd (#2)

Postby admin » Fri Mar 06, 2020 9:02 am

Part 1 of 2

America, Birthplace of a New Race
by Geoffrey Hodson
Published by the Mothers’ Research Group, Theosophical Society in America
The Theosophical Publishing House, Chennai. India


Freda was concerned that the Indian authorities simply didn't understand the tradition of incarnate lamas, and their critical place in Tibetan society and spiritual practice. Little was done to identify these young lamas, some little more than infants. 'Nobody knew quite what to do with them,' Freda lamented to Olive Shapley. 'In the lamas we have inherited a tradition that dates back to the seventh century -- spiritual richness we can only as yet partially realise,' she wrote to friends. 'I am sure the whole world will ultimately be enriched.'

There are perhaps 200 high 'incarnate' lamas in the country now headed by His Holiness [the Dalai Lama] (including 40-60 child or adolescent incarnations: many of them young people of extraordinary intelligence and physical beauty) ... dedicated monks and lamas of a high standard of learning and spirituality number perhaps 2,500; in addition we have junior and simpler country monks, over 1,500 of whom have volunteered for roadwork. We all pray ultimately we may be able to settle the bulk of the refugees in big land settlements.32


Nehru had taken a diplomatic risk by hosting the Dalai Lama and tens of thousands of those who followed in his wake. But there was a limit to the amount of official support and funding that could be expected for the refugees' welfare, with the most urgent and unmet need being the upkeep and education of the young lamas.

Freda was entirely comfortable soliciting money and support from the rich and well connected. She had also established links with Buddhist and similar groups in London and elsewhere. Within weeks of returning to Delhi from the camps, she sought to turn her extensive network to the Tibetans' advantage. In mid-August 1960, she wrote a long letter to Muriel Lewis, a California-based Theosophist with whom she had corresponded for several years. Muriel ran the Mothers' Research Group principally for American and Western Theosophists, a network which had an interest both in eastern religions and in parenting issues.

I should like to feel that the 'Mothers' Group' was in touch with all I do (Freda wrote). Do you think it would be possible for some of your members to 'Adopt' in a small way -- write to, send parcels to -- these junior lamas? Friendships, even by post, could mean a great deal. We could work out a little scheme, if you are interested. The language barrier is there, but we can overcome it, with the help of friends.


Freda's family had, she recounted, already taken a young lama under their wing.

Last year my son [Kabir] 'adopted' one small lama of 12, sent him a parcel of woollen (yellow)clothes, sweets and picture books, soap and cotton cloth. This time when I went to Buxa, Jayong gave me such an excited and dazzling smile. He was brimming over with joy at seeing me again! It is very quiet away from your own country and relations for a small lama with a LOT TO LEARN. It was of course most touching to see the 'Mother-Love' in the faces of the tutor-lamas and servant lamas who look after the young ones. They are very tender with them.


Freda's letter was included in Muriel's research group newsletter and subsequently reprinted by the Buddhist Society in London. This was the founding act of the Tibetan Friendship Group, which quickly established a presence in eight western countries and was the conduit by which modest private funds were raised for the refugees.34 It outlasted Freda and ... it helped give prominence to the Tibet issue as well as the well-being of the Tibetan diaspora.

-- The Lives of Freda: The Political, Spiritual and Personal Journeys of Freda Bedi, by Andrew Whitehead


CHAPTER 1: A NEW RACE AND A NEW AGE NOW BEING BORN

THE FUTURE OF MAN


Has mankind reached the peak of its possible development in modern leaders of men? Is the human race evolving, improving and unfolding greater powers? Will the present civilization decline and fall, as its predecessors have done? These are vital problems. Theosophy makes a valuable contribution towards their solution.

THE COST OF WAR

In the lifetime of most of us, humanity has lived through years of the most diabolical evil the world has ever known. Estimates of the extent of the sufferings of humanity in the recent years of the Second World War are now available. The latest figures tell that forty-two and one-half millions of people have died prematurely in these ten years. Nearly twenty-five millions were civilian and nineteen and one-half millions were military deaths. These forty-two and one-half millions were men, women and children who were starved, tortured, shot, blown to bits, vivisected, frozen and gassed to death. They were deliberately murdered by every conceivable method of fiendish cruelty at the hands of supposedly civilized, cultured and mostly Christian Nations.

Since the end of the Second World War, the Nations have sought unsuccessfully for that international unity and solidarity for which the great majority are longing. Thus far humanity seeks in vain to satisfy its growing hunger for wholeness, its longing for friendship, peace and security. Like twin swords of Damocles, atomic and bacteriological warfare hang over every Race, city and home on earth. In the face of these tragic facts men might well despair, not only of world peace in our time, but of the whole future of the Race.

THE EVOLUTIONARY PLAN

What has Theosophy to offer to mankind at this juncture and in this hour of urgent need? The answer is guiding principles, knowledge of which is all-important, especially for those who aspire to play an effective part in the present world crisis. Theosophy provides that knowledge; for its study mentally lifts one to great heights from which a panoramic view of human life is possible. Theosophy reveals the master plan, one part of which concerns the evolution of the human Race. The total number of major Races is said to be seven, each of which is composed of seven successive sub-races. Five major Races have already appeared on earth, the Aryan peoples belonging to the fifth. Two Root Races lie in the future. Five sub-races of the fifth, the Aryan Race, have already appeared and a sixth is now being born. From this theosophical teaching we learn that we, being in the fifth of the seven Root Races, are rather more than half way through our planet's life.

When considering racial evolution upon earth it should be remembered that the same spiritual individuals, the same human Egos incarnate in the successive races. The Atlanteans, the Egyptians and the other ancient peoples were none other than ourselves. Similarly, the sixth sub-race and the sixth and seventh Root Races will only be new reincarnations of the same family of Egos, ourselves, for whom this earth has been appointed as the evolutionary field.

BIRTHPLACES OF A NEW RACE

What, then, is the place of Australia in this great plan and what is the destiny of its peoples? Simply put, the answer is that the fifth Race is at this time producing a sixth sub-race, and the four countries of North America and Canada, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand are the chief places of its birth. The sixth sub-race of the mother Aryan stock is being produced by emigration of European peoples, chiefly British, to the new racial homes. Even now the plan is well advanced. Each of the four countries is already producing its typical variant of the new type. Indeed, the two World Wars may be regarded as both the death throes of an old dispensation and the birth pangs of a new.

THE COMING RACE

What will New Age man look like? Here is the young man. In Australia he is tall, wiry and somewhat slender of form. In New Zealand the build has perhaps been somewhat shorter and stockier up to now, though an increase in the height is said to be occurring. The facial features of the sixth sub-race man, when they do show, are everywhere much the same. They are finely modeled, the nose tends to be long, the chin pointed and the forehead broad, thus making the face somewhat triangular. A certain eagerness, a vivid alertness, is stamped upon the whole face.

The women will especially display the quality of grace. They, too, will be slender and athletic, and the ideal of physical beauty and perfection will make great appeal to them. Again, the face will be triangular, the head pear-shaped, the features becoming clear-cut, regular and more and more refined as the new racial type is established. The texture of the skin will be notably fine and the hands and feet are beautifully formed. So much for apparent physical trends.


What of the outlook? This also must be considered; for, from the point of view of recent world events and the grave danger of a Third World War, the attitude of mind and the outlook of the new racial type are all important. Can we forecast them? Yes. The new psychological characteristics may be discerned by a study of advanced people throughout the world; for this new Race is not to be born in a single place, not to belong to a single Nation. It is the type of the new humanity which will seek unity and co-operation between free individuals and Nations. The very essence of all action in the sixth sub-race will be the union of many to achieve a single object, and not the dominance of one who compels others to his will. To advance together in freedom to a goal that all realize as desirable, will ultimately become the method of attainment. This tendency to unity of action is one of the signs of racial evolution out of dependence upon mental processes, analysis, deduction and logic into the use of direct intuitive perception.

MANKIND'S WILL TO WORLD UNITY

Despite grave difficulties at present appearing, signs are not wanting that this development is actually occurring. Indeed, it is abundantly evident today; for, amid the welter of conflicting peoples and ideologies now evident, there is distinctly discernible a subtle yet powerful change occurring in the outlook of mankind upon the planet -- the growth of one dominating idea with tremendous possibilities for the future. This change has been described as "a hunger for wholeness", and it is indeed a revolutionary event. It is almost comparable to a geological cataclysm, like the tilting of the earth's axis or a descent of an ice cap. It must culminate, I suggest, in an irresistible will to world unity.

This recognition of unity and determination to achieve it characteristic of New Age man will not only be physical and racial, but mental and spiritual as well. Also, it will not only be local, but world-wide. Even now, this unifying tendency is discernible in the world and constitutes a definite sign of the emergence of the sixth sub-race of the Fifth, the Aryan Race.

If one is looking for signs that any particular person is beginning to show marks of that sixth sub-race today, such signs may be found in a growing intuitiveness and in a capacity to lead by love, sympathy and comprehension rather than by the dominance of an imperious will; for, to advanced humanity, dominance is anathema, freedom is a veritable religion. A synthesizing spirit will be found in the fore-runners of the sixth sub-race. They will be able to encourage and to unite diversity of opinion and of character, to gather round them the most unlike elements and blend them, whilst still free, into a common whole.


Many of [Guido von] List's essays endorsed health food fads, herbal cures, and Baron Karl von Reichenbach's Theory of Odic Force.

His fetish for the natural extended to politics. Real nationhood could only be based on blood ties, or "soul relationship." The ideal state must be a Volksgemeinshaft (folk-union or spiritual brotherhood) consisting of genetically-related people who would function as an extended family because of blood-compatibility, "soul-connection," and implicitly shared values. True patriotism had biological as well as spiritual roots. It was simply a higher form of family loyalty, and fraternal affection among Aryan receivers of "God-Knowledge."

-- Hitler's Mentor: Dietrich Eckart, His Life, Times, & Milieu, by Joseph Howard Tyson


Now the evolution of the external form or body round the astral is produced by the terrestrial forces, just as in the case of the lower kingdoms; but the evolution of the internal or real MAN is purely spiritual. It is now no more a passage of the impersonal Monad through many and various forms of matter — endowed at best with instinct and consciousness on quite a different plane — as in the case of external evolution, but a journey of the “pilgrim-soul” through various states of not only matter but Self-consciousness and self-perception, or of perception from apperception. (See “Gods, Monads and Atoms.”)

-- The Secret Doctrine: The Synthesis of Science, Religion, and Philosophy, by Helena P. Blavatsky


MAN CALLED TO COLLABORATE IN THE TRANSCENDENTAL TASK

Those who at present possess the capacity for taking into themselves diversities and sending them out again as unities, and for utilizing the most different individualities, finding each its place in freedom and welding all together into a strong whole -- such people already display New Race characteristics. The ideal, as will be seen, is not a universalized set of conditions and a uniformity of human personality, but full individual development with readiness to combine and to co-operate in the great causes of human happiness and progress.

Theosophy adds to the statement of this far-reaching plan that every individual can participate in the progress of the Race. Each one of us is important; for each of us can help or hinder the historical process. If each one of us will play our constructive part, if we can inspire our young people with the vision of themselves as Nation-builders, then America, Canada, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand will fulfill their present promise of rapid advance to magnificent nationhood.

In the light of such teachings of Theosophy, the truly alarming portents to which I drew attention at the beginning of this Talk assume a less menacing aspect, dangerous though they are. The student of Theosophy need not fear that any futility overshadows man's highest dreams; he need not be afraid that civilization will be allowed up in unheeding, everlasting night; for he is taught that man moves through innumerable ages to ever-in-creasing power, wisdom and glory.

CHAPTER 2: THE CHILDREN OF TODAY ARE THE CITIZENS OF TOMORROW

THE INFLUENCE OF EDUCATION


The problem which I am now going to discuss is that of good citizenship and bad citizenship, particularly in the young people of today. Reports and statistics emanating from many countries and sources demonstrate that all is not as it should be with modern youth.

"Poets are born, not made", it is said, but good citizens are made, not born, and the same is true of bad citizens. Moral laxity in youth is largely the result of deficient education at home and at school and of pernicious influences out in the world. In consequence, idealists are visualizing an educational system with the main objectives of developing human character and of producing good citizens of the home, the school, the city, the Nation and the world. Advanced thinkers have long been proclaiming the urgent need for education for character-building, stability and integrity. They seek to imbue young people with a strong moral sense and a vision of excellence. Education for successful living and for useful citizenship, including public service, is now being regarded as both the key to the New World Order and the life blood of civilization.

Education is of two parts — in school and out of school. At present these two influences upon the growing child tend to become divorced. Teachers state that the good they try to do in the school is all too often undone at home and out in the world. In-school and out-of-school education should be co-ordinated, otherwise the one nullifies the other. The home will then widen naturally into the school which in its turn becomes both an extension of the home and a natural gateway to adult life.

MORAL DANGERS

The grave dangers confronting youth after leaving school arise from contact with adult materialism, selfishness, commercialism and vice. Girls and boys go out into life without the necessary guidance and protection against moral danger and insufficiently supported by belief in spiritual and moral principles. In consequence, they are often helpless in the presence of the evils and tendencies to evil which surround them in the world.

RADIO AND CINEMA

Broadcasting is one example of these dangers. The radio penetrates every home. Every child from babyhood is exposed to it. Sensational stories, luring advertisements, moronic crooning and raucous jazz pour out of loudspeakers throughout the Nations. To combat this very serious evil, a due censorship is urgently needed, with the single purpose of producing good citizens.

There are no sports at European Waldorf schools and no jazz or popular music; these phenomena are considered to harbor demonic forces. Instead students read fairy tales, a staple of Waldorf education.

Image
As the Wheel Turned: Tales of a Child Who Lived in the Long Ago, by Elsie Cecilia Rutledge, Publisher: Mothers' Research Group/Parents Theosophical Research Group: 1952

-- Anthroposophy and Ecofascism, by Peter Staudenmaier


Negermusik ("Negro Music") was a pejorative term used by the Nazis during the Third Reich to signify musical styles and performances by African-Americans that were of the jazz and swing music genres. They viewed these musical styles as inferior works belonging to an "inferior race" and therefore prohibited. The term, at that same time, was also applied to indigenous music styles of black Africans....

Their criticisms have included "gratuitous use of syncopation" and "orgies of drums"....On 4 May 1930, Wilhelm Frick, the Reich's newly appointed Minister of the Interior and Education for Thuringia made a decree called "Against the Negro Culture — For Our German Heritage".

In 1932 the national government under Franz von Papen pandered to the Nazis by banning all public performances by black musicians. After Adolf Hitler gained power in 1933, the Reich's Music Chamber was also created in that same year. This was then followed by a full legal ban on this music on October 12, 1935 across all German national radio....

Prior to the D-Day landings, during the German occupation of the Netherlands, Joseph Goebbels's propaganda ministry published pamphlets written in Dutch named "Greetings from England -– The Coming Invasion". These pamphlets contained in-between statements, such as "old jazz-records" and a further full statement declaring "at the celebration of liberation your daughters and wives will be dancing in the arms of real Negroes"....

Even in the Post–World War II years in 1950s Germany, there were some protests from churches, school authorities and politicians against the "obscene Negro music" of the newly emerging rock 'n' roll genre with such acts like Elvis and Chuck Berry gaining new popularity amongst youth. This attitude also continued right up into the 1960s carrying the same derogatory term that not only maintained its resentment by older generations and conservatives but also was an aggressive defense against a then new contemporary American culture. Dance halls in East-Germany often displayed "Affentanzen verboten" notices (lit.: monkey dancing forbidden).


-- Negermusik [Negro Music], by Wikipedia


[T]he astral prototypes of the lower beings of the animal kingdom of the Fourth Round, which preceded (the chhayas of) Men, were the consolidated, though still very ethereal sheaths of the still more ethereal forms or models produced at the close of the Third Round on Globe D. [215] “Produced from the residue of the substance matter; from dead bodies of men and (other extinct) animals of the wheel before,” or the previous Third Round — as Stanza 24 tells us. Hence, while the nondescript “animals” that preceded the astral man at the beginning of this life-cycle on our Earth were still, so to speak, the progeny of the man of the Third Round, the mammalians of this Round owe their existence, in a great measure, to man again. Moreover, the “ancestor” of the present anthropoid animal, the ape, is the direct production of the yet mindless Man, who desecrated his human dignity by putting himself physically on the level of an animal….

Ay, but that “primeval man” was man only in external form. He was mindless and soulless at the time he begot, with a female animal monster, the forefather of a series of apes….

Perchance in these specimens, Haeckelians might recognize, not the Homo primigenius, but some of the lower tribes, such as some tribes of the Australian savages. Nevertheless, even these are not descended from the anthropoid apes, but from human fathers and semi-human mothers, or, to speak more correctly, from human monsters — those “failures” mentioned in the first Commentary. The real anthropoids, Haeckel’s Catarrhini and Platyrrhini, came far later, in the closing times of Atlantis. The orang-outang, the gorilla, the chimpanzee and cynocephalus are the latest and purely physical evolutions from lower anthropoid mammalians. They have a spark of the purely human essence in them; man on the other hand, has not one drop of pithecoid blood in his veins.….

These “Men” of the Third Race — the ancestors of the Atlanteans — were just such ape-like, intellectually senseless giants as were those beings, who, during the Third Round, represented Humanity. Morally irresponsible, it was these third Race “men” who, through promiscuous connection with animal species lower than themselves, created that missing link which became ages later (in the tertiary period only) the remote ancestor of the real ape as we find it now in the pithecoid family. [150]...

A naturalist suggests another difficulty. The human is the only species which, however unequal in its races, can breed together. “There is no question of selection between human races,” say the anti-Darwinists, and no evolutionist can deny the argument — one which very triumphantly proves specific unity. How then can Occultism insist that a portion of the Fourth Race humanity begot young ones from females of another, only semi-human, if not quite an animal, race, the hybrids resulting from which union not only bred freely but produced the ancestors of the modern anthropoid apes? Esoteric science replies to this that it was in the very beginnings of physical man. Since then, Nature has changed her ways, and sterility is the only result of the crime of man’s bestiality….

But this was when Africa had already been raised as a continent. We have meanwhile to follow, as closely as limited space will permit, the gradual evolution of the now truly human species. It is in the suddenly arrested evolution of certain sub-races, and their forced and violent diversion into the purely animal line by artificial cross-breeding, truly analogous to the hybridization, which we have now learned to utilize in the vegetable and animal kingdoms, that we have to look for the origin of the anthropoids. In these red-haired and hair-covered monsters, the fruit of the unnatural connection between men and animals, the “Lords of Wisdom” did not incarnate, as we see. Thus by a long series of transformations due to unnatural cross-breeding (unnatural “sexual selection”), originated in due course of time the lowest specimens of humanity; while further bestiality and the fruit of their first animal efforts of reproduction begat a species which developed into mammalian apes ages later....

For surely, it was not in or through the wickedness of the “mighty men” . . . . men of renown, among whom is placed Nimrod the “mighty hunter before the Lord,” that “god saw that the wickedness of man was great,” nor in the builders of Babel, for this was after the Deluge; but in the progeny of the giants who produced monstra quaedam de genere giganteo, monsters from whence sprang the lower races of men, now represented on earth by a few miserable dying-out tribes and the huge anthropoid apes….

The monsters bred in sin and shame by the Atlantean giants, “blurred copies” of their bestial sires, and hence of modern man (Huxley), now mislead and overwhelm with error the speculative Anthropologist of European Science…

[T]he bestiality of the primeval mindless races resulted in the production of huge man-like monsters — the offspring of human and animal parents. As time rolled on, and the still semi-astral forms consolidated into the physical, the descendants of these creatures were modified by external conditions, until the breed, dwindling in size, culminated in the lower apes of the Miocene period. With these the later Atlanteans renewed the sin of the “Mindless” — this time with full responsibility. The resultants of their crime were the species of apes now known as Anthropoid

On the data furnished by modern science, physiology, and natural selection, and without resorting to any miraculous creation, two negro human specimens of the lowest intelligence — say idiots born dumb — might by breeding produce a dumb Pastrana species, which would start a new modified race, and thus produce in the course of geological time the regular anthropoid ape….

-- The Secret Doctrine: The Synthesis of Science, Religion, and Philosophy, by Helena P. Blavatsky




For it will be admitted that some knowledge of man’s position in the animate world is an indispensable preliminary to the proper understanding of his relations to the universe—and this again resolves itself, in the long run, into an inquiry into the nature and the closeness of the ties which connect him with those singular creatures whose history has been sketched in the preceding pages.

The importance of such an inquiry is indeed intuitively manifest. Brought face to face with these blurred copies of himself, the least thoughtful of men is conscious of a certain shock, due perhaps, not so much to disgust at the aspect of what looks like an insulting caricature, as to the awakening of a sudden and profound mistrust of time-honoured theories and strongly-rooted prejudices regarding his own position in nature, and his relations to the under-world of life; while that which remains a dim suspicion for the unthinking, becomes a vast argument, fraught with the deepest consequences, for all who are acquainted with the recent progress of the anatomical and physiological sciences.

I now propose briefly to unfold that argument, and to set forth, in a form intelligible to those who possess no special acquaintance with anatomical science, the chief facts upon which all conclusions respecting the nature and the extent of the bonds which connect man with the brute world must be based: I shall then indicate the one immediate conclusion which, in my judgment, is justified by those facts, and I shall finally discuss the bearing of that conclusion upon the hypotheses which have been entertained respecting the Origin of Man.

-- On the Relations of Man to the Lower Animals, by Thomas Henry Huxley


Advertising may be taken as another example. The newspapers, the hoardings, the handbills, and some of the radio stations of the world are designed for advertising. This almost hypnotic procedure beats upon the consciousness of modern man, influencing thought and word and deed. The adult gradually acquires a self-defense against this perpetual battering. Unfortunately that defense is cynicism. But the child does not know any better and is inevitably affected, deceived, moulded. The predominant motive of commercial advertising is to get, to acquire, to deceive, to persuade, to allure one's fellow men. It is selfish, acquisitive. The child tends to conclude that cleverness in deceit for personal profit wins the world's greatest prizes. He absorbs this attitude towards life, gravely to his detriment, thinking of success in purely worldly terms and material values.

Many children are thus spoilt, marred as potential good citizens. They are sent out into life with a strong desire to advertise themselves, to sell themselves, their education, their scholastic degrees, their highest gifts, for money, power, possessions. Thus the young people of today are being moulded by adults into selfish embodiments of a ravenous passion for getting things. Of religion, of the Divine Presence, they know naught. Their minds are not spiritually moulded. [From Reader’s Digest, USA] A radio announcer's daughter when asked to say grace spoke forth easily: “This food comes to us by courtesy of God Almighty." A story is told of another child who, when shown by her mother her first rainbow, immediately asked: "What is it supposed to advertise?"
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 32994
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: Freda Bedi Cont'd (#2)

Postby admin » Fri Mar 06, 2020 9:14 am

Part 2 of 2

UNDUE ACQUISITIVENESS

Excuse me if I seem to over-stress this commercial element. It is, I think, the key to the present deplorable situation. The child, as soon as he is old enough, perceives humanity perpetually advertising itself and its wares, luring, deceiving, setting baits to entrap the unwary. He receives an education which is predominantly materialistic, in which true religion has only a minor part. The child is taught to memorize facts and ideas in order that by repeating them correctly at examinations he will win educational rewards, defeat his fellow pupils and shine over them, and then sell the whole result of education in the market place. Doubtless it was this perversion of the true purpose of education -- to draw out inherent faculties rather than only to drive in ideas from without, I suggest -- which caused Mark Twain to say: "Education is not so swift as massacre, but it is far more deadly in the long run"!

All this combative, competitive, acquisitive, materialistic education is a crime against the child. It is, therefore, a crime against adults and so a crime against humanity. Excessive commercialization is, I conclude, the greatest single, external cause of the unhappiness of man amidst an excess of this world's goods.

It is a melancholy fact that there has been a bitter race between certain civilized peoples of our times in the production and selling of all sorts of manufactures, useful and necessary things as well as articles of luxury, in enormous quantities. Rivalry for the markets of the world has then sprung up, and had to spring up some time or other, between the principal trading nations. This has perhaps been the deepest-lying cause of the great war. It surely was no chance happening that Germany and England, the two foremost trading empires of Europe, got to fighting a struggle for life or death.

Industry has in the course of decades made these and other countries richer by milliards. Universal prosperity has increased enormously, very considerable improvements of environment have been brought about, and nevertheless, our modern civilization is at present practically in ruins. Thus these riches have been of no use to us, but have instead brought with them great harm. From many parts of England, and from other places, there is shown by reports that industry is the greatest devitalizer of races and peoples....

To begin with, one might seriously discuss the question, whether wealth pouring into a country really is of use to a people. One has a right to doubt this, for experience shows that rapidly increased prosperity, in olden times as well as in ours, breeds an infinitude of needs, the desire for luxury increases, effeminacy begins to show, love for work decreases, and so on. Luxurious living calls forth too much love for ease, for which the children will soon enough have to suffer. The women begin more and more commonly to shun maternity, and all round about us we witness how the 0-1-2-children system flourishes, beginning within the wealthier classes of society. Gradually this process goes deeper and removes by and by every trace of peoples before vigorous. This is what is called race suicide....

It is undoubtedly harmful to let young people in industry, who have not yet families of their own, handle a disproportionally large income, which they often live up in waste and frivolity. At the same time their elder fellow workers are almost starving, because they have wives and children to maintain.

That the women have been thrown, together with the men, into the jaws of the industrial Moloch is decidedly an evil, both for themselves and for society. A great many of these women are no doubt worth a far better fate than their lot. Within factory walls all sorts of elements come together, bad as well as good. Many of them go to the dogs on account of bad surroundings. It is difficult for them to manage by themselves: they take to dangerous pleasures, immorality, even prostitution. Soon enough they form amorous relations indiscriminately -- as a rule not from necessity, but in consequence of temptations and love of pleasure. There are, unfortunately, too many men who, if relations of that kind come easily within reach, prefer this irregular sort of life with women, liquors, and conviviality, to the road of self-denial in economic matters which leads to a home and family of one's own. This brings with it many a misspent life. No small number of them die prematurely. Gradually there ensues corruption of society, frivolity, vulgarity, which is noticeable everywhere. Who is to blame? And with whom rests the responsibility?

It is no easy matter to do justice to all, but this much is certain, that industry is very much to blame. It breeds a proletariat of both men and women, that often, sooner or later, are heaped up in poorhouses, hospitals, workhouses and prisons....

Of what avail are whole heaps of gold, nay, the wealth of all the world, if we through wars are marching toward times of trouble and degeneration? It is no easy thing for a private man to resist all the temptations of wealth. It is perhaps still more difficult for a people to take the road of self-denial and, instead of living in pleasures and enjoyments, lead the lives of hard-working, saving men, which make for amelioration.


-- The Sins of Industry Against the Race, by Herman Lundborg, Docent, University of Upsala, Sweden


The child has no chance against all this. Unless an advanced Ego is especially fortunate in parents, teachers, companions and employers, he grows up like his fellow men. His character reflects his environment. With numerous individual exceptions, he becomes moulded by both into a self-centered, acquisitive animal, bereft of either spirituality or culture. If to this be added the outbreak and the nature of the two World Wars and the threat of a Third, it is small wonder that so many young people (far from all) grow up into selfish, self-indulgent and materially minded cynics.

SEX EDUCATION

Then there is the other pressing problem of guidance in the exercise of the creative functions of the body. How, where and by whom should this guidance be given? Let me suggest an answer. As soon as they are old enough, that is as soon as they notice the difference in sex and begin to enquire, young people should be wisely given adequate knowledge of the creative functions of their bodies. They should not grow up in ignorance either of the place and purpose of sex in human life or of the grievous effects of its misuse. Especially should they be unmistakably aware of the dangers to both body and soul of sexual indulgence.

How should this guidance be given? It should at first, I submit, be a highly individual and very private instruction, received preferably from one whom the boy or girl loves and trusts. Ideally, I conclude, mothers should guide girls and fathers instruct boys. Primarily this is the responsibility of the parents and of no one else. The wise and sympathetic family doctor or the enlightened minister may, however, assist or even replace the parents should they not feel equal to the task. The right occasions and the right presentation are of supreme importance and the truth must be told, not untruths. In the absence of state clinics founded for the purpose, as in the New Age we hope they will be, and in the absence of experts trained for the task, the parents can and do make or mar their children by their own example and by their fulfillment or neglect of parental responsibility in this most important matter. Thus I submit that a home with a strong moral atmosphere based upon Christ-like love is a form of instruction and guidance for life for which there is no alternative.

CIVILIZATION MARCHES FORWARD ON THE FEET OF LITTLE CHILDREN

The importance of especial care of the youth of the Nation cannot, I submit, be over-estimated. Civilization marches forward on the feet of little children. The post-war world must be a world characterized especially by great advances in education. The New Age must be the age of the child and the freedom-loving Nations will do well to direct their immense resources to the spiritual the moral and the physical welfare of the youth of the world, by whom the New Age must be built. This would involve a world-wide extension of educational facilities for young and old, first and foremost to save mankind from threatened annihilation by atomic weapons and second to produce the finest possible types of human beings, and so of human civilization.

CHAPTER 3: INSPIRED LEADERS - HOW THEY MAY BE FOUND AND TRAINED

HUMANITY ASTRAY


What is the greatest need of the world today? I suppose we might all answer differently. Let me offer an idea. In the critical times through which humanity has passed during the first half of the Twentieth Century it must, I think, be admitted that the great need of mankind today is for inspired leadership. Humanity needs men and women to whom it can give complete and wholehearted respect because of their fine attainments, spiritually, intellectually and culturally, and the splendid human beings they are. During the Second World War, Winston Churchill proved to be just such a leader. He aroused, inspired, encouraged and led the British people through their darkest time, which he called "their finest hour'*. In consequence of Churchill's leadership, those times of trial, did, in fact, become their finest, greatest hours. We should remember, however, that, no less than war, peace also demands leadership.

In the representative system, the reason for everything must publicly appear. Every man is a proprietor in government, and considers it a necessary part of his business to understand. It concerns his interest, because it affects his property. He examines the cost, and compares it with the advantages; and above all, he does not adopt the slavish custom of following what in other governments are called Leaders....

The government of a free country, properly speaking, is not in the persons, but in the laws. The enacting of those requires no great expense; and when they are administered, the whole of civil government is performed -- the rest is all court contrivance.

-- The Rights of Man, by Thomas Paine


The urgent necessities of war, the pressing dangers of invasion, death and enslavement, though not entirely banished, are not immediately overshadowing the peoples of the world's democracies. Numerous and far-reaching dangers do, however, still threaten mankind. We are under attack both from within, in the moral sense, and from without as a result of subversive influences and the threat of the outbreak of a third aggressive war. To guide us through these dangers, leaders can prove extremely valuable. Great men and women, alive to the pressing dangers of our times, are amongst us but there are not enough of them. It seems as if the dead weight of apathy, the corroding influence of cynicism, the deliberate undermining of the stability of the Democratic States and the continued excitation to over-indulgences as in sex, alcohol, drugs and gambling, almost nullify the efforts of the all too few spiritual and cultural leaders of the modern world. Therefore the need is urgent for more great men and women in the world.

THE CALL FOR GUIDANCE

Is there any hope of the emergence of leaders? More important, can we ourselves do anything to prepare the way for the birth amongst us of truly great Souls or, as we say theosophically, advanced Egos? If reincarnation be true, can the rebirth of great leaders from the past be hoped for and, if so, what are the conditions which prospective parents should provide? Let me suggest an answer. It is generally agreed that a new and higher type of human being is now appearing in the world. In consequence, there is hope that a new civilization, a new World Order and a new (re-expressed) World Religion will be established on earth. Obviously we are on the threshold of great changes, are at the dawn of a new day in the life of our planet.

By what processes will such advanced men and women come into existence and the new dispensation displace the old? More important still, what can be done to prepare the way for them? The essentials appear to be at least twofold. First, the incarnation of advanced Egos and second, the provision of suitable environment and education, these two being to a considerable extent mutually interdependent. Advanced Egos require both special kinds of bodies and special opportunities for the fulfillment of their mission as world leaders. From this it would appear that the parents and the teachers of today are favored with unique opportunities.

PARENTAL OPPORTUNITIES

What, then, may we assume, is the parental contribution to the birth of the special types of bodies into which advanced Souls may incarnate? First, it is probable that such parents would have a wide and catholic outlook on life. Their interests would extend far beyond the round of domestic, recreational, business or professional life. Where circumstances permit, they would be actively concerned with interests larger than those of their own immediate preoccupations. Such great Causes as the Child Welfare Movements, civic, state and national affairs, and particularly in these days the United Nations Association would be likely to attract them. New Age [For the sense in which this term is used, see Chapter II] parents would naturally have great appreciation of beauty and in many cases be proficient in one of the arts. The love of beauty would be an outstanding characteristic of their natures and show itself in the beauty of their homes and the lives they live.

THE RELIGION OF THE FUTURE

What would be likely to be the religious views of such forward-looking people? Their religion would probably be both mystical and practical. Some form of religious exercises leading to individual experience of union with God would doubtless be employed, thus also keeping open the channels between the Inner Immortal Self and the personal bodily life and consciousness. Extremes of religious belief and practice, and constant changes of philosophic and religious attachment, would naturally be avoided. So much for the probable and desirable parental ideals.

What may we suppose are the more material essentials, especially for the attraction into a family of advanced Souls?

THE ADVERSE EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL

At this point I wish to dissociate myself from the Theosophical Society and to express a purely personal opinion about pre-natal necessities for the production of first-class physical bodies and brains. After some forty year's study of social problems and of practical work in various reform Movements, I have been forced to the conclusion that abstinence from alcohol is essential in those parents who would give birth to the finest type of children. Alcohol and drugs can bedull the brain and nervous system and, in consequence, shut the Spiritual Self out of the individual's life, particularly as far as intuition and other spiritualizing impulses are concerned. I know that I am presenting ideals which may sound extreme, but the world need is so great at this time that it is worth our while to consider high ideals, especially concerning marriage, parenthood and child training. Procreation and childbirth, for instance, should be recognized as divine acts, sacraments In very truth, since they are human enactments of the great and continuous process of creation [Not of something out of nothing, but rather emanation from a latent to an active state] which is enacted by the one Divine Creator of all.

PREPARATIONS FOR MOTHERHOOD

The period of pre-natal life is of the utmost importance in the production of the finest type of body and the incarnation of the highest type of Ego. Throughout the whole period, the home should be as harmonious as possible and everything should be done to keep the mother healthy and happy. As far as material responsibilities permit, she herself should allow her thoughts to be centered upon ideals of beauty, peace and the service of the world.

THE GIFT OF FREEDOM

At this point a word of warning may be useful. Whilst all these external preparations for the child, if wisely made, can be productive of nothing but good, it should never be forgotten that no limitations should be put on the child itself. Mentally and emotionally, no pressure to follow any particular, line of thought or parentally chosen, specific mode of life should be applied to the incarnating Ego. The freedom of the Ego should be at all times most zealously guarded. Parents are rightly concerned with the mental, the emotional and the physical conditions during gestation, at birth and afterwards, but the interior life of the child, the Egoic intention, must ever be respected. This may then be fulfilled unhampered by external pressure. This restriction apart, the joy of attracting an advanced Ego and of producing a healthy and beautiful body, is within reach of reasonably healthy, married people who care to provide the conditions to which I have referred.

CHILDREN OF TODAY THE LEADERS OF TOMORROW

In conclusion, I repeat the conviction that the world suffers today from lack-of wise and inspired leadership. Where, then, are the urgently-needed leaders to be found and trained? Surely the answer is, "Amongst the children now being born and amongst the children now at school." Despite the pressing necessities inseparable from the maintenance of the routine of education, members of the educational profession especially should be on the look-out for leaders, should watch for the spark of genius in every child who comes to them, and should do their utmost to fan it into a flame, and especially the latent genius for leadership.

The physical and mental examination of the men drafted for military service during the world war was the first complete national health survey of any large group carried on in this country....

All men within the drafted age were examined by the medical officers of the local draft boards in their home communities before being sent to the army camps. Thus the more pronounced cases of physical and mental defects were eliminated at once and never reached the various army cantonments. On the mental side these included the idiots, some of the imbeciles, the well-recognized cases of insanity, and the known epileptics. The other mental cases such as the higher grades of feeble-mindedness and various forms of nervous and mental unfitness, were not discovered in a great number of cases until an examination was given by the neuro-psychiatric and psychological boards at the cantonment.

The Surgeon General of the Army had early recognized the necessity for a mental survey of the prospective troops, and had created in his office at Washington two divisions, one of Neurology and Psychiatry, and the other of Psychology. It was the function of these two, by intercorrelation, to know and act on the problem of the mental hygiene of the army....

But let us first consider in detail the work and organization of the psychological group. In each camp were several trained psychologists with a staff of workers whose particular function it was to carry out the specific purposes of this section, which were:

1. The discovery of men whose superior intelligence suggested their consideration for advancement.

2. The prompt selection of men mentally inferior and their assignment to special work-organizations suited to their various abilities.

3. To form organizations of uniform mental or superior mental strength where such particular mental strength was desired.

4. To select suitable men for training in various army duties or for special training in technical schools.

5. To recognize early the mentally slow as contrasted with the stubborn or disobedient.

6. To discover men whose low grade of intelligence rendered them a burden and a menace to the service, and to take steps for their discharge....

Perhaps the most important work accomplished by the psychologist was the immediate rejection of draft men who were so mentally inferior as to be unacceptable to the army. These were the middle- and high-grade feeble-minded and many constitutional psychopaths who could be found only through lengthy individual tests. These men were returned immediately to their families and to their home communities, and resumed their former places in society. The army could not afford to lower its efficiency by having such misfits in its ranks and so returned them to be a burden to society as before. Society is beginning to realize this burden.

The conscientious objectors formed another group of interest to the psychologist. These were men who objected to compulsory military service for many reasons, personal, religious, and otherwise. A few studies have been published concerning the mental make-up of these persons. The results of the complete mental tests given by the writer to the conscientious objectors in but one Southern camp showed in general that they were either abnormal or defective with the exception of a few who had clear-cut, well-defined scruples against service, and a few sects such as the Quakers. Several cases of dementia praecox were found in this group....

Observation was also made of the malingerers, i.e., those who attempted to secure release by simulating either mental or physical disease or defects. Large numbers were found to be unstable mentally but not sufficiently defective to be unacceptable to the army for some useful and necessary occupation. The great majority were found acceptable for infantry training and work....

One may note particularly that men rated A, B, and C+, were found to be best suited for officer material, and were therefore the men picked first for training in officers' training camps. It was found through studies at these special camps, that men who had a mental rating below that of C+ were generally not sufficiently acute mentally to become officers and acquire the knowledge necessary in the short time allowed for such training....

[T]he Division of Psychology at Washington has in its files a mental rating of one and a half million persons. It has lists of all the mentally defective and abnormal found, with more or less of their personal history attached. Thus, as a starting point, great eugenical studies could be made, and many valuable histories worked out. Finally, the cross-section of the mental and physical make-up of the population started in the great emergency by the army might be made the basis for a complete mental, physical, and social study of the entire population of the United States.

-- The Biological Bearing of Army Mental Tests, by Arthur H. Estabrook, Ph.D., Eugenics Record Office, Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.


Image

And because these are the racially best of the German nation ...
they can in the proudest self-esteem ...
claim the leadership of the Reich and the people.
The German people ...
subordinated itself to this leadership in ever-growing numbers!
The German people is happy ...
in the knowledge that a constantly changing vision ...
has been replaced by a fixed pole!
Whoever feels that he is the carrier of the best blood ...
and knowingly uses it to attain the leadership ...
will never relinquish it!...
For all time to come the Party will be the source of political leadership for the German people.
It will in its teaching ...
and was ultimately in its organization hard as steel ...
malleable in its tactics and adaptable in its entirety.
yet it will be a training school like a holy order for political leaders.


-- Triumph of the Will, directed by Leni Riefenstahl


“Look out for leaders" might well be a guiding principle for both the parents and the educational profession throughout the world. Thus may be found and trained great servants of the Race. Thus, in this period of dire need, there may be given to the world spiritual teachers, statesmen, educators, scientists and artists who will carry humanity through the present dangers into the security and world co-operation essential to the fulfillment of man's dream of world brotherhood and world peace.

CHAPTER 4: EDUCATION FOR FINE CITIZENSHIP

THE CHILD AS A PERSON


How did ancient civilizations produce great men and women, literature, art and engineering achievements without the aid of modern education? What is "the mystery of a person"? (Carlyle). Are "children born persons" or are they just girls and boys? Why did the Christ place so great a value upon "these little ones"? Should children be protected from the tyranny of the adult? Should a child be restricted at all points? Must we be like the mother in Punch; "Go and see what Tommy is doing and tell him he mustn't." Should children be brought up on "do" and "don't"? Are intelligence and industry at school to be decided only by marks? Should corporal punishment be displaced by "the new discipline"?

REPRESSION OR REDIRECTION?

In offering a reply to the last of these vital questions, I am expressing purely personal, rather than theosophical, opinions concerning one great need of the world today. As I suggested in my first Talk on this subject, one need is for spiritual, intellectual, cultural and political [Politics, the science of State organization] leaders. I have already made suggestions concerning the influence upon the development of the child of parental idealism and the conditions of pre-natal life,

What are the fundamentals in the training of leaders, as indeed of all children? One is, I suggest, that the world outlook, the planetary vision, [This subject receives consideration in Chapter II, Part 4] should be inculcated from the beginning. Another is that all discipline should take the form of a redirection rather than a suppression of the upwelling, and often overflowing, energies of youth.

SPARE THE ROD AND SPARE THE CHILD??

Sir Edmund Gosse, in his enjoyable book Father and Son; A Study in Temperaments, tells of an incident which occurred when he was six years old. He had been guilty of disobedience and his father, after a solemn sermon, chastised him sacrificially by giving him several cuts with a cane. Sir Edmund Gosse writes: "I have to confess with shame that I went about the house for some days with murderous hatred of my father locked within my bosom.

I am aware of the view that a good thrashing does no one any harm, but find myself quite unable to accept it. I know that whilst an immense change is taking place in the theory and practice of child training, as a result of which a spirit of individuality and co-operation pervades the modern class room, masters and mistresses of the old type still hammer their will upon the children in their care. Such teachers are generally themselves insensitive, unsympathetic and uninspired, whilst the children are all too often devitalized. They have been described as "plastic lumps to be crushed into a given mould” the result being "standardization or illiteracy....The cane was the sceptre, symbol of power in an age of mental and emotional torture. Mental torture, for those who were punished knew beforehand of the impending strokes, and the mental suspense was greater pain than the physical shock. Emotional torture, because all self-respect vanishes when one becomes a beaten unit in a fear-ridden group." School became "intermittent warfare.....The odds were on the teacher and all the losses against the child....There was no redress except in cases of extreme brutality and this was, and is, always difficult to establish as a fact." [The Psychology of Punishment, Arthur B Allen]

The effects of such a system, and especially of such punishments, make a lasting impression upon the developing adult. Shocks sustained by the child can become firmly embedded in the subconscious and remain as a hidden and potential adverse influence throughout the whole life. These problems resolve themselves into the queries. When to punish, when not to punish and how to punish?

Consideration of these questions brings me, with many modern educationalists and psychologists, to a strongly held personal conviction. It is that corporal punishment should be unthinkable, not only where new and more sensitive children are concerned, but in the training of all children. Corporal punishment not only does not remedy misconduct, but by the shock which it gives, both to the body and psyche, intensifies the existing causes of difficulty and in addition is most likely to create new ones; for what greater shock could there be to a child than the humiliation and pain of corporal punishment administered by those hitherto trusted and loved?

Right conduct is dependent upon a harmonious relationship between the Spiritual Soul or Inner Self of man, the mind, the emotions and the physical body; for these interact upon each other continually, conditions in one of them being reflected in all of the others. Every physical shock, for example, disturbs the harmonious relationship which normally exists throughout the whole nature of a healthy, happy child.[For a fuller exposition of this subject see Part Four, Chapter I.] It then becomes difficult for the Ego, the Spiritual Self within, to express itself through, and control the actions of, its new vehicles. One imagines that, when the time for rebirth approaches, Egoic prevision of the possibility of corporal punishment, either at home or at school, would cause the advanced Soul to choose a more favorable parentage and environment, if such were within its karma; [The law of cause and effect. See Part Three, Chapter I.] for when a certain stage of development has been reached a considerable measure of freedom is granted to a reincarnating Ego in the choice of the Nation, the family and the conditions into which it will be reborn. Since the world's need for inspired leadership can only be met by the reincarnation of such highly developed human beings, it is important that no unnecessary obstacles should be put in the way of rebirth into an otherwise favorable environment. Nothing, one assumes, would drive a highly evolved, and therefore sensitive, individual away from prospective parents and teachers more than the existence in them of the disrespect and the streak of sadistic brutality from which the infliction of severe corporal punishment arises.

"SPARE THE ROD AND SPOIL THE CHILD" AN ERRONEOUS DOCTRINE

Observation of children and adults who have been brought up on the "spare the rod and spoil the child" principle, has shown that many of them have been spiritually arid intellectually deadened, and psychically and physically coarsened, as a result of the frequent infliction of corporal punishment. [For a fuller exposition of this subject see The Psychology of Punishment, Arthur B Allen; and Children as “Persons”, Charlotte M Mason, Parents, National Education Union, 28 Victoria Street, London]

In a broadcast which was also printed in The Broadcaster of West Australia, February 23, 1952, Dr. Ruth Sheffield stated that: "Regulations made under the Education Act in this State impose strict limits on the use of corporal punishment in our schools. The limits are not always observed, it is reported, but the Education Department can and does invoke the regulations to deal with errant teachers reported by parents. The boxing of children's ears is strictly forbidden. So, too, is corporal punishment for girls aged twelve years and over. Corporal punishment for girls below the age of twelve is allowed only in very extreme circumstances. If it is to be inflicted it is to be carried out only by a female teacher. When corporal punishment is inflicted on girls, a statement of the circumstances and a full report must be sent to the district superintendent. Generally, corporal punishment may, as a last resort, be inflicted by the head teacher only and may be employed for offences against morality, gross impertinence or wilful and persistent disobedience. Corporal punishment shall not be inflicted for failure or inability to learn, for trivial breaches of school discipline or for neglect to prepare home lessons."

BAD CITIZENS ARE MADE, NOT BORN

"Juvenile delinquents", continues Dr. Sheffield, "get better treatment than our schoolchildren!” This dawned on me when I learnt from a kindly Children's Court magistrate that 'corporal punishment is out of date now in our Children's Courts', and further, that 'nowadays there is help and sympathy, not a beating, for the youngster who goes too far.'

"This is no preparation for good citizenship. We don't want stunted, fearful or aggressive children who resent or distrust authority and cannot get along happily with their fellow men. But without more intelligent goodwill and wisdom in dealing with children, that is all we are going to reap. Let's face it. Beatings, strappings and other harsh punishments are autocratic measures, worthy only of the dictator state that needs to prove that 'might is right'. They are contrary to the fundamentals of democracy and the United Nations Charter, both of which proclaim the freedom and dignity of the individual, whatever his race, nationality - or age! It's time, therefore that we, the parents of Australia, and trustees for the nation's future, unite in demanding the abolition of corporal punishment in our schools." Such is the expressed opinion of a medical specialist, Dr. Ruth Sheffield.

What is the alternative to smacking and thrashing? I suggest it is a wise, firm, redirection of often unwittingly misdirected energies and interests and a continual appeal to reason.

HYPERSENSITIVITY AND THE MODERN CHILD

This brings me to a rather strange phenomenon of our times. I refer to the growing evidence for the existence and activity of supernormal faculties. This has become so marked that the existence of what has come to be called Extra Sensory Perception in man has been demonstrated after extensive laboratory tests. [For fuller information on this subject see The Reach of the Mind, by Dr. J. B. Rhine.] This hypersensitivity often shows itself quite early. Children display uncanny wisdom and unusual perception at times. Such young people require special care and this poses a difficult problem for parents and teachers. I suggest that when there are psychic powers, these should be treated as quite normal. They should be neither encouraged nor discouraged; rather should they be taken for granted, so that the child may grow up to think of them as perfectly normal. On no occasion should they be made the subject of parade before others.

Parents and teachers should also remember that the psychic child is far more sensitive in every way than the non-psychic. Using always common sense, all treatment should be gentler, kinder and more lenient than is usually given to the robust, objective type of child; for the greater sensitivity produces more intense response to disciplinary correction, and especially to the mental aspects of any punishment which may be deemed necessary. Such children should never be corrected publicly on this account. When they have done wrong, their psychic nature causes them to experience an extreme sense of guilt and humiliation. They tend to brood unduly upon their error and upon any injustice in the treatment meted out to them. This may set up complexes which can later destroy health and happiness, especially since the psychic child is also subject to influences and forces to which non-psychic types are unresponsive. These inevitably affect his conduct and may lead him, if not protected, into errors into which the normal child would not fall.

All these considerations are of especial importance just now; for whilst it is true that the finest types of human beings, the leaders and geniuses of the New Age, will be advanced Egos, there would appear to be in addition very large numbers of children being born at this period who, under right training could develop into wise leaders of men. This presupposes that, as Egos, they have the necessary development and evolutionary experience behind them. If they have and are born under helpful parental, climatic and magnetic conditions, then with the right education they could become powerful influences for good in their community. This is especially true at the present time; for whilst leaders with magnetic personalities generally arise in response to crises and special opportunities, personal and national, the present may justly be regarded as both intensely critical and full of opportunities for the display of those qualities which are the mark of the true leader.

A LEADER OF MEN

What are the chief qualities to be developed in a would-be leader? [For a full exposition of this subject, see Leadership Through the Ages, George MacMunn ] Some of them, I suggest, are: capacity for sublimated selfhood; the sense of a great mission and of having the power to fulfill it; self-confidence; vision and ability and courage to recognize and answer the call when it comes; courage, physical and mental; earnestness; integrity; knowledge of the world; faculty for handling men; camaraderie; enthusiasm and fervor; joy of living; sympathy; health; capacity to be inspired on occasion and to convey that sense of uplift to those who are to be led; knowledge of guiding principles; insight into first causes; humility; an inherent goodliness and godliness; a flair for propaganda; calmness on some occasions and fire on others; oratory.

When practicable, the child should visit foreign countries; for the mental outlook of the leader-to-be must be broad, tolerant and co-operative, and more especially I suggest, concerning non-Christian religions and peoples. The planetary view must continually be inculcated and the child taught to see humanity as a whole, and to realize the interdependence of man upon man and of Nation upon Nation.

EDUCATION MEANS "DRAWING OUT"

In conclusion, it seems to me to be most important that both parents and teachers should have the right attitude to their parental and tutorial offices. They should, for example, be conscious of a profound respect for the Divine Self within every child. They should recognize the laws which govern man's evolutionary development, especially the laws of rebirth and cause and effect. In addition, I suggest, they should have the educative sense, which means they would ever be watching for revelations of the child's own innate qualities, natural power and inherent knowledge brought over from past lives. Perceiving these attributes, they should ever be ready to assist in their fullest and freest expression.

Briefly expressed, these, I believe, are the main principles upon which the treatment of all children should be founded. Where they are applied, a very large percentage of modern children could be changed from ordinary to outstanding types, from mediocrity to genius, from followers to leaders and, I repeat, it is wise and inspired leaders which are so greatly needed in the world today.

Objects of the Mothers' Research Group

• To promote a realization of the spiritual aspects of motherhood and family life
• To gather together for mutual study those who are interested in work for children and youth
• To bring to parents the light shed by the theosophical philosophy on all problems in the home.
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 32994
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: Freda Bedi Cont'd (#2)

Postby admin » Fri Mar 06, 2020 9:29 am

79th Annual General Report of the Theosophical Society [Excerpt]
Published by the Recording Secretary,
The Theosophical Society, Adyar, Madras 20. India
May 1955

Freda was concerned that the Indian authorities simply didn't understand the tradition of incarnate lamas, and their critical place in Tibetan society and spiritual practice. Little was done to identify these young lamas, some little more than infants. 'Nobody knew quite what to do with them,' Freda lamented to Olive Shapley. 'In the lamas we have inherited a tradition that dates back to the seventh century -- spiritual richness we can only as yet partially realise,' she wrote to friends. 'I am sure the whole world will ultimately be enriched.'

There are perhaps 200 high 'incarnate' lamas in the country now headed by His Holiness [the Dalai Lama] (including 40-60 child or adolescent incarnations: many of them young people of extraordinary intelligence and physical beauty) ... dedicated monks and lamas of a high standard of learning and spirituality number perhaps 2,500; in addition we have junior and simpler country monks, over 1,500 of whom have volunteered for roadwork. We all pray ultimately we may be able to settle the bulk of the refugees in big land settlements.32


Nehru had taken a diplomatic risk by hosting the Dalai Lama and tens of thousands of those who followed in his wake. But there was a limit to the amount of official support and funding that could be expected for the refugees' welfare, with the most urgent and unmet need being the upkeep and education of the young lamas.

Freda was entirely comfortable soliciting money and support from the rich and well connected. She had also established links with Buddhist and similar groups in London and elsewhere. Within weeks of returning to Delhi from the camps, she sought to turn her extensive network to the Tibetans' advantage. In mid-August 1960, she wrote a long letter to Muriel Lewis, a California-based Theosophist with whom she had corresponded for several years. Muriel ran the Mothers' Research Group principally for American and Western Theosophists, a network which had an interest both in eastern religions and in parenting issues.

I should like to feel that the 'Mothers' Group' was in touch with all I do (Freda wrote). Do you think it would be possible for some of your members to 'Adopt' in a small way -- write to, send parcels to -- these junior lamas? Friendships, even by post, could mean a great deal. We could work out a little scheme, if you are interested. The language barrier is there, but we can overcome it, with the help of friends.


Freda's family had, she recounted, already taken a young lama under their wing.

Last year my son [Kabir] 'adopted' one small lama of 12, sent him a parcel of woollen (yellow)clothes, sweets and picture books, soap and cotton cloth. This time when I went to Buxa, Jayong gave me such an excited and dazzling smile. He was brimming over with joy at seeing me again! It is very quiet away from your own country and relations for a small lama with a LOT TO LEARN. It was of course most touching to see the 'Mother-Love' in the faces of the tutor-lamas and servant lamas who look after the young ones. They are very tender with them.


Freda's letter was included in Muriel's research group newsletter and subsequently reprinted by the Buddhist Society in London. This was the founding act of the Tibetan Friendship Group, which quickly established a presence in eight western countries and was the conduit by which modest private funds were raised for the refugees.34 It outlasted Freda and ... it helped give prominence to the Tibet issue as well as the well-being of the Tibetan diaspora.

-- The Lives of Freda: The Political, Spiritual and Personal Journeys of Freda Bedi, by Andrew Whitehead


Mothers' Research Group.— After twenty years of fruitful effort, an endeavor has been made to increase the international scope of the work, and an advertisement sent to Section journals evoked an enthusiastic response. Additions have been made to the list of publications, the quarterly journal The Mothers Bulletin has increased the number of its pages, and courses of study and information are provided.
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 32994
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: Freda Bedi Cont'd (#2)

Postby admin » Fri Mar 06, 2020 9:31 pm

Negermusik / Negro Music
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 3.6.20

The grave dangers confronting youth after leaving school arise from contact with adult materialism, selfishness, commercialism and vice. Girls and boys go out into life without the necessary guidance and protection against moral danger and insufficiently supported by belief in spiritual and moral principles. In consequence, they are often helpless in the presence of the evils and tendencies to evil which surround them in the world.

Broadcasting is one example of these dangers. The radio penetrates every home. Every child from babyhood is exposed to it. Sensational stories, luring advertisements, moronic crooning and raucous jazz pour out of loudspeakers throughout the Nations. To combat this very serious evil, a due censorship is urgently needed, with the single purpose of producing good citizens.

Advertising may be taken as another example. The newspapers, the hoardings, the handbills, and some of the radio stations of the world are designed for advertising. This almost hypnotic procedure beats upon the consciousness of modern man, influencing thought and word and deed.

-- America, Birthplace of a New Race, by Geoffrey Hodson, Published by the Mothers' Research Group, Theosophical Society in America, The Theosophical Publishing House, Chennai. India.


Image
Poster of a 1938 exhibit in Düsseldorf

Negermusik ("Negro Music")[1][2] was a pejorative term used by the Nazis during the Third Reich to signify musical styles and performances by African-Americans that were of the jazz and swing music genres. They viewed these musical styles as inferior works[3] belonging to an "inferior race" and therefore prohibited. The term, at that same time, was also applied to indigenous music styles of black Africans.

Nazi Germany

At the time of the Weimar Republic during 1927, Ernst Krenek's opera of Jonny spielt auf (Jonny Plays) contained jazz musical performances that caused protests among some right-wing ethnic-nationalist groups in Germany at the time. In 1930, the American musician Henry Cowell wrote in the Melos journal that jazz interpreted a mixture of African-American and Jewish elements, stating that:

The fundamentals of jazz are the syncopation and rhythmic accents of the Negro. Their modernization is the work of New York Jews ... So jazz is Negro music seen through the eyes of the Jews.[4]


Such views were readily picked up by the Nazis. Their criticisms have included "gratuitous use of syncopation" and "orgies of drums".[5] More statements from the Nazis included such things as "artistic licentiousness" and "corruption seed in the musical expression" with "indecent dance forms".[6] They went on to scrutinize all modern music of the 1930s as a "political weapon of the Jews".[7] On 4 May 1930, Wilhelm Frick, the Reich's newly appointed Minister of the Interior and Education for Thuringia made a decree called "Against the Negro Culture — For Our German Heritage".[8][9]

In 1932 the national government under Franz von Papen pandered to the Nazis by banning all public performances by black musicians. After Adolf Hitler gained power in 1933, the Reich's Music Chamber[10] was also created in that same year. This was then followed by a full legal ban on this music on October 12, 1935 across all German national radio.[11] This ban was spearheaded by the German Reich's radio conductor, Eugen Hadamovsky, who purportedly stated:

Mit dem heutigen Tag spreche ich ein endgültiges Verbot des Negerjazz für den gesamten Deutschen Rundfunk aus. (As of today, I decree a definitive ban on the negro jazz for the entire German Radio.).[8][12]


In 1938, the Nazis organized the 'Entartete Musik' public exhibition in Germany, mainly held in Düsseldorf. This exhibition included a poster displaying a cartoon caricature of an African-American male playing on a saxophone with the Star of David on his tuxedo lapel. The overall theme of the exhibition was defamation of contemporary American music as "Negro music" and as another Jewish 'plot' upon German culture.[13][14]

Swing kids

The "Swing Kids" (German: Swingjugend) were a group of jazz and swing lovers in Germany in the 1930s, mainly in Hamburg (St. Pauli) and Berlin. They were mainly composed of 14- to 18-year-old boys and girls. They defied National Socialism (Nazism) by listening and dancing to this same banned music in private quarters, clubs, rented halls and vacant cafés.[15] Jazz music was offensive to Nazi ideology, because it was often performed by blacks and a number of Jewish musicians. The Swing Kids gave the impression of being apolitical, similar to their zoot suiter counterparts in North America.

On 18 August 1941, in a brutal police operation, over 300 Swing kids were arrested. The measures against them ranged from cutting their hair and sending them back to school under close monitoring, to the deportation of their leaders to Nazi concentration camps.

The 1993 movie Swing Kids gives a fictional portrayal of these same youths in that period in Germany.

World War II

Prior to the D-Day landings, during the German occupation of the Netherlands, Joseph Goebbels's propaganda ministry published pamphlets written in Dutch named "Greetings from England -– The Coming Invasion". These pamphlets contained in-between statements, such as "old jazz-records" and a further full statement declaring "at the celebration of liberation your daughters and wives will be dancing in the arms of real Negroes".[3] This further equated jazz music with 'blackness' during this time to stir up racism and anti-Allied propaganda within occupied Europe. However, Goebbels managed to create a Nazi-sponsored German swing band named Charlie and his Orchestra whose propagandistic purpose was to win over Nazi support and sympathy from British and American listeners through Shortwave radio.[12]

Additionally counter-propaganda was used by Allied forces which played upon the fears of the Nazi's banned music. One such example is Glenn Miller,[3] who was a White American jazz musician, that initially provided jazz music, through radio, to Allied combat soldiers for the purposes of entertainment and morale. His same music was used as counter-propaganda by AFN radio broadcasting to denounce fascist oppression in Europe with even Miller once stating himself:

America means freedom, and there's no expression of freedom quite so sincere as music.[16][17] –Glenn Miller


Post-War period

Even in the Post–World War II years in 1950s Germany, there were some protests from churches, school authorities and politicians against the "obscene Negro music" of the newly emerging rock 'n' roll genre with such acts like Elvis and Chuck Berry gaining new popularity amongst youth.[18] This attitude also continued right up into the 1960s carrying the same derogatory term that not only maintained its resentment by older generations and conservatives but also was an aggressive defense against a then new contemporary American culture.[19] Dance halls in East-Germany often displayed "Affentanzen verboten" notices (lit.: monkey dancing forbidden).

See also

• Degenerate music
• Jazz in Germany
• Valaida Snow
• Afro-Germans
• Hans Massaquoi
• Degenerate art
• Low culture
• Hans Hauck
• Persecution of black people in Nazi Germany
• Rhineland Bastard
• Nazism and race
• Racial policy of Nazi Germany
• Swingjugend

Literature

• Michael Hans Kater (2003): Different Drummers: Jazz in the Culture of Nazi Germany. Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-516553-1
• Mike Zwerin (2000): Swing Under the Nazis: Jazz as a Metaphor for Freedom. Cooper Square Publishers, ISBN 978-0-8154-1075-1
• Clarence Lusane (2003): Hitler's black victims: the historical experiences of Afro-Germans, European Blacks, Africans, and African Americans in the Nazi era. Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-93295-0

References

1. Gillmann, Sabine (May 2004). "Jazz und der Nationalsozialismus--ein ambivalentes Verhältnis". H-Net Reviews (H-German, Ruhr University Bochum). Retrieved 19 September 2011.
2. "Black History and Germany - Afro-German Glossary". About.com. Retrieved 19 September 2011.
3. "Blacks: forgotten target of Europe's hate and love". Chronicle World. Retrieved 19 September 2011.
4. Polster, Bernd (1998) [1989]. Swing Heil – Jazz im Nationalsozialismus (in German). Berlin: Transit Buchverlag. p. 9. ISBN 978-3-88747-050-0.
5. Wulf, Joseph (1983) [1963]. Musik im Dritten Reich – Eine Dokumentation (in German). Gütersloh: Ullstein. p. 350. ISBN 978-3-548-33032-7.
6. Drechsler, Nanny (1988) [1988]. Die Funktion der Musik im deutschen Rundfunk, 1933-1945 (Musikwissenschaftliche Studien) (in German). Hans Heinrich Eggebrecht (edit.) volume 3. Pfaffenweiler: Centaurus. p. 126. ISBN 978-3-89085-169-3.
7. Wulf, Joseph (1983) [1963]. Musik im Dritten Reich – Eine Dokumentation (in German). Gütersloh: Ullstein. p. 353. ISBN 978-3-548-33032-7.
8. Schröder, Heribert (1988) [1988]. Zur Kontinuität nationalsozialistischer Maßnahmen gegen Jazz und Swing in der Weimarer Republik und im Dritten Reich (in German). Colloquium – Festschrift Martin Vogel zum 65. Geburtstag. Bad Honnef: G. Schroder. p. 176.
9. Zalampas, Sherree (1990) [1990]. Adolf Hitler: A Psychological Interpretation of His Views on Architecture. US: Bowling Green University. p. 54. ISBN 978-0-87972-488-7.
10. "Music and the Holocaust: Reichskulturkammer & Reichsmusikkammer". Music and the Holocaust: Home. Retrieved 19 September 2011.
11. "GSB-Hamburg: World in Touch 10e (1999-2001), Politik & Geschichte". Chronicle World. 19 September 2011. Archived from the original on August 17, 2011.
12. "Wir haben damals die beste Musik gemacht". Der Spiegel. 18 August 1988. Retrieved 19 September 2011.
13. "Degenerate Music". Florida Center for Instructional Technology. Retrieved 19 September 2011.
14. "Im Dritten Reich verboten – Entartete Musik, Folge 1 (Rezension)". Filmmusik auf Cinemusic.de. Retrieved 19 September 2011.
15. "Case Study: Swing Kids". HMD Trust. Archived from the original on August 17, 2011. Retrieved 19 September2011.
16. Kater, Michael (2003) [1992]. Different Drummers: Jazz in the Culture of Nazi Germany. US: Oxford University Press. p. 173. ISBN 978-0-19-516553-1.
17. Erenberg, Lewis (1999). Swingin' the Dream: Big Band Jazz and the Rebirth of American Culture. US: University Of Chicago Press. p. 191. ISBN 978-0-226-21517-4.
18. "Martin Schäfer – Millionen von Elvis-Fans können sich nicht irren" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on July 8, 2011. (Millions of Elvis-fans cannot be wrong) Retrieved 19 September 2011
19. "Mythos 1968 – 1968 heute". Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung. (Federal Agency for Civic Education) Retrieved 19 September 2011

External links

• Hitler's black victims: the ... – Clarence Lusane (pages. 199-200) – Google Books
• Degenerate Music – Holocaust – Florida Center for Instructional Technology
• Ebony | March 1966 | magazine | (p. 111) – Google Books
• The Music Survives! Degenerate Music: Music Suppressed by the Third Reich
• The Chronicle – Blacks: forgotten target of Europe's hate and love
• Melos (1920-1934) – RIPM Journal Information
• Music and the Holocaust: Swing Kids Behind Barbed Wire
• Circular Breathing: The Cultural Politics of Jazz in Britain (George McKay) – Academia.edu
• GSB-Hamburg: World in Touch 10e (1999-2001), Politik & Geschichte
• Django-World War II
• Label of love: Blue Note | Music | guardian.co.uk
• Offensive English translation of Arnold Schwarzenegger's last name? – Straight Dope Message Board
• Is the German word "Neger" a pejorative?
• Case Study: Swing Kids – Resources – HMD Trust
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 32994
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: Freda Bedi Cont'd (#2)

Postby admin » Fri Mar 06, 2020 10:04 pm

The Canadian Theosophist
Volume XXXV, No. 5
Toronto, Canada
July 15, 1954


Freda was concerned that the Indian authorities simply didn't understand the tradition of incarnate lamas, and their critical place in Tibetan society and spiritual practice. Little was done to identify these young lamas, some little more than infants. 'Nobody knew quite what to do with them,' Freda lamented to Olive Shapley. 'In the lamas we have inherited a tradition that dates back to the seventh century -- spiritual richness we can only as yet partially realise,' she wrote to friends. 'I am sure the whole world will ultimately be enriched.'

There are perhaps 200 high 'incarnate' lamas in the country now headed by His Holiness [the Dalai Lama] (including 40-60 child or adolescent incarnations: many of them young people of extraordinary intelligence and physical beauty) ... dedicated monks and lamas of a high standard of learning and spirituality number perhaps 2,500; in addition we have junior and simpler country monks, over 1,500 of whom have volunteered for roadwork. We all pray ultimately we may be able to settle the bulk of the refugees in big land settlements.32


Nehru had taken a diplomatic risk by hosting the Dalai Lama and tens of thousands of those who followed in his wake. But there was a limit to the amount of official support and funding that could be expected for the refugees' welfare, with the most urgent and unmet need being the upkeep and education of the young lamas.

Freda was entirely comfortable soliciting money and support from the rich and well connected. She had also established links with Buddhist and similar groups in London and elsewhere. Within weeks of returning to Delhi from the camps, she sought to turn her extensive network to the Tibetans' advantage. In mid-August 1960, she wrote a long letter to Muriel Lewis, a California-based Theosophist with whom she had corresponded for several years. Muriel ran the Mothers' Research Group principally for American and Western Theosophists, a network which had an interest both in eastern religions and in parenting issues.

I should like to feel that the 'Mothers' Group' was in touch with all I do (Freda wrote). Do you think it would be possible for some of your members to 'Adopt' in a small way -- write to, send parcels to -- these junior lamas? Friendships, even by post, could mean a great deal. We could work out a little scheme, if you are interested. The language barrier is there, but we can overcome it, with the help of friends.


Freda's family had, she recounted, already taken a young lama under their wing.

Last year my son [Kabir] 'adopted' one small lama of 12, sent him a parcel of woollen (yellow)clothes, sweets and picture books, soap and cotton cloth. This time when I went to Buxa, Jayong gave me such an excited and dazzling smile. He was brimming over with joy at seeing me again! It is very quiet away from your own country and relations for a small lama with a LOT TO LEARN. It was of course most touching to see the 'Mother-Love' in the faces of the tutor-lamas and servant lamas who look after the young ones. They are very tender with them.


Freda's letter was included in Muriel's research group newsletter and subsequently reprinted by the Buddhist Society in London. This was the founding act of the Tibetan Friendship Group, which quickly established a presence in eight western countries and was the conduit by which modest private funds were raised for the refugees.34 It outlasted Freda and ... it helped give prominence to the Tibet issue as well as the well-being of the Tibetan diaspora.

-- The Lives of Freda: The Political, Spiritual and Personal Journeys of Freda Bedi, by Andrew Whitehead


We have been asked to draw attention to the Mothers Research Group and its magazine Mothers' Bulletin. The Group is an activity of Theosophical members, though we assume that membership is by no means confined to theosophists. The aim and purpose is to apply Theosophy to the practical problems of childhood and to the relationships between children and parents. The current issue of Mothers' Bulletin contains instructive and interesting articles on these and associated subjects. All services are given voluntarily and all proceeds go towards publication of the magazine and the many booklets published by the Group. The Theosophical teachings presented in the magazine are in the familiar terms and atmosphere of Neo-Theosophy; this is especially noticeable in the articles on the Order of the Round Table. However, one can respect the idealism, unselfish endeavor and humanitarianism without arguing about opinions on these points. The children exposed to these teachings will become men and women who must eventually face realities and put fairy tales behind them. Mothers' Bulletin is published quarterly and may be ordered from Mothers Research Group, Route 2, Box 586, Ojai, California; subscription $1.00 a year.


THE CANADIAN THEOSOPHIST
VOL. XXXV, No. 5 Toronto, July 15th, 1954 Price 20 Cents

The Theosophical Society is not responsible for any statement in this Magazine, unless made in an official document

SOWING AND REAPING
A Study of Karman and Reincarnation
By Iverson L. Harris


Most of us are seeking answers to the questions which we silently ask ourselves when we are not so preoccupied with earning a living that we yearn to understand life; when we are not so busy going places and doing things in order to escape from having to think, that we actually choose to think, and to think hard - as to why we are here on earth, whence came we, in what direction we are now traveling and what is our destiny.

Two of the most illuminating doctrines for answering our questions are karman and reincarnation. To those of you to whom the teachings are new and who may not have given them serious thought, I would suggest that, before rejecting them, you consider this introduction to them with open minds and then weigh the validity of these conclusions

There are no teachings or theories known to me which solve more logically and satisfactorily the great ethical and spiritual questions with which every thinking man occupies himself in moments of serious reflection and upward striving. The doctrines of karman and reincarnation do not contravene any facts known to science. In no way do they clash with man's innate sense of cosmic law and order. They satisfy man's yearning for universal justice and harmony. They give purpose and direction to our lives. They enable us to meet our personal trials and difficulties with understanding and with resulting fortitude. These doctrines are in no sense an affront to our finest feelings of compassion and kindliness. They account for youthful geniuses and prodigies in a way that neither physical heredity nor early environment can possibly explain. They give a reasonable explanation for the obvious and sometimes tragic disparities in opportunity with which children come into this world. In other words, they ring true when examined from the scientific, the philosophical and the religious standpoints.

Let us now review some of the basic tenets embraced in the doctrines of karman and reincarnation.

In the sixth century, B.C., the Lord Buddha restated to the world in clear, unmistakable and inspiring language, these two doctrines of karman and reincarnation, as the key to liberation from the woes which he saw afflict all mankind. Here are some of His teachings, as told in verse by Sir Edwin Arnold in The Light of Asia:

The Books say well, my Brothers! each man's life
The outcome of his former living is;
The bygone wrongs bring forth sorrows and woes,
The bygone right breeds bliss.
That which ye sow ye reap. See yonder fields!
The sesamum was sesamum, the corn
Was corn. The Silence and the Darkness knew!
So is a man's fate born.
He cometh, reaper of the things he sowed,
Sesamum, corn, so much cast in past birth;
And so much weed and poison-stuff, which mar
Him and the aching earth.
If he shall labor rightly, rooting these,
And planting wholesome seedlings where they grew,
Fruitful and fair and clean the ground will be,
And rich the harvest due.


Some six hundred years later, St. Paul repeated the identical message - or, at least that part of it dealing with sowing and reaping, in his Letter to the Galatians:

"Whatsoever a man soweth, that shall he also reap." (vi., 7.)

"He that soweth to his flesh shall of the flesh reap corruption; but he that soweth to the Spirit shall of the Spirit reap life everlasting." (vi., 8.)

"The harvest of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, good temper, kindliness, generosity, fidelity, gentleness, self-control; there is no law against those who practise such things." (v., 22, 23, Moffatt's translation,)

These are spiritual and ethical truths which can be verified by any man who will conscientiously test them in his own life. Can anything be more scientific than this? The empirical method of science is the best means of proving the truth of ethical and spiritual laws, quite as much as it is the best method of establishing the validity of physical laws. For this reason, the earnest Theosophical student accepts the authority of the great spiritual sages and seers, because he has tried to live according to their precepts, and he has found that, to the degree that he carries out the injunctions, the results achieved are exactly as promised by the Teachers.

One of the basic instincts in man is a hunger to see justice done. A child will accept a reprimand without rancor, if he has done something that merits it; but scold or punish a child unjustly and you may sear its soul and destroy its confidence in you for life. When men experience defeat, loss, suffering, harshness and cruelty at the hands of their fellows, with apparently no just cause, their souls rebel against the seeming injustice.

But satisfy a man that whatever happens to him is the fruit of his own sowing, that he is now reaping the consequences of his own thoughts, words, acts, feelings, etc., and you have already given him release from the gnawing, corroding bitterness that can sour and distort his entire outlook on life. However, you can never convince a man that he is always reaping the harvest of his own sowing, if he thinks that he, the real man, is merely his body, that he began his pilgrimage when he was born into this present life, and that he ends it forever when the doctor pronounces him dead. You will never reconcile facts as they are with men's innate sense of justice until you convince them of the inevitability of reincarnation - of life after life on earth, in which we reap the harvest of our previous sowings, and, hopefully, sow seeds for better crops in lives to come - crops to be harvested not somewhere else, but right here on this earth, the field of our sowing.

"Be not deceived: God is not mocked; for whatsoever a man soweth, that shall he also reap."

Or, as Mohammed puts the same teaching:

"Whosoever hath done evil of the weight of an ant, it shall be done unto him again; and whosoever hath done good of the weight of an ant, he shall receive the reward of it."

Whatever I think, or feel, or say, or do, sets in motion a force of some kind in the world of thought, of feeling, of action; and the milieu in which this force has been set in motion reacts in exact, mathematical ratio to the strength of the force set in motion. And quite definitely, it reacts primarily upon the one who set the force in motion.

This is what we call the doctrine of Karman, from a Sanskrit verbal root, Kri, meaning `to do'; hence, action, action and reaction, Newton's third law of motion: "To every action there is an equal and opposite reaction," not merely on the physical plane, but on all planes.

The word Karman has been adopted into the English language, usually in its nominative case, as Karma. It is known as `The Law of Cause and Effect,' the `Law of Consequences,' and `The Law of Ethical Causation.' Coupled with the doctrine of reincarnation, which is essential for its logical fulfilment, it is briefly summarized in simple terms by England's Poet Laureate John Masefield, in his verses entitled, A Creed, from which I quote the following:

I hold that when a person dies
His soul returns ,again to earth;
Arrayed in some new flesh-disguise
Another mother gives him birth.
With sturdier limbs and brighter brain
The old soul takes the road again.
Such is my own belief and trust;
This hand, this hand that holds the pen,
Has many a hundred times been dust
And turned, as dust, to dust again;
These eyes of mine have blinked and shone
In Thebes, in Troy, in Babylon.
All that I rightly think or do,
Or make, or spoil, or bless, or blast,
Is curse or blessing justly due
For sloth or effort in the past.
My life's a statement of the sum
Of vice indulged or overcome.
So shall I fight, so shall I tread,
In this long war beneath the stars;
So shall a glory wreathe my head,
So shall I faint and show the scars,
Until this case, this clogging mold,
Be smithied all to kingly gold.


Students of Theosophy need no argument to convince them of the truth of karman and reincarnation. But the doctrines are still rather new to the West. Unfortunately, shallow thinkers and unphilosophical minds, who care more for a jest than for truth, have at times made the teaching of reincarnation seem absurd by dressing it up in halloween masks that are ridiculous and sometimes frightening.

Because we regard the doctrines of karman and reincarnation as universal truths, it does not mean that every extravagant human opinion about them is equally true. The fact that we reincarnate is no evidence at all that we were some outstanding historical figure in our last life! I am told that our mental institutions shelter numerous Napoleons and Cleopatras! If we are really profound thinkers or conspicuously successful men of action today, there is the possibility, nay, even the likelihood, that we were such in our past incarnations; for, according to the Eastern teaching, we pick up the thread of our existence exactly where we left it in our last life - no better nor worse than we had then made ourselves to be.

Again, those who believe, either seriously or in jest, that men are sometimes reborn into animal forms, are ignorant of the real teaching, which is: "Once a man, always a man."

Further, the fact that a person does not want to be born again because of having already suffered enough in this one life, is no argument against reincarnation. If it is a law of nature, he will be born again, whether he will or whether he nill; and not until he has learned all the lessons to be learned on this planet Terra can he hope to graduate to higher spheres.

The question is often raised: "If I have lived before, why do I not remember my past life?" The answer, reduced to its simplest terms: Ordinary memory is a function of the physical brain, and we are about as likely to have the same brain when we reincarnate as we are to have the same hat. The mask of personality which we wear neither reincarnates nor remembers. But our individuality, the reincarnating ego or thread soul, which progresses from life to life, has a memory of its own.

Our innate character is the soul's memory of former lives that we bring with us into this life - our inborn aptitudes, tendencies, proclivities, essential characteristics, the thread of individuality that we carry with us from the period when self-consciousness has awakened in any one life until we bid a long farewell to our friends and loved ones and lie down to pleasant dreams. The death of the body is not sufficient to break the thread of individual existence. We continue in death exactly the same individual that we were before death, except for the dissipation of the physical and astral bodies. It behooves us to be fit company for ourselves to the very end; for, no matter where we go, either during this life on earth or in the afterdeath states, we have to take ourselves along with us! And the less we think about ourselves, the better company for ourselves are we at all times! It has been rightly said that the man who is all wrapped up in himself has a very small package!

I shall never forget what an illumination it was to my mind and understanding to learn that karman is not something outside ourselves, but that we are our own karman, and that we become what we make ourselves to be.

As H.P. Blavatsky says in The Secret Doctrine: (I. 17)

"The pivotal doctrine of the Esoteric philosophy admits no privileges or special gifts in man, save those won by his own Ego through personal effort and merit throughout a long series of metempsychoses and reincarnations."

And again:

"Verily, there is not an accident in our lives, not a misshapen day, or a misfortune, that could not be traced back to our own doings in this or in another life." (Ibid. I, 643.)

With every thought that we think, we are weaving our own webs of destiny. We do this continuously at every moment of our conscious existence. During the little death that we call sleep each night, and during the long sleep that we call death, we are not consciously weaving this web of destiny; we are merely digesting and assimilating the experiences of the previous day or of the previous lifespan. The short sleep between two days, or the long sleep between two earthlives, can be filled with nightmares, or it can be brightened with the subjective realization of all our most cherished hopes and our loftiest aspirations. It all depends upon the kind of thoughts we think during our conscious existence. The implications are obvious and inescapable.

The Greeks had a saying, Hypnos kai thanatos adelphoi: "Sleep and death are brothers."

We lay us to sleep at night in perfect confidence that we are well cared for; and we take it for granted that when the morning comes the thread of consciousness, on which our life is builded, will be picked up again where we left it on retiring. Whither do we go during sleep? Whither the thoughts and tendencies of our waking hours drew us: not far away from the body or the personality if our consciousness has been largely centered therein during the hours when we were responsible for our thoughts and acts; but ranging the starry spaces and achieving the conquests of the soul, if the tendencies of our thoughts and aspirations are heavenwards and divine. And the same is true at death - only more so.

I have tried to approach our theme in the same spirit of reasonableness in which Socrates discoursed with his friends gathered around him in the death-chamber. By his discourse he kindled a flame that will never be extinguished for men who have sparks of that same spiritual fire aglow in their own breasts. You will recall that under Athenian law he was permitted to suggest an alternative punishment to the death-sentence imposed upon him, such as banishment or paying a heavy fine. It was then that he made one of the grand historical jokes by saying that death was not certainly an evil; it might be a very good thing; whereas banishment was assuredly an evil and so was paying a fine. Besides, he had no money with which to pay it. So he suggested that Athens should support him for the rest of his life in the Prytaneum as a public benefactor! He then quietly and deliberately elected to accept the sentence imposed upon him and called in his friends to discourse with them on reincarnation. He said that the doctrine was an old tradition, and what could be more reasonable than that the soul, departing to Hades, should return again in its season; the living born from the dead, as the dead from the living? Did not experience show that opposites proceed from opposites? Then birth must proceed from and follow death. If the dead came from the living, and not the living from the dead, the universe would at last be consumed by death. There, too, there was the doctrine that knowldege comes from recollection; what is recollected must have been previously known. Our souls must have existed, then, before birth.

There is no dogmatizing in this; there is no assumption of supernormal knowledge, even if he had it. There is nothing but an appeal to sweet reasonableness. And then, when Crito asks Socrates: "How shall we bury you?", the wisest of the Greeks turns to the others present and says: "I cannot persuade Crito that I here am Socrates - I who am now reasoning and ordering discourse. He imagines Socrates to be that other thing of sinews and muscles, whom he will see by and by, a corpse."

We shall never understand the mysteries of death, until we cease identifying our selves with the bodies we live in - until we realize instead that essentially man is a stream of consciousness. Further, that the opposite of death is not life, which is eternally and everywhere existent in some form, but birth.

Carlyle tells us in Sartor Resartus:

"Death and Birth are the vesper and matin bells that summon mankind to sleep and to rise refreshed for new advancement."

In his Intimations of Immortality, Wordsworth expresses an even profounder thought:

Our birth is but a sleep and a forgetting
The Soul that rises with us, our life's Star,
Hath had elsewhere its setting
And cometh from afar:
Not in entire forgetfulness,
And not in utter nakedness,
But trailing clouds of glory do we come
From God, who is our home.

(cont'd on p. 77)

NOTES AND COMMENTS BY THE GENERAL SECRETARY

To the Members of the Canadian Section


On assuming office for the tenth year in succession I feel it is incumbent upon me to bare my soul as it were to the members who have elected me so often to the post that I hold. First, I should thank you for the confidence you have reposed in me for so long, in spite of the fact that when I took over as I informed you at the time, I did so in the belief that it would not be for long, as I did not feel that I had the necessary theosophical background and learning for the job. I am still of the same opinion, but have carried on, firstly because of your annual decision and secondly because, in spite of my shortcomings, I felt I could serve Theosophy by bringing what a ability I had, in the way of service, until another better fitted for the post would assume the responsibility.

There are many things that could be done, for instance, tho' I have held my office for nearly a decade, I have not yet visited all the lodges. On the face of it this seems unpardonable. But what are the facts? Some of the lodges are two thousand miles away - to visit them means time and money. The journeys could more or less be made to fit in, but what about the cost? The ideal would be to have a general secretary with a private income who could delve into his own pockets for the necessary funds. But you have selected one who has but a sparse amount of this world's goods, so the natural corrollary is that he should be supplied with the normal funds to draw upon. But it is not so, and when I took office I recognized this fact at once. Any of you who are sufficiently interested in scanning the annual financial statements will acknowledge that this is so.

One of my first efforts then was to circularize the lodges as to whether they would agree to raising the annual dues. This was turned down, and even today when the costs of everything has soared to unprecedented heights, our section is carrying as best it may, on the original rate of $2.50 per member per annum. And you must realize that that is practically the only source of revenue we have for the General Executive to carry out its obligations. I am well aware that some lodges have their own extra dues, and that their members donate to their lodges as well, but where does the General Executive come in? and it represents the whole of Canada! I must not forget to mention that a few, very few members are alive to this fact and send in donations, and to them we are very thankful.

If there were funds in hand, and a sufficient number of willing workers, there are many things that could be done, additional publicity - special lecturers - helping the poorer lodges - visiting the lodges, finding out the weaknesses, and the possibilities - and a hundred other things.

Our magazine takes most of our income; but it is an asset that is indispensable, and is moreover looked upon as one of the best of its kind, but even that had to be curtailed to half its original size, and to cap all, there are ominous signs of costs still going up.

In telling you all this I am taking you into my confidence and asking you in all seriousness, what can be done, not only to maintain our standards but, with an eye to the future, to further Theosophy in Canada? All of us are agreed that our philosophy is worth having, that we have something that is advantageous not only to ourselves but to the world in general. I would urge the members and the lodges to consider the matter in all seriousness, and that without delay. The time is coming for a new Outpouring, and we, here in Canada should be ready for the occasion. On my part I am at your service ready and willing to give the best of my abilities, and to do everything in my power to further Theosophy which I am convinced is the salvation of the world.

***

It has been a great pleasure to welcome the following new members into the Society during the past year: Mr. John C. Allan, Toronto Lodge; Mrs. Lillian Smeed, Edmonton Lodge; Dr. G.K. Korbacher, Toronto Lodge; Mrs. Ilse Korbacher, Toronto Lodge; Miss Anna F. Almas, Toronto Lodge; Mrs. Elonore A. McGlasham, Toronto Lodge; Mr. Rodomont V. Grimmon, Montreal Lodge; Mr. Leon T. Smith, Toronto Lodge; Mrs. Doreen Chatwin, Vancouver Lodge; Mr. William J. Dean, Member at Large; Mr. John H. Heiron, St. Thomas Lodge; Mr. Erroll E. Lovis, Toronto Lodge; Mr. Hubert Jamin, Montreal Lodge; Miss Thelma Johannes, Montreal Lodge; Mr. W.R. Lesueur, Toronto Lodge; Mr. Karl Matejcek, Toronto Lodge; Mr. T.G. Davy, Toronto Lodge; Mrs. Reta Hoad, Toronto Lodge.

***

It is with deep regret I announce the passing of yet two more members from our midst: - Mr. Herbert Daines of the Vulcan Lodge died last May. He was an old member having joined the Society way back in 1923. He was a zealous and devoted member through the years and we deeply regret his passing. Our sympathy is extended to his widow in her sad loss. And Mrs. Edna Webb (erstwhile Blais) a member of the Hamilton Lodge since 1952. She was keenly interested in Theosophy and was a regular attendant at the meetings. Our sympathy is extended to Mr. Webb and family.

**

I have received a letter from the General Secretary of Vietnam, that distressed country so much in the news these days. It is printed elsewhere in this issue and I hope that its poignancy and idealism will awake an answering chord in the hearts of our members, and that the answer from Canada will live up to her reputation in the eyes of the world. Members may, if they wish, send donations direct to me at 52 Isabella St., Toronto 5, and I will be happy to forward them.

- E. L. T.

***

ANNUAL MEETING

The Annual Meeting of the General Executive, Theosophical Society in Canada was held at 52 Isabella St., Toronto on Sunday, July 4th, 1954. Members present were Miss M. Hindsley; Messrs. D.W. Barr, C.M. Hale, G.I. Kinman, and the General Secretary. There is little of moment to report. The Financial Statement showed a slight increase on last year. The membership was down owing principally to the delay of members sending in their dues. A letter from the General Secretary of Vietnam was sympathetically received and discussed, is to be printed in the magazine. The next Quarterly Meeting was arranged for the 3rd of October.

- E. L. T.

***

Word has been received from Mr. Boris de Zirkoff that he is at present busy checking proofs of the new volume of H.P. Rlavatsky Collected Writings. The work is coming along well but the book will not be ready for distribution until November. Considerable interest has been shown in the project and a number of orders have been received. Those who wish to obtain the book direct from the publisher should send their orders to Theosophia, 615 So. Oxford St., Los Angeles 5, California.

***

THE CANADIAN THEOSOPHIST
- The Organ of the Theosophical Society in Canada
- Published on the 15th of every month.
- Authorized as second class mail, Post Office Department, Ottawa.
[[Seal here]]
- Subscription: Two Dollars a Year

OFFICERS OF THE T.S. IN CANADA

GENERAL EXECUTIVE


Dudley W. Barr, 52 Isabella St., Toronto, Ont.
Charles M. Hale, Box 158, New Liskeard, Ont.
Miss M. Hindsley, 745 Bloor St. W., Toronto, Ont.
George I. Kinman, 46 Rawlinson Avenue, Toronto, Ont.
Peter Sinclair, 4941 Wellington St., Verdun, Quebec
Washington E. Wilks, 925 Georgia St. W., Vancouver, B.C.
Emory P. Wood, 12207 Stony Plain Road, Edmonton, Alta.

GENERAL SECRETARY

Lt.-Col E.L. Thomson, D.S.O., 54 Isabella St., Toronto, Ont.

To whom all payments should be made, and all official communications addressed

***

EDITORIAL BOARD, CANADIAN THEOSOPHIST

All Letters to the Editor, Articles and Reports for Publication should be sent to The Editor: Dudley W. Barr, 52 Isabella St., Toronto 5, Ont.

Letters intended for publication should be restricted to not more than five hundred words.

Printed by the Griffin & Richmond Co., Ltd., 29 Rebecca Street, Hamilton, Ontario

***

OFFICE NOTES

Harper & Brothers, New York, announce the publication of two new books by Mr. J. Krishnamurti, Education and the Significance of Life, price $1.50 and The First and Last Freedom, price $3.50. These books may be obtained in Canada from The Musson Book Co. Ltd., 103 Vanderhoof Ave., Toronto 17. Aldous Huxley has written the foreword to The First and Last Freedom in which he says, "In this volume of selections from the writings and recorded talks of Krishnamurti, the reader will find a clear contemporary statement of the. fundamental human problem, together with an invitation to solve it in the only way it can be solved, - by and for himself."

***

Increased interest in The Secret Doctrine is indicated by the fact that a recent order for additional copies for Toronto Lodge has been delayed until further sets are bound. The Secret Doctrine is one of the great source books of Theosophy; a wider knowledge of its contents, concentrated thought on its teachings and meditation on their implications, will give the student a good understanding of what Theosophy is - and is not.

***

We have been asked to draw attention to the Mothers Research Group and its magazine Mothers' Bulletin. The Group is an activity of Theosophical members, though we assume that membership is by no means confined to theosophists. The aim and purpose is to apply Theosophy to the practical problems of childhood and to the relationships between children and parents. The current issue of Mothers' Bulletin contains instructive and interesting articles on these and associated subjects. All services are given voluntarily and all proceeds go towards publication of the magazine and the many booklets published by the Group. The Theosophical teachings presented in the magazine are in the familiar terms and atmosphere of Neo-Theosophy; this is especially noticeable in the articles on the Order of the Round Table. However, one can respect the idealism, unselfish endeavor and humanitarianism without arguing about opinions on these points. The children exposed to these teachings will become men and women who must eventually face realities and put fairy tales behind them. Mothers' Bulletin is published quarterly and may be ordered from Mothers Research Group, Route 2, Box 586, Ojai, Cali-fornia; subscription $1.00 a year.

***

CORRESPONDENCE

From the General Secretary of the Theosophical Society of Vietnam to Theosophists of the Whole World

Dear Brothers and Sisters:

The conditions prevailing in our country for nine years, of which you have certainly been kept informed by the international press, permit us to enlarge our field of activities.

If, as it said in At the Feet of the Master, it is nobler and more useful to feed the souls rather than the bodies of human beings, it is sometimes most timely, and even an absolute necessity to feed their bodies before spiritual food can be considered.

Such is the plight, in our country, of thousands and thousands of children, especially newborn babes, victims of the war, abandoned, and doomed to a sure death from lack of care and food. Faced with this heart-rending situation, it is our duty to act quickly.

The Orphanage of the Theosophical Society of Vietnam was founded on the 1st October 1953, where already some thirty infants receive the maternal and devoted care of Mrs. Nguyen-Van-Luong nee Ho-Thi-Co, who, having dedicated herself to the service of the Mother of the World, spares neither her time nor her health to look after them well. Two doctors attend them regularly, three times a week. But our action is not confined to that charitable institution only.

We look much further into the future. We have decided to train our wards, the orphans taken in and every child entrusted to our care, to become, one and all, cultured theosophists, who will make good tools in the hands of our Highly Venerated Masters. We shall watch the growth of their physcial, intellectual, moral and spiritual progess while they are attending the schools run by our Brother and Sister graduates. They will live together in a colony specially established for them, where they will each found a family, should they wish to do so. The more gifted among them will be sent to Adyar, to follow the courses of the School of Wisdom.

In short, this is the beginning of a mighty task, the establishment of theosophical communities in the near future. We have an extensive program before us, one that we have been planning for twenty years, and which needs the work and sacrifice of several successive generations to be even partly accomplished.

But we are only few at present, only three hundred, and most of us are not well-off; our countrymen have given us their obols, but these, for the time being, are hardly sufficient to cover our expenses. And so, to carry out the difficult task that we have willingly assumed, we are asking for the generous help of our Brother and Sister Theosophists all over the world, who, -knowing perfectly the scheme of evolution drawn by Logos for our planetary system, would be willing to give us their much appreciated help, to the best of their ability.

If we do not act, we shall not know to what extent karma has permitted us to help the country in which we are incarnated at present and in so doing to lighten a little the heavy karma of the world.

We are well aware that exchange restrictions are very strict nowadays, nevertheless, gifts could be collected by the General Secretary of each national section and then deposited in a bank to the credit of "The Theosophical Society of Vietnam", Account No. 71080, Banque Franco-Chinoise, 178 rue Le-Loi, Saigon (Sud Vietnam), (1).

We shall keep you informed of the progress of our work.

Hoping to hear from you, we beg you, Brothers and Sisters, to accept our fraternal greetings.

- Pham-Ngoc-Da, Headmaster of the Girls' School, Chaudoc (South Vietnam)

***

SURVEY OF EARTH?

In February, 1953, the United States Air Technical Intelligence Center in Washington, D.C., released to Major Donald E. Keyhoe, U.S. Marine Corps (Retired), for publication purposes, a long list of UFO sightings. These are verified reports of sightings of "flying saucers" which ATIC describe as Unidentified Flying Objects. Doubleday & Co., New York, have published Major Keyhoe's book, Flying Saucers from Outer Space, and it can now be bought in complete, unabridged form (Derma Star Edition) for only 25c, a fact which is perhaps not without significance under the circumstances. The clothbound edition, published by Henry Holt Co., is $3.75. The publishers sought and were given a statement from the U.S. Air Force that the latter regard Major Keyhoe as a responsible, accurate reporter whose long association and cooperation with them in their study of UFO qualifies him as a leading authority.

Apparently within the U.S. Air Force, one a group is extremely apprehensive about the possible effect on the public of an official statement of facts accumulated since 1947. It was on June 24th of that year that an Idaho private pilot, Kenneth Arnold, sighted nine huge, gleaming discs racing along in a column near Mount Rainier, Washington. Arnold estimated their size at 100 feet in diameter and their speed at more than 1200 miles per hour. Because he described the discs as saucerlike, unfortunately the name stuck and "flying saucers" became a joke and a handicap to serious investigation. Since Arnold's 1947 sighting, hundreds of daytime and night sightings of UFO have been verified not only in America but by pilots all over the world, and for several years a selected group of high government officials have been secretly briefed, according to Major Keyhoe, and even the skeptics have emerged noticeably jolted by the disclosures.

In releasing the reports for publication, the Air Force has stated that they and their investigative agency, Project Bluebook, are aware of Major Keyhoe's conclusion that flying saucers are from another planet. They say they have "never denied that this possibility exists." While some of the personnel still think the saucers may be some strange natural phenomena completely unknown to us, the Air Force says that if the apparently controlled maneuvres reported by many observers are correct - and the evidence is overwhelming - then the only remaining explanation is the interplanetary answer.

The second group of U.S. Air Force officials seem to think the American public "can take it," that there is much more to be lost than gained by withholding the information. It is this group who succeeded in having the confidential sighting reports unwrapped. As a skilled writer, Major Keyhoe was evidently expected to cushion the truth in a pleasant, conversational style of writing which certainly he has done. The book presents authentic, convincing data and the opinions of scientists from several countries.

What are these facts about UFO which government officials fear would panic citizens? Chiefly they are these: That our earth is under the constant observation of an obviously superior race from another planet, and that they use flying machines of at least five different types and many sizes, all capable of incredible speeds.

Type No. 1 is described as "Mother Ships" which carry and discharge the disc-type machines. These mother ships are large rocket or cigar-shaped machines usually reported at very high altitudes. Sizes estimated by trained observers are from 600 feet to more than 1,000 feet in length with some indications they may be much larger. Color, silvery. Speed recorded by radar, over 9,000 miles per hour with visual estimates of more than 20,000. No violent maneuvres of these mother ships have been reported.

Type No. 2 are the disc-shaped machines, which some scientists are convinced are remote-controlled. At least three sizes have been observed - the large ones of 100 feet or more in diameter; the medium-sized discs averaging about 50 feet in diameter and the small ones: estimated from eight inches up to several feet in diameter.

The color of all the discs is a metallic silver except when they show the effects of heat, and the radar-clocked speeds are over 7,000 m.p.h. with visual estimates of more than 11,000. These discs make abrupt turns, climbs and reversals with very swift acceleration.

Type 3 is a rocket or cigar-shaped machine, much smaller than the mother ship, sighted at fairly low altitudes. They are from 100 to 200 feet in length and are described as having a fiery exhaust especially when accelerating. Their color is metallic sliver and their recorded speed about 900 m.p.h,. with visual estimates of over 1,500. They make less violent turns and climbs than the discs and no reversals have been reported.

Amongst the night sightings is Type No. 4 - a machine with rotating red-green-white lights and fixed white beams which observers think may be a rotating disc type. Their recorded speed estimated by competent pilots is well over 1,000 m.p.h.

Type No. 5 is a bright green "fire-ball," reported mainly over New Mexico.

The size and shape of this type is not definite. They are described as moving silently at meteor speed but, unlike meteors, on a straight course. Sometimes they have been reported as exploding silently over uninhabited areas of the Southwest.

Worldwide sightings include the Azores, Argentina, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Japan, close-range looks at the ground-war in Korea, Sweden, Singapore, and many other countries.

ATIC reports supply evidence that these UFO are interplanetary. As to the planet of origin, Major Keyhoe quotes various scientific opinions, Venus being considered "the best bet" by one outstanding authority. Students will recall that Madame Blavatsky makes it clear in The Secret Doctrine that most of the planets are inhabited, and that she said the earth is the adopted child and younger brother of Venus; that Venus is the most occult, powerful and mysterious of all the planets, the one whose influence upon and relation to the earth is most prominent. (S.D., Original 1888 edition, Vol. Il, pp. 30-33) .

Most of the American cities where saucers have hovered or circled have defense industries, a big airport or defense bases so it is difficult to tell what they are looking at. When no airliners were near, UFO flew over the White House, the Capitol, Andrews Field, the aircraft plant at Riverdale and the Navy Yard. One or two circled the airway radio beacons. They were all over the area and whenever an airliner took off or approached the airport several UFO would dart over as if for a closer look. The chapter on "The Canadian Project" reveals that Canadian cities have not been overlooked either.

If the saucer people are surveying planet Earth, why have they not landed and made their intentions known? Major Keyhoe regards as fiction Mr. Adamski's claim that a space man landed and conversed with him. All evidence in ATIC reports is of their split-second flight at astounding speeds whenever our planes have attempted to close in on them. Even our speediest planes have never succeeded in doing so. Compare UFO m.p.h. with the best we can do, and the reason is obvious.

Wilbur B. Smith, an electronics expert of Ottawa, is quoted as saying:

"We haven't any conclusion as to the motives. It's my personal opinion that the saucer race hasn't made a final decision. I think it's obvious that all the survey data is being analyzed, so that they can decide what to do about us. Possibly it's being done by robot devices - the race must be far advanced in cybernetics.* They could feed all the information to a robot predictor, so that it could indicate our probable future actions - whether we'd be dangerous to contact, or a menace when we get out into space . . . . There's one hopeful thought, they may be so intellectually advanced that they consider war barbaric . . . . I lean to the belief that they may have outlawed war except as a last resort. At least I fervently hope so." [* For those who cannot find cybernetics in their dictionary, it is a science dealing with the comparative study of complex electronics calculating machines and the human nervous system in an attempt to explain the nature of the brain.]

To the question "Do you know of any defense if they should attack," Mr. Smith replied: "I think we would be quite helpless."

Thoughtful people will surely feel ice Water running through their veins as they meditate these facts. But the chill should not be caused by fear of the saucer people. There is no record throughout the ATIC reports of hostility being shown. Flying saucers have paced our ocean airliners for as long as an hour at a time but never has there been recorded an unfriendly much less a hostile act. No, the chill should be caused by the thought of failure - the failure of our race to learn the elementary lessons of decent, peaceful living with other human beings on our planet. Contemplate the likelihood that we are being surveyed to determine whether we are likely to become a menace to the rest of life in our solar system!

It may be that it will require the efforts of a superior race from another planet to put an end to our madness and bring under control those in every nation who would spill their brother's blood. Yes, it may be necessary for them to land and, by the authority of Wisdom, turn our faces toward the Light.

- F. E. G.

***

"They are Entities of the higher worlds in the hierarchy of Being, so im-measurably high that, to us, they must appear as Gods . . . The refusal to admit in the whole Solar system of any other reasonable and intellectual beings on the human plane, than ourselves, is the greatest conceit of our age. All that science has a right to affirm, is that there are no invisible Intelligences living under the same conditions as we do. It cannot deny point-blank the possibility of there being worlds within worlds, under totally different conditions to those that constitute the nature of our world; nor can it deny that there may be a certain limited communication between some of these worlds and our own . . . The greatest philosopher of European birth, Immanuel Kant, assures us that such a communication is by no means improbable."

- The Secret Doctrine, Vol. I, p. 133.

***

"Our birth is but a sleep and a forgetting": The poet here utters a deeply mystical and spiritual truth. He does not say that death is `a sleep and a forgetting', but that birth is such; for birth into physical life for the vast majority of mankind means sleep or temporary death to the spiritual nature. With rare exceptions, we cannot enter the gates of incarnation without crossing the waters of Lethe, wherein we forget the high spiritual estate from which we sprang and towards which we are journeying back again. We enter through the portals of birth into the dark realms of material existence in order that we may gain the needed experience and learn the necessary lessons thereof; we pass out through the portals of death into the bright regions of the spirit, there to assimilate that experience and those lessons in blissful, quiet sleep, unbroken save by the bright dreams of all our loftiest hopes and aspirations, our spiritual yearnings and impersonal loves, being brought into fulfilment. Both birth and death are portals in the endless corridors of eternal life.

It is sometimes reassuring to those in the West to whom the doctrine of reincarnation is new, or who are not yet convinced of its truth, to note that not only is it very widely held by millions in many parts of the world, but that outstanding men universally recognized for their distinguished achievements, have publicly proclaimed their acceptance of the doctrine.

Henry Ford, whom none would regard as an impractical dreamer, was a staunch believer in reincarnation. In an interview published in The San Francisco Examiner, he was quoted as saying:

"I adopted the theory of Reincarnation when I was twenty-six . . .

"Religion offered nothing to the point - at least, I was unable to discover it. Even work could not give me complete satisfaction. Work is futile if we cannot utilize the experience we collect in one life in the next.

"When I discovered Reincarnation it was as if I had found a universal plan. I realized that there was a chance to work out my ideas. Time was no longer limited. I was no longer a slave to the hands of the clock. There was time enough to plan and to create.

"The discovery of Reincarnation put my mind at ease. I was settled. I felt that order and progress were present in the mystery of life. I no longer looked elsewhere for a solution to the riddle of life.

"If you preserve a record of this conversation, write it so that it puts men's minds at ease. I would like to communicate to others the calmness that the long view of life gives to us.

"We all retain, however faintly, memories of past lives. We frequently feel that we have witnessed a scene or lived through a moment in some previous existence. But that is not essential; it is the essence, the gist, the results of experience, that are valuable and remain with us."

- The San Francisco Examiner, August 26, 1928.

Benjamin Franklin, than who no more successful scientist or statesman has served our country, wrote the following epitaph for himself:

The Body of BENJAMIN FRANKLIN Printer, Like the cover of an old book, Its contents worn out, And stripped of its lettering and gilding, Lies here, food for worms. But the work shall not be lost, For it will, as he believed, appear once more, In a new and more elegant edition, Revised and corrected by The Author.

Victor Hugo in France spoke with equal conviction and even more eloquence:

"I feel in myself the future life . . . . Winter is on my head, but eternal spring is in my heart. . .The nearer I approach the end the plainer I hear around me the immortal symphonies of the worlds which invite me. It is marvelous, yet simple. It is a fairy tale, and it is history . . . .When I go down to the grave I can say, like many others, `I have finished my day's work.' But I cannot say, `I have finished my life.' My day's work will begin again the next morning. The tomb is not a blind alley; it is a thoroughfare. It closes on the twilight, it opens on the dawn."

Another great Frenchman, Voltaire, expressed the opinion that there was nothing more remarkable in being born twice than in being born once.

In Germany, Schopenhauer, Goethe, Lessing and Fichte accepted the doctrine of reincarnation. Schopenhauer described Europe as `that part of the world which is haunted by the incredible illusion that man was created out of nothing and that his present birth is his first entrance into life." We in America are the inheritors of European ways of thinking. Yet in America Walt Whitman, Whittier, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Emerson and Longfellow all wrote of reincarnation with varying degrees of assurance and emphasis. Jack London was positive. Some of the greatest poets and philosophers in England either maintained it outright or regarded it with avowed sympathy: Coleridge, Wordsworth, Shelley, Henley, George Elliott, Rossetti, Tennyson, David Hume and Edward Carpenter.

Browning, not satisfied with being a great poet, longed also to be a sculptor, painter and musician, and by way of consoling himself, wrote: "Other heights in other lives, God willing." Kipling spoke out thus:

"As I pass through my incarnations in every age and race,
I make my proper prostrations to the Gods of the Market Place.
Peering through reverent fingers I watch them flourish and fall,
And the Gods of the Copybook Headings, I notice, outlast them all."


Among the great literary lights of ancient Rome who entertained the doctrine of reincarnation were Cicero, Virgil and Ovid. The most honored teachers among the Neo-Platonists of Alexandria - Iamblicus, Plotinus, Porphyry and Proclus taught the doctrine. Going back still further to Greece, we have such great names as Pythagoras, Pindar, Plato and Plutarch who held and taught the doctrine of reincarnation in one form or another. The idea was current among the Druids and the priests of ancient Egypt. Most of the great metaphysicians of the East - who excel us in mystical and spiritual psychology as greatly as we have excelled the East - at least until very recent years - in mechanical devices and in industrial progress - have expounded the doctrines of karman and reincarnation with spiritual penetration and convincing argument. To this day these doctrines are fundamental in Hinduism, which is the prevailing religion among millions of non-Moslem India, and in Buddhism, which is dominant in Tibet, Ceylon, Burma and Siam, and was for many centuries the greatest spiritualizing influence in China, and Japan.

In the Bhagavad-Gita, which has been called the pearl of the world's scriptures', translated by Sir Edwin Arnold as The Song Celestial, we read:

Nay, but as when one layeth
His worn-out robes away,
And, taking new ones, sayeth,
"These will I wear today!"
So putteth by the spirit
Lightly its garb of flesh,
And passeth to inherit.
A residence afresh.


Before closing, let us say a few words with regard to reincarnation and karman as they relate to the known facts of heredity - and the influence of environment upon the character and development of individuals.

Contrary to the theories and the one-sided half-truths of the eugenists, the observed results of the hereditary transmission of psychic, intellectual, spiritual, and even of physical qualities and characteristics cannot possibly explain the appearance of geniuses and inferior men in succeeding generations of the families whose records have been carefully noted. In our view, heredity furnishes the biological mechanism through which karman and reincarnation work. For example, Mozart, according to our teaching, had evolved by his own labors high artistic abilities in a previous incarnation. Therefore was he drawn by psycho-magnetic attraction to a family in which, at a very tender age, the phenomenal abilities which he brought over from a former life could find ready and adequate expression. In a very different field, Capablanca, who became the world's champion chess-player, without ever having been taught the rules of the game, at the age of four watched his father play twice, and proceeded to beat him! So with other child prodigies.

Mere physical heredity cannot possibly explain all the cases of genius nor why it is that children of the same family with identical forebears differ so widely among themselves. But the twin-doctrines of karman and reincarnation do answer all these and many more puzzling questions.

In conclusion: The essential character with which each of us is born in any one life is the net result of all the causes we have previously set in motion in former imbodiments - the fruit of all our past sowing.

Similarly, each one's environment at birth is the field chosen or earned or merited by the soul or reincarnating ego in which to fulfill the destiny theretofore made by it, to reap the harvest of seeds theretofore sown by it, to learn the lessons theretofore left unlearned or incompletely learned.

Likewise, each one's heredity is the biological medium or instrumentality or channel most sympathetic or synchronous with or open to the psycho-magnetic vibrations or currents which the soul or reincarnating ego has itself generated in former lives.

Deduction: the soul or reincarnating ego is itself responsible for its character, its earthly environment and its physical heredity; at every moment of its existence, by the endless sequence of its thoughts, feelings, emotions, aspirations, words, deeds and decisions, it is determining what its future character, environment, and heredity will be.

"Sow a thought and you reap an act;
Sow an act and you reap a habit;
Sow a habit and you reap a character;
Sow a character and you reap a destiny."


***

"Once grasp the idea that universal causation is not merely present, but past, present and future, and every action of our present plane falls naturally and easily into its true place, and is seen in its true relation to ourselves and to others. Every mean and selfish action sends us backwards and not forward, while every noble thought and every unselfish deed are stepping stones to the higher and more glorious planes of being."

- The Key to Theosophy, p. 159.

***

ORIGINAL AND UP-TO-DATE THEOSOPHY

We lend freely by mail all the comprehensive literature of the Movement. Catalogue on request. Also to lend, or for sale at l0c each post free, our ten H.P.B. Pamphlets, including early articles from LUCIFER and Letters from the Initiates.

THE H. P. B. LIBRARY, 750 GRAND BOULEVARD NORTH VANCOUVER, B.C.

BLAVATSKY INSTITUTE PUBLICATIONS

- ESOTERIC CHARACTER OF THE GOSPEL by H. P. Blavatsky.
- THE EVIDENCE OF IMMORTALITY by Dr. Jerome A. Anderson.
- MODERN THEOSOPHY by Claude Falls Wright.
- THE BHAGAVAD GITA, A Conflation by Albert E.S. Smythe.

These four books are cloth bound, price $1 each.

- THE EXILE OF THE SOUL by Professor Roy Mitchell has been published in book form. Attractively bound in yellow cover stock. This sells at the price of $1.00.

- THROUGH TEMPLE DOORS - Studies in Occult Masonry, by Roy Mitchell, an occult interpretation of Masonic Symbolism.

- THEOSOPHY IN ACTION, by Roy Mitchell, a re-examination of Theosophical ideas, and their practical application in the work.

- THEOSOPHIC STUDY, by Roy Mitchell, a book of practical guidance in methnods of study.

The above four books are attractively bound; papperbound $1.00, cloth, $1.50.

Professor Roy Mitchell's COURSE IN PUBLIC SPEAKING especially written for Theosophical students, $3.00.

THE BLAVATSKY INSTITUTE, 52 ISABELLA ST., TORONTO 5, ONTARIO

***

CANADIAN LODGES

- CALGARY LODGE: President, E.H. Lloyd Knechtel; Secretary, Mrs. Lilian Glover, 418, 10th Ave. N.W., Calgary, Alta. Meetings at 510 Crescent Road

- EDMONTON LODGE: President, Mr. Emory P. Wood, Secretary, Mrs. Madeline Williams, 10943 77th Ave., Edmonton, Alta.

- HAMILTON LODGE: President, Mrs. E.M. Mathers; Secretary, Miss Edith Wilkinson, 290 Fennel Ave. East, Hamilton, Ont.

- KITCHENER LODGE: President, Alexander Watt; Secretary, John Oberlerchener, Kingsdale P.O. Kitchener

- MONTREAL LODGE: President, Miss M.W. Wyatt; Secretary, Miss M.R. Desrochers, 1655 Lincoln, Apt. 37, Montreal, P.Q. Lodge Rooms, 1501 St. Catherine Street West, Montreal, Que.

- OTTAWA LODGE: Enquiries respecting Theosophical activities in Ottawa should be addressed to: Mrs. D. H. Chambers, 531 Bay Street, Ottawa, Ont.

- ST. THOMAS LODGE: President Benj. T. Garside, Secretary, Mrs. Hazel B, Garside, 71 Hincks St., St. Thomas, Ont.

- TORONTO LODGE: President, Mr. G.I. Kinman, 46 Rawlinson Ave., Toronto 12 (phone Mohawk 5346). Recording Secretary, Miss Laura Gaunt. Lodge Rooms 52 Isabella Street, Toronto, Ont.

- TORONTO WEST END LODGE: President, Mrs. A. Carmichael; Secretary, Mrs. E.L. Goss, 20 Strathearn Boulevard, Toronto, 12, Ont.

- VANCOUVER LODGE: President, Mrs. Buchanan; Secretary, M.D. Buchanan, 4690 W. 8th Ave., The Lodge rooms are at 151 1/2 Hastings St. West

- VULCAN LODGE: Enquiries should be addressed to Mrs. G. Denbigh, Vulcan, Alta.

- ORPHEUS LODGE, VANCOUVER: President, R.H. Hedley; Secretary, L.C. Hanson; Copp Bldg, Vancouver.

- WINNIPEG LODGE: Secretary, P.H. Stokes, Suite 8, 149 Langside Street, Winnipeg, Man.
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 32994
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: Freda Bedi Cont'd (#2)

Postby admin » Sat Mar 07, 2020 1:16 am

Mary Sumner
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 3/6/20

Image
Mary Sumner

Mary Sumner (31 December 1828—11 August 1921[1]) was the founder of the Mothers' Union, a worldwide Anglican women's organisation. She is commemorated in a number of provinces of the Anglican Communion on 9 August (see below).

Early life

Mary Sumner was born Mary Elizabeth Heywood in Swinton near Salford, Lancashire, the third of four children. Her father Thomas Heywood was a banker and keen antiquarian;[2] and her mother was a woman of personal piety. The family moved to Colwall near Ledbury, Herefordshire, in 1832, where Sumner's mother held mothers' meetings. A year after their arrival in Herefordshire, Sumner's six-week-old brother died. Her mother's faith, her women's meetings and her brother's infant death may have all inspired Sumner decades later to begin the Mothers' Union.

Educated at home, young Mary learned to speak three foreign languages and sing well. To complete her musical education, she travelled with her mother and elder sister to Rome. Whilst there she met her future husband, George Henry Sumner, the son of Charles Richard Sumner, the Bishop of Winchester and a relative of William Wilberforce.

The couple were married in Colwall on 26 July 1848, 18 months after George's ordination as an Anglican cleric.
They had three children: Margaret, Louise and George; the latter became a well known artist.

In 1851, Rev. George Sumner received the living of Old Alresford, Hampshire, in his father's diocese. Sumner dedicated herself to raising her children and helping her husband in his ministry by providing music and Bible classes.

Mothers' Union

Image
Mary Sumner House, Mother's Union headquarters, Tufton Street, London

In 1876, when her eldest daughter Margaret gave birth, she was reminded how difficult she had found the burden of motherhood. Inspired, Sumner publicized a meeting of mothers in the parish to offer mutual support. Her plan was quite radical in its day as it involved calling women of all social classes to support one another and to see motherhood as a profession as important as those of men, if not more so. The first meeting was held in Old Alresford Rectory, but Sumner was so overcome by nervousness that her husband had to speak for her and invite the women to return next week. At that second meeting she had gathered enough courage to lead her own meeting.

The nascent Mothers' Union was limited to Sumner's parish. However, in 1885, she was part of the audience in the Portsmouth Church Congress, some 20 miles from her home. The first Bishop of Newcastle, Ernest Wilberforce, had been asked to address the women churchgoers. He felt that he had very little to say to women and invited Sumner to speak in his stead. Although nervous once again, she gave a passionate address about national morality and the importance of women's vocation as mothers to change the nation for the better. A number of the women present went back to their parishes to found mothers' meetings on Sumner's pattern. The Bishop of Winchester, Edward Browne, made the Mothers' Union a diocesan organisation.


The Mothers' Union concept spread rapidly to the dioceses of Ely, Exeter, Hereford, Lichfield and Newcastle and then throughout the United Kingdom. By 1892, 60,000 members lived in 28 dioceses, and by the turn of the century, the Mothers' Union had grown to 169,000 members. Annual general meetings began in 1893, and the Mothers' Union Central Council was formed three years later. Sumner was unanimously elected president, a post she held into her nineties. In 1897, during her Diamond Jubilee, Queen Victoria became patron of the Mothers' Union, giving it an unprecedented stamp of approval. The Mothers' Union set up branches throughout the British Empire, beginning in New Zealand, then Canada and India. Sumner lived to lead the Mothers' Union to act in rebuilding the heart of Britain after the First World War and saw the first Mothers' Union Conference of Overseas Workers in 1920.

Death and legacy

Image
Tomb of Sumner and her husband

Sumner died on 11 August 1921 at the age of 92, and is buried with her husband, who had died 12 years before, in the grounds of Winchester Cathedral.[3]

The inscription on their tomb (from Revelation 14:13) reads:

I heard a voice from Heaven saying unto me/ Write Blessed are the dead which died in the Lord from henceforth./ Here, saith the Spirit, they may rest from their labours,/ And their works do follow them.[4]


Liturgical calendars of the Church of England, the Church in Wales and other provinces remember Mary Sumner on 9 August, which the Mothers' Union initially (and at least one secondary source) incorrectly listed as the date of her death. Her detailed biography clearly proves from an eye witness account the 11 August date.[5] Another biography is wrong about the actual date of Sumner's death.[6] Moreover, 11 August was already the liturgical feast day of another notable Christian woman, St. Clare of Assisi and it may be considered appropriate that these two distinguished women be honoured on the same day.

The Mary Sumner Chapel, named in her memory, is housed within the Mothers Union Headquarters, in a building designed by Claude W Ferrier at Tufton Street, Westminster in London.[7]

References

1. Johnston 2004.
2. Crosby, Alan G. "Heywood, Thomas". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/13191. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
3. Porter 1921.
4. "Mary Sumner". Mothers' Union in the Diocese of Winchester. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
5. Porter 1921, pp. 97-98.
6. Coombs 1965, p. 184.
7. "Westminster Mary Sumner House Chapel". Explore Churches. Retrieved 2019-08-09.
• Coombs, Joyce (1965). George and Mary Sumner. The Sumner Press.
• Johnston, Pamela (2004). "Sumner (née Heywood), Mary Elizabeth (1828–1921), founder of the Mothers' Union". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/38034. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
• Porter, Mary (1921). Mary Sumner: Her Life and Work. Winchester: Warren and Son.
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 32994
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: Freda Bedi Cont'd (#2)

Postby admin » Sat Mar 07, 2020 1:29 am

Ernest Wilberforce [1840-1907]
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 3/6/20

Image
The Rt Revd Ernest Wilberforce, DD MA(Oxon) BD BA (Hons)
Bishop of Chichester
Wilberforce in episcopal robes
Church: Church of England
Diocese: Diocese of Chichester
Installed: 1896
Term ended: 1907
Predecessor Richard Durnford
Successor Charles Ridgeway
Other posts: Bishop of Newcastle (1882–1896)
Orders
Ordination: 1864
Consecration: 1882
Personal details
Born: 22 January 1840, Brighstone, Isle of Wight
Died: 9 September 1907 (aged 67), Bembridge, Isle of Wight
Buried: West Hampnett, Chichester
Nationality: British
Denomination: Anglican
Parents: Samuel Wilberforce & Emily Sargent
Spouse: Frances Anderson (1863–70); Emily Connor (1874–1907)
Children: 3 sons & 3 daughters (with Emily)
Alma mater: Exeter College, Oxford

Image
Monument in Chichester Cathedral, showing arms of the See of Chichester impaling Wilberforce (Argent, an eagle displayed sable beaked and membered proper)

Ernest Roland Wilberforce (22 January 1840 – 9 September 1907) was an Anglican clergyman and bishop. From 1882 to 1896 he was the first Anglican Bishop of Newcastle upon the diocese's creation, and from 1896 to 1907 he was Bishop of Chichester.

Early life and career

The third son of another bishop, Samuel Wilberforce, and his wife, Emily Sargent (1807–1841) — as well as the grandson of William Wilberforce, leader of the movement to abolish the slave trade — Ernest was born at his father's rectory, and grew up in Lavington and Cuddesdon, there gaining a love of country sports which lasted his whole life. Ernest's younger brother Basil became Archdeacon of Westminster. He was educated at Harrow from 1854 to 1857, then for 2 years with a private tutor, then from May 1859 to 1882 at Exeter College, Oxford. He showed little academic merit at any of these and –- better known as a good oarsman than a good scholar -– graduated BA in 1864 with fourth-class honours. During his time at Oxford he married Frances Mary, third daughter of Sir Charles Anderson, baronet (1804–1891) on 23 June 1863, and subsequently his attitude to his work and life became more serious, proceeding MA in 1867 and going to train for the ministry at Cuddesdon College, then under Edward King.

His father ordained him deacon in December 1864 and priest in 1865 and, after short curacies at Cuddesdon itself and at Lea, was presented to a living at Middleton Stoney, near Bicester, in 1868, though he had to resign from it two years later due to Frances' poor health (she died in October 1870 in San Remo of tuberculosis). In 1870 he became his father's domestic chaplain at Winchester, a year later sub-almoner to Queen Victoria, and in 1873 priest of Seaforth. This parish was traditionally evangelical and Ernest's moderate-high churchmanship could have led to friction with his parishioners, but his introduction of a daily service and a weekly celebration of holy communion was tactful and such conflict was avoided, and it was in this parish that Ernest first became known for the power of his sermons and his voice. Also in Seaforth, he and his new wife (on 14 October 1874 Ernest had married a second time, to Emily, only daughter of George Henry Connor, later dean of Windsor — the couple had 3 sons and 3 daughters) became active supporters of the temperance movement, taking the pledge together in 1876.

Bishop of Newcastle

In 1878 Wilberforce became a residentiary canon of Winchester and warden of the Wilberforce Mission (whose formation and endowment was a memorial to his father), with most of his activity for the latter occurring in Portsmouth and Aldershot (though in 1881 the mission was removed to the diocese of Rochester via a legal ruling and Ernest left England for Quebec, on a brief missionary trip). On his return in 1882, he was awarded his BD and DD and William Ewart Gladstone offered Ernest the new see of Newcastle, which he accepted – he was nominated on 4 July – becoming the Church of England's youngest diocesan bishop on his consecration on 25 July that year.

It had taken four years between the parliamentary act that had formed the new diocese, and Ernest's appointment, to raise enough money to support a bishop, since the Church of England had only just taken interest in this industrial area and in its absence the dominant Christian force there had become the non-conformist churches (less than 4% of those in the 1881 census were recorded as attending Anglican services, a decline since 1851). Realising that this financial problem was his main impediment, Ernest raised nearly £250,000 in its first five years for his Bishop of Newcastle's, allowing 11 new churches and 7 new vicarages to be built and 28 new clergy to be employed in the city within 10 years. He also made long journeys across rural Northumberland for confirmations, confirming double the numbers in 1882–86 than had been confirmed 1878–1882 and making his presence felt right across the diocese. Even many nonconformists (after initial opposition) were won over by Ernest's tactful approach, and his DNB entry compares his work there to W. F. Hook's work in Leeds in the previous generation.

Bishop of Chichester

He was translated to Chichester on 16 January 1896, however, his health affected by his unflagging work in Newcastle, though there he found a number of ritualistic Anglican churches on the Sussex coast under fire from evangelicals from 1898 onwards. This culminated in a judgment from Lambeth against the use of incense and processional lights in 1899, with which Wilberforce persuaded five of the nine ritualist incumbents in Chichester diocese to comply. Attempting to protect the four others from prosecution and defending their work in the evidence he gave as a witness in front of the 1905 royal commission on ecclesiastical discipline (at which he also brought criticism to bear on what he saw as the evangelicals' prejudice and inaccurate claims), he tried to avoid the division and rancorousness he saw as results of the 1874 Public Worship Regulation Act and ensuing imprisonments and legal proceedings, despite having little personal investment in ritualism.

The Public Worship Regulation Act 1874 (37 & 38 Vict. c.85) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, introduced as a Private Member's Bill by Archbishop of Canterbury Archibald Campbell Tait, to limit what he perceived as the growing ritualism of Anglo-Catholicism and the Oxford Movement within the Church of England.

-- Public Worship Regulation Act 1874, by Wikipedia


He was also still active in other areas, having his work for the temperance movement recognised in 1896 by becoming chairman of the Church of England Temperance Society and in 1904 (at the age of 64) joining the 'mission of help' to southern Africa (aimed at reconciliation after the South African War). Following a short illness Wilberforce died in 1907 on the Isle of Wight and was buried at Westhampnett, near Chichester, on 14 September. Emily survived him and died 17 July 1941.[1]

References

1. Descendants of William Wilberforce MP
• ODNB entry
• J. B. Atlay, The life of the Rt. Revd. Ernest Roland Wilberforce (1912)
• Burke's Peerage
• Arthur Rawson Ashwell and Reginald Garton Wilberforce, Life of the Right Reverend Samuel Wilberforce … with selections from his diary and correspondence, 3 vols. (1880–82)
• Chronicle of Convocation (Feb 1908)
• Royal commission on ecclesiastical discipline: minutes of evidence, Parl. papers (1906), 34.173–84, Cd 3071
• Church Times (13 September 1907)
• The Guardian (11 September 1907)
• Temperance Chronicle (13 September 1907)
• The Gladstone Diaries: with cabinet minutes and prime-ministerial correspondence, ed. M. R. D. Foot and H. C. G. Matthew, 14 vols. (1968–94)
• GENUKI

External links

• Works by or about Ernest Wilberforce at Internet Archive
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 32994
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: Freda Bedi Cont'd (#2)

Postby admin » Sat Mar 07, 2020 2:18 am

General Federation of Women's Clubs
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 3/6/20

Image
General Federation of Women's Clubs
Founded 1890
Headquarters Washington, D.C.
Website http://www.gfwc.org

The General Federation of Women's Clubs (GFWC), founded in 1890 during the Progressive Movement, is a federation of over 3,000 women's clubs in the United States which promote civic improvements through volunteer service. Many of its activities and service projects are done independently by local clubs through their communities or GFWC's national partnerships. GFWC maintains nearly 70,000 members[1] throughout the United States and internationally. GFWC remains one of the world's largest and oldest nonpartisan, nondenominational, women's volunteer service organizations.[2]

History

The GFWC was founded by Jane Cunningham Croly, a leading New York journalist. In 1868 she helped found the Sorosis club for professional women. It was the model for the nationwide GFWC in 1890.

Image
Federation Of Women's Clubs, D.C. Leaders Of Delegation To White House, 1914: Mrs. Ellis Logan; Mrs. H.W. Wiley; Miss E. Shippen; Mrs. R.C. Darr; Miss M. McNeilan

In 1889 Mrs. Croly organized a conference in New York that brought together delegates from 61 women's clubs. The women formed a permanent organization in 1890 with Charlotte Emerson Brown as its first president.[3] In 1901 it was granted a charter by Congress. Dietz proclaimed, "We look for unity, but unity in diversity" and that became the GFWC motto. Southern white women played a central role in the early years.[4]

Local women's clubs initially joined the General Federation directly but later came into membership through state federations that began forming in 1892. The GFWC also counts international clubs among its members.

In 1900, the GFWC met in Milwaukee, and Josephine Ruffin, a black journalist, tried to attend as a representative of three Boston organizations – the New Era Club, the New England Woman's Club and the New England Woman's Press Club. Southern women led by president Rebecca Douglas Lowe, a Georgia native, told Ruffin that she could be seated as an honorary representative of the two white clubs but would not seat a black club. She refused on principle and was excluded from the proceedings. These events became known as "The Ruffin Incident" and were widely covered in newspapers around the country, most of whom supported Ruffin.[5][6][7]

In a time when women's rights were limited the State Federation chapters held grassroots efforts to make sure the woman's voice was heard. Through monthly group meetings, to annual charter meetings, women of influential status within their communities could have their feelings heard. They were able to meet with state officials in order to have a say in community events. Until the right to vote was granted, these women's clubs were the best outlet for women to be heard and taken seriously.

Women's clubs spread very rapidly after 1890, taking up some of the slack left by the decline of the WCTU and the temperance movement. Local clubs at first were mostly reading groups focused on literature, but increasingly became civic improvement organizations of middle-class women meeting in each other's homes weekly. The clubs avoided controversial issues that would divide the membership, especially religion and the prohibition issue. In the South and East, suffrage was also highly divisive, while there was little resistance to it among clubwomen in the West. In the Midwest, clubwomen had first avoided the suffrage issue out of caution, but after 1900 increasingly came to support it.[8]

Image
GFWC clubwomen outside N Street headquarters, Washington DC, ca.1920s

Representative activities

Historian Paige Meltzer puts the GFWC in the context of the Progressive Movement, arguing that its policies:

built on Progressive-era strategies of municipal housekeeping. During the Progressive era, female activists used traditional constructions of womanhood, which imagined all women as mothers and homemakers, to justify their entrance into community affairs: as "municipal housekeepers," they would clean up politics, cities, and see after the health and wellbeing of their neighbors. Donning the mantle of motherhood, female activists methodically investigated their community's needs and used their "maternal" expertise to lobby, create, and secure a place for themselves in an emerging state welfare bureaucracy, best illustrated perhaps by clubwoman Julia Lathrop's leadership in the US Children's Bureau. As part of this tradition of maternal activism, the Progressive-era General Federation supported a range of causes from the pure food and drug administration to public health care for mothers and children to a ban on child labor, each of which looked to the state to help implement their vision of social justice.[9]


Kansas was a representative state, as the women's clubs joined with local chapters of the WCTU and other organizations to deal with social issues. The clubs continued to feature discussions of current literature, culture, and civic events, but they also broadened to include public schools, local parks, sanitation, prostitution, and protection of children.[10]

Paula Watson has shown that across the country the clubs supported the local Carnegie public library, as well as traveling libraries for rural areas. They promoted state legislation to fund and support libraries, especially to form library extension programs. GFWC affiliates worked with the American Library Association, state library associations, and state library commissions and gave critical support to library education programs at the universities.[11]

Many clubs were especially concerned with uplifting the neglected status of American Indians. They brought John Collier into the forefront of the debate when they appointed him the research agent for the Indian Welfare Committee in 1922. The GFWC took a leadership role in opposing assimilation policies, supporting the return of Indian lands, and promoting more religious and economic independence.[12] For example, Southwestern clubs help support the Museum of Northern Arizona (MNA) and became advocates and consumers for authentic Native American arts and crafts.[13] Even more important, in Western states GFWC affiliates cooperated with Collier when he served (1933–45) as the New Deal's Commissioner for Indian affairs, in his campaign to reverse federal policies designed to assimilate Indians into the national culture.

In May 1925 Edith Brake West conducted a survey of county organizations which was recognized by the National Federation of Women's Clubs. For the first time in the history of federated clubs the actual accomplishment and the organization of these bodies were set forth. [14]

The membership peaked at 850,000 in 16,000 clubs in 1955, and has declined to about 70,000 in the 21st century as middle-class women have moved into the public mainstream. During the Cold War era the GFWC promoted the theme that American women had a unique ability to preserve world peace while strengthening the nation internally through local, national, and international community activism.[15] The remaining 70,000 members are older now, and have less influence in national affairs.[16] The affiliated clubs in every state and more than a dozen countries work locally:

to support the arts, preserve natural resources, advance education, promote healthy lifestyles, encourage civic involvement, and work toward world peace and understanding.[17]


In 2009, GFWC members raised over $39 million on behalf of more than 110,000 projects, and volunteered more than 4.1 million hours in the communities where they live and work.[18]

Notable clubwomen

• Annette Abbott Adams, chairman of Legislation, California Fed. of Women's Clubs[19]
• Jane Addams (1860–1935)
• Effie Adelaide Payne Austin, State Trustee of the California Federation of Women's Clubs[20]
• Edith Vosburgh Alvord (1875-1962)[21]
• Helen Bagg, for several years served as chairman of Literature for Illinois Fed. of Women's Clubs[19]
• Alice Barnett, Southern District chairman, California Fed. of Women's Clubs, for Motion Pictures; local chairman of Motion Pictures; president of San Bernardino Women's Club[19]
• Annie Little Barry, Served for many years as State Parliamentarian of the California Fed. of Women's Clubs[19]
• Mary Lathrop Benton, Fed. of Women's Clubs[19]
• Mariana Bertola, General Federation Director and President of the California Federation of Women's Clubs[19]
• Edythe Mitchell Bissell, President, San Luis Obispo County Fed. of Women's Clubs[19]
• Fannie Jean Black, chairman of the Press Department of the California Federation of Women's clubs[22]
• C. Louise Boehringer, Arizona Federation[19]
• Harriet Bossnot, first vicepresident of the Montana Federation of Women's Clubs[19]
• Leah Belle Kepner Boyce, Press Chairman of California Federation of Women's Clubs, Member Western Federation of Women's Clubs[19]
• Esto Broughton, State chairman of California Fed. of Women's Clubs[19]
• Clementine Cordelia Berry Buchwalter (1843-1912)
• Clara Bradley Burdette, First president of California Federation of Women's Clubs[19]
• Nellie T. Bush, member of State Legislative Commission, Federation of Women's Clubs[19]
• Mary Ryerson Butin, district chairman of Public Welfare, for California Federation of Women's Clubs[19]
• Grace Richardson Butterfield, President, City and County Fed. of Women's Clubs of San Francisco, State and District chairman of Junior membership, California Fed. of Women's Clubs[19]
• Vera McKenna Clayton, Santa Cruz Woman's Club[19]
• R. Belle Colver, Woman's Club of Spokane[19]
• Inez Mabel Crawford, First president of Ottawa Federation of Women's Clubs[19]
• Jane Cunningham Croly (1829–1901)
• Katherine Davis Cumberson, member of State Executive Board, California Fed. Women's Clubs, for 6 years chairman of its Committee of International Relations, founder and honorary president Lake County Fed. Women's Clubs[19]
• Ellen Curtis Demorest (1824–1898)
• Nina F. Diefenbach, Ventura County Fed. of Women's Clubs[19]
• Sophia Julia Coleman Douglas, founder and first president of the Federation of Women's Clubs for Oklahoma and Indian Territories (1898)[23]
• Saidie Orr Dunbar, Oregon State and National Organization of Women's Clubs, elected President of the (National) General Federation of Women's Clubs (GFWC) in 1938[19]
• Mary Elizabeth Downey (1872-1949)
• Freda Ehmann, Active in Women's Clubs affairs[19]
• Augusta Louise Eraser, president, San Diego County Federation of Women's Clubs[19]
• Oda Faulconer, State Chairman of American Citizenship of the California Federation of Women's Clubs[19]
• Harrye R. P. Smith Forbes, For twelve years was State or District Chairman of California History and Landmarks Dept. for California Fed. of Women's Clubs[19]
• Abigail Keasey Frankel, President of the State Federation of Women's Clubs. She was member of the Board of the Missouri Federation of Women's Clubs and President of the 8th District of the Missouri Federation. She was the President of the Portland Woman's Club and the chairman of the finance of the Woman's Building association[19]
• Lizzie Crozier French (1851–1926)
• Laura E. Frenger, organized the State (New Mexico) Federation of Women's Clubs[19]
• Thora B. Gardiner, President of the Oregon City Women's Club[19]
• Anna Boley Garner, served 6 years on State Board of Fed. of Women's Clubs[19]
• Mary E. Gartin, President of Stanislaus County Fed. of Women's Clubs; for 3 years president of Modesto Woman's Club[19]
• Mabel Barnett Gates, in 1915 Gates represented Ebell Club at the 14th annual California Federation of Women's Club in San Francisco[24]
• Dale Pickett Gay, President of Wyoming Federation of Women's Clubs and she was active in all club work[19]
• Esther Rainbolt Goodrich, served in many offices in California Fed. of Women's Clubs[19]
• Annie Sawyer Green, President, California Fed. of Women's Clubs, Has held several high offices in Federation of Women's Clubs[19]
• Harriet A. Haas, On Speakers' Bureau of County Fed. of Women's Clubs and Community Chest[19]
• Sharlot Mabridth Hall, Women's Clubs of Arizona[19]
• Ceil Doyle Hamilton, president of City and County Fed. of Women's Clubs of San Francisco[19]
• Susie Prentice Hartzell, secretary of San Joaquin Valley District Federation of Women's Clubs[19]
• Fanny G. Hazlett, in 1932 was presented with a certificate by the General Federation of Women's Club for being the oldest American born mother in the state of Nevada[25]
• Maude B. Helmond, For six years was Child Welfare Chairman for Federated Women's Clubs of Alameda District during which time she was instrumental in establishing Well Baby Clinics in the schools[19]
• Una B. Herrick, Member[19]
• Ada Waite Hildreth, San Diego County and Southern District Chairman, Indian welfare, California Fed. of Women's Clubs, Second Vice-President, San Diego County Fed. of Women's Clubs[19]
• Etha Izora Dawley Holden, From 1925–27, auditor of California Federation of Women's Clubs[19]
• Dorothy D. Houghton (1890-1972)
• Julia Ward Howe (1819–1910)
• Grace Youmans Hudson, Chairman of Community Service, Los Angeles District, California Fed. of Women's Clubs, Member Women's Club of South Pasadena[19]
• Jane Denio Hutchison, president of Tri County Fed. of Women's Clubs, Auditor, Northern District Fed. of Women's Clubs[19]
• Vernettie O. Ivy, president, Central Arizona District Fed. of Women's Clubs[19]
• Christine A. Jacobsen, Council of International Relations, California Fed. of Women's Clubs[19]
• Lotta Hetler James, chairman Child Welfare, San Joaquin Valley and State Fed. Women's Clubs, chairman, Resolution Committee, State Fed. Women's Clubs[19]
• Kate Wetzel Jameson, member[19]
• May Mann Jennings (1872–1963)
• Hope Pyburn Johnson, for 2 terms District chairman, Public Health, California Fed. Women's Clubs[19]
• Edith O. Kitt, Tucson Woman's Club (president), Southern Arizona District Federation Women's Clubs (president), Arizona State Federation Women's Clubs (president)[19]
• Nannie S. Brown Kramer, organizer, vice-president and chairman of the Oakland Women's City Club; this club had three thousand members and erected a new building which cost $600,000.00[19]
• Bertha Ethel Knight Landes (1868–1943)
• Julia Lathrop (1858–1932)
• Jeanette Lawrence, State Chairman of Literature of the California Federation of Women's Clubs[19]
• Nancy A. Leatherwood, president of Utah Federation of Women's Clubs and Director for Utah of the General Federation of Women's Clubs[19]
• Mab Copland Lineman, State Chairman of Law for the Business and Insurance California Federation of Women's Clubs[19]
• Georgina G. Marriott, Utah Federation[19]
• Edith Bolte MacCracken, president of the District Federation of Women's Clubs[19]
• Laura Adrienne MacDonald, president of Tonopah Woman's Club[19]
• Olive Dickerson McHugh, President of the Federated Woman's Club of Mullen[19]
• Ruth Karr McKee, Washington State Federarion of Women's Clubs and Director of the General Federation[19]
• Jane Brunson Marks, served as Philanthropic Chairman of Woman's Club of Burbank and was the President of Woman's Club of Burbank from 1927 to 1928 and reelected from 1928 to 1929[19]
• Eva Perry Moore (1852–1931)
• Evelyn Williams Moulton, president of the Wilshire Woman's Club and the Dean Club of Southern California[19]
• Jacqueline Noel, served as chairperson to the Division of Literature at the Washington State Federation of Women's Clubs[19]
• Virginia Keating Orton, vice-president of Washington State Federation of Women's Clubs[19]
• Fannie Brown Patrick, president of the State Federation of Women's Clubs of Nevada[19]
• Mary Gray Peck, chair, Drama Sub-Committee of the Committee on Literature and Library Extension in the General Federation.[26]
• Phebe Nebeker Peterson, vice-president of the State Federation of Women's Clubs[19]
• Grace Gimmini Potts, chairman of Literature and Drama for the California Federation of Women's Clubs[19]
• Lois Randolph, State Chairman of Americanization under the New Mexico Federation of Women's Clubs[19]
• Edith Dolan Riley, chair of the Motion Picture Committee of the Washington State Federation of Women's Clubs[27]
• Lallah Rookh White Rockwell, member of the State Federation of Women's Clubs[19]
• Eleanor Roosevelt (1884–1962)
• Margaret Wheeler Ross, president Arizona Fed. Women's Clubs[19]
• Nellie Tayloe Ross (1876–1977)
• Fannie Forbis Russel, one of the pioneer women of the state of Montana, was active in organizing and building the local Woman's Club[19]
• Mary Belle King Sherman (1862–1935)
• Margaret Chase Smith (1897–1995)
• Mary Jane Spurlin, president of the Portland Federation of Women's Clubs[19]
• Helen Norton Stevens, editor of the official bulletin of the Washington State Federation of Women's Clubs and chairman of Civic Department of the Seattle Woman's Club[19]
• Emily Jean Crimson Thatcher, president of the U. A. C. Woman's Club[19]
• Frances F. Threadgill, first president of the Oklahoma State Federation of Women's Clubs (1909), Treasurer GFWC (1910-1912)[28]
• Catherine E. Van Valkenburg, State Chairman of Music of the Idaho Federation of Women's Clubs[19]
• Edith Brake West, From 1911 to 1914, president of the Nevada Federation of Women's Clubs, and from 1918 to 1920 she was director from Nevada of the General Federation of Women's Clubs. She was vice-chairman of the Junior Memberships of the General Federation of Women's Clubs. She was the life secretary of the Presidents of 1912 of the General Federation of Women's Clubs. She compiled a collection of Nevada Poems for the Nevada Federation of Women's Clubs[19]
• Laura Lyon White (1839–1916)
• Gertrude B. Wilder, president of the San Bernardino County Federation of Women's Clubs[19]
• Frances Willard (1839–1898)
• Jane Frances Winn, one of the founders of the Century Club in Chillicothe, Ohio[29]
• Alice Ames Winter, national president of the GFWC[30]
• Belle Wood-Comstock, chairman of Public Health at the Los Angeles District of California Federation of Womn's Clubs[19]
• Orpha Woods Foster, president of the Ventura County Federation of Women's Clubs[19]
• Ellen S. Woodward (1887–1971)
• Valeria Brinton Young, member of the Executive Board of the State Federation of Women's Clubs[19]

See also

• Anchorage Woman's Club
• Casa Grande Woman's Club
• Federation of Women's Clubs for Oklahoma and Indian Territories
• General Federation of Women’s Clubs of South Carolina
• Glendale Woman's Club
• Mississippi Federation of Women's Clubs
• National Association of Colored Women's Clubs
• Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution
• Ossoli Circle
• Women's club movement
• Woman's Club of Olympia
• Women's Institute
• Women-only space

References

1. "Who We Are". GFWC.org. Retrieved 22 January 2015.
2. Blair 1998
3. "Charlotte Emerson Brown - American clubwoman". Encyclopædia Britannica.
4. General Federation of Women's Clubs (1910). Biennial of the General Federation of Women's Clubs: Official Proceedings. ... .no. p. 446.
5. Mary Jane Smith, "The Fight to Protect Race and Regional Identity within the General Federation of Women's Clubs, 1895-1902." Georgia Historical Quarterly (2010): 479-513 in JSTOR
6. "Race Discrimination", Congregationalist 85:24, 1900 June 14.
7. "Color-Line in Women's Clubs", Congregationalist 86:6, 1901 February 9
8. Stephen M. Buechler, The Transformation of the Woman Suffrage Movement: The Case of Illinois, 1850-1920 (1986) pp 154-57
9. Paige Meltzer, "The Pulse and Conscience of America" The General Federation and Women's Citizenship, 1945-1960," Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies (2009), Vol. 30 Issue 3, p52-76. online
10. June O. Underwood, "Civilizing Kansas: Women's Organizations, 1880-1920," Kansas History (1984) 7#4 pp 291-306.
11. Paula D. Watson, "Founding mothers: The contribution of women's organizations to public library development in the United States." Library Quarterly (1994) pp: 233-269 in JSTOR.
12. Karin L. Huebner, "An Unexpected Alliance: Stella Atwood, the California Clubwomen, John Collier, and the Indians of the Southwest, 1917–1934," Pacific Historical Review (2009) 78#3 pp: 337-366 in JSTOR
13. Jennifer McLerran, "Clubwomen, Curators and Traders," American Indian Art Magazine (2011) 36#4 pp 54-92
14. "28 May 1925, Thu". Oakland Tribune: 47. 1925. Retrieved 5 September 2017.
15. Meltzer, "The Pulse and Conscience of America" The General Federation and Women's Citizenship, 1945-1960,"
16. Blair, 1998
17. From the GFWC Website Archived 2014-10-20 at the Wayback Machine
18. "GFWC 2009-2010 Annual Report" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-04-09.
19. Binheim, Max; Elvin, Charles A (1928). Women of the West; a series of biographical sketches of living eminent women in the eleven western states of the United States of America. Retrieved 8 August 2017. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
20. Fletcher, Russell Holmes (1943). Who's who in California. Who's Who Pub. Co. Retrieved 17 September 2017.
21. Morris-Crowther, Jayne (2013). The Political Activities of Detroit Clubwomen in the 1920s: A Challenge and a Promise. Wayne State University Press. p. 127. ISBN 9780814338162.
22. Detwiler, Justice Brown (1929). Who's who in California : a biographical directory, 1928-29. Who's Who Publishing Co. p. 74. Retrieved 11 September 2017.
23. Wilson, Linda D. "Douglas, Sophia Julia Coleman". The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture. Retrieved 8 October 2018.
24. "Ebell Club Delegates - 02 May 1915, Sun • Page 21". The Los Angeles Times: 21. 1915. Retrieved 25 September2017.
25. "Mrs. Hazlett's Funeral is Tomorrow - 05 Apr 1933, Wed • Page 2". Reno Gazette-Journal: 2. 1933. Retrieved 1 October 2017.
26. John W. Leonard (1914). Woman's Who's who of America: A Biographical Dictionary of Contemporary Women of the United States and Canada, 1914-1915. American commonwealth Company. pp. 633–.
27. "Edith Dolan Riley papers, 1876-1965". Retrieved 3 October 2017.
28. Humphrey, Carol Sue. "Threadgill, Frances Falwell". The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture. Retrieved 8 October 2018.
29. Johnson, Anne (1914). Notable women of St. Louis, 1914. St. Louis, Woodward. p. 250. Retrieved 17 August2017. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
30. "GFWC International Past Presidents". GFWC. Retrieved December 28, 2017.

Further reading

• Blair, Karen J. "General Federation of Women's Clubs," in Wilma Mankiller et al. eds., The Readers Companion to U.S. Women's History (1998) p 242
• Croly, Jane Cunningham (1898). The History of the Woman's Club Movement in America. H. G. Allen & Company. pp. 1184.
• Houde, Mary Jean. Reaching Out: A Story of the General Federation of Women's Clubs (Washington, DC: General Federation of Women's Clubs, 1989). ISBN 978-0-916371-08-1
• Meltzer, Paige. "The Pulse and Conscience of America" The General Federation and Women's Citizenship, 1945–1960," Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies (2009), Vol. 30 Issue 3, p52-76. online
• White, Kristin Kate, "Training a Nation: The General Federation of Women's Clubs' Rhetorical Education and American Citizenship, 1890–1930" (PhD dissertation, Ohio State University, 2010). DA3429649.

External links

• General Federation of Women's Clubs

Members

• GFWC Atlanta Woman's Club
• GFWC California
• GFWC Connecticut
• GFWC Florida
• GFWC Georgia
• GFWC Iowa
• GFWC Kentucky
• GFWC Maryland
• GFWC Massachusetts
• GFWC Mississippi
• GFWC New Hampshire
• GFWC New Jersey
• GFWC New York
• GFWC North Carolina
• GFWC Ohio
• GFWC Pennsylvania
• GFWC Rhode Island
• GFWC South Carolina
• GFWC Texas
• GFWC Virginia
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 32994
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: Freda Bedi Cont'd (#2)

Postby admin » Sat Mar 07, 2020 3:34 am

David C. Cook
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 3/6/20

Image
David C. Cook
Founded: 1875
Founde:r David Caleb Cook
Country of origin: United States
Headquarters location: Colorado Springs, Colorado
Publication types: Books
Imprints: Kingsway, Gospel Light, Standard Publishing
Official website: davidccook.org

David C. Cook is an American nonprofit Christian publisher based in Colorado Springs, Colorado. It was founded as a provider of Sunday school curriculum and remains a major publisher of such materials. It also publishes fiction and nonfiction books and distributes supporting materials like toys and games. Its best selling authors include Francis Chan, Gary Thomas, and J. Warner Wallace. For many years it published a Christian comic book, Sunday Pix, with stories about the adventures of Christian heroes in many different eras and in many parts of the world.

History

An author and leader in the American Sunday school movement, David Caleb Cook, established the company in Chicago, Illinois, in 1875.[1] He was motivated to provide affordable educational materials for children who had been left homeless in the Great Chicago fire.[2]

Cook, who worked as a printer's devil in his father's print shop and as a volunteer in Sunday schools around Chicago, adjudged that most available Sunday school literature "suffered from either loose theology or poor design."[3] With his wife, Marguerite, he established a newspaper, Our Sunday School Gem, to meet the need for good Sunday school literature before starting his eponymous publishing company. As the twentieth century began, the company moved to larger facilities in suburban Elgin. By the 1920s, the company produced more than 50 titles and had an annual circulation of two million.[3]

The company moved its headquarters from Elgin to Colorado Springs, Colorado, in 1995.[4] It did business under the name "Cook Communications Ministries" before reverting to "David C Cook" in 2007.[5]

Acquisitions

David C Cook acquired Kingsway in 1993, Scripture Press/Victor Books in 1996, and Integrity Music in 2011.[6][7]

In 2015, David C Cook acquired assets from Gospel Light and Standard Publishing, including the Gospel Light Curriculum line, The Standard Lesson Commentary, HeartShaper, and Route 52 Curriculum from Standard, among other products. This acquisition positioned David C Cook as the second largest Sunday School curriculum publisher in the world, behind LifeWay Christian Resources.[8][9]

In 2016, David C Cook Canada was bought by management and merged with Augsburg Fortress Canada. It is now known as Parasource Marketing & Distribution.[10]

Foundation

David C Cook is a nonprofit publisher that uses the proceeds from its sales for global ministry. The David C Cook Foundation was founded in 1942 by Francis Kerr Cook “to aid and promote the work of religious education without profit to any person or group.”[2] The projects of the foundation include providing the Life on Life curriculum and the Action Bible, translated into local languages, for children's ministry use around the world.[2]

References

1. Balmer, Randall (2002). "Cook, David C. (1850-1927)". Encyclopedia of Evangelicalism. Louisville: Westminster John Knox.
2. "About". David Caleb Cook Foundation. Retrieved 2019-05-03.
3. ""Religion…Is Our Business:" Religious Workers and Religious Work at the David C. Cook Publishing Company". PracticalMattersJournal. 2017-03-08. Retrieved 2019-05-04.
4. Heilman, Wayne; Telegraph, Gazette (1993-10-02). "Companies to bring in 650 jobs/ Publisher, IBM subsidiary announce plans for Springs". Colorado Springs Gazette - Telegraph; Colorado Springs, Colo. Colorado Springs, Colo., United States, Colorado Springs, Colo. pp. –1. Retrieved 2019-01-19.
5. "David C Cook: Private Company Information - Bloomberg". http://www.bloomberg.com. Retrieved 2019-05-03.
6. February 5; 1996. "Cook Purchases Scripture Press". ChristianityToday.com. Retrieved 2019-01-19.
7. David C Cook Acquires Integrity Music Archived 2013-01-03 at Archive.today. HM Magazine, June 2011.
8. "David C Cook Acquires Gospel Light Curriculum". David C. Cook. Archived from the original on 2017-03-30. Retrieved 2017-03-29.
9. Johnson, Christine D. "David C Cook acquires Standard Publishing resources". http://www.christianretailing.com.
10. "Parasource". parasource.com. Retrieved 2016-09-26.

External links

• Official website
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 32994
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: Freda Bedi Cont'd (#2)

Postby admin » Sat Mar 07, 2020 3:50 am

Part 1 of 2

Franz von Papen
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 3/6/20

Image
Franz von Papen
Papen in 1933
Chancellor of Germany
In office
30th May 1932 – 17 November 1932
President Paul von Hindenburg
Preceded by Heinrich Brüning
Succeeded by Kurt von Schleicher
Vice-Chancellor of Germany
In office
30 January 1933 – 7 August 1934
Chancellor Adolf Hitler
Preceded by Hermann Dietrich
Succeeded by Franz Blücher (1949)
Reichskomissar of Prussia
In office
20 July 1932 – 3 December 1932
Preceded by Otto Braun
Succeeded by Kurt von Schleicher
In office
30 January 1933 – 10 April 1933
Preceded by Kurt von Schleicher
Succeeded by Hermann Göring
Personal details
Born Franz Joseph Hermann Michael Maria von Papen, Erbsälzer zu Werl und Neuwerk
29 October 1879
Werl, Westphalia, Prussia, Germany
Died 2 May 1969 (aged 89)
Sasbach, Baden-Württemberg, West Germany
Resting place Wallerfangen, Saarland, Germany
Political party Zentrum (1918–1932)
Independent (1932–1938)
National Socialist German Workers' (1938–1945)
Spouse(s) Martha von Boch-Galhau
(m. 1905; died 1961)
Children 5
Alma mater Prussian Military Academy
Profession Diplomat, military officer
Signature
Military service
Allegiance German Empire
Branch/service Imperial German Army
Years of service 1898–1919
Rank Lieutenant-colonel
Battles/wars World War I
Western Front
Battle of the Somme
Battle of Vimy Ridge
Middle Eastern theatre
Sinai and Palestine Campaign
Awards
Iron Cross, 1st Class
War Merit Cross

Franz Joseph Hermann Michael Maria von Papen, Erbsälzer zu Werl und Neuwerk (German: [fɔn ˈpaːpn̩] (About this soundlisten); 29 October 1879 – 2 May 1969) generally known as Franz von Papen, was a German conservative politician, diplomat, nobleman and General Staff officer. He served as Chancellor of Germany in 1932 and as Vice-Chancellor under Adolf Hitler in 1933 and 1934.

Born into a wealthy family of Westphalian Roman Catholic aristocrats, Papen served in the Imperial German Army from 1898 onward and was trained as a German General Staff officer. He served as military attaché in Mexico and the United States from 1913 to 1915, organising acts of sabotage in the United States and financing Mexican forces in the Mexican Revolution. After being expelled from the United States in 1915, he served as a battalion commander on the Western Front of World War I and finished his war service in the Middle Eastern theatre as a lieutenant colonel.

Appointed Chancellor in 1932 by President Paul von Hindenburg, Papen ruled by presidential decree. He negotiated the end of reparations at the Lausanne Conference of 1932. He launched the Preußenschlag coup against the Social Democratic government of the Free State of Prussia. His failure to secure a base of support in the Reichstag led to his dismissal by Hindenburg and replacement by General Kurt von Schleicher. Determined to return to power, Papen, believing that Hitler could be controlled once he was in the government, persuaded Hindenburg into appointing Hitler as Chancellor and Papen as Vice-Chancellor in 1933 in a cabinet ostensibly not under Nazi Party domination. With military dictatorship the only alternative to Nazi rule, Hindenburg consented. Papen and his allies were quickly marginalized by Hitler and he left the government after the Night of the Long Knives in 1934, during which the Nazis killed some of his confidants. Subsequently, Papen served as an ambassador of Germany in Vienna from 1934 to 1938 and in Ankara from 1939 to 1944.

After the Second World War, Papen was indicted in the Nuremberg trials of war criminals before the International Military Tribunal but was acquitted of all charges. In 1947 a West German denazification court found Papen to have acted as a main culprit to crimes. Papen was given an eight-year hard labour prison sentence but he was released on appeal in 1949. Papen's memoirs were published in 1952 and 1953, and he died in 1969.

Early life and education

Papen was born into a wealthy and noble Roman Catholic family in Werl, Westphalia, the third child of Friedrich von Papen-Köningen (1839–1906) and his wife Anna Laura von Steffens (1852–1939)[1]

Papen was sent to a cadet school in Bensberg of his own volition at the age of 11 in 1891. His four years there were followed by three years of training at Prussian Main Military academy in Lichterfelde. He was trained as a Herrenreiter ("gentleman rider").[1] He served for a period as a military attendant in the Kaiser's Palace and as a second lieutenant in his father's old unit, the Westphalian Uhlan Regiment No. 5 in Düsseldorf. Papen joined the German General Staff as a captain in March 1913.

He married Martha von Boch-Galhau (1880–1961) on 3 May 1905. Papen's wife was the daughter of a wealthy Saarland industrialist whose dowry made him a very rich man.[2] An excellent horseman and a man of much charm, Papen cut a dashing figure and during this time, befriended Kurt von Schleicher.[2] Papen was proud of his family's having been granted hereditary rights since 1298 to mine brine salt at Werl. He always believed in the superiority of the aristocracy over commoners.[3] Fluent in both French and English, he travelled widely all over Europe, the Middle East and North America.[2] He was devoted to Kaiser Wilhelm II.[4] Influenced by the books of General Friedrich von Bernhardi, Papen was a militarist throughout his life.[4]

Military attaché in Washington, DC

He entered the diplomatic service in December 1913 as a military attaché to the German ambassador in the United States. In early 1914 he travelled to Mexico (to which he was also accredited) and observed the Mexican Revolution. At one time, when the anti-Huerta Zapatistas were advancing on Mexico City, Papen organised a group of European volunteers to fight for Mexican General Victoriano Huerta.[5] In the spring of 1914, as German military attaché to Mexico, Papen was deeply involved in selling arms to the government of General Huerta, believing he could place Mexico in the German sphere of influence, though the collapse of Huerta's regime in July 1914 ended that hope.[6] In April 1914, Papen personally observed the United States occupation of Veracruz when the US seized the city of Veracruz, despite orders from Berlin to stay in Mexico City.[7] During his time in Mexico, Papen acquired the love of international intrigue and adventure that characterised his later diplomatic postings in the United States, Austria and Turkey.[7] On 30 July 1914, Papen arrived in Washington, DC from Mexico to take up his post as German military attaché to the United States.[8]

Image
Von Papen as the German Military Attaché for Washington, DC in 1915

During the First World War, he tried to buy weapons in the United States for his country, but the UK's blockade made shipping arms to Germany almost impossible.[9] On 22 August 1914, Papen hired US private detective Paul Koeing, based in New York City, to conduct a sabotage and bombing campaign against businesses in New York owned by citizens from the Allied nations.[10] Papen, who was given an unlimited fund of cash to draw on by Berlin, attempted to block the UK, French and Russian governments from buying war supplies in the United States.[9] Papen set up a front company that tried to preclusively purchase every hydraulic press in the US for the next two years to limit artillery shell production by US firms with contracts with the Allies.[9] To enable German citizens living in the Americas to go home to Germany, Papen set up an operation in New York to forge US passports.[10]

Starting in September 1914, Papen abused his diplomatic immunity as German military attaché and US neutrality to start organising plans for an invasion of Canada, as well as a campaign of sabotage against canals, bridges and railroads.[11] In October 1914, Papen became involved in the Hindu–German Conspiracy, when he contacted anti-UK Indian nationalists living in California, and arranged for weapons to be handed over to them.[12] In February 1915, he organised the Vanceboro international bridge bombing, while his diplomatic immunity protected him from arrest.[13] At the same time, he was involved in plans to restore Huerta to power, arranging for the arming and financing of the planned invasion of Mexico.[14]

Papen's activities were known to UK intelligence, which shared its information with the US government.[15] As a result he was expelled from the United States for complicity in the planning of acts of sabotage.[16] On 28 December 1915, he was declared persona non grata after his exposure and was recalled to Germany.[17] Upon his return, he was given the Iron Cross.

Papen remained involved in plots in the Americas as he contacted in February 1916 the Mexican Colonel Gonzalo Enrile, living in Cuba, in an attempt to arrange German support for Félix Díaz, the would-be strongman of Mexico.[18] Papen also served as an intermediary between the Irish Volunteers and the German government regarding the purchase and delivery of arms to be used against the UK during the Easter Rising of 1916, as well as serving as an intermediary with Indian nationalists. In April 1916, a US federal grand jury issued an indictment against Papen for a plot to blow up Canada's Welland Canal; he remained under indictment until he became Chancellor of Germany, at which time the charges were dropped.[17]

Army service in World War I

As a Roman Catholic, Papen belonged to the Zentrum, the right of the center party that almost all German Catholics supported, but during the course of the war, the nationalist conservative Papen became estranged from his party.[19] Papen disapproved of Matthias Erzberger, whose efforts to pull the Zentrum to the left, he was opposed to and regarded the Reichstag Peace Resolution of 19 July 1917 as almost treason.[19]

Later in World War I, Papen returned to the army on active service, first on the Western Front. In 1916 Papen took command of the 2nd Reserve Battalion of the 93rd Regiment of the 4th Guards Infantry Division fighting in Flanders.[20] On 22 August 1916 Papen's battalion took heavy losses while successfully resisting a UK attack during the Battle of the Somme.[21] Between November 1916–February 1917, Papen's battalion was engaged in almost continuous heavy fighting.[22] He was awarded the Iron Cross, 1st Class. On 11 April 1917, Papen fought at Vimy Ridge, where his battalion was defeated with heavy losses by the Canadian Corps.[22]

After Vimy, Papen asked for a transfer to the Middle East, which was approved.[22] From June 1917 Papen served as an officer on the General Staff in the Middle East, and then as an officer attached to the Ottoman army in Palestine.[22] During his time in the Ottoman Empire, Papen was in "the know" about the Armenian genocide, which did not appear to have morally troubled him at all either at the time or later in his life.[23] During his time in Constantinople, Papen befriended Joachim von Ribbentrop. Between October–December 1917, Papen took part in the heavy fighting in the Sinai and Palestine Campaign.[24] Promoted to the rank of lieutenant-colonel, he returned to Germany and left the army soon after the armistice which halted the fighting in November 1918.

After the Turks signed an armistice with the Allies on 30 October 1918, the German Asia Corps was ordered home, and Papen was in the mountains at Karapunar when he heard on 11 November 1918 that the war was over.[24] The new republic ordered soldier's councils to be organised in the German Army, including the Asian corps, which General Otto Liman von Sanders attempted to obey, and which Papen refused to obey.[25] Sanders ordered Papen arrested for his insubordination, which caused Papen to leave his post without permission as he fled to Germany in civilian clothing to personally meet Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg, who had the charges dropped.[26]

Catholic politician

After leaving the German Army in the spring of 1919, Papen purchased a country estate, the Haus Merfeld, living the life of a "gentleman farmer" in Dülmen.[27] In April 1920, during the Communist uprising in the Ruhr, Papen took command of a Freikorps unit to protect Roman Catholicism from the "Red marauders".[28] Impressed with his leadership of his Freikorps unit, Papen decided to pursue a career in politics.[29] In the fall of 1920, the president of the Westphalian Farmer's Association, Baron Engelbert von Kerkerinck zur Borg, told Papen his association would campaign for him if he ran for the Prussian Landtag.[30]

Papen entered politics and joined the Centre Party, better known as the Zentrum. The monarchist Papen formed part of the conservative wing of the party that rejected democracy and the Weimar Coalition with the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD). Papen's politics were much closer to the German National People's Party than to the Zentrum, and he seems to have belonged to the Zentrum on the account of his Roman Catholicism and a hope that he could shift his party to the right.[2][31] Papen was a figure of influence in the Zentrum by the virtue of being the largest shareholder and chief of the editorial board in the party's Catholic newspaper Germania, which was the most prestigious of the Catholic papers in Germany.[32][33]

Papen was a member of the Landtag of Prussia from 1921 to 1928 and from 1930 to 1932, representing a rural, Catholic constituency in Westphalia.[34] Papen rarely attended the sessions of the Landtag and never spoke at the meetings during his time as a Landtag deputy.[35] Papen tried to have his name entered into the Zentrum party list for the Reichstag elections of May 1924, but was blocked by the Zentrum's leadership.[36] In February 1925, Papen was one of the six Zentrum deputies in the Landtag who voted with the German National People's Party and the German People's Party against the SPD-Zentrum government.[31] Papen was nearly expelled from the Zentrum for breaking with party discipline in the Landtag.[31] In the 1925 presidential elections, he surprised his party by supporting the right-wing candidate Paul von Hindenburg over Wilhelm Marx. Papen, along with two of his future cabinet ministers, was a member of Arthur Moeller van den Bruck's exclusive Berlin Deutscher Herrenklub (German Gentlemen's Club).[37][38]

In March 1930, Papen welcomed the coming of presidential government.[39] As the presidential government of chancellor Heinrich Brüning depended upon the Social Democrats in the Reichstag to "tolerate" it by not voting to cancel laws passed under Article 48, Papen grew more critical.[39] In a speech before a group of farmers in October 1931, Papen called for Brüning to disallow the SPD and base his presidential government on "tolerance" from the NSDAP instead.[40] Papen demanded that Brüning transform the "concealed dictatorship" of a presidential government into a dictatorship that would unite all of the German right under its banner.[40] In the March–April 1932 German presidential election, Papen voted for Hindenburg on the grounds he was the best man to unite the right, while in the Prussian Landtag's election of speaker of the Landtag, Papen voted for the Nazi Hans Kerrl.[40]

Chancellorship

Image
Chancellor Papen (left) with his eventual successor, Minister of Defence Kurt von Schleicher, watching a horse race in Berlin-Karlshorst.

On 1 June 1932, Papen was suddenly lifted to supreme importance when president Hindenburg appointed him Chancellor. Papen owed his appointment to the Chancellorship to General Kurt von Schleicher, an old friend from the pre-war General Staff and influential advisor of President Hindenburg. Schleicher selected Papen because his conservative, aristocratic background and military career was satisfactory to Hindenburg and would create the groundwork for a possible Centre-Nazi coalition.[41] Schleicher, who became Defence Minister, selected the entire cabinet himself.[42] The day before, Papen had promised party chairman Ludwig Kaas he would not accept any appointment. After he broke his pledge, Kaas branded him the "Ephialtes of the Centre Party"; Papen forestalled being expelled from the party by leaving it on 31 May 1932.[37]

The cabinet that Papen formed was known as the "cabinet of barons" or "cabinet of monocles".[43] Papen had little support in the Reichstag; the only parties committed to supporting him was the far-right/national conservative German National People's Party (DNVP) and the Conservative-Liberal German People's Party. The Centre Party would not support Papen because he had backstabbed Brüning.[37] Schleicher's planned Centre-Nazi coalition thus failed to materialize and the Nazis now had little reason to prop up Papen's weak government.[37] Papen grew very close to Hindenburg and first met Adolf Hitler in June 1932.[38][42]

Image
Papen's cabinet (2 June 1932)

Papen consented on 31 May to Hitler's and Hindenburg's agreement of 30 May that the Nazi Party would tolerate Papen's government if fresh elections were called, the Sturmabteilung ban was canceled and the Nazis were granted access to the radio network.[44] As agreed, the Papen government dissolved the Reichstag on 4 June and called a national election by 31 July 1932, in the hope that the Nazis would win the largest number of seats in the Reichstag, which would allow him the majority he needed to establish an authoritarian government.[35] In a so-called "presidential government", Papen would rule by Article 48, having emergency decrees signed into effect by President Hindenburg.[35] On 16 June 1932, the new government lifted the ban on the SA and the SS, eliminating the last remaining rationale for Nazi support for Papen.[45]

Image
Papen in June 1932.

In June and July 1932 Papen represented Germany at the Lausanne conference where, on 9 July, German reparation obligations were cancelled.[46] Germany had ceased paying reparations in June 1931 under the Hoover moratorium, and most of the groundwork for the Lausanne conference had been done by Brüning, but Papen took the credit for the success.[46] In exchange for cancelling reparations, Germany was supposed to make a one-time payment of 3 million Reichmarks to France, a commitment that Papen repudiated immediately upon his return to Berlin.[46][47]

Through Article 48, Papen enacted economic policies on 4 September that cut the payments offered by the unemployment insurance fund, subjected jobless Germans seeking unemployment insurance to a means test, lowered wages (including those reached by collective bargaining), while arranging tax cuts for corporations and the rich.[48][49] These austerity policies made Papen deeply unpopular with the masses but had the backing of the business elite.[50][51]

Negotiations between the Nazis, the Centre Party and Papen for a new Prussian government began on 8 June but broke down due to the Centre Party's hostility to the party deserter Papen.[45] On 11 July 1932 Papen received the support of the cabinet and the president for a decree allowing the Reich government to take over the Prussian government, which was dominated by the SPD, in a move that was later justified through the rumour that the Social Democrats and the Communist Party of Germany (KPD) were planning a merger.[52][53] The political violence of the so-called Altona Bloody Sunday between Nazis, communists and the police on 17 July, gave Papen his pretext.[54] On 20 July, Papen launched a coup against the SPD coalition government of Prussia in the so-called Preußenschlag. Berlin was put on military shutdown and Papen sent men to arrest the SPD Prussian authorities, whom he accused with no evidence of being in league with the Communists. Hereafter, Papen declared himself commissioner of Prussia by way of another emergency decree that he elicited from Hindenburg, further weakening the democracy of the Weimar Republic.[55] Papen viewed the coup as a gift to the Nazis, who had been informed of it by 9 July, who were now supposed to support his government.[54]

On 23 July, Papen had German representatives walk out of the World Disarmament Conference after the French delegation warned that allowing Germany Gleichberechtigung ("equality of status") in armaments would lead to another world war. Papen announced that the Reich would not return to the conference until the other powers agreed to consider his demand for Gleichberechtigung.[46]

Image
Papen arriving for the Reichstag session of 12 September 1932.

In the Reichstag election of 31 July the Nazis won the largest number of seats. To combat the rise in SA and SS political terrorism that began right after the elections, Papen on 9 August brought in via Article 48 a new law that drastically streamlined the judicial process in death penalty cases while limiting the right of appeal.[56][57] New special courts were also created.[56] A few hours later in the town of Potempa, five SA men killed the Communist labourer Konrad Pietrzuch in the Potempa Murder of 1932.[57] The "Potempa five" were promptly arrested and then convicted and sentenced to death on 23 August by a special court.[58] The Potempa case generated enormous media attention, and on 2 September, Papen in his capacity as Reich Commissioner for Prussia reduced the sentences of the five SA men down to life imprisonment after Hitler made it clear that he would not support Papen's government if they were executed.[59]

On 11 August, the public holiday of Constitution Day, which commemorated the adoption of the Weimar Constitution in 1919, Papen and his Interior Minister Baron Wilhelm von Gayl called a press conference to announce plans for a new constitution that would, in effect, turn Germany into a dictatorship.[60] Two days later, Schleicher and Papen offered Hitler the position of Vice-Chancellor, who rejected it.[61]

Image
Reichstag on September 12, 1932 – Chancellor Papen (stands, left) demands the floor, ignored by Speaker Göring (right)

When the new Reichstag assembled on 12 September, Papen hoped to destroy the growing alliance between the Nazis and the Centre Party.[58] That day at the president's estate in Neudeck, Papen, Schleicher and Gayl obtained in advance from Hindenburg a decree to dissolve parliament, then secured another decree to suspend elections beyond the constitutional 60 days.[58] The Communists made a motion of no confidence in the Papen government.[62] Papen had anticipated this move by the Communists, but been assured that there would be an immediate objection. However, when no one objected, Papen placed the red folder containing the dissolution decree on Reichstag president Hermann Göring's desk. He demanded the floor in order to read it, but Göring pretended not to see him; the Nazis and the Centre Party had decided to support the Communist motion.[63][64][65] The motion carried by 512 votes to 42.[66][67] Realizing that he did not have nearly enough support to go through with his plan to suspend elections, Papen decided to call another election to punish the Reichstag for the vote of no-confidence.[66]

Image
Papen and Schleicher in 1932

On 27 October, the Supreme Court of Germany issued a ruling that Papen's coup deposing the Prussian government was illegal, but allowed Papen to retain his control of Prussia.[68] In November 1932, Papen violated the terms of the Treaty of Versailles by passing an umbau (rebuilding) programme for the German Navy of one aircraft carrier, six battleships, six cruisers, six destroyer flotillas and sixteen U-boats, intended to allow Germany to control both the North Sea and the Baltic.[69]

In the November 1932 election the Nazis lost seats, but Papen was still unable to secure a Reichstag that could be counted on not to pass another vote of no-confidence in his government.[70] Papen's attempt to negotiate with Hitler failed.[71] Under pressure from Schleicher, Papen resigned on 17 November and formed a caretaker government.[70] Papen told his cabinet that he planned to have martial law declared, which would allow him to rule as a dictator.[70] However, at a cabinet meeting on 2 December, Papen was informed by Schleicher's associate General Eugen Ott that Ministry of the Reichswehr war games showed there was no way to maintain order against the Nazis and Communists.[72][73] Realizing that Schleicher was moving to replace him, Papen asked Hindenburg to fire Schleicher as defence minister. Instead, Hindenburg appointed Schleicher as chancellor.[72]

Bringing Hitler to power

After his resignation, Papen regularly visited Hindenburg, missing no opportunity to attack Schleicher in these visits.[74] Schleicher had promised Hindenburg that he would never attack Papen in public when he became Chancellor, but in a bid to distance himself from the very unpopular Papen, Schleicher in a series of speeches in December 1932-January 1933 did just that, upsetting Hindenburg.[75] Papen was embittered by the way his former best friend, Schleicher, had brought him down, and was determined to become Chancellor again.[38] On 4 January 1933, Hitler and Papen met in secret at the banker Baron Kurt Baron von Schröder's house in Cologne to discuss a common strategy against Schleicher.[76]

On 9 January 1933, Papen and Hindenburg agreed to form a new government that would bring in Hitler.[77] On the evening of 22 January, in a meeting at the villa of Joachim von Ribbentrop in Berlin, Papen made the concession of abandoning his claim to the Chancellorship and committed to support Hitler as Chancellor in a proposed "Government of National Concentration", in which Papen would serve as Vice-Chancellor and Minister-President of Prussia.[78] On 23 January, Papen presented to Hindenburg his idea for Hitler to be made Chancellor, while keeping him "boxed" in.[79] On the same day Schleicher, to avoid a vote of no-confidence in the Reichstag when it reconvened on 31 January, asked the president to declare a state of emergency. Hindenburg declined and Schleicher resigned at midday on 28 January. Hindenburg formally gave Papen the task of forming a new government.[80]

Image
The Hitler Cabinet on 30 January 1933.

In the morning of 29 January, Papen met with Hitler and Hermann Göring at his apartment, where it was agreed that Papen would serve as Vice-Chancellor and Commissioner for Prussia.[81][82] It was in the same meeting that Papen first learned that Hitler wanted to dissolve the Reichstag when he became Chancellor and, once the Nazis had won a majority of the seats in the ensuing elections, to activate the Enabling Act.[83] In the end, the President, who had previously vowed never to let Hitler become Chancellor, appointed Hitler to the post at 11.30 am on 30 January 1933, with Papen as Vice-Chancellor.[84] While Papen's intrigues appeared to have brought Hitler into power, the crucial dynamic was in fact provided by the Nazi Party's electoral support, which made military dictatorship the only alternative to Nazi rule for Hindenburg and his circle.[85]

At the formation of Hitler's cabinet on 30 January, only three Nazis held cabinet portfolios: Hitler, Göring, and Wilhelm Frick. The other eight posts were held by conservatives close to Papen. Additionally, as part of the deal that allowed Hitler to become Chancellor, Papen was granted the right to attend every meeting between Hitler and Hindenburg. Moreover, Cabinet decisions were made by majority vote. Papen believed that his conservative friends' majority in the Cabinet and his closeness to Hindenburg would keep Hitler in check.[86]

Vice-Chancellor

Hitler and his allies instead quickly marginalised Papen and the rest of the cabinet. For example, as part of the deal between Hitler and Papen, Göring had been appointed interior minister of Prussia, thus putting the largest police force in Germany under Nazi control. He frequently acted without consulting his nominal superior, Papen. On 1 February 1933, Hitler presented to the cabinet an Article 48 decree law that had been drafted by Papen in November 1932 allowing the police to take people into "protective custody" without charges. It was signed into law by Hindenburg on 4 February as the "Decree for the Protection of the German People".[87]

On the evening of 27 February 1933, Papen joined Hitler, Göring and Goebbels at the burning Reichstag and told him that he shared their belief that this was the signal for Communist revolution.[88] On 18 March 1933, in his capacity as Reich Commissioner for Prussia, Papen freed the "Potempa Five" under the grounds the murder of Konrad Pietzuch was an act of self-defense, making the five SA men "innocent victims" of a miscarriage of justice.[89] Neither Papen nor his conservative allies waged a fight against the Reichstag Fire Decree in late February or the Enabling Act in March. After the Enabling Act was passed, serious deliberations more or less ceased at cabinet meetings when they took place at all, which subsequently neutralised Papen's attempt to "box" Hitler in through cabinet-based decision-making.

Papen endorsed Hitler's plan presented at a cabinet meeting on 7 March 1933 to destroy the Zentrum by severing the Catholic Church from the Zentrum.[90] This was the origin of the Reichskonkordat that Papen was to negotiate with the Roman Catholic Church later in the spring of 1933.[91] Papen founded a new political party on 5 April 1933 called the League of German Catholics Cross and Eagle, which was intended as a conservative Catholic party that would hold the NSDAP in check while at the same time working with the NSDAP.[92] Both the Zentrum and the Bavarian People's Party declined to merge into Papen's new party while the rival Coalition of Catholic Germans which was sponsored by the NSDAP proved more effective at recruiting German Catholics.[93]

Image
Papen at the signing of the Reichskonkordat in Rome on 20 July 1933.

On 8 April Papen travelled to the Vatican to offer a 'Reichskonkordat' that defined the German state's relationship with the Roman Catholic Church. During his stay in Rome, Papen met the Italian Prime Minister Benito Mussolini and failed to persuade him to drop his support for the Austrian chancellor Dollfuss.[94] Papen was euphoric at the Reichskonkordat that he negotiated with Cardinal Eugenio Pacelli in Rome, believing that this was a diplomatic success that restored his status in Germany, guaranteed the rights of German Catholics in the Third Reich, and required the disbandment of the Zentrum and the Bavarian People's Party, thereby achieving one of Papen's main political goals since June 1932.[90] During Papen's absence, the Nazified Landtag of Prussia elected Göring as prime minister on 10 April. Papen saw the end of the Zentrum that he had engineered as one of his greatest achievements.[90] Later in May 1933, he was forced to disband the League of German Catholics Cross and Eagle owing to lack of public interest.[95]

Image
Papen with Hitler on 1 May 1933

In September 1933, Papen visited Budapest to meet the Hungarian Prime Minister Gyula Gömbös, and to discuss how Germany and Hungary might best co-operate against Czechoslovakia.[96] The Hungarians wanted the volksdeutsche (ethnic German) minorities in the Banat, Transylvania, Slovakia and Carpathia to agitate to return to Hungary in co-operation with the Magyar minorities, a demand that Papen refused to meet.[97] In September 1933, when the Soviet Union ended its secret military co-operation with Germany, the Soviets justified their move under the grounds that Papen had informed the French of the Soviet support for German violations of the Versailles Treaty.[98]

On 14 November 1933, Papen was appointed the Reich Commissioner for the Saar.[99] The Saarland was under the rule of the League of Nations and a referendum was scheduled for 1935 under which the Saarlanders had the option to return to Germany, join France, or retain the status quo.[99] As a conservative Catholic whose wife was from the Saarland, Papen had much understanding of the heavily Catholic region, and Papen gave numerous speeches urging the Saarlanders to vote to return to Germany.[99] Papen was successful in persuading the majority of the Catholic clergy in the Saarland to campaign for a return to Germany, and 90% of the Saarland voted to return to Germany in the 1935 referendum.[100]

Papen began covert talks with other conservative forces with the aim of convincing Hindenburg to restore the balance of power back to the conservatives.[101] By May 1934, it had become clear that Hindenburg was dying, with doctors telling Papen that the President only had a few months left to live.[102] Papen together with Otto Meissner, Hindenburg's chief of staff, and Major Oskar von Hindenburg, Hindenburg's son, drafted a "political will and last testament", which the President signed on 11 May 1934.[102] At Papen's request, the will called for the dismissal of certain National Socialist ministers from the cabinet, and regular cabinet meetings, which would have achieved Papen's plan of January 1933 for a broad governing coalition of the right.[102]
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 32994
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

PreviousNext

Return to Articles & Essays

Who is online

Users browsing this forum: No registered users and 7 guests