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Part 1 of 2

Syed Ahmad Khan
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 7/1/21

-- Chapter V. The Three Bureaus of Information, Excerpt from "Influential Centres of Disaffection": Indian Students in Edwardian London and the Empire that Shaped Them, by William H. Cowell
-- William Lee-Warner, by Wikipedia
-- James Broun-Ramsay, 1st Marquess of Dalhousie, by Wikipedia
-- Theodore Morison, by Wikipedia
-- National Indian Association, by Wikipedia
-- Royal India Society [India Society] [Royal India and Pakistan Society] [Royal India, Pakistan and Ceylon Society], by Wikipedia
-- Northbrook Society [Northbrook Indian Society] [Northbrook Club] [Northbrook Indian Club], by The Open University: Making Britain
-- Thomas Baring, 1st Earl of Northbrook, by Wikipedia
-- Thomas Walker Arnold, by Wikipedia
-- Indian Political Intelligence Office, by Wikipedia
-- John Wallinger, by Wikipedia
-- Mansfield Smith-Cumming, by Wikipedia
-- Shivaji [Chhatrapati Shivaji], by Wikipedia
-- All-India Muslim League, by Wikipedia
-- Ain-i-Akbari, by Wikipedia


Rahimatullah M. Sayani was an affluent Muslim belonging to the Khoja community who were disciples of the Aga Khan. He was associated with the Congress right from its inception. After Badruddin Tyabji, he was the second Muslim president of the Congress and presided over its twelfth annual session in Calcutta in 1896. In a candid presidential address, Sayani outlined, among other issues, the feelings of alienation among Muslims of India and attributed his reasons for the same. Sayani mentioned that before the advent of the British, the Muslims were the rulers of the country, with all the advantages of the ruling class. From the monarch to the courtiers to the landlords and officials, everyone was a co-religionist; the court language was theirs; they inherited positions of trust and responsibility that came along with emoluments and influence as their birthright. The Hindus, though part of the polity, were ‘tenants-at-will’ of the Muslims, were subservient and in awe of them.1 But a stroke of ill luck brought them down to the level of their Hindu countrymen. Being a ‘very sensitive race’ the Muslims resented this and would have nothing to do with their new rulers or their new fellow subjects, hitherto subordinates.

With the advent of English education in the country, the Hindus who were accustomed to learning a foreign language, as they had under their Muslim rulers, took to English naturally and easily. But the Muslims were yet to take to anything that ‘required hard labour and application, especially as they had to work harder than their former subjects, the Hindus’. They resented the idea of competing with those they considered inferior. The consequence of this was a turning of tables, with the Hindus becoming superior and the Muslim gradually being ‘ousted from their lands, their offices; in fact everything was lost, save their honour . . . they were soon reduced to a state of utter poverty. Ignorance and apathy seized hold of them while the fall of their former greatness rankled in their hearts’. The numbers proved Sayani’s claims. By 1867, eighty-eight Hindus and not a single Muslim had passed the MA and BA examinations.2

It is important to understand the long history behind this sense of alienation and separatism among a vast section of Muslims in India, particularly its leadership and clergy. This also becomes a prelude, setting the context in which Vinayak’s philosophy of Hindutva took birth. The political situation and the Hindu–Muslim equations prompted the urgency with which he composed such an exposition from the troubling confines of Ratnagiri prison. The leaderless disorientation in Hindu society, it being led in various directions and towards unrelated causes, and its own inherent divisions of caste and creed needed an intellectual response. Vinayak hoped to do that through his treatise.

There are numerous contradictions too. The same constitutional reforms that Vinayak endorsed in his petitions from Cellular Jail had provided the introduction for separate Muslim electorates. This move undoubtedly helped the later solidification of Indian politics on religious affiliation.

After the failure of the 1857 War of Independence, where reestablishing Bahadur Shah Zafar as the emperor of India was an important objective, the Wahabi movement of 1857–58, under Enayet Ali, did not join hands with the leaders of the 1857 movement. They fought for the establishment of a theocratic Islamic state, or dar-ul-Islam, in India. The Hindus were completely aloof from this long-drawn Wahabi struggle. After this, the Muslims as a community, by and large, did not take active part in any political organizations, including the INC. Being perceived as among the chief conspirators in 1857 further reduced their influence with the British and a general dejection gripped the community. At this point, Sir Syed Ahmed appeared as a beacon of hope. He took it as his mission to both mend fences between the Muslim community and the British, and also introduce the community to modern education. In fact, he published an entire tract, The Loyal Mohammedans of India, in which he took pains to explain that if there was any community in India that could be trusted and were fast bound with Christians, it was the Muslims of the country, who would be their staunch friends and loyalists. Inculcating this sense of loyalty to the British was one of the declared objectives of the Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental College that he set up in Aligarh in 1877. He vehemently opposed those of the community who were against the British—be it ulemas or those associated with the Congress. According to Syed, the Congress was fighting for a representative government on British lines—one in which the majority voice reigned, which would entail a fourth of the population comprising Muslims getting a short shrift. He never tired of emphasizing that India was a conglomerate of several nations and that the Muslims formed a distinctive unit. In a speech, he articulates this belief:

In a country like India where homogeneity does not exist in any one of the fields (nationality, religion, way of living, customs, mores, culture, and historical tradition), the introduction of representative government cannot produce any beneficial results; it can only result in interfering with the peace and prosperity of the land . . . the aims and objects of the Indian National Congress are based upon an ignorance of history and present day realities; they do not take into consideration that India is inhabited by different nationalities; I consider the experiment which the Indian National Congress wants to make fraught with dangers and suffering for all the nationalities of India, specially for the Muslims. The Muslims are in a minority, but they are a highly united minority. At least traditionally they are prone to take the sword in hand when the majority oppresses them. If this happens, it will bring about disasters greater than the ones which came in the wake of the happenings of 1857 . . . the Congress cannot rationally prove its claim to represent the opinions, ideals, and aspirations of the Muslims.3

The thrust of his Aligarh movement was that Hindus and Muslims were separate entities with distinctive outlooks, conflicting interests, and in a way, separate nationalities. In fact, he was the first proponent of the ‘two-nation’ theory that was to have catastrophic results on the future of India. To quote Sir Syed:
In whose hands shall the administration and the Empire of India rest? Now, suppose that all English, and the whole English army, were to leave India, taking with them all their cannon and their splendid weapons and everything, then who would be rulers of India? Is it possible that under these circumstances two nations—the Mahomedans and the Hindus—could sit on the same throne and remain equal in power? Most certainly not. It is necessary that one of them should conquer the other and thrust it down. To hope that both could remain equal is to desire the impossible and the inconceivable.4

Regarding the Congress demand that a section of the viceroy’s council should be elected by the people, Sir Syed debated:
Let us imagine the Viceroy’s Council made in this manner. And let us suppose, first of all, that we have universal suffrage, as in America, and that all have votes. And let us also suppose that all Mohammadan electors vote for a Mohammadan and all Hindu electors for a Hindu member, and now count how many votes the Mohammadan member will have and how many the Hindu. It is certain that the Hindu member will have four times as many, because their population is four times numerous . . . and now how can the Mohammadan guard his interests?5

Thus, democratic representation or appointments based on competition would work to the Muslim detriment and result in a Hindu rule. As a result, British rule was in the best interests of the community, which should also stay away from political agitation and act as a counter to the agitating Hindus, Sir Syed postulated. That the Congress suffered from an acute lack of Muslim participation in its early years is seldom mentioned. Over the first twenty-one years, from 1885 to 1905, the average attendance of Muslim delegates in the first five sessions was 15 per cent; that fell to 5 per cent and below in the subsequent fifteen sessions.6 Muslims of Allahabad, Lucknow, Meerut, Lahore, Madras and other places passed resolutions condemning the Congress. Newspapers such as Mahomedan Observer, Victoria Paper, The Muslim Herald, Rafiq-i-Hind, and Imperial Paper spoke unequivocally against the Congress, as did a powerful Muslim organ of northern India—the Aligarh Institute Gazette.7 Riots over issues such as cow slaughter and processional music in front of mosques further widened the growing gulf between the two communities, which the British took advantage of.

For instance, Lord Curzon managed to win over Muslims who were initially opposed to the Partition of Bengal by convincing them that it was in their favour. Nawab Salimullah of Dacca, one of the most influential Muslim leaders of East Bengal, sided with the British. Many Muslims saw in the creation of the province of East Bengal and Assam a culmination of the dreams of the Aligarh movement—a separate Muslim unit within the Indian body politic. At a meeting held in Dacca on 30 December 1906, a resolution of prominent Muslim leaders upheld the Partition of Bengal plan and criticized the swadeshi movement raging against it.8

The British actively encouraged petitions from prominent Muslim leaders seeking employment of a due proportion from the community in government service, abolition of competitive examinations for the community for recruitment to services, appointments of Muslim judges in every high court and chief court, communal or separate electorates for municipalities and Muslim electoral colleges for elections to legislative councils. Correspondence between Viceroy Lord Minto’s private secretary, Colonel Dunlop Smith, and Muslim leaders clearly demonstrates this, where, among other things, he carefully orchestrates the whole plan of action:

But in all these matters I want to remain behind the screen and this move should come from you. You are aware, how anxious I am for the good of the Musalmans, and I would, therefore, render all help with the greatest pleasure. I can prepare and draft the address for you. If it be prepared in Bombay then I can revise it because I know the art of drawing up petitions in good language. But Nawabsaheb, please remember that if within a short time any great and effective action has to be taken, then you should act quickly.9

This ‘engineered’ deputation submitted its memorandum to Lord Minto who gladly accepted it. Ramsay Macdonald, the future prime minister of Britain, too had reminisced: ‘The Mahomedan leaders are inspired by certain Anglo-Indian officials and that these officials have pulled wires at Simla and in London, and of malice aforethought sowed discord between the Hindu and the Mahomedan communities by showing the Muslims special favours.’10 The British press also picked up and played on this division of interests within the country and that the distinctive Muslim views entitled them to be constituted as a separate entity.

Elated by the favourable reception from the government, the Muslim leadership felt the urgent need of a political association to voice their demands better and also act as a counter to the Congress. There was no pan-Indian organization of the Muslims; all they had were loosely knit local units and groups of nawabs and eminent persons. Nawab Salimullah of Dacca advocated the idea of a Central Muhammadan Association whose chief goals were to support the British government and to look after the rights and interests of all the Muslims of India, in addition to acting as a bulwark against the Congress. The scheme was accepted, and at a meeting held on 30 December 1906, it was resolved that a political association called All India Muslim League should be established. At a meeting held in Karachi on 29 December 1907, the aims of the League were drawn— promoting pro-British feelings and loyalty towards the government among Muslims, protecting the rights and interests of Muslims of India and preventing rise of feelings of hostility towards other communities, without prejudice to the earlier mentioned objectives.11 There was opposition to movements like the Shivaji festival promoting a Hindu leader—more so one who fought against the Mughals—as a national hero was anathema.12 The secretary of the League declared:

We are not opposed to the social unity of the Hindus and the Mussalmans . . . but the other type of unity (political) involves the working out of common political purposes. This sort of our unity with the Congress cannot be possible because we and the Congressmen do not have common political objectives. They indulge in acts calculated to weaken the British Government. They want representative Government, which means death for Mussalmans. They desire competitive examinations for employment in Government services and this would mean the deprivation of Mussalmans of Government jobs. Therefore, we need not go near political unity [with the Hindus]. It is the aim of the League to present Muslim demands through respectful request, before the Government. They should not, like Congressmen, cry for boycott, deliver exciting speeches and write impertinent articles in newspapers and hold meetings to turn public feeling and attitude against their benign Government.13

It was in this context of intense distrust and discord that we had earlier seen the letter from Ziauddin Ahmad—later vice chancellor of Aligarh Muslim University—to Abdullah Suhrawardy who was at India House in London, asking Muslims to refrain from participating in activities of Shyamji, Vinayak and other revolutionaries. The spirit of British loyalty and seeking distinctiveness from the Hindus and the Congress that Sir Syed had induced in the community was to remain for a long time with most leaders, barring a few exceptions. As Sir Percival Joseph Griffiths, a prominent businessman who also worked for Indian Civil Service largely in eastern India, noted: ‘Whatever may have been other effects of the foundation of the Muslim League, it set the seal upon the Muslim belief that their interests must be regarded as completely separate from those of the Hindus and that no fusion of the two communities was possible.’14

In its annual session held at Amritsar in December 1908, the Muslim League expressed vehement opposition to all the ‘mischievous efforts’ to unsettle the settled fact of the Partition of Bengal.15 In the Imperial Council in 1910, when Bhupendra Nath Bose raised the question of reversing the Partition of Bengal, members Shams-ul-Huda of Bengal and Mazhar-ul-Huq of Bihar strongly opposed the move. They warned that if the government meddled with this ‘beneficent measure, it would be committing an act of supreme folly and would create unrest and discontent where none existed now’.16 That the views of prominent leaders of the community remained unchanged is evident from Muhammad Ali’s speech as Congress president in 1923, in which he referred to the government’s policy of reversing the Partition of Bengal as an important cause for the alienation of the Muslims from the British government.17

Throughout 1907 and 1908, heated debates were held regarding separate electorates and the weightage that was proposed by the Muslim deputation and consented to by Viceroy Lord Minto. The Muslim leadership argued that owing to the vast social, cultural and religious differences between the two communities, they feared that a Hindu majority would not be able to deal with them suitably or represent them fairly. It was also pointed out that Muslims should get a greater representation in the different councils than was warranted by their numerical strength in the country’s population. The logic offered for this was rather perverse. The deputation had stated that Muslims had ruled India for 700 years before the British arrival and hence they had a natural claim to greater ‘political importance’, which should be reflected in the councils. They also maintained that the community had played a vital role in defending the country and this enhanced its importance further.

The Morley–Minto Reforms of 1909 not only awarded separate Muslim electorates, but also the number of their members in the council was much more than the numerical strength of their population. The seeds of discord and of being two separate nations had thus been sown several decades before the freedom movement took birth. Gopalkrishna Gokhale lamented:

It was a commonplace of Indian politics that there can be no future for India as a nation unless a durable spirit of cooperation was developed and established between the two great communities . . . the union of all communities is no doubt the goal towards which we have to strive, but it cannot be denied that it does not exist in the country today and it is no use proceeding as though it existed, when in reality it does not 18 . . . over the greater part of India, the two communities had inherited a tradition of antagonism which though it might ordinarily lie dormant, broke forth into activity at the smallest provocation. It was this tradition that had to be overcome.19

-- Savarkar: Echoes from a Forgotten Past: 1883-1924, by Vikram Sampath



Traces of the Great: A medieval history of the Delhi Sultanate
by Francis Robinson
the-tls.co.uk
June 30, 2017

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The city walls of Tughluqabad, Delhi; from El mundo en la mano, 1878|© Universal History Archive/UIG via Getty Images

IN THIS REVIEW: TARIKH-I FIROZ SHAHI, Translated by Ishtiyaq Ahmad Zilli 396pp. Primus Books. £46.95 (US $69.95), Ziauddin Barani

Tarikh-i Firoz Shahi by Ziauddin Barani (1285–1357) is the most important history of India’s Delhi Sultanate, which was founded by Turkish invaders in the thirteenth century. It covers the high point of the Sultanate from the beginning of the reign of Balban in 1266 through to the sixth year of Firoz Shah Tughluq in 1357. If it did not exist, our knowledge of this important period in the establishment of Muslim power in South Asia would be much diminished.

That we have this history at all is the result of the will of one of the remarkable Muslims of nineteenth-century India, Syed Ahmed Khan. Later in the century, he fashioned the lineaments of Islamic modernist thought and founded the Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College at Aligarh, which was designed to enable his class to continue to have under the British the positions of power it held under the Mughals. Earlier in the century, he had become obsessed by the relics of the Sultanate that lay all around him in Delhi. These he recorded in one of his early publications, Asar as-Sanadid (1847/1853), which translates as “Traces of the Great”. It was Ahmed Khan who, with the help of Captain Nassau Lees and Maulvi Kabiruddin Ahmed, compiled the first printed edition of the Persian text of the Tarikh, using one complete manuscript and three incomplete manuscripts to finish what Ishtiyaq Ahmad Zilli tells us is the first Persian edited text. It was published by the Asiatic Society of Bengal (Calcutta) in 1862 and was one of the achievements which earned him his Fellowship of the Royal Asiatic Society.

Zilli’s translation is the first complete translation into English of Barani’s history. Several excerpts were translated in the nineteenth century, the largest and most used being that which appeared in the third volume of Henry Miers Elliot and John Dowson’s History of India as Told by its own Historians. The value of this particular excerpt has been increasingly undermined by the blatant imperial purpose of the volumes as a whole. “Though”, Elliot tells us in his preface of 1849, “the intrinsic value of these works may be small . . . they will make our native subjects more sensible of the immense advantages accruing to them from our rule.” It is understandable why Zilli, who has taught Sultanate history for many years at Aligarh Muslim University, should wish to produce a complete English text…


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Sir Syed Ahmad Khan, KCSI
Born: 17 October 1817, Delhi, Mughal Empire
Died: 27 March 1898 (aged 80), Aligarh, British India
Nationality: British Indian
Other names: Sir Syed
Notable work: The Mohammadan Commentary on the Holy Quran (Tafsir on QURAN).
Awards: Star of India
Era: 19th century
School: Islamic and Renaissance philosophy
Institutions: East India Company; Indian Judicial Branch; Aligarh Muslim University; Punjab University; Government College University
Main interests: Pragmatism, Metaphysics, language, aesthetics, Christianity and Islam
Notable ideas: Two-nation theory, Muslim adoption of Western ideas
Influences: Thomas Walker Arnold, John Locke, Thomas Paine, Gottlieb Leitner
Influenced: Pakistan Movement, Aligarh Movement, Muslim League, Lord Mountbatten of Burma, Ziauddin Ahmad, Pervez Musharraf, and his ideas remain critical in the national politics of Pakistan

Syed Ahmad Taqvi bin Syed Muhammad Muttaqi[1] KCSI (Urdu: سید احمد خان‎; 17 October 1817 – 27 March 1898), commonly known as Sir Syed Ahmad Khan (also Sayyid Ahmad Khan), was an Islamic pragmatist,[2] Islamic reformer,[3][4] philosopher, and educationist[5] in nineteenth-century British India.[6][7] Though initially espousing Hindu-Muslim unity, he became the pioneer of Muslim nationalism in India and is widely credited as the father of the two-nation theory, which formed the basis of the Pakistan movement.[8][9][10][11] Born into a family with strong debts to the Mughal court, Ahmad studied the Quran and Sciences within the court. He was awarded an honorary LLD from the University of Edinburgh in 1889.[12][9][7]

In 1838, Syed Ahmad entered the service of East India Company and went on to become a judge at a Small Causes Court in 1867, retiring from 1876. During the Indian Rebellion of 1857, he remained loyal to the British Raj and was noted for his actions in saving European lives.[3] After the rebellion, he penned the booklet The Causes of the Indian Mutiny – a daring critique, at the time, of various British policies that he blamed for causing the revolt. Believing that the future of Muslims was threatened by the rigidity of their orthodox outlook, Sir Ahmad began promoting Western–style scientific education by founding modern schools and journals and organising Islamic entrepreneurs.

In 1859, Syed established Gulshan School at Muradabad, Victoria School at Ghazipur in 1863, and a scientific society for Muslims in 1864. In 1875, founded the Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College, the first Muslim university in Southern Asia.[13] During his career, Syed repeatedly called upon Muslims to loyally serve the British Raj and promoted the adoption of Urdu as the lingua franca of all Indian Muslims. Syed criticized the Indian National Congress.[14]

Syed maintains a strong legacy in Pakistan and among Indian Muslims. He strongly influenced other Muslim leaders including Allama Iqbal and Muhammad Ali Jinnah. His advocacy of Islam's rationalist tradition, and at broader, radical reinterpretation of the Quran to make it compatible with science and modernity, continues to influence the global Islamic reformation.[15] Many universities and public buildings in Pakistan bear Sir Syed's name.[16]

Aligarh Muslim University celebrated Sir Syed’s 200th birth centenary with much enthusiasm on 17 October 2017. Former President of India Pranab Mukherjee was the chief guest.[17][18]

Early life

Do not show the face of Islam to others; instead show your face as the follower of true Islam representing character, knowledge, tolerance and piety.

— Sir Syed Ahmad Khan


Syed Ahmad Taqvi 'Khan Bahadur' was born on 17 October 1817 in Delhi, which was the capital of the Mughal Empire in the ruling times of Mughal Emperor Akbar II. Many generations of his family had since been highly connected with the administrative position in Mughal Empire. His maternal grandfather Khwaja Fariduddin served as Wazir (lit. Minister) in the court of Emperor Akbar Shah II.[19] His paternal grandfather Syed Hadi Jawwad bin Imaduddin held a mansab (lit. General)– a high-ranking administrative position and honorary name of "Mir Jawwad Ali Khan" in the court of Emperor Alamgir II. Sir Syed's father, Syed Muhammad Muttaqi,[20] was personally close to Emperor Akbar Shah II and served as his personal adviser.[21]

However, Syed Ahmad was born at a time when his father was regional insurrections aided and led by the East India Company, which had replaced the power traditionally held by the Mughal state, reducing its monarch to figurehead. With his elder brother Syed Muhammad bin Muttaqi Khan, Sir Syed was raised in a large house in a wealthy area of the city. They were raised in strict accordance with Mughal noble traditions and exposed to politics. Their mother Aziz-un-Nisa played a formative role in Sir Syed's early life, raising him with rigid discipline with a strong emphasis on modern education.[22] Sir Syed was taught to read and understand the Qur'an by a female tutor, which was unusual at the time. He received an education traditional to Muslim nobility in Delhi. Under the charge of Lord Wellesley, Sir Syed was trained in Persian, Arabic, Urdu and orthodox religious subjects.[23] He read the works of Muslim scholars and writers such as Sahbai, Rumi and Ghalib.[citation needed] Other tutors instructed him in mathematics, astronomy and Islamic jurisprudence.[24][25] Sir Syed was also adept at swimming, wrestling and other sports. He took an active part in the Mughal court's cultural activities.[26]

Syed Ahmad's elder brother founded the city's first printing press in the Urdu language along with the journal Sayyad-ul-Akbar.[citation needed] Sir Syed pursued the study of medicine for several years but did not complete the course.[24] Until the death of his father in 1838, Sir Syed had lived a life customary for an affluent young Muslim noble.[24] Upon his father's death, he inherited the titles of his grandfather and father and was awarded the title of Arif Jung by the emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar.[27] Financial difficulties put an end to Sir Syed's formal education, although he continued to study in private, using books on a variety of subjects.[26] Sir Syed assumed editorship of his brother's journal and rejected offers of employment from the Mughal court.[26]

Career

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Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk, Sir Syed Ahmad Khan, Justice Syed Mahmood, he was the first Muslim to serve as a High Court judge in the British Raj.

Having recognized the steady decline in Mughal political power, Sir Syed decided to enter the service of the East India Company. He could not enter the colonial civil service because it was only in the 1860s that Indians were admitted.[28] His first appointment was as a Serestadar (lit. Clerk) at the courts of law in Agra, responsible for record-keeping and managing court affairs.[28] In 1840, he was promoted to the title of munshi. In 1858, he was appointed to a high-ranking post at the court in Muradabad, where he began working on his most famous literary work.

Acquainted with high-ranking British officials, Sir Syed obtained close knowledge about British colonial politics during his service at the courts. At the outbreak of the Indian rebellion, on 10 May 1857, Sir Syed was serving as the chief assessment officer at the court in Bijnor.[citation needed] Northern India became the scene of the most intense fighting.[29] The conflict had left large numbers of civilians dead. Erstwhile centres of Muslim power such as Delhi, Agra, Lucknow and Kanpur were severely affected. Sir Syed was personally affected by the violence and the ending of the Mughal dynasty amongst many other long-standing kingdoms.[citation needed] Sir Syed and many other Muslims took this as a defeat of Muslim society.[30] He lost several close relatives who died in the violence. Although he succeeded in rescuing his mother from the turmoil, she died in Meerut, owing to the privations she had experienced.[29]

Social reforms in the Muslim society were initiated by Abdul Latif who founded "The Mohammedan Literary Society" in Bengal. Sir Syed Ahmad Khan established the MAO College which eventually became the Aligarh Muslim University. He opposed ignorance, superstitions and evil customs prevalent in Indian Muslim society. He firmly believed that Muslim society would not progress without the acquisition of western education and science. As time passed, Sir Syed began stressing on the idea of pragmatic modernism and started advocating for strong interfaith relations between Islam and Christianity.

Causes of the Indian Revolt

Sir Syed supported the East India Company during the 1857 uprising, a role which has been criticised by some nationalists such as Jamaluddin Afghani. In 1859 Sir Syed published the booklet Asbab-e-Baghawat-e-Hind (The Causes of the Indian Revolt) in which he studied the causes of the Indian revolt. In this, his most famous work, he rejected the common notion that the conspiracy was planned by Muslim elites, who resented the diminishing influence of Muslim monarchs. He blamed the East India Company for its aggressive expansion as well as the ignorance of British politicians regarding Indian culture. Sir Syed advised the British to appoint Muslims to assist in administration, to prevent what he called ‘haramzadgi’ (a vulgar deed) such as the mutiny.[31]

Maulana Altaf Hussain Hali wrote in the biography of Sir Syed that:

"As soon as Sir Syed reached Muradabad, he began to write the pamphlet entitled 'The Causes of the Indian Revolt' (Asbab-e-Baghawat-e-Hind), in which he did his best to clear the people of India, and especially the Muslims, of the charge of Mutiny. In spite of the obvious danger, he made a courageous and thorough report of the accusations people were making against the Government and refused the theory which the British had invented to explain the causes of the Mutiny."[32]


When the work was finished, without waiting for an English translation, Sir Syed sent the Urdu version to be printed at the Mufassilat Gazette Press in Agra. Within a few weeks, he received 500 copies back from the printers. One of his friends warned him not to send the pamphlet to the British Parliament or to the Government of India. Rae Shankar Das, a great friend of Sir Syed, begged him to burn the books rather than put his life in danger. Sir Syed replied that he was bringing these matters to the attention of the British for the good of his own people, of his country, and of the government itself. He said that if he came to any harm while doing something that would greatly benefit the rulers and the subjects of India alike, he would gladly suffer whatever befell him. When Rae Shankar Das saw that Sir Syed's mind was made up and nothing could be done to change it, he wept and remained silent. After performing a supplementary prayer and asking God's blessing, Sir Syed sent almost all the 500 copies of his pamphlet to England, one to the government, and kept the rest himself.

When the government of India had the book translated and presented before the council, Lord Canning, the governor-general, and Sir Bartle Frere accepted it as a sincere and friendly report. The foreign secretary Cecil Beadon, however, severely attacked it, calling it 'an extremely seditious pamphlet'. He wanted a proper inquiry into the matter and said that the author, unless he could give a satisfactory explanation, should be harshly dealt with. Since no other member of the Council agreed with his opinion, his attack did no harm.

Later, Sir Syed was invited to attend Lord Canning's durbar in Farrukhabad and happened to meet the foreign secretary there. He told Sir Syed that he was displeased with the pamphlet and added that if he had really had the government's interests at heart, he would not have made his opinion known in this way throughout the country; he would have communicated it directly to the government. Sir Syed replied that he had only had 500 copies printed, the majority of which he had sent to England, one had been given to the government of India, and the remaining copies were still in his possession. Furthermore, he had the receipt to prove it. He was aware, he added, that the view of the rulers had been distorted by the stress and anxieties of the times, which made it difficult to put even the most straightforward problem in its right perspective. It was for this reason that he had not communicated his thoughts publicly. He promised that for every copy that could be found circulating in India he would personally pay 1,000 rupees. At first, Beadon was not convinced and asked Sir Syed over and over again if he was sure that no other copy had been distributed in India. Sir Syed reassured him on this matter, and Beadon never mentioned it again. Later he became one of Sir Syed's strongest supporters.

Many official translations were made of the Urdu text of The Causes of the Indian Revolt. The one undertaken by the India Office formed the subject of many discussions and debates.[33] The pamphlet was also translated by the government of India and several members of parliament, but no version was offered to the public. A translation which had been started by a government official was finished by Sir Syed's great friend, Colonel G.F.I. Graham, and finally published in 1873.[32]

Influence of Mirza Ghalib

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The court of Akbar, an illustration from a manuscript of the Ain-e-Akbari

In 1855, he finished his scholarly, well researched and illustrated edition of Abul Fazl's Ai'n-e Akbari, itself an extraordinarily difficult book. Having finished the work to his satisfaction, and believing that Mirza Asadullah Khan Ghalib was a person who would appreciate his labours, Syed Ahmad approached the great Ghalib to write a taqriz (in the convention of the times, a laudatory foreword) for it. Ghalib obliged, but what he did produce was a short Persian poem castigating the Ai'n-e Akbari, and by implication, the imperial, sumptuous, literate and learned Mughal culture of which it was a product. The least that could be said against it was that the book had little value even as an antique document. Ghalib practically reprimanded Syed Ahmad Khan for wasting his talents and time on dead things. Worse, he praised sky-high the "sahibs of England" who at that time held all the keys to all the a’ins in this world.[34]

The poem was unexpected, but it came at the time when Syed Ahmad Khan's thought and feelings themselves were inclining toward change. Ghalib seemed to be acutely aware of a European[English]-sponsored change in world polity, especially Indian polity. Syed Ahmad might well have been piqued at Ghalib's admonitions, but he would also have realized that Ghalib's reading of the situation, though not nuanced enough, was basically accurate. Syed Ahmad Khan may also have felt that he, being better informed about the English and the outside world, should have himself seen the change that now seemed to be just round the corner.

Sir Syed Ahmad Khan never again wrote a word in praise of the Ai'n-e Akbari and in fact gave up taking an active interest in history and archaeology. He did edit another two historical texts over the next few years, but neither of them was anything like the Ai'n: a vast and triumphalist document on the governance of Akbar.[35]

Scholarly works

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First issue of the journal Muhammadan Social Reformer dated 24 December 1870, it was a pioneering publication initiated by Sir Syed to promote liberal ideas in Muslim society.

While continuing to work as a junior clerk, Sir Syed began focusing on writing, from the age of 23 (in 1840), on various subjects (from mechanics to educational issues), mainly in Urdu, where he wrote, at least, 6000 pages.[36][37] His career as an author began when he published a series of treatises in Urdu on religious subjects in 1842. He published the book Asaar-us-sanadeed (The Remnants of Ancient Heroes) documenting antiquities of Delhi dating from the medieval era. This work earned him the reputation of a cultured scholar. In 1842, he completed the Jila-ul-Qulub bi Zikr-il Mahbub and the Tuhfa-i-Hasan, along with the Tahsil fi jar-i-Saqil in 1844. These works focused on religious and cultural subjects. In 1852, he published the two works Namiqa dar bayan masala tasawwur-i-Shaikh and Silsilat ul-Mulk. He released the second edition of Ansar-as-sanadid in 1854.[38] He also started work on a commentary on the Bible – the first by a Muslim – in which he argued that Islam was the closest religion to Christianity, with a common lineage from Abrahamic religions.[24] He began with Genesis and Matthew, the first books of the Old and New Testament, but quit his project before even completing those first two. His other writings such as Loyal Muhammadans of India, Tabyin-ul-Kalam and A Series of Essays on the Life of Muhammad and Subjects Subsidiary Therein helped to create cordial relations between the British authorities and the Muslim community.

He was also a reader of Darwin and, while not agreeing with all of his ideas, he could be described as a sort of theistic evolutionist like his contemporary Asa Gray, and one of the first in the Islamic world, finding the arguments supporting such view through his own scientific research but also quoting earlier Islamic scholars like Al-Jahiz, Ibn Khaldun and Shah Waliullah.[39]
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Muslim reformer

See also: Aligarh Movement

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The motto of Aligarh University, Taught man that which he knew not. (Qur'an 96:5)

Through the 1850s, Syed Ahmad Khan began developing a strong passion for education. While pursuing studies of different subjects including European jurisprudence, Sir Syed began to realise the advantages of Western-style education, which was being offered at newly established colleges across India. Despite being a devout Muslim, Sir Syed criticised the influence of traditional dogma and religious orthodoxy, which had made most Indian Muslims suspicious of British influences.[40] Sir Syed began feeling increasingly concerned for the future of Muslim communities.[40] A scion of Mughal nobility, Sir Syed had been reared in the finest traditions of Muslim elite culture and was aware of the steady decline of Muslim political power across India. The animosity between the British and Muslims before and after the Indian Rebellion of 1857 threatened to marginalise Muslim communities across India for many generations.[40] Sir Syed intensified his work to promote co-operation with British authorities, promoting loyalty to the Empire amongst Indian Muslims. Committed to working for the upliftment of Muslims, Sir Syed founded a modern madrassa in Muradabad in 1859; this was one of the first religious schools to impart scientific education. Sir Syed also worked on social causes, helping to organise relief for the famine-struck people of North-West Province in 1860. He established another modern school in Ghazipur in 1863.

Upon his transfer to Aligarh in 1864, Sir Syed began working wholeheartedly as an educator. He founded the Scientific Society of Aligarh, the first scientific association of its kind in India. Modelling it after the Royal Society and the Royal Asiatic Society,[25] Sir Syed assembled Muslim scholars from different parts of the country. The Society held annual conferences, disbursed funds for educational causes and regularly published a journal on scientific subjects in English and Urdu. Sir Syed felt that the socio-economic future of Muslims was threatened by their orthodox aversions to modern science and technology.[40] He published many writings promoting liberal, rational interpretations of Islamic scriptures, struggling to find rational interpretations for jinn, angels, and miracles of the Prophets.[41] One example was the reaction to his argument – which appeared in his tafsir (exegesis) of the Quran – that riba referred to interest charges when lending money to the poor, but not to the rich, nor to borrowers "in trade or in industry", since this finance supported "trade, national welfare and prosperity". While many jurists declared all interest to be riba, (according to Sir Syed) this was based "on their own authority and deduction" rather than the Quran.[42]

Many other orthodox Sunni schools condemned him as out of the fold of Islam i.e. kafir.[43] Many of his own friends, like Nawab Muhsin ul Mulk, expressed their significant reservations at his religious ideas (many of which were expounded in his commentary of Qur'an).[44] According to J.M.S. Baljon his ideas created "a real hurricane of protests and outbursts of wrath" among the local clerics "in every town and village" in Muslim India, who issued fatawa "declaring him to be a kafir" (unbeliever).[45] He was also accused of having converted to Christianity.[46]

Maulana Qasim Nanautawi, the founder of Darul 'Uloom Deoband, expressed in a letter to an acquaintance of his and Sir Syed's:

"No doubt, I greatly admire, as per what I've heard, Syed (Ahmad) Sahab's courage (Ūlul Azmi) and concern for the Muslims (Dardmandi e Ahl e Islam). For this if I shall express my affection for him, it will be rightful. However, similar to this (or rather more than this), upon hearing about his disturbed (Fāsid) beliefs, I have deep complains and sorrow for him"[47]

Maulana Qasim Nanautawi wrote directly to Sir Syed as well, explaining him some of his "noteworthy" mistakes. This correspondence was published as "Tasfiyat ul Aqaaid" in 1887 C.E[48]

Advocacy of Urdu

See also: Hindi-Urdu controversy

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Sir Syed Ahmad Khan in Punjab

The onset of the Hindi-Urdu controversy of 1867 saw the emergence of Sir Syed as a champion for cause of the Urdu language. He became a leading Muslim voice opposing the adoption of Hindi as a second official language of the United Provinces (now Uttar Pradesh). Sir Syed perceived Urdu as the lingua franca of the United Provinces which was created as a confluence of Muslim and Hindu contributions in India.[8] Having been developed by during the Mughal period, Urdu was used as a secondary language to Persian, the official language of the Mughal court. Since the decline of the Mughal dynasty, Sir Syed promoted the use of Urdu through his own writings. Under Sir Syed, the Scientific Society translated Western works only into Urdu. The schools established by Sir Syed imparted education in the Urdu medium. The demand for Hindi, led largely by Hindus, was to Sir Syed an erosion of the centuries-old Muslim cultural domination of India. Testifying before the British-appointed education commission, Sir Syed controversially exclaimed that "Urdu was the language of gentry and Hindi that of the vulgar."[49] His remarks provoked a hostile response from Hindu leaders, who unified across the nation to demand the recognition of Hindi.

The success of the Hindi movement led Sir Syed to further advocate Urdu as the symbol of Muslim heritage and as the language of all Indian Muslims. His educational and political work grew increasingly centred around and exclusively for Muslim interests. He also sought to persuade the British to give Urdu extensive official use and patronage. His colleagues such as Mohsin-ul-Mulk and Maulvi Abdul Haq developed organisations such as the Urdu Defence Association and the Anjuman Taraqqi-i-Urdu, committed to the perpetuation of Urdu.[citation needed] All these colleagues led efforts that resulted in the adoption of Urdu as the official language of the Hyderabad State and as the medium of instruction in the Osmania University.[citation needed][50] To Muslims in northern and western India, Urdu had become an integral part of political and cultural identity. However, the division over the use of Hindi or Urdu further provoked communal conflict between Muslims and Hindus in India.[citation needed]

On 1 April 1869 he went, along with his sons Syed Mahmood and Syed Hamed to England, where he was awarded the Order of the Star of India from the British government on 6 August. Travelling across England, he visited its colleges and was inspired by the culture of learning established after the Renaissance.[51] Sir Syed returned to India in the following year determined to build a "Muslim Cambridge." Upon his return, he organised the "Committee for the Better Diffusion and Advancement of Learning among Muhammadans" (Muslims) on 26 December 1870. Sir Syed described his vision of the institution he proposed to establish in an article written sometime in 1872 and re-printed in the Aligarh Institute Gazette of 5 April 1911:

I may appear to be dreaming and talking like Shaikh Chilli, but we aim to turn this MAO College into a University similar to that of Oxford or Cambridge. Like the churches of Oxford and Cambridge, there will be mosques attached to each College... The College will have a dispensary with a Doctor and a compounder, besides a Unani Hakim. It will be mandatory on boys in residence to join the congregational prayers (namaz) at all the five times. Students of other religions will be exempted from this religious observance. Muslim students will have a uniform consisting of a black alpaca, half-sleeved chugha and a red Fez cap... Bad and abusive words which boys generally pick up and get used to, will be strictly prohibited. Even such a word as a "liar" will be treated as an abuse to be prohibited. They will have food either on tables of European style or on chaukis in the manner of the Arabs... Smoking of cigarette or huqqa and the chewing of betels shall be strictly prohibited. No corporal punishment or any such punishment as is likely to injure a student's self-respect will be permissible... It will be strictly enforced that Shia and Sunni boys shall not discuss their religious differences in the College or in the boarding house. At present it is like a day dream. I pray to God that this dream may come true."


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Signatures of Sir Syed

By 1873, the committee under Sir Syed issued proposals for the construction of a college in Aligarh. He began publishing the journal Tahzib-al-Akhlaq (Social Reformer) on 24 December 1870 to spread awareness and knowledge on modern subjects and promote reforms in Muslim society.[52] Sir Syed worked to promote reinterpretation of Muslim ideology in order to reconcile tradition with Western education. He argued in several books on Islam that the Qur'an rested on an appreciation of reason and natural law, making scientific inquiry important to being a good Muslim. Sir Syed established a modern school in Aligarh and, obtaining support from wealthy Muslims and the British, laid the foundation stone of the Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College on 24 May 1875. He retired from his career as a jurist the following year, concentrating entirely on developing the college and on religious reform.[25] Sir Syed's pioneering work received support from the British. Although intensely criticised by orthodox religious leaders hostile to modern influences, Sir Syed's new institution attracted a large student body, mainly drawn from the Muslim gentry and middle classes.[43][self-published source?] The curriculum at the college involved scientific and Western subjects, as well as Oriental subjects and religious education.[25] The first chancellor was Sultan Shah Jahan Begum, a prominent Muslim noblewoman, and Sir Syed invited an Englishman, Theodore Beck, to serve as the first college principal.[43] The college was originally affiliated with Calcutta University but was transferred to the Allahabad University in 1885. Near the turn of the 20th century, it began publishing its own magazine and established a law school. In 1920, the college was transformed into a university.

Political career

In 1878, Sir Syed was nominated to the Viceroy's Legislative Council.[53] He testified before the education commission to promote the establishment of more colleges and schools across India. At the start of his political career, Sir Syed was an advocate of Hindu-Muslim unity and India's composite culture, wanting to empower all Indians.[8] In the same year, Sir Syed founded the Muhammadan Association to promote political co-operation amongst Indian Muslims from different parts of the country. In 1886, he organised the All India Muhammadan Educational Conference in Aligarh, which promoted his vision of modern education and political unity for Muslims. His works made him the most prominent Muslim politician in 19th century India, often influencing the attitude of Muslims on various national issues. He supported the efforts of Indian political leaders Surendranath Banerjee and Dadabhai Naoroji to obtain representation for Indians in the government and civil services. In 1883, he founded the Muhammadan Civil Service Fund Association to encourage and support the entry of Muslim graduates into the Indian Civil Service (ICS).[25][54]

Hindu-Muslim unity

At the start of his career, Syed Ahmad Khan advocated for Hindu-Muslim unity in Colonial India.[8] He stated: "India is a beautiful bride and Hindus and Muslims are her two eyes. If one of them is lost, this beautiful bride will become ugly."[8] Being raised in the diverse city of Delhi, Syed Ahmad Khan was exposed to the festivals of both Hindus and Muslims.[8] He collected Hindu scriptures and "had a commitment to the country’s composite culture", being close friends with Swami Vivekanand to Debendranath Tagore.[8] In the 19th century, he opposed cow slaughter, even stopping a fellow Muslim from sacrificing one for Eid to promote peace between Muslims and Hindus.[8] Addressing a large gathering in Gurdaspur on January 27, 1884 Sir Syed said:

O Hindus and Muslims! Do you belong to a country other than India? Don’t you live on the soil and are you not buried under it or cremated on its ghats? If you live and die on this land, then bear in mind that ‘Hindu’ and ‘Muslim’ is but a religious word: all the Hindus, Muslims and Christians who live in this country are one nation.[8]


When he founded Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College, he opened its admissions to Indians of all faiths, with its first principal Henry Siddons being a Christian and one of its patrons Mahendra Singh of Patialabeing a Sikh.[8] Shafey Kidwai notes that Sir Syed promoted "advocacy of the empowerment of all Indians".[8]

Two-Nation Theory

Sir Syed is considered as the first person to theorize the idea of separate nationhood for Muslims in subcontinent.[55][11] In a speech at Meerut in 1866 he presented on overall scenario of post colonial phase in which he described Muslims and Hindus as two nations.[56] He's regarded as the father of Two-Nation Theory and the pioneer of Muslim nationalism which led to the partition of India.[9][10] Urdu-Hindi controversy is seen as the transformation of Sir Syed's views towards Muslim nationhood which he expressed in his speeches during later days.[55]

While fearful of the loss of Muslim political power owing to the community's backwardness, Sir Syed was also averse to the prospect of democratic self-government, which would give control of government to the Hindu-majority population:[57][58]

"At this time our nation is in a bad state in regards education and wealth, but God has given us the light of religion and the Quran is present for our guidance, which has ordained them and us to be friends. Now God has made them rulers over us. Therefore we should cultivate friendship with them, and should adopt that method by which their rule may remain permanent and firm in India, and may not pass into the hands of the Bengalis... If we join the political movement of the Bengalis our nation will reap a loss, for we do not want to become subjects of the Hindus instead of the subjects of the "people of the Book..."[58]


Later in his life he said, "Suppose that the English community and the army were to leave India, taking with them all their cannons and their splendid weapons and all else, who then would be the rulers of India?...

Is it possible that under these circumstances two nations—the Mohammedans and the Hindus—could sit on the same throne and remain equal in power? Most certainly not. It is necessary that one of them should conquer the other. To hope that both could remain equal is to desire the impossible and the inconceivable. But until one nation has conquered the other and made it obedient, peace cannot reign in the land."[59]

All-India Muslim League

Sir Syed's educational model and progressive thinking inspired Muslim elites who supported the All India Muslim League. Ahmad Khan founded the All India Muhammadan Educational Conference in 1886 in order to promote Western education, especially science and literature, among India's Muslims. The conference, in addition to generating funds for Ahmad Khan's Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College, motivated Muslim elites to propose expansion of educational uplift elsewhere, known as the Aligarh Movement. In turn this new awareness of Muslim needs helped stimulate a political consciousness among Muslim elites that went on to form the AIML which led Muslims of India towards formation of Pakistan.[60]

Overall, Sir Syed is hailed as a Muslim social reformer who promoted communal harmony and peaceful coexistence of all communities in India. However in later days he presented the idea of Muslim nationhood under the fear of Hindu domination which became the basis for creation of Pakistan and thus Sir Syed is also considered among the founders of Pakistan. In an undivided India under the British rule, he was worried about Muslim backwardness and unwillingness to adopt modern education. He worked towards social and educational upliftment of Muslims so as to enable them to walk shoulder to shoulder with all other communities in India.

Final years and legacy

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Tomb of Syed Ahmad Khan

Syed Ahmad is widely commemorated across South Asia as a great Muslim social reformer and visionary.[25][54] At the same time, Syed Ahmad sought to politically ally Muslims with the British government. An avowed loyalist of the British Empire, he was nominated as a member of the Civil Service Commission in 1887 by Lord Dufferin. In 1888, he established the United Patriotic Association at Aligarh to promote political co-operation with the British and Muslim participation in the British government.

Sir Syed Ahmad Khan Bahadur lived the last two decades of his life in Aligarh, regarded widely as the mentor of 19th and 20th century Muslim entrepreneurs. Battling illnesses and old age, Sir Syed died on 27 March 1898. He was buried besides Sir Syed Masjid inside the campus of the Aligarh Muslim University.

The university he founded remains one of India's most prominent institutions and served as the arsenal of Muslim India. Prominent alumni of Aligarh include Muslim political leaders Maulana Mohammad Ali Jouhar, Abdur Rab Nishtar, Maulana Shaukat Ali and Maulvi Abdul Haq, who is hailed in Pakistan as Baba-e-Urdu (Father of Urdu). The first two Prime Ministers of Pakistan, Liaquat Ali Khan and Khawaja Nazimuddin, as well as Indian President Dr. Zakir Hussain, are amongst Aligarh's most famous graduates. In India, Sir Syed is commemorated as a pioneer who worked for the socio-political upliftment of Indian Muslims.

Honours

On 2 June 1869, Syed Ahmad Khan was appointed a Companion of the Order of the Star of India (CSI), for his service as Principal Sadr Amin.[61] He was appointed a fellow of the Calcutta and Allahabad Universities by the Viceroy in the years 1876 and 1887 respectively.[62]

Syed Ahmad was later bestowed with the suffix of 'Khan Bahadur' and was subsequently knighted by the British government in the 1888 New Year Honours as a Knight Commander of the Order of the Star of India (KCSI).[63][14] for his loyalty to the British crown, through his membership of the Imperial Legislative Council[64] and in the following year he received an LL.D. honoris causa from the Edinburgh University.[25][65]

India Post issued commemorative postage stamps in his honour in 1973 and 1998.[66]

Pakistan Postal Services also issued a commemorative postage stamp in his honour in 1990 in its 'Pioneers of Freedom' series.[67]

In 1997 Syed Ahmad Khan was commemorated with an English Heritage blue plaque at 21 Mecklenburgh Square in Bloomsbury, where he lived in 1869–70.[68]

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1973 Indian stamp

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English Heritage blue plaque dedicated to Sir Syed

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Sir Syed's house in the university campus

Bibliography

Legal works


1. Act No. 10 (Stamp Act) 1862.
2. Act No. 14 (Limitation Act )1859–1864.
3. Act No. 16 (Regarding registration documents) – Allyson, 1864.
4. Act No. 18 (Regarding women's rights) 1866.

Religious works

4. Ahkam Tu'am Ahl-Kitab, Kanpur, 1868.
5. Al-Du'a Wa'l Istajaba, Agra, 1892.
6. Al-Nazar Fi Ba'z Masa'il Imam Al-Ghazzali, Agra.
7. Izalat ul-Chain as Zi'al Qarnain, Agra, 1889.
8. Zila al-Qulub ba Zikr al-Mahbub, Delhi, 1843.
9. Khulq al-Insan ala ma fi al-Quran, Agra, 1892.
10. Kimiya-i-Sa'dat, 2 fasl, 1883.
11. Mazumm ba nisbat tanazzul ulum-i-diniya wa Arabiya wa falsafa-i-Yunaniya, Agra, 1857.
12. Namiqa fi Bayan Mas'ala Tasawwur al-Shaikh, Aligarh, 1883.
13. Rah-i-Sunnat dar rad-i-bid'at, Aligarh, 1883.
14. Risala Ibtal-i-Ghulami, Agra, 1893.
15. Risala ho wal Mojud, 1880.
16. Risala Tahqiq Lafzi-i-Nassara, 1860.
17. Tabyin-ul-Kalam fi Tafsir-al-turat-wa'l Injil ala Mullat-al-Islam (The Mohomedan Commentary on the Holy Bible).
18. Tafsir-ul-Qura'n
Vol. I Aligarh, 1880,
Vol. II Aligarh, 1882, Agra, 1903.
Vol. III Aligarh, 1885
Vol. IV Aligarh, 1888
Vol. V Aligarh, 1892.
Vol. VI Aligarh, 1895
Vol. VII Agra, 1904.
19. Tafsir al-Jinn Wa'l Jan ala ma fi al-Qur'an, Rahmani Press, Lahore, 1893, Agra, 1891.
20. Tafsir-a-Samawat, Agra.
21. Tahrir fi Usul al-Tafsir, Agra, 1892.
22. Tarjama fawa'id al-afkar fi amal al-farjar, Delhi 1846.
23. Tarqim fi qisa ashab al-kahf wal-Raqim, Agra, 1889.
24. Tasfiyad al'Aquid (Being the correspondence between Syed Ahmad Khan and Maulana Muhammad Qasim of Deobund).
25. Asbab-e-Baghawat-e-Hind (Reasons for the Indian Revolt of 1857) 1875

Historical works

Image
Title page of Commentary of Quran by Sir Syed Ahmed Khan

25. A'in-e-Akbari (Edition with Illustration), Delhi.
26. Asrar-us-Sanadid (i) Syed-ul-Akhbar, 1847, (II) Mata-i-Sultani, 1852.
27. Description des monument de Delhi in 1852, D'a Pre Le Texte Hindostani De Saiyid Ahmad Khan (tr. by M. Garcin De Tassy), Paris, 1861.
28. Jam-i-Jum, Akbarabad, 1940.
29. Silsilat-ul-Muluk, Musaraf ul Mataba', Delhi, 1852.
30. Tarikh-i-Firoz Shahi (Edition), Asiatic Society, Calcutta, 1862.
31. Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri (edition Aligarh, 1864).

Biographical works

32. Al-Khutbat al-Ahmadiya fi'l Arab wa'I Sirat al-Muhammadiya : Aligarh, 1900, English translation, London, 1869–70.
33. Sirat-i-Faridiya, Agra, 1896.
34. Tuhfa-i-Hasan, Aligarh, 1883.

Political works

35. Asbab-i-Baghawat-e-Hind, Urdu 1858 and English edition, Banaras.
36. Lecture Indian National Congress Madras Par, Kanpur, 1887.
37. Lectures on the Act XVI of 1864, delivered on 4 December 1864 for the Scientific Society, Allygurh, 1864.
38. Musalmanon ki qismat ka faisla (Taqarir-e-Syed Ahmad Khan wa Syed Mehdi Ali Khan etc.) Agra, 1894.
39. On Hunter's: Our Indian Mussulmans' London, 1872.
40. Present State of Indian Politics (Consisting of lectures and Speeches) Allahabad, 1888.
41. Sarkashi Zilla Binjor, Agra 1858.

Lectures

42. Iltimas be Khidmat Sakinan-i-Hindustan dar bad tarraqi ta' lim ahl-i.Hind, Ghazipore, 1863.
43. Lecture dar bab targhib wa tahris talim itfal-i-Musalmanan, in 1895, Agra 1896.
44. Lecture Madrasaat ul-Ulum Aligarh Key Tarikhi halat

UykjhuhfPar, Agra. 1889.

45. Lecture Ijlas Dahum Muhammadan Educational Conference, Agra, 1896.
46. Lecture Muta'liq Ijlas Yazdahum Muhammadan Educational Conference, Agra, 1896.
47. Majmu'a Resolution Haye dah sala (Resolutions passed by the Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental Educational Conference from 1886 to 1895) ed. by Sir Syed Ahmad, Agra, 1896.
48. Report Salana (Annual Report of the Boarding House of Madrasat-ul-Ulum 1879–1880).

Image
Sir Syed with his son Syed Mahmood, grand son Syed Ross Masood, and some admirers.

Collected works

49. Khutut-i-Sir Syed, ed Ross Masud, 1924.
50. Majuma Lecture Kaye Sir Syed ed. Munshi Sirajuddin, Sadhora 1892.
51. Maqalat-i-Sir-Syed ed. by 'Abdullah Khvesgri, Aligarh, 1952.
52. Maqalat-i-Sir Syed, ed. By Muhammad Ismail, Lahore,
53. Makatib-i-Sir Syed, Mustaq Husain, Delhi, 1960.
54. Maktubat-i-Sir Syed, Muhammad Ismail Panipati, Lahore, 1959.
55. Makummal Majumua Lectures wa speeches. ed. Malik Fazaluddin, Lahore, 1900.
56. Muktubat al-Khullan ed. Mohd. Usman Maqbul, Aligarh 1915.
57. Tasanif-i-Ahmadiya (Collection of Syed Ahmad Khan's works on religions topics) in 8 parts.
58. Stress on Holy Quran.
59. Reformation of Faith.

Miscellaneous

58. On the Use of the Sector (Urdu), Syed-ul-Akbar, 1846.
59. Qaul-i-Matin dar Ibtal-i-Harkat i Zamin, Delhi, 1848.
60. Tashil fi Jar-a-Saqil, Agra, 1844.
61. Ik Nadan Khuda Parast aur Dana dunyadar Ki Kahani, Badaon, 1910.
62. Kalamat-ul-Haqq, Aligarh

Journals, reports, and proceedings

1. Tehzeeb-ul-Ikhlaq.
2. Aligarh Institute Gazette.
3. Proceedings of the Muhammadens Educational Conference.
4. An Account of the Loyal Muhammadans of India, Parts I, II, III, Moufussel Press, Meerut, 1860.
5. Proceedings of the Scientific Society.
6. By-Laws of the Scientific Society.
7. Addresses and speeches relating to the Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College in Aligarh (1875–1898) ed. Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk, Aligarh, 1898.

See also

• Tafazzul Husain Kashmiri
• Aligarh Muslim University
• Aligarh Movement
• All India Muhammadan Educational Conference
• Two-nation theory
• Muslim nationalism in South Asia
• All India Muslim League
• Islamic Modernism

References

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2. Dietrich Reetz. "Enlightenment and Islam: Sayyid Ahmad Khan's Plea to Indian Muslims for Reason". The Indian Historical Review, Delhi. 14 (1–2): 206–218.
3. Cyril Glasse (2001) The New Encyclopedia of Islam, Altamira Press
4. Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World, Thompson Gale (2004)
5. "Ahmad Khan, Sayyid – Oxford Islamic Studies Online". http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com. Retrieved 30 January 2021.
6. "Misreading Sir Syed". The Indian Express. 17 October 2017. Archived from the original on 7 February 2019. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
7. "Two-nation theory: Aligarh boys remember Sir Syed Ahmed Khan". The Express Tribune (newspaper). 19 October 2011. Archived from the original on 27 March 2019. Retrieved 24 August 2019.
8. Shirali, Aresh (10 August 2017). "The Enigma of Aligarh". Open Magazine.
9. "Beacon in the dark: Father of the two-nation theory remembered". The Express Tribune (newspaper). 27 October 2014. Archived from the original on 27 March 2019. Retrieved 24 August 2019.
10. Paracha, Nadeem F. (15 August 2016). "The forgotten future: Sir Syed and the birth of Muslim nationalism in South Asia". DAWN.COM. Retrieved 18 October 2020.
11. "Jinnah's two nation theory". The Nation. 27 February 2020. Retrieved 18 October 2020.
12. "Sir Syed Ahmad Khan-Man with a Great Vision". http://www.irfi.org. Archived from the original on 29 October 2016. Retrieved 13 September 2016.
13. "Sir Syed Ahmad Khan | The greatest Muslim reformer and statesman of the 19th Century". 1 June 2003. Archived from the original on 12 September 2016. Retrieved 11 September 2016.
14. Ikram, S.S. Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan: Muslim Scholar. Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 5 September 2015. Retrieved 30 July 2015.
15. "Why Sir Syed loses and Allama Iqbal wins in Pakistan – The Express Tribune". 8 February 2013. Archived from the original on 1 July 2016. Retrieved 11 September 2016.
16. "'Commercialisation of Sir Syed's name': Court seeks input from city's top managers – The Express Tribune". 1 February 2012. Archived from the original on 11 April 2016. Retrieved 11 September 2016.
17. "Sir Syed Day: Why October 17 Is Important For AMU And Its Alumni". NDTV. 17 October 2017. Archived from the original on 17 October 2017. Retrieved 17 October 2017.
18. "Mukherjee calls for research at AMU celebration". The New Indian Express. Archived from the original on 28 October 2017. Retrieved 27 October 2017.
19. "Quran academy". Story of Pakistan. Archived from the original on 2 February 2011. Retrieved 14 October 2006.
20. "Autobiographical Book by Shafey Kidwai". Archived from the original on 9 January 2020. Retrieved 10 January 2020.
21. Graham, p. 4
22. Syed Ziaur Rahman (Sept–Oct. 1999) "Sir Syed and His Family Background", The norad Magazine, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, 1998–99, pp. 17–19; We and You (Special Issue), Aligarh, p. 10
23. Wasti, Syed Tanvir (2010). "Sir Syed Ahmad Khan and the Turks". Middle Eastern Studies. 46 (4): 529–542. doi:10.1080/00263200903251468. S2CID 145436917.
24. "Sir Syed Ahmad Khan". Story of Pakistan. Retrieved 14 October 2006.[permanent dead link]
25. "Sir Syed Ahmed Khan". Encyclopedia of World Biography (2nd ed.). Gale Research. 1997. pp. 17 vols.
26. "Sir Syed Ahmad Khan". Nazaria-e-Pakistan. Story of Pakistan, Sir Syed. June 2003. Archived from the original on 5 April 2014. Retrieved 27 March 2014.
27. Graham, p. 7
28. Hali
29. "Sir Syed Ahmad Khan – Chronology". Sir Syed University of Engineering and Technology. 21 August 2016. Archivedfrom the original on 29 November 2018. Retrieved 29 November 2018.
30. Shan Muhammad (1978). The Aligarh Movement. Meerut: Meenakshi Prakashan. pp. IX.
31. Hoodbhoy, Pervez (9 February 2013). "Why Sir Syed loses and Allama Iqbal wins in Pakistan". The Pakistan Tribune. Archived from the original on 17 July 2015. Retrieved 30 July 2015.
32. Hali, pp. 92–95
33. Masood Ashraf Raja (2010) Constructing Pakistan: Foundational Texts and the Rise of Muslim National Identity, 1857–1947. Oxford. Chapter 2. ISBN 978-0-19-547811-2
34. The word a’in can mean all or any of the following: character, convention, temperament, habit, rule, path, law (ecclesiastical or secular), creed, praxis, quality, intention, organization, management, system, decoration, beauty. (Lughat Nama-e Dehkhoda). There are about eighty meanings in all. These meanings seem to have developed over the centuries. Most were available to Abul Fazl; all were available to Ghalib.
35. Faruqi, Shamsur Rahman. "From Antiquary to Social Revolutionary: Syed Ahmad Khan and the Colonial Experience"(PDF). Shamsur Rahman Faruqi, work in English. Columbia University. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 October 2016. Retrieved 12 December 2015.
36. John W. Wilder (2006), Selected essays by Sir Sayed Ahmad Khan, p. 34. ISBN 9789693518054
37. Baljon, p. 13
38. "Sir Syed Ahmed Khan >> Chronology". Archived from the original on 9 July 2009.
39. Sarah A. Qidwai, "Darwin or Design? Examining Sayyid Ahmad Khan's Views on Human Evolution" in Yasmin Saikia, M. Raisur Rahman (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Sayyid Ahmad Khan, Cambridge University Press, 2019, p. 220
40. KUMAR, S (2000). Educational Philosophy in Modern India. Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. p. 59. ISBN 978-81-261-0431-4.
41. "A balanced view on Sir Syed Ahmed khan-Dr Israr's holistic approach". Oracle Opinions. 26 October 2018. Retrieved 3 December 2020.
42. Tafsir al Quran, v.1 p.3016, translated and quoted in Baljon, pp. 44–45
43. Nazeer Ahmed (2000). Islam in Global History. Xlibris Corporation. p. 231. ISBN 978-0-7388-5966-8.
44. Panipati, pp. 249–263
45. Baljon, p. 108
46. Baljon, p. 106
47. Panipati, p. 102
48. Panipati, p. 100
49. Hindi Nationalism Archived 7 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Alok Rai, Orient Blackswan, 2001
50. ABBASI, Yusuf (1981). Muslim Politics and Leadership in the South Asian Sub-continent. Institute of Islamic History, Culture and Civilization, Islamic University (Islamabad). p. 90.
51. Graham, G. F. I. (1909). Life and work of Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. Thacker,Spink, Calcutta.
52. A Brief Chronology of Aligarh Movement Archived 15 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine. aligarhmovement.com
53. Graham, p. 289
54. RC Majumdar (1969). Struggle for Freedom. Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. p. 1967. ASIN: B000HXEOUM.
55. Şahbaz, Davut (March 2020). "The Two Nations Theory and It's [sic] Role In The Establishment of Pakistan". Academic Journal of History and Idea. 7: 1, 9 – via Dergi Park.
56. Sir Syed Ahmed on the present state of Indian politics (consisting of speeches and letters). Pioneer Press. 1888. p. 29.
57. M.R.A. Baig (1974). The Muslim Dilemma in India. Delhi: Vikas Publishing House. pp. 51–2. ISBN 9780706903119.
58. S. Kumar (2000). Educational Philosophy in Modern India. Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. p. 60. ISBN 978-81-261-0431-4.
59. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan (1817–1898), Speech in March 1888, Quoted by Dilip Hiro, "The Longest August: The Unflinching Rivalry Between India and Pakistan"[1] Archived 15 March 2020 at the Wayback Machine
60. Abdul Rashid Khan (2007). "All India Muhammadan Educational Conference and the Foundation of the All India Muslim League". Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society. 55 (1–2): 65–83.
61. "No. 23504". The London Gazette. 4 June 1869. p. 3181.
62. Cementing Ethics with Modernism: An Appraisal of Sir Sayyed Ahmed Khan's Writings. Gyan Publishing House. 1 January 2010. ISBN 9788121210478. Archived from the original on 26 December 2018. Retrieved 29 May 2016.
63. "No. 25772". The London Gazette. 3 January 1888. p. 14.
64. Puja Mondal (4 January 2014). "Sir Syed Ahmed Khan and the Aligarh Movement". Archived from the original on 22 September 2017. Retrieved 30 July 2015.
65. C.M. Naim (17 October 2011). "A Musafir To London". Archived from the original on 16 November 2018. Retrieved 29 May 2016.
66. Syed Ahmad Khan's commemorative postage stamp issued by India Post in 1973 commemorating his 156th birth anniversary Archived 17 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine, indianpost.com
67. Syed Ahmad Khan's commemorative postage stamp issued by Pakistan Postal Services in 1990 in its 'Pioneers of Freedom' series Archived 5 August 2019 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 24 August 2019
68. "Sir Syed Ahmed Khan | Muslim Reformer | Blue Plaques". English Heritage. Retrieved 24 December 2020.

Cited sources

• Baljon, J.M.S. (1964). The Reforms and Religious Ideas of Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan. Lahore: S.M. Ashraf.
• Graham, George Farquhar (1885). The Life and Work of Syed Ahmed Khan. Black wood.
• Hali, Altaf Husain (1994) [1901]. Hayat-i-Javed (A Biography of Sir Sayyid). New Delhi: Rupa and Company. ISBN 978-9693501865.
• Panipati, Muhammad Ismail (1995). Khutoot banaam Sir Syed. Lahore, Pakistan: Majlis Taraqqi e Adab Lahore.

Further reading

• The Glowing Legend of Sir Syed – A Centennial Tribute (1998), Ed. Syed Ziaur Rahman, Non-Resident Students' Centre, Aligarh Muslim University (Aligarh)
• Prof. Iftikhar Alam Khan. Sir Syed aur Faney TameerSir Syed Academy, AMU. Aligarh
• Prof. Iftikhar Alam Khan. Muslim University ki Kahani, Imarton ki zubani Educational publications, civil Lines, (Aligarh)
• Prof. Iftikhar Alam Khan. Sir Syed aur Scientific SocietyPub by Sir Syed Academy, AMU.Aligarh.
• Prof. Iftikhar Alam Khan. Sir Syed tahreek ka siyasi aur samaji pas manzarEducational Publishing house, Dhula Kounan, Delhi
• Prof. Iftikhar Alam Khan. Sir Syed House ke Mah Wasal(Aligarh)
• Prof. Iftikhar Alam Khan. Sir Syed Daroon e KhanaEducational Publications, Civil Lines. Aligarh
• Prof. Iftikhar Alam Khan " Sir Syed aur Jadeedyat" Pub. by Educational Publications, Delhi 012.
• Prof. Iftikhar Alam Khan " Sir Syed aur Hindustani Nizam-e-zaraat " Educational Publishing. Delhi.
• Prof, Iftikhar Alam Khan "Sir Syed Ka Nazaria-e-Talim". Educational Publishing House, Delhi, 2017.

External links

• Definitions from Wiktionary
• Media from Wikimedia Commons
• News from Wikinews
• Quotations from Wikiquote
• Texts from Wikisource
• Textbooks from Wikibooks
• Resources from Wikiversity
• Comprehensive detail about Aligarh Movement
• "Sir Seyyed Ahmad, Khan Bahadur, L.L.D, K.C.S.I." By Afzal Usmani
• "Sir Syed Ahmad Khan short biography". official website of Aligarh Muslim University. Archived from the original on 1 May 2012.
• "Sir Syed Today: A Source of Literary Work of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan".
• "Sir Syed Ahmad Khan (1817–1898)". Story of Pakistan. June 2003.
• "Sir Syed Ahmad Khan". Pioneers of Freedom.
• "Sir Syed Ahmed Khan". Sir Syed University of Engineering & Technology. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007.
• "Sir Syed Ahmad Khan". Cyber AMU. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007.
• Upadhyay, R. "Aligarh Movement". South Asia Analysis Group. Archived from the original on 28 February 2005.
• The Rich Legacy of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan (Gulf News)
• Sir Syed Ahmed Khan His Life and Contribution (NewAgeIslam)
• Pioneers of the Nation (Mai Nahi Manta)
• Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan's speech at Meerut, 16 March 1888
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James Prinsep
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 7/1/21
Until about a hundred years ago in India, Ashoka was merely one of the many kings mentioned in the Mauryan dynastic list included in the Puranas. Elsewhere in the Buddhist tradition he was referred to as a chakravartin/ cakkavatti, a universal monarch, but this tradition had become extinct in India after the decline of Buddhism. However, in 1837, James Prinsep deciphered an inscription written in the earliest Indian script since the Harappan, brahmi. There were many inscriptions in which the King referred to himself as Devanampiya Piyadassi (the beloved of the gods, Piyadassi). The name did not tally with any mentioned in the dynastic lists, although it was mentioned in the Buddhist chronicles of Sri Lanka. Slowly the clues were put together but the final confirmation came in 1915, with the discovery of yet another version of the edicts in which the King calls himself Devanampiya Ashoka.

-- The Penguin History of Early India: From the Origins to A.D. 1300, by Romila Thapar

In a study of the Mauryan period a sudden flood of source material becomes available. Whereas with earlier periods of Indian history there is a frantic search to glean evidence from sources often far removed and scattered, with the Mauryan period there is a comparative abundance of information, from sources either contemporary or written at a later date.

This is particularly the case with the reign of Aśoka Maurya, since, apart from the unintentional evidence of sources such as religious literature, coins, etc., the edicts of the king himself, inscribed on rocks and pillars throughout the country, are available.
These consist of fourteen major rock edicts located at Kālsi, Mānsehrā, Shahbāzgarhi, Girnār, Sopārā, Yeṟṟaguḍi, Dhauli, and Jaugaḍa; and a number of minor rock edicts and inscriptions at Bairāṭ, Rūpanāth, Sahasrām, Brahmagiri, Gāvimath, Jaṭiṅga-Rāmeshwar, Maski, Pālkīguṇḍu, Rajūla-Maṇḍagiri, Siddāpura, Yeṟṟaguḍi, Gujarra and Jhansi. Seven pillar edicts exist at Allahabad, Delhi-Toprā, Delhi-Meerut, Lauriyā-Ararāja, Lauriyā-Nandangarh, and Rāmpūrvā. Other inscriptions have been found at the Barābar Caves (three inscriptions), Rummindei, Nigali-Sāgar, Allahabad, Sanchi, Sārnāth, and Bairāṭ. Recently a minor inscription in Greek and Aramaic was found at Kandahar.

The importance of these inscriptions could not be appreciated until it was ascertained to whom the title ‘Piyadassi’ referred, since the edicts generally do not mention the name of any king; an exception to this being the Maski edict, which was not discovered until very much later in 1915. The earliest publication on this subject was by Prinsep, who was responsible for deciphering the edicts. At first Prinsep identified Devanampiya Piyadassi with a king of Ceylon, owing to the references to Buddhism. There were of course certain weaknesses in this identification, as for instance the question of how a king of Ceylon could order the digging of wells and the construction of roads in India, which the author of the edicts claims to have done. Later in the same year, 1837, the Dīpavaṃsa and the Mahāvaṃsa, two of the early chronicles of the history of Ceylon, composed by Buddhist monks, were studied in Ceylon, and Prinsep was informed of the title of Piyadassi given to Aśoka in those works. This provided the link for the new and correct identification of Aśoka as the author of the edicts.


-- Asoka and the Decline of the Mauryas, by Romila Thapar

Legends about past lives

Buddhist legends mention stories about Ashoka's past lives. According to a Mahavamsa story, Ashoka, Nigrodha and Devnampiya Tissa were brothers in a previous life. In that life, a pratyekabuddha was looking for honey to cure another, sick pratyekabuddha. A woman directed him to a honey shop owned by the three brothers. Ashoka generously donated honey to the pratyekabuddha, and wished to become the sovereign ruler of Jambudvipa for this act of merit. The woman wished to become his queen, and was reborn as Ashoka's wife Asandhamitta. Later Pali texts credit her with an additional act of merit: she gifted the pratyekabuddha a piece of cloth made by her. These texts include the Dasavatthuppakarana, the so-called Cambodian or Extended Mahavamsa (possibly from 9th–10th centuries), and the Trai Bhumi Katha (15th century).

According to an Ashokavadana story, Ashoka was born as Jaya in a prominent family of Rajagriha. When he was a little boy, he gave the Gautama Buddha dirt imagining it to be food. The Buddha approved of the donation, and Jaya declared that he would become a king by this act of merit. The text also state that Jaya's companion Vijaya was reborn as Ashoka's prime-minister Radhagupta. In the later life, the Buddhist monk Upagupta tells Ashoka that his rough skin was caused by the impure gift of dirt in the previous life. Some later texts repeat this story, without mentioning the negative implications of gifting dirt; these texts include Kumaralata's Kalpana-manditika, Aryashura's Jataka-mala, and the Maha-karma-vibhaga. The Chinese writer Pao Ch'eng's Shih chia ju lai ying hua lu asserts that an insignificant act like gifting dirt could not have been meritorious enough to cause Ashoka's future greatness. Instead, the text claims that in another past life, Ashoka commissioned a large number of Buddha statues as a king, and this act of merit caused him to become a great emperor in the next life.

The 14th century Pali-language fairy tale Dasavatthuppakarana (possibly from c. 14th century) combines the stories about the merchant's gift of honey, and the boy's gift of dirt. It narrates a slightly different version of the Mahavamsa story, stating that it took place before the birth of the Gautama Buddha. It then states that the merchant was reborn as the boy who gifted dirt to the Buddha; however, in this case, the Buddha his attendant to Ānanda to create plaster from the dirt, which is used repair cracks in the monastery walls....


Rediscovery

Ashoka had almost been forgotten, but in the 19th century James Prinsep contributed in the revelation of historical sources. After deciphering the Brahmi script, Prinsep had originally identified the "Priyadasi" of the inscriptions he found with the King of Ceylon Devanampiya Tissa. However, in 1837, George Turnour discovered an important Sri Lankan manuscript (Dipavamsa, or "Island Chronicle") associating Piyadasi with Ashoka:
"Two hundred and eighteen years after the beatitude of the Buddha, was the inauguration of Piyadassi, .... who, the grandson of Chandragupta, and the son of Bindusara, was at the time Governor of Ujjayani." — Dipavamsa

-- Ashoka, by Wikipedia

[I would like at this point to pay belated acknowledgement to my respected friend and colleague, Karl Khandalawala, which whom I have sometimes expressed differences of interpretation, in this case in opposing his view (which on hindsight appears to be entirely correct) that the Sarnath pillar reveals the influences of foreign (Achaemenid) influence. I hope this eminent art historian will now accept my personal apology and withdrawal. On this particular issue I am ready to admit that he was right, though I reserve my differences on other issues involving Asokan pillars. A further issue reflecting his correctness is embodied in the self-styled title Asoka used as the opening words of many of his inscriptions (Devanampiya Piyadassi), often translated as 'Beloved of the Gods." A century ago, this term was rightly recognised by the brilliant French Indologist Emile Senart, as borrowed from earlier Achaemenid inscriptions in Persia, yet since then ignored by all authorities writing on Asoka in English.]

-- The True Chronology of Aśokan Pillars, by John Irwin

[The Mahavamsa] is very important in dating the consecration of the Maurya Emperor Ashoka…

The Mahavamsa first came to the attention of Western readers around 1809 CE, when Sir Alexander Johnston, Chief Justice of the British colony in Ceylon, sent manuscripts of it and other Sri Lankan chronicles to Europe for publication. Eugène Burnouf produced a Romanized transliteration and translation into Latin in 1826... Working from Johnston's manuscripts, Edward Upham published an English translation in 1833, but it was marked by a number of errors in translation and interpretation, among them suggesting that the Buddha was born in Sri Lanka and built a monastery atop Adam's Peak. The first printed edition and widely read English translation was published in 1837 by George Turnour, an historian and officer of the Ceylon Civil Service…

Historiographical sources are rare in much of South Asia…

Early Western scholars like Otto Franke dismissed the possibility that the Mahavamsa contained reliable historical content…

The Chinese pilgrims Fa Hsien and Hsuan Tsang both recorded myths of the origins of the Sinhala people in their travels that varied significantly from the versions recorded in the Mahavamsa…

[T]he genealogy of the Buddha recorded in the Mahavamsa describes him as being the product of four cross cousin marriages. Cross-cousin marriage is associated historically with the Dravidian people of southern India -- both Sri Lankan Tamils and Sinhala practiced cross-cousin marriage historically -- but exogamous marriage was the norm in the regions of northern India associated with the life of the Buddha. No mention of cross-cousin marriage is found in earlier Buddhist sources…

The Mahavamsa is believed to have originated from an earlier chronicle known as the Dipavamsa... The Dipavamsa is much simpler and contains less information than the Mahavamsa.


-- Mahavamsa, by Wikipedia

[The Dipavamsa] was... composed anonymously...

Regarding the Vijaya legend, Dipavamsa has tried to be less super-natural than the later work, Mahavamsa in referring to the husband of the Kalinga-Vanga princess, ancestor of Vijya, as a man named Sinha who was an outlaw that attacked caravans en route. In the meantime, Sinha-bahu and Sinhasivali, as king and queen of the kingdom of Lala (Lata), "gave birth to twin sons, sixteen times." The eldest was Vijaya and the second was Sumitta. As Vijaya was of cruel and unseemly conduct, the enraged people requested the king to kill his son. But the king caused him and his seven hundred followers to leave the kingdom, and they landed in Sri Lanka, at a place called Tamba-panni, on the exact day when the Buddha passed into Maha Parinibbana.

The Dipavamsa is considered "source material" to the Mahavamsa. The latter is more coherently organized...

The Dipavamsa was translated into English by Hermann Oldenberg in 1879.


-- Dipavamsa, by Wikipedia

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James Prinsep
James Prinsep in medal cast c.1840 from the National Portrait Gallery
Born: 20 August 1799, England
Died: 22 April 1840 (aged 40), London, England
Academic background / Academic work
Main interests: Numismatics, Philology, Metallurgy and Meteorology
Notable works: Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal
Notable ideas: Deciphering Kharosthi and Brahmi scripts

James Prinsep FRS (20 August 1799 – 22 April 1840) was an English scholar, orientalist and antiquary. He was the founding editor of the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal and is best remembered for deciphering the Kharosthi and Brahmi scripts of ancient India. He studied, documented and illustrated many aspects of numismatics, metallurgy, meteorology apart from pursuing his career in India as an assay master at the mint in Benares.[1]

Early life

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Young James drawn by his sister Emily

James Prinsep was the seventh son and the tenth child of John Prinsep (1746–1830) and his wife, Sophia Elizabeth Auriol (1760–1850). John Prinsep went to India in 1771 with almost no money and became a successful indigo planter. He returned to England in 1787 with a fortune of £40,000 and established himself as an East India merchant. He moved to Clifton in 1809 after incurring losses. His connections helped him find work for all his sons and several members of the Prinsep family rose to high positions in India. John Prinsep later became a Member of Parliament. James initially went to study in a school in Clifton run by a Mr. Bullock but learnt more at home from his older siblings. He showed a talent for detailed drawing and mechanical invention and this made him study architecture under the gifted but eccentric Augustus Pugin. His eyesight however declined due to an infection and he was unable to take up architecture as a profession. His father knew of an opening in the assay department at the mint in India and sent him to train in chemistry at Guy's Hospital and later as an apprentice to Robert Bingley, assay master at the Royal Mint in London (1818–19).[1][2]

Career in India

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A Preacher Expounding The Poorans. In The Temple of Unn Poorna, Benares. Lithograph by Prinsep (1835)

Prinsep found a position as an assay master at the Calcutta mint and reached Calcutta along with his brother Henry Thoby on 15 September 1819. Within a year at Calcutta, he was sent by his superior, the eminent orientalist Horace Hayman Wilson, to work as assay master at the Benares mint. He stayed at Benares until the closure of that mint in 1830. He then moved back to Calcutta as deputy assay master, and when Wilson resigned in 1832, he was made assay master (overruling Wilson's nominee for that position, James Atkinson) at the new silver mint designed in Greek revival style by Major W. N. Forbes.

His work as assay master led him to conduct many scientific studies. He worked on means for measuring high temperatures in furnaces accurately. The publication of his technique in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London in 1828 led to his election as a Fellow of the Royal Society. He suggested the possibility of visual pyrometric measurement using a calibrated series of mica plates as well as using the thermal expansion of platinum but considered that a practical approach was to use calibrated combinations of platinum, gold and silver alloys placed in a cupel or crucible and observe their melting. He also described a pyrometer that measured the expansion of a small amount of air held within a gold bulb.[3] In 1833 he called for reforms to Indian weights and measures and advocated a uniform coinage based on the new silver rupee of the East India Company.[1] He also devised a balance so sensitive as to measure three-thousandth of a grain (≈0.19 mg).[4]

Architecture

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Lithograph of Kupuldhara Tulao, Benares by Prinsep (1834)

James Prinsep continued to take an interest in architecture at Benares. Regaining his eyesight, he studied and illustrated temple architecture, designed the new mint building at Benares as well as a church. In 1822 he conducted a survey of Benares and produced an accurate map at the scale of 8 inches to a mile. This map was lithographed in England. He also painted a series of watercolours of monuments and festivities in Benares which were sent to London in 1829 and published between 1830 and 1834 as Benares Illustrated, in a Series of Drawings. He helped design an arched tunnel to drain stagnant lakes and improve the sanitation of the densely populated areas of Benares and built a stone bridge over the Karamansa river. He helped restore the minarets of Aurangzeb which were in a state of collapse. When he moved to Calcutta, he offered to help complete a canal that had been planned by his brother Thomas but left incomplete by the latter's death in 1830. Thomas's canal linked the River Hooghly with branches of the Ganges further to the east.[1]

Asiatic Society of Bengal

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Bairat inscription, on which Prinsep worked to decipher Brahmi. On display in the Asiatic Society. See commemorative plate in honour of James Prinsep.

In 1829, Captain James D. Herbert started a serial called Gleanings in Science. Captain Herbert, however, was posted as Astronomer to the King of Oudh in 1830, leaving the journal to the editorship of James Prinsep, who was himself the primary contributor to it. In 1832 he succeeded H. H. Wilson as secretary of the Asiatic Society of Bengal and suggested that the Society should take over Gleanings in Science and produce the Journal of the Asiatic Society. Prinsep became the founding editor of this journal and contributed articles on chemistry, mineralogy, numismatics and on the study of Indian antiquities. He was also very interested in meteorology and the tabulation of observations and the analysis of weather data from across the country. He worked on the calibration of instruments to measure humidity and atmospheric pressure.[5] He continued to edit the journal until his illness in 1838 which led to his leaving India and subsequently his death. Many of the plates in the journal were illustrated by him.[6]

Numismatist

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Prinsep used bilingual Indo-Greek coins to decipher Kharoshthi. Obverse and reverse legends in Greek "Basileos Sotēros Menandroy" and Kharosthi "Maharaja Tratasa Menandrasa": "Of The Saviour King Menander".

Coins were Prinsep's first interest. He interpreted coins from Bactria and Kushan as well as Indian series coins, including "punch-marked" ones from the Gupta series. Prinsep suggested that there were three stages; the punch-marked, the die-struck, and the cast coins.[7][8] Prinsep also reported upon the native punch-marked coinage,[9] noting that they were better known in eastern India.[10]

Brahmi script philologist

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The last two letters at the end of this inscriptions in Brahmi were guessed to form the word "dǎnam" (donation), which appears at the end of most inscriptions at Sanchi and Bharhut. This hypothesis permitted the complete decipherment of the Brahmi script by James Prinsep in 1837.[11][12][13]

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Consonants of the Brahmi script, and their evolution down to modern Devanagari, according to James Prinsep, as published in the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, in March 1838.[14]

As a result of Prinsep's work as an editor of the Asiatic Society's journal, coins and copies of inscriptions were transmitted to him from all over India, to be deciphered, translated, and published.[15]

The first successful attempts at deciphering Brahmi were made in 1836 by Norwegian scholar Christian Lassen, who used the bilingual Greek-Brahmi coins of Indo-Greek kings Agathocles and Pantaleon to correctly identify several Brahmi letters.[16] The task was then completed by Prinsep, who was able to identify the rest of the Brahmi characters, with the help of Alexander Cunningham.[16]

In a series of results that he published between 1836–38 Prinsep was able to decipher the inscriptions on rock edicts found around India. The edicts in Brahmi script mentioned a King Devanampriya Piyadasi which Prinsep initially assumed was a Sri Lankan king.[17] He was then able to associate this title with Ashoka on the basis of Pali script from Sri Lanka communicated to him by George Turnour.[18][19] These scripts were found on the pillars at Delhi and Allahabad and on rock inscriptions from both sides of India, and also the Kharosthi script in the coins and inscriptions of the north-west. The idea of Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum, a collection of Indian epigraphy, was first suggested by Prinsep and the work was formally begun by Sir Alexander Cunningham in 1877.[20] His studies on inscriptions helped in the establishment of date of Indian dynasties based on references to Antiochus and other Greeks.[1] Prinsep's research and writing were not confined to India. Prinsep also delved into the early history of Afghanistan, producing several works that touched on archaeological finds in that country. Many of the collections were sent by Alexander Burnes.[21] After James Prinsep's death, his brother Henry Thoby Prinsep published in 1844 a volume exploring the numismatist's work on collections made from Afghanistan.[22]

Other pursuits

A talented artist and draftsman, Prinsep made meticulous sketches of ancient monuments, astronomy, instruments, fossils and other subjects. He was also very interested in understanding weather. He designed a modified barometer that automatically compensated for temperature.[23] He maintained meteorological registers, apart from supplying barometers to volunteers and graphically summarising the records of others.[24][25][26] He conducted experiments on practical methods to prevent rusting of iron surfaces.[27]

Personal life

Prinsep married Harriet Sophia Aubert, elder daughter of Lieutenant-Colonel Jeremiah Aubert (grandson of Alexander Aubert) of the Bengal army and his wife Hannah, at the cathedral in Calcutta on 25 April 1835. They had a daughter Eliza in 1837 who was to be the only child to survive.[28][29]

He was elected a member to the American Philosophical Society in 1839.[30]

Death and legacy

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Prinsep Ghat at Kolkata (Calcutta)

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Portrait by Colesworthey Grant (c. 1838)

Prinsep literally worked himself to death. From 1838 he began to suffer from recurrent headaches and sickness. It was initially thought to be related to a liver (bilious) condition and he was forced to get away from his studies and left for England in November 1838 aboard the Herefordshire.[31] He arrived in England in poor condition and did not recover. He died on 22 April 1840 in his sister Sophia Haldimand's home at 31 Belgrave Square of a "softening of the brain".[1] A genus of plant Prinsepia was named after him by the botanist John Forbes Royle in 1839 in appreciation of his work.[32]

News of his death reached India and several memorials were commissioned. A bust at the Asiatic Society was to be made by Francis Chantrey but was finished by Henry Weekes. Prinsep Ghat, a Palladian porch on the bank of the Hooghly River designed by W. Fitzgerald in 1843, was erected in his memory by the citizens of Calcutta.[1][4][33] Part of his original collection of ancient coins and artefacts from the Indian subcontinent is now in the British Museum, London.[34]

See also

• William Jones
• Allahabad Pillar

References

1. Losty, JP (2004). "Prinsep, James (1799–1840)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press.(subscription or UK public library membership required)
2. Prinsep, James (1858). Essays On Indian Antiquities, Historic, Numismatic, And Palæographic, Of The Late James Prinsep, F.R.S., Secretary To The Asiatic Society Of Bengal; To Which Are Added His Useful Tables, Illustrative Of Indian History, Chronology, Modern Coinages, Weights, Measures, Etc. Edited, With Notes, And Additional Matter, By Edward Thomas, Late Of The Bengal Civil Service; Member Of The Asiatic Societies Of Calcutta, London, And Paris. In Two Volumes. - Vol. I. London: John Murray.
3. Prinsep, J (1828). "On the Measurement of High Temperatures". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. 118: 79–95. doi:10.1098/rstl.1828.0007.
4. Firminger, Walter Kelly (1906). Thacker's Guide to Calcutta. Calcutta: Thacker, Spink & Co. pp. 36–37.
5. Prinsep, J. (1836). "Experimental researches on the depression of the wet-bulb hygrometer". Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal: 396–432.
6. Mitra, Rajendralala (1885). Centenary Review of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. From 1784 to 1883. Part 1. History of the Society. Asiatic Society of Bengal. pp. 50–51.
7. Prinsep, J. (1837). "Specimens of Hindu Coins descended from the Parthian type, and of the Ancient Coins of Ceylon". Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 6 (1): 288–302.
8. Prinsep, J. (1833). "Bactrian and Indo-Scythic Coins-continued". Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 2: 405–416.
9. Prinsep, J. (1832). "On the Ancient Roman Coins in the Cabinet of the Asiatic Society". Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 1: 392–408.
10. Bhandarkar, DR (1921). Lectures on Ancient Indian Numismatics. The Carmichael Lectures. University of Calcutta. pp. 38–42.
11. Salomon, Richard (1998). Indian Epigraphy: A Guide to the Study of Inscriptions in Sanskrit, Prakrit, and the other Indo-Aryan Languages. Oxford University Press. p. 207. ISBN 9780195356663.
12. Allen, Charles (2012). Ashoka: The Search for India's Lost Emperor. Little, Brown Book Group. ISBN 978-1-4087-0388-5.
13. Heinz, Carolyn Brown; Murray, Jeremy A. (2018). Asian Cultural Traditions: Second Edition. Waveland Press. ISBN 978-1-4786-3764-6.
14. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. Calcutta : Printed at the Baptist Mission Press [etc.] 1838.
15. Prinsep, J (1837). "Account of an Inscription found by Mr. H S Boulderson, in the neighbourhood of Bareilly". Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 6 (2): 772–786.
16. Jump up to:a b Ray, Himanshu Prabha (2017). Buddhism and Gandhara: An Archaeology of Museum Collections. Taylor & Francis. p. 181. ISBN 9781351252744.
17. Prinsep, J (1837). "Interpretation of the most ancient of inscriptions on the pillar called lat of Feroz Shah, near Delhi, and of the Allahabad, Radhia and Mattiah pillar, or lat inscriptions which agree therewith". Journal of the Asiatic Society. 6: 566–609.
18. Prinsep, J. (1837). "Further elucidation of the lat or Silasthambha inscriptions from various sources". Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of London: 790–797.
19. Prinsep, J (1837). "Note on the Facsimiles of the various Inscriptions on the ancient column at Allahabad, retaken by Captain Edward Smith, Engineers". Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 6: 963–980.
20. Cunningham, A (1877). Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum. Volume 1. Inscritions of Asoka. Calcutta: Government of India.
21. Prinsep, J (1833). "Note on Lieutenant Burnes' Collection of Ancient coins". Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal: 310–318.
22. Prinsep, Henry Thoby (1844). Note on the Historical Results deducible from Recent Discoveries in Afghanistan. London: W. H. Allen & Co.
23. Prinsep, J (1833). "Description of a Compensation Barometer, and Observations on Wet Barometers". Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 2: 258–262.
24. Prinsep, J (1828). "Abstract of a Meteorological Journal Kept at Benares during the Years 1824, 1825, and 1826". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. 118: 251–255. doi:10.1098/rstl.1828.0013. S2CID 186210023.
25. Prinsep, J (1836). "A comparative view of the daily range of the Barometer in different parts of India". Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 5: 816–827.
26. Prinsep, J (1832). "Observations of the Transit of Mercury". Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 1: 408–411.
27. Prinsep, J. (1834). "Experiments on the Preservation of Sheet Iron from Rust in India". Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 3: 191–192.
28. Losty, JP (2004). "Prinsep, James (1799–1840)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press.(subscription or UK public library membership required)
29. Prinsep, James (1858). Essays On Indian Antiquities, Historic, Numismatic, And Palæographic, Of The Late James Prinsep, F.R.S., Secretary To The Asiatic Society Of Bengal; To Which Are Added His Useful Tables, Illustrative Of Indian History, Chronology, Modern Coinages, Weights, Measures, Etc. Edited, With Notes, And Additional Matter, By Edward Thomas, Late Of The Bengal Civil Service; Member Of The Asiatic Societies Of Calcutta, London, And Paris. In Two Volumes. - Vol. I. London: John Murray.
30. "APS Member History". search.amphilsoc.org. Retrieved 9 April 2021.
31. Anonymous (1839). "Preface". Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 7 (1): x-xi.
32. Royle, JF (1839). Illustrations of the Botany and other branches of the natural history of the Himalayan Mountains. Volume 1. London: W H Allen and Co.
33. Laurie, W.F.B. (1887). Sketches of some distinguished Anglo-Indians. London: W.H.Allen & Co. pp. 171–174.
34. British Museum Collection

Other sources

• Prinsep, J. (1837). "Interpretation of the Most Ancient of the Inscriptions on the Pillar Called the Lát of Feroz Sháh, near Delhi, and of the Allahabad Rodhia and Mattiah Pillar, or Lát, Inscriptions Which Agree Therewith". Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 6: 566–609.
• Kejariwal, O. P. (1993), The Prinseps of India: A Personal Quest. The Indian Archives, 42 (1-2)
• Allbrook, Malcolm (2008), 'Imperial Family': The Prinseps, Empire and Colonial Government in India and Australia, Ph.D. thesis, Griffith University, Australia.
• James Prinsep and O. P. Kejariwal (2009), "Benares Illustrated" and "James Prinsep and Benares" , Pilgrims Publishing, ISBN 81-7769-400-6.

External links

• "James Prinsep" entry in Encyclopædia Britannica
• Thomas, Edward, editor (1858) Essays On Indian Antiquities, Historic, Numismatic, And Palæographic, Of The Late James Prinsep, F.R.S., Secretary To The Asiatic Society Of Bengal; To Which Are Added His Useful Tables, Illustrative Of Indian History, Chronology, Modern Coinages, Weights, Measures, Etc. Volume 1 Volume 2

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Chapter 1. Discovering Ashoka, Excerpt from "Ashoka: The Great and Compassionate King"
by Subhadra Sen Gupta
2009

1. Discovering Ashoka

One of the greatest mysteries of ancient India was solved not by a historian but a scientist. When James Prinsep cracked the puzzle of an ancient script that no one could read, he swept away the curtains of time to reveal one of India's greatest kings -- a magnificent monarch who once again stood centre stage, speaking to us across a span of 2,000 years.

He called himself Devanampiya Piyadasi, or beloved of the gods and handsome in looks. We know him as Ashoka, and call him 'the Great'. Not just because he ruled over one of the largest Indian empires but also because he was an unusually humane and compassionate king. There are only two kings in Indian history who have earned the title 'Great' -- one is the Mughal king Akbar and the other is Ashoka. The historian A.L. Basham calls him, 'The greatest and noblest ruler India has known and indeed one of the greatest kings of the world.' And the surprising fact is that we forgot all about him for 2,000 years.

STRANGE PIN MEN

The story of the discovery of Ashoka begins in the early years of the nineteenth century when a large part of India had been conquered by the English and was ruled by the East India Company. Many young Englishmen came to this country to work and joined the administration, army, police and the trading houses. What was extraordinary about some of these men was their curiosity about the history and culture of the country they had come to rule. They learnt Persian and Sanskrit and began to translate our ancient texts into English. Others collected coins, paintings, sculptures and manuscripts and drew sketches of ancient monuments. They came as colonisers ready to rule, and fell in love with the country instead.

In 1784 Sir William Jones, an Englishman who worked for the East India Company, founded the Asiatic Society and this became the hub of all research around Indian history and culture. One of its most energetic members was an army man named Alexander Cunningham who would one day lay the foundation of the Archaeological Survey of India. It is a sad fact that even today most Indians do not show much respect for our cultural treasures like monuments, sculptures, paintings and manuscripts. We have no regret about breaking up an ancient stupa and using its bricks to build a bazaar, selling sculptures and paintings to smugglers, and letting manuscripts turn to dust. It was Englishmen like Jones and Cunningham who saved and preserved our precious heritage from ruin and wanton destruction.

While travelling around the country on work, many of these English officials had noticed tall, beautifully polished sandstone pillars that were covered in a mysterious script that no one could read. The pillars looked like ancient sentinels guarding the land, but no one knew who had put them up or why. Some of the pillars also had exquisitely carved capitals of lions, bulls and elephants, and were decorated with borders of leaves and flowers. Thinking it may be the script of some primitive form of Sanskrit, they even took the help of Brahmin scholars but no one could decipher the words.

The simple and erect letters were oddly childlike in shape, with curves, circles, straight and squiggly lines and dots. Some letters resembled stick-like human figures and one man described them as 'pin men'. They were very unlike the curving Devanagari script used to write Sanskrit. Some scholars speculated that the writing was in Greek and described the conquests of Alexander, but they were proved wrong. These were in fact the oldest surviving written documents in India.

As a matter of fact, two centuries before, the first European to notice an Ashokan pillar was an eccentric English traveller named Thomas Coryat. He had walked from England to Delhi during the reign of Jahangir. In 1616 he spotted a pillar in Delhi soaring over the ruins of the fortress called Ferozshah Kotla that was built by Firuzshah Tughlak. The sandstone was so finely polished and shone so brightly in the sun that he thought it was made of brass. He was convinced that the inscription was in Greek and so concluded that it was in some way connected to Alexander. He got it all wrong. Alexander never got as far as Delhi and the script was Indian. Fifty years later, John Marshall, who worked in the East India Company, saw a pillar in Bihar with a carved lion on top as its capital and it also had inscriptions carved on it.

Pillars were discovered in places as distant as Delhi, Allahabad, a village in Bihar and in the jungles of Nepal. Many enthusiastic amateur historians made tracings of the inscriptions and sent them to the Asiatic Society in Calcutta. Then the same kind of writing was found carved on large rock faces and these were seen as far west as Gujarat and as far south as Mysore. Captain James Tod, who discovered the rock inscriptions at Girnar in Gujarat, described how the giant rock 'by the aid of an "iron pen" has been converted into a book'. And each letter was nearly two feet high!

The mystery deepened and the excitement grew. These were obviously the messages of a mighty king who had ruled over a huge empire that not only included most of India but stretched into Nepal and Afghanistan. A search began for this mysterious monarch. Ancient Sanskrit texts, like the Puranas, often carry a long list of Hindu kings. Many temples had inscriptions on their walls by rajas describing the length and breadth of their kingdoms, but none of them seemed to fit this nameless king. What was even more baffling was how such a powerful monarch had been so completely forgotten! The only way to get some answers was to decipher those maddeningly cryptic 'pin men' words.

JAMES PRINSEP

Then in 1819 James Prinsep arrived in India to take up the post of Assistant Assay-Master of the Mint in Calcutta. His job was to supervise the manufacture of coins, but he also used his scientific skills to study coins and manuscripts. He liked India immensely and met eminent Indians like Rabindranath Tagore's grandfather Dwarkanath, who was a rich businessman, and his friend Rammohan Roy, who was a scholar and social reformer. Prinsep was a scientific genius who had actually trained as an architect, but was given a job that required the skills of a chemist. His brother wrote that he was 'well grounded in chemistry, mechanics and the useful sciences'. While working in Varanasi he designed a new sewer system for the city and built a new bazaar. He was also a talented artist and his delicately coloured etchings of the ghats and temples of Varanasi are still being printed in books. As a true scientist he was, in fact, curious about everything.

Prinsep was always building complicated machines. Historian Charles Allen writes, 'James installed outside his office an ingenious steam driven device that not only powered a lathe and a series of punkahs or fans hanging from the ceiling but also operated some kind of musical organ -- so that he could at the same time work, keep cool and enjoy music.'

As a member of the Asiatic Society he was, at first, busy studying its collection of coins. But one day the 'pin men' writings caught his eye and he was instantly fascinated. He now got people across the country to make more tracings and, by 1834, tracings of longer inscriptions found on rocks had arrived in Calcutta. The most important were from a rock inscription in Dhauli in Orissa and another from Girnar. (If you want to get a first hand look at the 'pin men', a fascinating facsimile of the Girnar rock and inscription stands in the front lawns of the National Museum in Delhi.)

Prinsep found some really eccentric men to join the search and their adventures in the wilds of the country make for fascinating reading. There was Lieutenant Markham Kittoe who had actually been sent to Orissa to search for coal fields and, in 1837, discovered a carved rock at Dhauli. Prinsep sent him back to get a tracing of the inscription. Let's read about his adventures in Kittoe's own words.

He wrote in a letter to Prinsep:

I instantly left at 6 p.m. for Dhauli, which curious place I reached before daybreak and had to wait till it was light; for the two bear cubs which escaped me there last year, when I killed the old bear, were now full grown and disputing the ground. At daybreak 1 climbed to the (rock) and cutting two large forked boughs of a tree placed them against the rock; on these I stood to affect my object. I had taken the precaution to make a bearer hold the wood steady, but being intent on my interesting task I forgot my ticklish footing; the bearer had also fallen asleep and let go of his hold, so that having over balanced myself the wood slipped and I was pitched head foremost down the rock, but fortunately fell on my hands and received no injury beyond a few bruises and a severe shock; I took a little rest and then completed the job.


You may wonder how these tracings were made, especially when they were on large rocks and the pillars were over forty feet tall. Using tracing paper and a pencil would not really work! And, of course, no one could pull out their digital cameras and take a few quick photos. What they did was smear the pillar or rock face with printer's ink or red colour, then pressed a thin cloth over it, let it dry and then carefully peeled it off. It was quick but not very effective because often the pillars were broken or the rock had developed cracks and worse, these inscriptions had been fading for 2,000 years. You can be sure Prinsep got many smudged and messy specimens of writings but that did not stop him.

At that time scholars were familiar with two scripts that were early forms of Sanskrit. As the historian Jobo Kaey describes them, there was 'a more ornate chunky script (Gupta Brahmi) and the more curved and rounded script (Kutila) from which springs the washing-on-the-line script of Devanagari.' Many Brahmin scholars could read these two scripts, but a close study made it clear that the 'pin men' script was completely unconnected to either Gupta Brahmi or Kutila.

EUREKA!

Prinsep was a busy man, but for four years he worked relentlessly to decipher the script, often toiling through Calcutta's hot and muggy summers when most of the English escaped to the hills. Then, in 1837, a bunch of tracings arrived from Sanchi in Madhya Pradesh. They had been discovered on the railings and gateways of a stupa and a broken pillar lying near it. The people said that a local zamindar had uprooted the pillar and broken it to use as a sugar cane press. Prinsep immediately noticed that these inscriptions were different -- they were shorter, usually with three or four lines of text, and that they all ended with what he thought was the same word of three letters -- a snake like squiggle that looked a bit like an 'S' with a tail, followed by an inverted 'T' and then a dot.

This was when Prinsep got an extraordinary brainwave. He remembered that during his travels he had seen many Sanskrit inscriptions on the walls and pillars of temples that recorded the donations made by devotees. One word that was always used in them was danam or 'gifted by'. So if the last word was indeed danam then he had three alphabets -- D, N and M. Soon the other consonants and vowels fell into place and he could read the script that he called Ashoka Brahmi.


The language was not Sanskrit but Pali, an ancient dialect of Sanskrit. Fortunately the sacred Buddhist texts of Tibet are written in Pali, so there were scholars who could read it. As they pored over the tracings, a new world opened before them. They were reading inscriptions that recorded the donations made to a Buddhist monastery in Sanchi by people who had lived 2,000 years ago! The most interesting among them was one modest line that read, 'Kadasa bhichuno danam' -- the gift of Kada, a poor man.

Image

The Ashoka Brahmi script and how it would read in English. Try writing your name using the ancient alphabet!

LISTEN TO ME ...

Using his new knowledge Prinsep now tackled the longer inscriptions and immediately realized that they all began with the same sentence. It said, 'Devanampiye piyadasi raja hevam aha' and the word 'raja' convinced him that it was the proclamation of a king. Soon he had the full translation. It said, 'The beloved of the gods, Piyadasi Raja declares ...' Prinsep had got it right! This was a king, probably called Piyadasi, making a declaration to his subjects. As he read on, he found something even more intriguing, the subjects of his declarations were very different from the ones he had read so far.

In ancient India, when king's got royal proclamations carved on stone these were always full of impossible boasts and lofty claims. The kings claimed to be god-like creatures, brave as lions, descended from the sun or moon and talked of how they had won wars, vanquished their enemies and ruled huge kingdoms. They were always superhuman beings and given many long-winded titles. However, here was a king who referred to himself modestly, as a mere 'raja', and talked to his people more like a kind and caring father. Even more surprisingly, he confessed publicly to the mistakes he had made. One inscription began, 'Thus spake King Devanampiya Piyadasi. In the twenty-seventh year of my anointment I have caused this religious edict to be published in writing. I acknowledge and confess the faults that have been cherished in my heart...'

The more he read, the more questions bedevilled Prinsep. Who was this King Piyadasi? At times he referred to himself as 'raja magadhe', so he must have ruled the kingdom of Magadha. None of the ancient Sanskrit lists of kings carried such a name. Then he got a lucky break. A scholar named George Turnour, working in Sri Lanka, was translating an ancient text called Mahavamsa and he discovered that there was a Lankan king named Piyadasi. But it was hard to believe that this king, ruling a tiny island south of the Indian subcontinent, could get inscriptions placed as far north as Bihar! The final link was again found in a Lankan text that explained that Piyadasi was a popular royal title and that the Lankan king shared it with another king who ruled at the same time in India. The two kings were allies and the text gave the real name of this Indian king.[NO CITATION!]
I cannot help mentioning a discovery which accident threw in my way, though my proofs must be reserved for an essay which I have destined for the fourth volume of your Transactions. To fix the situation of that Palibothra (for there may have been several of the name) which was visited and described by Megasthenes, had always appeared a very difficult problem, for though it could not have been Prayaga, where no ancient metropolis ever stood, nor Canyacubja, which has no epithet at all resembling the word used by the Greeks; nor Gaur, otherwise called Lacshmanavati, which all know to be a town comparatively modern, yet we could not confidently decide that it was Pataliputra, though names and most circumstances nearly correspond, because that renowned capital extended from the confluence of the Sone and the Ganges to the site of Patna, while Palibothra stood at the junction of the Ganges and Erannoboas, which the accurate M. D'Anville had pronounced to be the Yamuna; but this only difficulty was removed, when I found in a classical Sanscrit book, near 2000 years old, that Hiranyabahu, or golden armed, which the Greeks changed into Erannoboas, or the river with a lovely murmur, was in fact another name for the Sona itself; though Megasthenes, from ignorance or inattention, has named them separately. This discovery led to another of greater moment, for Chandragupta, who, from a military adventurer, became like Sandracottus the sovereign of Upper Hindustan, actually fixed the seat of his empire at Pataliputra, where he received ambassadors from foreign princes; and was no other than that very Sandracottus who concluded a treaty with Seleucus Nicator; so that we have solved another problem, to which we before alluded, and may in round numbers consider the twelve and three hundredth years before Christ, as two certain epochs between Rama, who conquered Silan a few centuries after the flood, and Vicramaditya, who died at Ujjayini fifty-seven years before the beginning of our era.

-- Discourse X. Delivered February 28, 1793, P. 192, Excerpt from "Discourses Delivered Before the Asiatic Society: And Miscellaneous Papers, on The Religion, Poetry, Literature, Etc. of the Nations of India", by Sir William Jones


Ashoka had almost been forgotten, but in the 19th century James Prinsep contributed in the revelation of historical sources. After deciphering the Brahmi script, Prinsep had originally identified the "Priyadasi" of the inscriptions he found with the King of Ceylon Devanampiya Tissa. However, in 1837, George Turnour discovered an important Sri Lankan manuscript (Dipavamsa, or "Island Chronicle") associating Piyadasi with Ashoka:

"Two hundred and eighteen years after the beatitude of the Buddha, was the inauguration of Piyadassi, .... who, the grandson of Chandragupta, and the son of Bindusara, was at the time Governor of Ujjayani."
— Dipavamsa.

-- Ashoka, by Wikipedia

A few decades later another inscription was discovered at Maski in Karnataka that confirmed it.

Raja Devanam Piyadasi's name was Ashoka.


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Image
[Librarian's Comment: Contrast increased to show how the word "Ashoka" was added to the end of the first line in a rough-uneven area that the original writer was careful to avoid with respect to the entirety of the remaining inscription, that has all been rendered on the flattest-available portions of the rock face. If stones could speak, this one would cry "foul!"]
Image
Image

Maski is a town and an archaeological site in the Raichur district of the state of Karnataka, India. It lies on the bank of the Maski river which is a tributary of the Tungabhadra. Maski derives its name from Mahasangha or Masangi. The site came into prominence with the discovery of a minor rock edict of Emperor Ashoka by C. Beadon in 1915. It was the first edict of Emperor Ashoka that contained the name Ashoka in it instead of the earlier edicts that referred him as Devanampiye piyadasi. This edict was important to conclude that many edicts found earlier in the Indian sub-continent in the name of Devanampiye piyadasi, all belonged to Emperor Ashoka....

The Maski version of Minor Rock Edict No.1 was historically especially important in that it confirmed the association of the title "Devanampriya" ("Beloved-of-the-Gods") with Ashoka:


[A proclamation] of Devanampriya Asoka.
Two and a half years [and somewhat more] (have passed) since I am a Buddha-Sakya.
[A year and] somewhat more (has passed) [since] I have visited the Samgha and have shown zeal.
Those gods who formerly had been unmingled (with men) in Jambudvipa, have how become mingled (with them).
This object can be reached even by a lowly (person) who is devoted to morality.
One must not think thus, — (viz.) that only an exalted (person) may reach this.
Both the lowly and the exalted must be told: "If you act thus, this matter (will be) prosperous and of long duration, and will thus progress to one and a half.

— Maski Minor Rock Edict of Ashoka.

-- Maski, by Wikipedia


Now everything fell into place. Historians knew of the reign of a king named Chandragupta, who had founded the Maurya dynasty in 324 BC and who had an adviser named Chanakya or Kautilya. He had ruled over a huge empire and his capital was a magnificent city named Pataliputra (modern Patna in Bihar). The Hindu list of kings showed that he had a grandson named Ashoka. Until now nothing was known about Ashoka's reign and so historians had never taken any interest in him. Now they were looking at rocks and pillars covered with his proclamations spread across the subcontinent. And this very unusual king was talking about caring for his subjects and spreading the message of virtuous living that he called dhamma. He also mentioned sending royal embassies not just to his friend King Piyadasi, in Sri Lanka, but also to the kings of Burma, Thailand, Egypt, Syria and Macedon!

The discovery of Ashoka is a crucial link in our understanding of the history of ancient India, in the years following the invasion of Alexander. We find nothing about his life in Sanskrit texts but, as he was a Buddhist, he is mentioned in the sacred texts of Sri Lanka and Tibet. So we can roughly guess the important events and dates of his life. Suddenly we are inundated with stories about him, his family and his reign -- fascinating details of his mother Subhadrangi, first wife Mahadevi, son Mahendra and daughter Sanghamitra who travelled to Sri Lanka to spread the message of the Buddha. Also about how Ashoka ruled and the tale of an evil younger queen called Tissarakshita, who would ruin his old age. As a matter of fact, we know more about Ashoka's life than we do of kings who ruled many centuries later.

Sadly, James Prinsep's story has a very tragic end. For years he had toiled as the secretary of the Asiatic Society and then he became obsessed with cracking the code of the 'pin men' inscriptions. He neglected his health and worked so relentlessly that he fell seriously ill. A mentally and physically exhausted Prinsep was taken back to England by his family and died soon after. He was only forty years old. Today we need another Prinsep to decipher the pictorial script of Mohenjo-daro and Harappa that continues to baffle historians. Calcutta did not forget him and the Prinsep Ghat that still stands on the Ganga River is named after him.

James Prinsep gave us the 'danam' of bringing to life once again one of India's greatest kings, moving back the curtain of darkness that had enveloped ancient India. His work was continued by other enthusiastic Englishmen. For instance, his protege Alexander Cunningham would discover the lion capital at Sarnath and Ashoka' s wheel of dhamma. When India became independent the carving of four roaring lions was chosen as the symbol of the Republic of India. The wheel of the Ashoka chakra was placed at the centre of the saffron, white and green Indian flag. King Ashoka and his dhamma of virtue, peace and non-violence is now a part of our lives.

TRANSPORTING A PILLAR

People had been interested in the Ashokan pillars for ages. In 1356 AD, the Delhi Sultan Firuzshah Tughlak transported two pillars from Meerut and Topra, near Ambala, to Delhi. It must have been a very tough job as the pillars were made of solid sandstone and, at around forty feet tall, they weighed over fifty tons each. Thousands of men and elephants laboured on the job and there is a description of the whole enterprise in the book Tarikh-i-Firuz Shahi by Ziauddin Barani.

He writes. 'Directions were issued for bringing parcels of the cotton of the silk-cotton tree. Quantities of this silk-cotton were placed around the column and when the earth at its base was removed, it fell gently over on the bed prepared for it ... The pillar was then encased from top to bottom in reeds and ram skins ... a carriage with forty-two wheels was constructed. and ... after great labour and difficulty the pillar was raised onto the carriage.

'A strong rope was fastened to each wheel and two hundred men pulled at each rope ... The carriage was moved and was brought to the banks of of the Jumna. Here the sultan came to meet it. A number of large boats had been collected, some of which could carry five thousand to seven thousand maunds of grain. The column was very ingeniously transferred to these boats and was then conducted to Firozabad [Delhi] where it was landed and conveyed into the palace with infinite labour and skill.'
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Accessed: 7/1/21
Rahimatullah M. Sayani was an affluent Muslim belonging to the Khoja community who were disciples of the Aga Khan. He was associated with the Congress right from its inception. After Badruddin Tyabji, he was the second Muslim president of the Congress and presided over its twelfth annual session in Calcutta in 1896. In a candid presidential address, Sayani outlined, among other issues, the feelings of alienation among Muslims of India and attributed his reasons for the same. Sayani mentioned that before the advent of the British, the Muslims were the rulers of the country, with all the advantages of the ruling class. From the monarch to the courtiers to the landlords and officials, everyone was a co-religionist; the court language was theirs; they inherited positions of trust and responsibility that came along with emoluments and influence as their birthright. The Hindus, though part of the polity, were ‘tenants-at-will’ of the Muslims, were subservient and in awe of them.1 But a stroke of ill luck brought them down to the level of their Hindu countrymen. Being a ‘very sensitive race’ the Muslims resented this and would have nothing to do with their new rulers or their new fellow subjects, hitherto subordinates.

With the advent of English education in the country, the Hindus who were accustomed to learning a foreign language, as they had under their Muslim rulers, took to English naturally and easily. But the Muslims were yet to take to anything that ‘required hard labour and application, especially as they had to work harder than their former subjects, the Hindus’. They resented the idea of competing with those they considered inferior. The consequence of this was a turning of tables, with the Hindus becoming superior and the Muslim gradually being ‘ousted from their lands, their offices; in fact everything was lost, save their honour . . . they were soon reduced to a state of utter poverty. Ignorance and apathy seized hold of them while the fall of their former greatness rankled in their hearts’. The numbers proved Sayani’s claims. By 1867, eighty-eight Hindus and not a single Muslim had passed the MA and BA examinations.2

It is important to understand the long history behind this sense of alienation and separatism among a vast section of Muslims in India, particularly its leadership and clergy. This also becomes a prelude, setting the context in which Vinayak’s philosophy of Hindutva took birth. The political situation and the Hindu–Muslim equations prompted the urgency with which he composed such an exposition from the troubling confines of Ratnagiri prison. The leaderless disorientation in Hindu society, it being led in various directions and towards unrelated causes, and its own inherent divisions of caste and creed needed an intellectual response. Vinayak hoped to do that through his treatise.

There are numerous contradictions too. The same constitutional reforms that Vinayak endorsed in his petitions from Cellular Jail had provided the introduction for separate Muslim electorates. This move undoubtedly helped the later solidification of Indian politics on religious affiliation.

After the failure of the 1857 War of Independence, where reestablishing Bahadur Shah Zafar as the emperor of India was an important objective, the Wahabi movement of 1857–58, under Enayet Ali, did not join hands with the leaders of the 1857 movement. They fought for the establishment of a theocratic Islamic state, or dar-ul-Islam, in India. The Hindus were completely aloof from this long-drawn Wahabi struggle. After this, the Muslims as a community, by and large, did not take active part in any political organizations, including the INC. Being perceived as among the chief conspirators in 1857 further reduced their influence with the British and a general dejection gripped the community. At this point, Sir Syed Ahmed appeared as a beacon of hope. He took it as his mission to both mend fences between the Muslim community and the British, and also introduce the community to modern education. In fact, he published an entire tract, The Loyal Mohammedans of India, in which he took pains to explain that if there was any community in India that could be trusted and were fast bound with Christians, it was the Muslims of the country, who would be their staunch friends and loyalists. Inculcating this sense of loyalty to the British was one of the declared objectives of the Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental College that he set up in Aligarh in 1877. He vehemently opposed those of the community who were against the British—be it ulemas or those associated with the Congress. According to Syed, the Congress was fighting for a representative government on British lines—one in which the majority voice reigned, which would entail a fourth of the population comprising Muslims getting a short shrift. He never tired of emphasizing that India was a conglomerate of several nations and that the Muslims formed a distinctive unit. In a speech, he articulates this belief:

In a country like India where homogeneity does not exist in any one of the fields (nationality, religion, way of living, customs, mores, culture, and historical tradition), the introduction of representative government cannot produce any beneficial results; it can only result in interfering with the peace and prosperity of the land . . . the aims and objects of the Indian National Congress are based upon an ignorance of history and present day realities; they do not take into consideration that India is inhabited by different nationalities; I consider the experiment which the Indian National Congress wants to make fraught with dangers and suffering for all the nationalities of India, specially for the Muslims. The Muslims are in a minority, but they are a highly united minority. At least traditionally they are prone to take the sword in hand when the majority oppresses them. If this happens, it will bring about disasters greater than the ones which came in the wake of the happenings of 1857 . . . the Congress cannot rationally prove its claim to represent the opinions, ideals, and aspirations of the Muslims.3

The thrust of his Aligarh movement was that Hindus and Muslims were separate entities with distinctive outlooks, conflicting interests, and in a way, separate nationalities. In fact, he was the first proponent of the ‘two-nation’ theory that was to have catastrophic results on the future of India. To quote Sir Syed:
In whose hands shall the administration and the Empire of India rest? Now, suppose that all English, and the whole English army, were to leave India, taking with them all their cannon and their splendid weapons and everything, then who would be rulers of India? Is it possible that under these circumstances two nations—the Mahomedans and the Hindus—could sit on the same throne and remain equal in power? Most certainly not. It is necessary that one of them should conquer the other and thrust it down. To hope that both could remain equal is to desire the impossible and the inconceivable.4

Regarding the Congress demand that a section of the viceroy’s council should be elected by the people, Sir Syed debated:
Let us imagine the Viceroy’s Council made in this manner. And let us suppose, first of all, that we have universal suffrage, as in America, and that all have votes. And let us also suppose that all Mohammadan electors vote for a Mohammadan and all Hindu electors for a Hindu member, and now count how many votes the Mohammadan member will have and how many the Hindu. It is certain that the Hindu member will have four times as many, because their population is four times numerous . . . and now how can the Mohammadan guard his interests?5

Thus, democratic representation or appointments based on competition would work to the Muslim detriment and result in a Hindu rule. As a result, British rule was in the best interests of the community, which should also stay away from political agitation and act as a counter to the agitating Hindus, Sir Syed postulated. That the Congress suffered from an acute lack of Muslim participation in its early years is seldom mentioned. Over the first twenty-one years, from 1885 to 1905, the average attendance of Muslim delegates in the first five sessions was 15 per cent; that fell to 5 per cent and below in the subsequent fifteen sessions.6 Muslims of Allahabad, Lucknow, Meerut, Lahore, Madras and other places passed resolutions condemning the Congress. Newspapers such as Mahomedan Observer, Victoria Paper, The Muslim Herald, Rafiq-i-Hind, and Imperial Paper spoke unequivocally against the Congress, as did a powerful Muslim organ of northern India—the Aligarh Institute Gazette.7 Riots over issues such as cow slaughter and processional music in front of mosques further widened the growing gulf between the two communities, which the British took advantage of.

For instance, Lord Curzon managed to win over Muslims who were initially opposed to the Partition of Bengal by convincing them that it was in their favour. Nawab Salimullah of Dacca, one of the most influential Muslim leaders of East Bengal, sided with the British. Many Muslims saw in the creation of the province of East Bengal and Assam a culmination of the dreams of the Aligarh movement—a separate Muslim unit within the Indian body politic. At a meeting held in Dacca on 30 December 1906, a resolution of prominent Muslim leaders upheld the Partition of Bengal plan and criticized the swadeshi movement raging against it.8

The British actively encouraged petitions from prominent Muslim leaders seeking employment of a due proportion from the community in government service, abolition of competitive examinations for the community for recruitment to services, appointments of Muslim judges in every high court and chief court, communal or separate electorates for municipalities and Muslim electoral colleges for elections to legislative councils. Correspondence between Viceroy Lord Minto’s private secretary, Colonel Dunlop Smith, and Muslim leaders clearly demonstrates this, where, among other things, he carefully orchestrates the whole plan of action:

But in all these matters I want to remain behind the screen and this move should come from you. You are aware, how anxious I am for the good of the Musalmans, and I would, therefore, render all help with the greatest pleasure. I can prepare and draft the address for you. If it be prepared in Bombay then I can revise it because I know the art of drawing up petitions in good language. But Nawabsaheb, please remember that if within a short time any great and effective action has to be taken, then you should act quickly.9

This ‘engineered’ deputation submitted its memorandum to Lord Minto who gladly accepted it. Ramsay Macdonald, the future prime minister of Britain, too had reminisced: ‘The Mahomedan leaders are inspired by certain Anglo-Indian officials and that these officials have pulled wires at Simla and in London, and of malice aforethought sowed discord between the Hindu and the Mahomedan communities by showing the Muslims special favours.’10 The British press also picked up and played on this division of interests within the country and that the distinctive Muslim views entitled them to be constituted as a separate entity.

Elated by the favourable reception from the government, the Muslim leadership felt the urgent need of a political association to voice their demands better and also act as a counter to the Congress. There was no pan-Indian organization of the Muslims; all they had were loosely knit local units and groups of nawabs and eminent persons. Nawab Salimullah of Dacca advocated the idea of a Central Muhammadan Association whose chief goals were to support the British government and to look after the rights and interests of all the Muslims of India, in addition to acting as a bulwark against the Congress. The scheme was accepted, and at a meeting held on 30 December 1906, it was resolved that a political association called All India Muslim League should be established. At a meeting held in Karachi on 29 December 1907, the aims of the League were drawn— promoting pro-British feelings and loyalty towards the government among Muslims, protecting the rights and interests of Muslims of India and preventing rise of feelings of hostility towards other communities, without prejudice to the earlier mentioned objectives.11 There was opposition to movements like the Shivaji festival promoting a Hindu leader—more so one who fought against the Mughals—as a national hero was anathema.12 The secretary of the League declared:

We are not opposed to the social unity of the Hindus and the Mussalmans . . . but the other type of unity (political) involves the working out of common political purposes. This sort of our unity with the Congress cannot be possible because we and the Congressmen do not have common political objectives. They indulge in acts calculated to weaken the British Government. They want representative Government, which means death for Mussalmans. They desire competitive examinations for employment in Government services and this would mean the deprivation of Mussalmans of Government jobs. Therefore, we need not go near political unity [with the Hindus]. It is the aim of the League to present Muslim demands through respectful request, before the Government. They should not, like Congressmen, cry for boycott, deliver exciting speeches and write impertinent articles in newspapers and hold meetings to turn public feeling and attitude against their benign Government.13

It was in this context of intense distrust and discord that we had earlier seen the letter from Ziauddin Ahmad—later vice chancellor of Aligarh Muslim University—to Abdullah Suhrawardy who was at India House in London, asking Muslims to refrain from participating in activities of Shyamji, Vinayak and other revolutionaries. The spirit of British loyalty and seeking distinctiveness from the Hindus and the Congress that Sir Syed had induced in the community was to remain for a long time with most leaders, barring a few exceptions. As Sir Percival Joseph Griffiths, a prominent businessman who also worked for Indian Civil Service largely in eastern India, noted: ‘Whatever may have been other effects of the foundation of the Muslim League, it set the seal upon the Muslim belief that their interests must be regarded as completely separate from those of the Hindus and that no fusion of the two communities was possible.’14

In its annual session held at Amritsar in December 1908, the Muslim League expressed vehement opposition to all the ‘mischievous efforts’ to unsettle the settled fact of the Partition of Bengal.15 In the Imperial Council in 1910, when Bhupendra Nath Bose raised the question of reversing the Partition of Bengal, members Shams-ul-Huda of Bengal and Mazhar-ul-Huq of Bihar strongly opposed the move. They warned that if the government meddled with this ‘beneficent measure, it would be committing an act of supreme folly and would create unrest and discontent where none existed now’.16 That the views of prominent leaders of the community remained unchanged is evident from Muhammad Ali’s speech as Congress president in 1923, in which he referred to the government’s policy of reversing the Partition of Bengal as an important cause for the alienation of the Muslims from the British government.17

Throughout 1907 and 1908, heated debates were held regarding separate electorates and the weightage that was proposed by the Muslim deputation and consented to by Viceroy Lord Minto. The Muslim leadership argued that owing to the vast social, cultural and religious differences between the two communities, they feared that a Hindu majority would not be able to deal with them suitably or represent them fairly. It was also pointed out that Muslims should get a greater representation in the different councils than was warranted by their numerical strength in the country’s population. The logic offered for this was rather perverse. The deputation had stated that Muslims had ruled India for 700 years before the British arrival and hence they had a natural claim to greater ‘political importance’, which should be reflected in the councils. They also maintained that the community had played a vital role in defending the country and this enhanced its importance further.

The Morley–Minto Reforms of 1909 not only awarded separate Muslim electorates, but also the number of their members in the council was much more than the numerical strength of their population. The seeds of discord and of being two separate nations had thus been sown several decades before the freedom movement took birth. Gopalkrishna Gokhale lamented:

It was a commonplace of Indian politics that there can be no future for India as a nation unless a durable spirit of cooperation was developed and established between the two great communities . . . the union of all communities is no doubt the goal towards which we have to strive, but it cannot be denied that it does not exist in the country today and it is no use proceeding as though it existed, when in reality it does not 18 . . . over the greater part of India, the two communities had inherited a tradition of antagonism which though it might ordinarily lie dormant, broke forth into activity at the smallest provocation. It was this tradition that had to be overcome.19

-- Savarkar: Echoes from a Forgotten Past: 1883-1924, by Vikram Sampath

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James Dunlop Smith

Lieutenant Colonel Sir James Robert Dunlop Smith KCSI KCVO CIE (24 August 1858 – 24 April 1921) was a British official in the Indian Army.

Life

He was born in Calcutta on 24 August 1858, son of George Smith (1833–1919), Principal of Doveton Boy's College. His siblings included Charles Aitchison Smith,

Lieutenant-Colonel Charles Aitchison Smith CIE (12 September 1871 – 26 January 1940) was a British Army and Indian Army officer and administrator in India.

Smith was born in Leith, the son of George Smith, a well-known writer on India. His brothers were Sir George Adam Smith and Sir James Dunlop Smith. His sister was the mother of the politician Rab Butler. Smith was educated at the Royal High School, Edinburgh, the University of Edinburgh, and the Royal Military College, Sandhurst.

Smith was commissioned into the Essex Regiment in November 1891 and was posted to the 2nd Battalion, serving in Cyprus and then India, where he transferred to the Indian Staff Corps in January 1896 and served in the Tirah Campaign of 1897. He was promoted Captain in October 1901. He joined the Indian Political Department in 1902 and served in the remote areas of Gilgit, Chilas, Chitral, and the Tochi, all in the Himalayas. He was promoted Major in November 1909.

In the First World War, he served in the Indian Expeditionary Force in France and Flanders with Hodson's Horse, fighting at Mons. He later transferred to Fane's Horse, and also served as an intelligence officer.

Returning to India in 1917, he served as Political Officer at Gilgit until 1920, although also serving in the Third Afghan War in 1919. He was then appointed Political Agent at Quetta until his retirement in 1923.

Returning to the United Kingdom, he was appointed publicity secretary of the Public Schools Cadet Association in 1926 and secretary of the British National Cadet Association in 1931, holding both posts until his death.

He was appointed Companion of the Order of the Indian Empire (CIE) in the 1920 New Year Honours.


-- Charles Aitchison Smith, by Wikipedia


George Adam Smith ...

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The Very Reverend Sir George Adam Smith, FRSE, FBA (19 October 1856 – 3 March 1942) was a Scottish theologian.

Life

He was born in Calcutta, where his father, George Smith, C.I.E., was then Principal of the Doveton College, a boys' school in Madras. His mother was Janet Colquhoun Smith (née Adam). By 1870 the family had returned to Scotland and were living at Scagore House in Seafield, Edinburgh.

He was educated at Edinburgh in the Royal High School.

He then studied Divinity at the University of Edinburgh and the New College, graduating MA in 1875.

After studying for summer semesters as a postgraduate at the University of Tübingen (1876) and the University of Leipzig (1878) and travelling in Egypt and Syria. He was ordained into the Free Church of Scotland in 1882 and served at the Queen's Cross Free Church in Aberdeen.

The Free Church of Scotland was a Scottish denomination which was formed in 1843 by a large withdrawal from the established Church of Scotland in a schism or division known as the Disruption of 1843. In 1900 the vast majority of the Free Church of Scotland joined with the United Presbyterian Church of Scotland to form the United Free Church of Scotland (which itself mostly re-united with the Church of Scotland in 1929). The House of Lords judged that the minority continuing after the 1900 union were entitled to all the assets. While the denomination clearly had a starting date, in their own eyes their leaders had a legitimate claim to an unbroken succession of leaders going all the way back to the Apostles.

The minority of the Free Church of Scotland who continued outside the union of 1900, retained the title the Free Church of Scotland.

Origins

The Free Church was formed by Evangelicals who broke from the Church of Scotland in 1843 in protest against what they regarded as the state's encroachment on the spiritual independence of the Church. Leading up to the Disruption many of the issues were discussed in Hugh Miller's widely circulating newspaper The Witness. Robert Candlish was influential perhaps second only to Thomas Chalmers in bringing about the Disruption.

The Disruption of 1843 was a bitter, nationwide division which split the established Church of Scotland. It was larger than the previous historical secessions of 1733 or 1761. The evangelical element had been demanding the purification of the Church, and it attacked the patronage system, which allowed rich landowners to select the local ministers. It became a political battle between evangelicals on one side and the "Moderates" and gentry on the other. The evangelicals secured passage by the church's General Assembly in 1834, of the "Veto Act", asserting that, as a fundamental law of the Church, no pastor should be forced by the gentry upon a congregation contrary to the popular will, and that any nominee could be rejected by majority of the heads of families. This direct blow at the right of private patrons was challenged in the civil courts, and was decided (1838) against the evangelicals. In 1843, 450 evangelical ministers (out of 1,200 ministers in all) broke away, and formed the Free Church of Scotland.

Dr. Welsh, the Church of Scotland's Moderator, who preached, read a Protest and walked out.

Led by Dr. Thomas Chalmers (1780–1847), a third of the membership walked out, including nearly all the Gaelic-speakers and the missionaries, and most of the Highlanders. The established Church kept all the properties, buildings and endowments. The seceders created a voluntary fund of over £400,000 to build 700 new churches; 400 manses (residences for the ministers) were erected at a cost of £250,000; and an equal or larger amount was expended on the building of 500 parochial schools, as well as a college in Edinburgh. After the passing of the Education Act of 1872, most of these schools were voluntarily transferred to the newly established public school-boards.

Chalmers' ideas shaped the breakaway group. He stressed a social vision that revived and preserved Scotland's communal traditions at a time of strain on the social fabric of the country. Chalmers's idealised small equalitarian, kirk-based, self-contained communities that recognised the individuality of their members and the need for co-operation.
That vision also affected the mainstream Presbyterian churches, and by the 1870s it had been assimilated by the established Church of Scotland. Chalmers's ideals demonstrated that the church was concerned with the problems of urban society, and they represented a real attempt to overcome the social fragmentation that took place in industrial towns and cities.

-- Free Church of Scotland (1843–1900), by Wikipedia


In 1892 he was appointed Professor of Hebrew and Old Testament subjects in the Free Church College at Glasgow. In 1900 (at its creation) he moved from the Free Church of Scotland to the United Free Church of Scotland.

In 1909 he was appointed Principal and Vice Chancellor of the University of Aberdeen, a post he held until his retirement in 1935. He was elected a Fellow of the British Academy in 1916, and was knighted in the same year.

He served as Moderator of the General Assembly of the United Free Church of Scotland in 1916-17. In 1917 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. His proposers were John Horne, Cargill Gilston Knott, Ben Peach and John Sutherland Black.[7]

He was appointed a Chaplain-in-Ordinary to King George V in 1933, and reappointed by King Edward VIII and King George VI.

From 1924 to 1938 he was Patron of the Seven Incorporated Trades of Aberdeen.

He died at home, "Sweethillocks" in Balerno south-west of Edinburgh on 3 March 1942. He is buried with his wife and children in the north-east corner of Currie Cemetery in south-west Edinburgh.

-- George Adam Smith, by Wikipedia


and the mother of Rab Butler.

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Richard Austen Butler, Baron Butler of Saffron Walden, KG, CH, PC, DL (9 December 1902 – 8 March 1982), also known as R. A. Butler and familiarly known from his initials as Rab, was a prominent British Conservative politician. The Times obituary called him "the creator of the modern educational system, the key-figure in the revival of post-war Conservatism, arguably the most successful chancellor since the war and unquestionably a Home Secretary of reforming zeal." He was one of his party's leaders in promoting the post-war consensus through which the major parties largely agreed on the main points of domestic policy until the 1970s , sometimes known as "Butskellism" from a fusion of his name with that of his Labour counterpart Hugh Gaitskell.

Born into a family of academics and Indian administrators, Butler had a distinguished academic career before entering Parliament in 1929. As a junior minister, he helped to pass the Government of India Act 1935. He strongly supported the appeasement of Nazi Germany in 1938–39. Entering the Cabinet in 1941, he served as Education Minister (1941–45, overseeing the Education Act 1944). When the Conservatives returned to power in 1951 he served as Chancellor of the Exchequer (1951–55), Home Secretary (1957–62), Deputy Prime Minister and First Secretary of State (1962–63) and Foreign Secretary (1963–64)....

After retiring from politics in 1965, Butler was appointed Master of Trinity College, Cambridge.


-- Rab Butler, by Wikipedia


He was educated at Edinburgh University and the Royal Military College, Sandhurst.

Commissioned a Second Lieutenant in the 22nd Regiment 1879, Smith became a Lieutenant in the Indian Staff Corps in 1882. He was appointed Private Secretary to the Lieut-Governor of the Punjab, 1883, and Settlement Officer, Sialkot in 1887. He was then appointed Deputy Commissioner, Hissar, 1896; Director of Land Records and Agriculture, Punjab 1897; Famine Commissioner, Rajputana, 1899; member of Horse and Mule-Breeding Commission, India 1900; and Political Agent, Phulkian States and Bhawalpur, 1901.

Smith rose to become the Private Secretary to the Viceroy, Lord Minto, from 1905 to 1910.
He died 24 April 1921.[1][2][3]

Family

Smith married Beatrice Clementia, eldest daughter of Sir Charles Umpherston Aitchison, in 1887. They had two daughters; she died in 1902.

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Sir Charles Umpherston Aitchison KCSI CIE (20 May 1832 – 18 February 1896) was a Scottish colonial administrator who was Lieutenant Governor of the Punjab, then a province of British India. He founded Aitchison College, Lahore in 1886. He served as Chief Commissioner of the British Crown Colony of Burma from March 1878 to May 1880.

Education

Charles Umpherston Aitchison, born in Edinburgh on 20 May 1832, was the son of Hugh Aitchison of that city, by his wife Elizabeth, daughter of Charles Umpherston of Loanhead near Edinburgh. He was educated at the Royal High School and the University of Edinburgh, where he took the degree of M.A. on 23 April 1853. While a university student, Aitchison attended the lectures of Sir William Hamilton on logic and metaphysics.

William received his early education at Glasgow Grammar School, except for two years which he spent in a private school at Chiswick in Kent,[1] and in 1807 went as a Snell Exhibitioner, to Balliol College, Oxford. He obtained a first class in literis humanioribus and took his BA in 1811 (MA 1814). He had been intended for the medical profession, however soon after leaving Oxford he gave up this idea, and in 1813 became a member of the Scottish bar, as a qualified advocate....

Two visits to Germany in 1817 and 1820 led to William's taking up the study of German and later on that of contemporary German philosophy, which was almost entirely neglected in British universities....

In 1829 his career of authorship began with the appearance of the well-known essay on the "Philosophy of the Unconditioned" (a critique of Victor Cousin's Cours de philosophie)--the first of a series of articles contributed by him to the Edinburgh Review. He was elected in 1836 to the University of Edinburgh chair of logic and metaphysics, and from this time dates the influence which, during the next 20 years, he exerted over the thought of the younger generation in Scotland....

Hamilton also prepared extensive materials for a publication which he designed on the personal history, influence and opinions of Martin Luther. Here he advanced so far as to have planned and partly carried out the arrangement of the work; but it did not go further, and still remains in manuscript.

-- Sir William Hamilton, 9th Baronet, by Wikipedia


He afterwards passed some time in Germany, where he studied the works of Fichte, and attended the lectures of Tholuck at the University of Halle.

Immanuel Hermann Fichte; ennobled as Immanuel Hermann von Fichte in 1863; 18 July 1796 – 8 August 1879) was a German philosopher and son of Johann Gottlieb Fichte. In his philosophy, he was a theist and strongly opposed to the Hegelian School...

He also attended the lectures of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, but felt averse to what he deemed to be his pantheistic tendencies. As a result of semi-official suggestions, based on official disapproval of his supposedly liberal views, he decided, in 1822, to leave Berlin, and accepted a professorship at the gymnasium in Saarbrücken. In 1826 he went in the same capacity to Düsseldorf. In 1836 he became an extraordinary professor of philosophy at the University of Bonn, and in 1840 full professor. Here he quickly became a successful and much admired lecturer. Dissatisfied with the reactionary tendencies of the Prussian Ministry of Education, he accepted a call to the chair of philosophy at the University of Tübingen in 1842 where he continued to give lectures on all philosophic subjects until his retirement in 1875 when he moved to Stuttgart.

-- Immanuel Hermann Fichte, by Wikipedia


Indian civil service

In 1855 he ranked fifth at the first competitive examination for the Indian Civil Service, and after spending a year in England in the study of law and oriental languages he landed at Kolkata (then Calcutta) on 26 September 1856. In March 1857 he was appointed an assistant in Hissár, then a district of the North-Western Provinces and in the following month was transferred to the Punjab, where he joined shortly after the outbreak of the Indian Rebellion of 1857. Owing to this transfer he escaped a massacre of Europeans which took place at Hissár on 29 May. His first station in his new province was Amritsar, and immediately after his arrival there he was employed under the orders of the deputy commissioner in carrying out the measures which were taken to prevent the Jalandhar mutineers from crossing the Beas River. Shortly afterwards he was appointed personal assistant to the judicial commissioner, in which capacity he compiled A Manual of the Criminal Law of the Panjáb (1860). While thus employed, he was much thrown with Sir John Laird Mair Lawrence (afterwards Baron Lawrence), with whose policy, especially on the Central Asian question, and on British relations with Afghanistan, he was strongly imbued during the remainder of his life. In 1892 he contributed a memoir of Lord Lawrence to Sir William Wilson Hunter's Rulers of India series.

In 1859 he joined the secretariat of the government of India as under-secretary in the political department, and served there until 1865, when, at the instance of Sir John Lawrence, then governor-general, in order that he might acquire administrative experience, he took up administrative work in the Punjab, serving first as a deputy-commissioner and subsequently officiating as commissioner of Lahore. In 1868 he rejoined the secretariat as foreign secretary, and retained that appointment until 1878.

As secretary Aitchison was extremely industrious and thorough in his work. He exercised a marked influence on successive governors-general, who regarded him as a wise and trusted adviser. During the earlier part of his service in the Indian foreign office he commenced the compilation of a valuable work entitled A Collection of Treaties, Engagements, and Sanads relating to India and neighbouring Countries; the first volume appeared at Calcutta in 1862, and eleven volumes were issued by 1892; each treaty is prefaced by a clear historical narrative. In 1875, he published a treatise on The Native States of India, with the leading cases illustrating the principles which underlie their relations with the British government. A staunch believer in the policy of masterly inactivity, he regarded with grave apprehension the measures which, carried out under the government of Lord Lytton, culminated in the Afghan war of 1878–9.

British Burma

Before the war broke out in 1878 he accepted the appointment of chief commissioner of British Burma. When holding that office he raised two questions of considerable importance. The first was the question of the opium trade as bearing upon Burma. The second had reference to the relations of certain English public servants with the women of the country. Neither of these questions was dealt with officially by Lytton's government; but with reference to the second the viceroy intimated semi-officially that he disapproved of a circular which Aitchison had issued, as mixing up morals with politics. After Aitchison's departure from the province both these questions were taken up by his successor, who received the support of Lord Ripon's government in dealing with them. The number of licensed opium shops was then reduced to one-third of those previously licensed, and the consumption of licit opium was reduced by two-fifths, involving a loss of revenue of four lakhs (400,000) of rupees. On the other question, the principle of Aitchison's circular, stopping the promotion of officers who continued the practice which he had denounced, was enforced.

The Punjab

In 1881 Aitchison left Burma, to become on 4 April 1882, lieutenant-governor of the Punjab. His government there was very successful, and — according to the Dictionary of National Biography - popular with all classes of the people. Amongst his major achievements in the field of public education, at this time, were the establishment of the Aitchison College and the University of the Punjab, both at Lahore. He was a staunch advocate of the policy of advancing indigenous Indians in the public service as they proved their fitness for higher posts and for more responsible duties. On this point, in connection with what is known as the Ilbert Bill, he advocated measures even more liberal than those proposed by Lord Ripon's government.

He had intended to leave India for good when his lieutenant-governorship came to an end in 1887, but being invited by Lord Dufferin to join the council of the governor-general and give the viceroy the benefit of his experience on the many questions which had to be dealt with consequent upon the annexation of Upper Burma, he returned to India for another nineteen months. During the latter part of his government of the Punjab he had discharged the additional duty of presiding over the public service commission, and this duty he continued to perform after joining the governor-general's council. He gave unremitting attention to this work, and by his influence over the somewhat heterogeneous body of which the commission was composed he induced them to present a unanimous report.

He retired and finally left India in November 1888. Early in the following year he settled in London, but subsequently moved to Oxford. In 1881 he was nominated Knight Commander of the Order of the Star of India, and in 1882 Companion of the Order of the Indian Empire. He received the degree of LL.D. from the university of Edinburgh on 24 February 1877, and that of honorary M.A. from Oxford University in 1895.[3]

Personal life

Aitchison, a religious man, was a supporter of Christian missions while in India, and after his retirement was an active member of the committee of the Church Missionary Society. He died at Oxford on 18 February 1896.

Aitchison married, on 2 February 1863, Beatrice Lyell, one of four daughters of James Cox (1808–1875), D.L., of Clement Park, Forfarshire, who was the senior partner of Cox Brothers and Co, owners of Camperdown Works in Lochee, Dundee. Their daughter Beatrice Clementia married British Indian Army official James Dunlop Smith.

-- Charles Umpherston Aitchison, by Wikipedia


References

1. Lionel Knight (2012), Britain in India, 1858-1947, Anthem Press, p. 76, ISBN 9780857285171
2. Sir James Robert Dunlop Smith, edited by Martin Gilbert (1966), Servant of India: A Study of Imperial Rule from 1905 to 1910 as Told Through the Correspondence and Diaries of Sir James Dunlop Smith, Longmans
3. Who's Who 1916

External links

• Portrait by George Fiddes Watt
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Re: Freda Bedi Cont'd (#3)

Postby admin » Sat Jul 03, 2021 5:27 am

Vincent Arthur Smith
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 7/2/21

The Lumbini Discovery

The following year (1896) found Fuhrer back in Nepal once more, this time ‘to explore the whole neighbourhood of Taulihawa as far as Bhagvanpur, where there is said to exist another Asoka Edict pillar’. Fuhrer had referred to this other ‘Asoka Edict pillar’ in his 1895 report, though there was then no reason for believing that this pillar -- the present Lumbini pillar -- was Asokan; V. A. Smith had obtained rubbings from it ‘a dozen years’ earlier, and had found only ‘mediaeval scribblings’ on its exposed portion at that time.

The site was supposedly called ‘Rummindei’, this being considered to be a later variant of the name ‘Lumbini’.
But as E. J. Thomas observed:

‘According to Fuhrer, “this deserted site is still locally called Rummindei” (Monograph, p. 28). This statement was generally accepted before Fuhrer’s imaginativeness was discovered, and is still incautiously repeated. Yet he admitted that it was not the name used by the present Nepalese officials. “It is a curious fact (he says) that the true meaning of this ancient Buddhistic name has long been forgotten, as the present Nepalese officials believe the word to signify the sthan of Rupa-devi”. V. A. Smith said “the name Rummindei, of which a variant form Rupadei (sic) is known to the hill-men, is that of the shrine near the top of the mound of ruins”. This gives no further evidence for Fuhrer’s assertion, and it appears that neither the Nepalese officials nor the hill-men called it Rummindei’.


The Indian Survey map of 1915 lists the spot as ‘Roman-devi’; it should be noted that another ‘Roman-devi’ exists about 30 miles WSW of the Nepalese site, near the Indian town of Chandapar. Today, the site is situated in the ‘Rupandehi District’ of Nepal.

The Lumbini Pillar Inscription.

Whatever the event, in December 1896 Fuhrer met up at this Nepalese ‘Rummindei’ with the local Governor, Khadga Shamsher, ‘a man with intrigue in his bones’, who having assassinated one Prime Minister of Nepal and plotted against two others, eventually fled to British India and sanctuary.

The subsequent excavations around the pillar reportedly disclosed an Asokan inscription about a metre below ground, and level with the top of a surrounding brick enclosure.

The credit for the discovery of this inscription later prompted an official enquiry, since Fuhrer had supposedly left the site just before any excavations had begun, leaving the Governor and his ‘sappers’ to do the digging. In his official letter on the matter, Fuhrer stated that he had advised the Governor ‘that an inscription would be found if a search was made below the surface of the mound’ on which the pillar was situated. Since there was no previous historical reference to such an inscription, one wonders at Fuhrer’s remarkable prescience on this occasion.
However, since this inscription provides the basis for the identification of this place with Lumbini, I propose to deal with it before passing on to other features at this site.

The appearance of this inscription in 1896 marked its first recorded appearance in history. The noted Chinese pilgrims, Fa-hsien and Yuan-chuang, make no mention of it in their accounts of the Lumbini site (though Yuan-chuang does give a detailed description of a pillar) and as Thomas Watters observed:

‘We have no records of any other pilgrims visiting this place, or of any great Buddhists residing at it, or of any human life, except that mentioned by the two pilgrims, between the Buddha’s time and the present.


In Watters’ book ‘On Yuan Chwang’s Travels in India’ (prepared from an unpublished manuscript after his death) the following statement is found with reference to the Lumbini site:

‘Yuan-chuang, as we have seen, mentions a stone pillar, but he does not say anything about an inscription on it. The Fang-chih, however, tells us that the pillar recorded the circumstances of Buddha's birth’.


The Fang-chih -– a shortened version of Yuan-chuang’s account -- does nothing of the sort, since though it also refers to a stone pillar at Lumbini, no inscription ‘recording the circumstances of Buddha’s birth’ is mentioned in this text either. Watters, a great Sinologist, was referred to by V. A. [Vincent Arthur] Smith as ‘one of the most brilliant ornaments’ of Chinese Buddhist scholarship, and it is inconceivable that he would have made this critical mistake. Indeed, when Smith asserted that the Lumbini pillar inscription ‘set at rest all doubts as to the exact site of the traditional birthplace of Gautama Buddha’, Watters acidly retorted that ‘it would be more correct to say that the inscription, if genuine, tells us what was the spot indicated to Asoka as the birthplace of the Buddha’. Note that ‘if genuine’: this shows that Watters not only had his doubts about this inscription, but that he was also prepared to voice those doubts in public. Moreover, according to Smith, ‘Mr Watters writes in a very sceptical spirit, and apparently feels doubts as to the reality of the Sakya principality in the Tarai'. From all this, it will clearly be seen that this Fang-chih ‘mistake’ was totally at variance with Watters’ ‘very sceptical spirit’ regarding these supposed Nepalese discoveries (Lumbini included); and I shall therefore charge that it was a posthumous interpolation into Watters’ original text by its editors, Rhys Davids, Bushell, and Smith. If this charge is correct –- and I am quite sure that it is -- then the reasons behind this appalling deception can only be guessed at, I need hardly add.

-- Lumbini On Trial: The Untold Story. Lumbini Is An Astonishing Fraud Begun in 1896, by T. A. Phelps




Image
Vincent Arthur Smith
Image
The Early History of India by Vincent Arthur Smith, 1914
Born: 3 June 1843, Dublin, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
Died: 6 February 1920 (aged 76)[1], Oxford
Occupation: Indologist, art historian

Vincent Arthur Smith, CIE, (3 June 1843–6 February 1920) was an Irish Indologist and art historian and an indologist. He is also referred as Vincent Smith.

Biography

Smith was born in Dublin on 3 June 1843 which was then part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. His father was Dr Aquilla Smith, well known in medical and numismatic circles in Dublin and London.[1]

He passed the Indian Civil Services exam in 1871 and was appointed to what would become the United Provinces in India. He would go to serve between 1871–1900 in a variety of magisterial and executive positions including terms as district and sessions judge eventually retiring as commissioner in July 1900.[1]

By 1910 Smith was settled in Oxford where he joined St. John's College and was appointed a Curator of the Indian Institute.[1]

After his return to England, Smith wrote books on various rulers such as the Buddhist emperor, Ashoka and the Mughal emperor, Akbar, and a history of fine arts in India and Ceylon. He also published two comprehensive volumes on Indian history, The Early History of India and The Oxford History of India.[1]

Smith was honoured with the award of Companion of the Order of the Indian Empire[2] and awarded a doctorate by Dublin University in 1919. [1]


He died in Oxford on 6 February 1920.[3]

Works

• General index to the reports of the Archaeological Survey of India: Volumes I to XXIII, with a glossary and general table of contents, Simla, Government Central Press, 1887. - Varanasi: Indological Book House, 1969
• Smith, Vincent Arthur (1893). Editor of William Henry Sleeman's Rambles and Recollections of an Indian official Volume 1, Rambles and Recollections of an Indian official Volume 2 Westminster Reprint edition of the 1893 (2 volumes)
• Preface to Purna Chandra Mukherji: A report on a tour of exploration of the antiquities of Kapilavastu Tarai of Nepal during February and March, 1899, Calcutta: Office of the Superintendent of Government Printing, 1901; Delhi Indological Book House, 1969.
• Smith, Vincent Arthur (1901). Asoka, the Buddhist Emperor of India, 1 ed. Oxford 1901; 3rd ed., Rulers of India series, Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1920
• Smith, Vincent Arthur (1901). The Jain Stûpa and other antiquities of Mathurâ
• "The Kushān, or Indo-Scythian, Period of Indian History, B.C. 165 to A.D. 320," pp. 1–64 in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (London), 1903.
• Smith, Vincent Arthur (1903). The Indian civil service as a profession. A lecture delivered at Trinity college, Dublin, on June 10th, 1903
• Smith, Vincent Arthur (1904). The Early History of India, from 600 B. C. to the Muhammadan conquest
• Smith, Vincent Arthur (1906). Catalogue of the coins in the Indian Museum, Calcutta, including the cabinet of the Asiatic Society of Bengal: Volume 1, The Early Foreign Dynasties and the Guptas, Oxford: Clarendon Press
• Smith, Vincent Arthur (1906). Williams Jackson, A. V. (ed.). History of India: From Sixth century B.C. to Mohammedan Conquest. History of India. 2. London: Grolier Society.
• Smith, Vincent Arthur (1911). A history of fine art in India and Ceylon from the earliest times to the present day, First Edition
• A history of fine art in India and Ceylon from the earliest times to the present day, Second Edition revised by K Codrington, 1930
• A history of fine art in India and Ceylon from the earliest times to the present day, Third Edition revised and enlarged by Karl Khandalavala, 1962
• Smith, Vincent Arthur (1917). Akbar the Great Mogul, 1542-1605. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
• Smith, Vincent Arthur (1919) Second and revised edition to François Bernier's Travels in the Mogul Empire, AD 1656–1668, 1914
• Smith, Vincent Arthur (1919). The Oxford history of India : from the earliest times to the end of 1911, Oxford : Clarendon Press
• Smith, Vincent Arthur (1919). Indian constitutional reform, viewed in the light of history, Oxford : University Press

References

1. F. E. P. (July 1920). "Vincent Arthur Smith". The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland (3): 391–395. JSTOR 25209644.
2. Crooke, William (30 March 1920). "Dr. Vincent Arthur Smith, C. I. E." Folklore. 31 (1): 87. doi:10.1080/0015587x.1920.9719131. JSTOR 1255017.
3. The History of British India: A Chronology. by J F Riddick

Further reading

• Texts from Wikisource
• Data from Wikidata
• "Smith, Vincent Arthur". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/36164. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
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Re: Freda Bedi Cont'd (#3)

Postby admin » Sat Jul 03, 2021 6:10 am

Who was Sandrocottus: Samudragupta or Chandragupta Maurya?
The Chronology of Ancient India, Victim of Concoctions and Distortions
by Vedveer Arya
sanskritmagazine.com
2018

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[N]either the Vedas, the Upanishads, nor the Purans, profess to be historical compositions; and the ascribing this character to the latter, in particular, is a most erroneous opinion, for, with the exception of the genealogies of the princes of the solar and lunar races, the Purans contain nothing which has the slightest semblance of history ... It is true that each Puran contains a description of the division of time according to the Hindu system; but the chronology of no event is fixed more precisely than by referring it generally to such a Kalpa, or Manvantara, or Yug, as the particular year is never mentioned. The attempting, therefore, to extract either chronology or history from such data, must be an operation attended with equal success as the extraction of sunbeams from cucumbers by the sages of Laputa" -- Vans Kennedy 1831: 130.

-- Frederick Eden Pargiter: Excerpt from The Puranas, by Ludo Rocher


The Greek writers relate that the father of Sandrocottus was a man of low origin, being the son of a barber, whom the queen had married after putting her husband the king to death. He is called by Diodorus Siculus (16.93, 94) Xandrames, and by Q. Curtius (9.2) Aggrammes, the latter name being probably only a corruption of the former. This king sent his son Sandrocottus to Alexander the Great, who was then at the Hyphasis, and he is reported to have said that Alexander might easily have conquered the eastern parts of India, since the king was hated on account of his wickedness and the meanness of his birth. Justin likewise relates, that Sandrocottus saw Alexander, and that having offended him, he was ordered to be put to death, and escaped only by flight. Justin says nothing about his being the king's son, but simply relates that he was of obscure origin, and that after he escaped from Alexander he became the leader of a band of robbers, and finally obtained the supreme power...The name of Sandrocottus is written both by Plutarch and Appian Androcottus without the sibilant, and Athenaeus gives us the form Sandrocuptus (Σανδρόκυπτθς), which bears a much greater resemblance to the Hindu name than the common orthography. (Plut. Alex. 62 ; Justin, 15.4 ; Appian, Syr. 55 ; Strab. xv. pp. 702, 709, 724 ; Athen. 1.18e.; Arrian, Arr. Anab. 5.6.2; Plin. H. N. 6.17.)

-- Sandrocottus, by William Smith, A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology


Highlights:

Sir William Jones (1746-1794) deliberately identified 'Sandrocottus" mentioned by the Greeks as #ChandraguptaMaurya and declared that he was the contemporary of Alexander in 327-326 BCE...

Puranas tell us that Chandragupta Maurya ascended the throne by defeating the last Nanda king around 1500 BCE....

Therefore, #Samudragupta was the contemporary of Alexander in 327-326 BCE not Chandragupta Maurya...

The Greek scholars recorded the names of kings of India as Xandrames, and Sandrocottus. Western historians deliberately identified these names with those of Mahapadmananda or Dhanananda and Chandragupta Maurya. Xandrames was said to be the father of Sandrocottus. According to John W. McCrindle, Diodorus distorted the name "Sandrocottus" into Xandrames and this again is distorted by Curtius into Agrammes...

Seleucus Nikator also sent Deimachos on an embassy to Allitrocades or Amitrocades, the son of Sandrocottus. Western historians identified Allitrocades or Amitrocades to be Bindusara, the son of Chandragupta and concocted that Bindusara was also known as "Amitraghata". None of the Indian sources ever referred Bindusara as Amitraghata. Western historians deliberately created the word "Amitraghata" with some sort of resemblance...

Megasthenes described the system of city administration of Pataliputra but there is no similarity between the system described by Megasthenes and the system of city administration given in Kautilya Arthasastra. Megasthenes also stated that there was no slavery in India but Kautilya Arthasastra's Chapter 65 named "Dasakalpa" is solely devoted to the status of slaves among the Aryans and the Mlecchas. Probably, the slavery system that existed during Mauryan era has gradually declined by Gupta era. Thus, Megasthenes cannot be contemporary to Chandragupta Maurya.

Megasthenes not only often visited Palibothra but also stayed in the court of Sandrocottus for a few years. But he did not even mention about Kautilya or Chanakya who was the real kingmaker and also the patron of Chandragupta. No Greek scholar ever mentioned about Kautilya. Therefore, Megasthenes cannot be the contemporary to Chandragupta Maurya.

Greek scholars often mentioned that Sandrocottus was the king of the country called as Prasii (Prachi or Prachya). Pracha or Prachi means eastern country. During the Nanda and Mauryan era, Magadha kings were ruling almost entire India. Mauryan Empire was never referred in Indian sources as only Prachya desa or eastern country. Prachya desa was generally referred to Gupta Empire because Northern Saka Ksatrapas and Western Saka Ksatrapas were well established in North and West India. Megasthenes mentioned that Sandrocottus is the greatest king of the Indians and Poros is still greater than Sandrocottus which means a kingdom in the North-western region is still independent and enjoying at least equal status with the kingdom of Sandrocottus...

The Greek historian Plutarch mentioned that Androkottus (Sandrocottus) marched over the whole of India with an army of 600 thousand men. Chandragupta Maurya defeated Nandas under the leadership of Chanakya. There was no need for him to go on such expedition to conquer the whole of India because he has already inherited the Magadha kingdom of Nandas covering entire India. Actually, it was Samudragupta who overran the whole of India as details given in Allahabad pillar inscription.

According to Greek historians like Justinus, Appianus etc., Seleukos made friendship with Sandrocottus and entered into relations of marriage with him. Allahabad pillar inscription tells us that Samudragupta was offered their daughters in marriage (Kanyopayanadana ... ) by the kings in the North-west region. There is nothing in Indian sources to prove this fact with reference to Chandragupta Maurya...

The Jain work "Harivamsa" written by Jinasena gives the names of dynasties and kings and the duration of their rule after the nirvana of Mahavira. Jinasena mentions nothing about Mauryas but he tells us that Gupta kings ruled for 231 years. Western historians fixed the date of Mahavira-nirvana in 527 BCE which means Mauryas ruled after Mahavira-nirvana but Jaina Puranas and Jaina Pattavalis had no knowledge of Mauryas after Mahavira-nirvana. Thus, Mauryas ruled prior to Mahavira-nirvana. Therefore, Sandrocottus can only be identified with Samudragupta.

If Sandrocottus was indeed Chandragupta Maurya, why do none of the Greek sources mentioned about Asoka, the most illustrious and greatest of Mauryan kings? It is evident that Greek sources had no knowledge of Asoka. Therefore, the ancient Greeks were contemporaries to Gupta kings not Mauryas...

Interestingly, there is no reference of Alexander's invasion in Indian literary sources because it was actually a non-event for Indians...

Strabo once stated:


"Generally speaking, the men who have hitherto written on the affairs of India were a set of liars. Deimachos holds the first place in the list; Megasthenes comes next; while Onesikritos and Nearchos with others of the same class, manage to stammer out a few words of truth."...


If Samudragupta is accepted as Sandrocottus the contemporary Indian king of Alexander and the epoch of Saka coronation era in 583 BCE, there will be no conflict in the traditional Indian records and epigraphic records.

-- Who was Sandrocottus: Samudragupta or Chandragupta Maurya?, The Chronology of Ancient India, Victim of Concoctions and Distortions, by Vedveer Arya]


Alexander, during his invasion on Persian Empire and some parts of western India, has carried some Greek scholars like Baeto, Diognetos, Nearchos, Onesikritos, Aristoboulos, and Kallisthenes with him to chronicle his achievements. Megasthenes and Deimachos, the ambassadors of Seleucus Nikator the successor of Alexander, also wrote about India. Though the works of these scholars are all lost but their substance is found in the works of Plutarch, Strabo, Pliny and Arrian. Plutarch wrote Alexander's biography over 200 years after the death of Alexander based on the oral legends. These Greek scholars repeatedly mentioned about a powerful king of India named "Sandrocottus" who was undoubtedly "Samudragupta" with reference to the epoch of Gupta era in 335 BCE and Puranic account of the history of Magadha.

Sir William Jones (1746-1794) deliberately identified 'Sandrocottus" mentioned by the Greeks as #ChandraguptaMaurya and declared that he was the contemporary of Alexander in 327-326 BCE. This mistaken identity or concocted theory of William Jones has been propagated by western historians as an eternal and irrefutable historical fact for constructing the chronology of Ancient India. Eminent Indian historians under the influence of western historians toed the same line. Unfortunately, they completely ignored the history of ancient India given in Puranas since Mahabharata War.

Considering the epoch of #SakaEra in 583 BCE and the epoch of Gupta era in 335 BCE, the epigraphic evidence supports that Maurya dynasty ruled Magadha much earlier than 4th century BCE. Puranas tell us that Chandragupta Maurya ascended the throne by defeating the last Nanda king around 1500 BCE.

According to Kaliyuga Raja Vrittanta, the Great Bear or Saptarshi Mandai was in Sravana nakshtra during the reign of Mahapadma Nanda.

"Saptarshayo Mahayuktah kale Yaudhishthire satam ǀ
Sravane te bhavishyanti kale Nandasya bhupateh ǀǀ

During the time of Yudhishthira, the *GreatBear was in Magha constellation for 100 years. By the time of Nanda, it will be in Sravana constellation.)


The Great Bear was in Sravana nakshatra around 1676 BCE to 1576 BCE. #NandaDynastyruled Magadha for 100 years between 1616 BCE to 1516 BCE. Chandragupta Maurya founded the rule of #MauryaDynasty around 1516 BCE. Therefore, #Samudragupta was the contemporary of Alexander in 327-326 BCE not Chandragupta Maurya. There are many more evidences to support that Samudragupta was the "Sandrocottus" not Chandragupta Maurya.

Image

1. The Greek scholars recorded the names of kings of India as Xandrames, and Sandrocottus. Western historians deliberately identified these names with those of Mahapadmananda or Dhanananda and Chandragupta Maurya. Xandrames was said to be the father of Sandrocottus. According to John W. McCrindle, Diodorus distorted the name "Sandrocottus" into Xandrames and this again is distorted by Curtius into Agrammes21. It is totally absurd to link Xandrames with Mahapadmananda and Sandrocottus with Chandragupta Maurya. Most probably, Greeks called Chandra (Chandragupta) as Xandrames and Samudragupta as Sandrocottus. Moreover, the description given by the Greek scholars about Sandrocottus his father Xandrames are quite inapplicable to Chandragupta Maurya and could only apply to Samudragupta too. According to Greeks, Xandrames was the king of Gangaridai and Prasii whereas Dhanananda was the ruler of entire Northwest, central and eastern India. It is also said that Sandrocottus (Samudragupta) killed his father Xandrames (Chandragupta). This fact has been wilfully ignored by the biased western historians and their followers.

2. All Greek writers mentioned that Sandrocottus, the king of Prasii, whose capital was Palibothra i.e. Pataliputra. Megasthenes, Deimachos and other Greek ambassadors of Seleucus Nikator were sent in the court of Samudragupta and Chandragupta II at Palibothra. Pataliputra became the capital of Magadha Empire only during the reign of Chandragupta I around 335 BCE. According to Puranas, Girivraja or Rajagriha (Rajgir) was the capital city of Magadha during the reign of Nandas and Mauryas. Thus, Pataliputra was not the capital city of Chandragupta Maurya. From 3rd century BCE onwards, the city of Pataliputra became famous as the capital of Magadha. This is the reason why Vishakhadatta referred Pataliputra as the capital city of Magadha Empire in his work "Mudraraksasa" but this cannot be taken as evidence to reject the Puranic reference. Moreover, Mudraraksasa is a drama based on historical fiction. All the Puranas unanimously tell us that the capital of Magadha Empire was Girivraja or Rajagriha till the fall of Satavahana dynasty.

Image

3. According to Megasthenes, Sakas or Scythians were living in the northern side of India. "India, which is in shape quadrilateral, has its eastern as well as its western side bounded by the great sea, but on the northern side it is divided by Mount Hemodos from that part of Scythia which is inhabited by those Scythians who are called the OEakai, while the fourth or western side is bounded by the river called the Indus, which is perhaps the largest of all rivers in the world after the Nile." Many other Greek scholars also wrote about Scythians. Thus, it seems that Northern Saka Ksatrapas were ruling in the North-western frontier region during the time of Megasthenes. It is well known that Saka Ksatrapas were contemporaries of Guptas not Mauryas. Asoka inscriptions mention about only Yavana kings named Antikina, Alikasundara, Maga, Turamaya and Gongakena (not Greeks but indigenous Yavana kings of Afghanistan and Northern Pakistan) ruling in the western frontier regions. Western historians speculated about these kings to be Antiochus Theos II of Syria, Alexander of Epirus, Magas of Cyrene, Ptolemy II Philadelphos of Egypt and Antigonus Gonatus of Macedonia. These baseless speculations are simply based on the resemblance of names without any direct or indirect evidence. The references of Yavana kings in Asoka inscriptions indicate that Yavanas were the rulers in the western frontier regions not Sakas. There is no reference of Saka Ksatrapas in the entire account of Mauryan history. Therefore, Sandrocottus can only be Samudragupta who was the contemporary of Saka Ksatrapas not Chandragupta Maurya.

4. Seleucus Nikator also sent Deimachos on an embassy to Allitrocades or Amitrocades, the son of Sandrocottus. Western historians identified Allitrocades or Amitrocades to be Bindusara, the son of Chandragupta and concocted that Bindusara was also known as "Amitraghata". None of the Indian sources ever referred Bindusara as Amitraghata. Western historians deliberately created the word "Amitraghata" with some sort of resemblance. According to Puranas, Samudragupta was also known as "Asokaditya" and Chandragupta II was also known as "Vikramaditya". Probably, Allitrocades or Amitrocades referred to "Vikramaditya", the son of Sandrocottus (Samudragupta).

5. Megasthenes described the system of city administration of Pataliputra but there is no similarity between the system described by Megasthenes and the system of city administration given in Kautilya Arthasastra. Megasthenes also stated that there was no slavery in India but Kautilya Arthasastra's Chapter 65 named "Dasakalpa" is solely devoted to the status of slaves among the Aryans and the Mlecchas. Probably, the slavery system that existed during Mauryan era has gradually declined by Gupta era. Thus, Megasthenes cannot be contemporary to Chandragupta Maurya.

Other than their mention of the Brahmanas, the Greek narratives about Alexander's invasion do not directly mention the caste system. Some Brahmanas acted as advisors to local princes: Alexander had groups of Brahmanas hanged in present-day Sindh for instigating the rulers Musicanus and Sambus to revolt against him. The Greek writings attest the existence of slavery in at least two places: Onesicritus describes slavery in the territory ruled by Musicanus, and Aristobulus mentions poor people selling their daughters publicly in Taxila. Aristobulus also observed Sati, the practice of widows immolating themselves on their husbands' pyre, at Taxila. The practice of exposing dead bodies to vultures, similar to the Magian practice of Tower of Silence, was also prevalent in Taxila.

-- Indian campaign of Alexander the Great, by Wikipedia


6. Megasthenes not only often visited Palibothra but also stayed in the court of Sandrocottus for a few years. But he did not even mention about Kautilya or Chanakya who was the real kingmaker and also the patron of Chandragupta. No Greek scholar ever mentioned about Kautilya. Therefore, Megasthenes cannot be the contemporary to Chandragupta Maurya.

In the country of the Praxii [The Prachyas (i.e. Easterns) are called by Strabo, Arrian, and Pliny [x], Prasii; by Plutarch (Alex. 62) [x], a name often used by Aelian also; by Nikolaus Damas. (ap. Stob. Floril. 37, 38) [x]; by Diodorus (xvii. 93) [x]; by Curtius (IX. 2, 3) Pharrasii; by Justin (xii.8,9) Praesides. Megasthenes attempted to approximate more closely to the Sanskrit Prachya, for here he uses [x]. And it appears that [x] should be substituted for [x] in Stephan. Byzant., since it comes between the words [x] and [x]. — Schwanbeck, p. 82, not. 6.] who are an Indian people, Megasthenes says there are apes not inferior in size to the largest dogs. They have tails five cubits long, hair grown on their forehead, and they have luxuriant beards hanging down their breast. Their face is entirely white, and all the rest of the body black. They are tame and attached to man, and not malicious by nature like the apes of other countries.

-- Fragm. XIII., Ancient India as Described by Megasthenes and Arrian; Being a Translation of the Fragments of the Indika of Megasthenes Collected by Dr. Schwanbeck, and of the First Part of the Indika of Arrian, by J.W. McCrindle


7. Greek scholars often mentioned that Sandrocottus was the king of the country called as Prasii (Prachi or Prachya). Pracha or Prachi means eastern country. During the Nanda and Mauryan era, Magadha kings were ruling almost entire India. Mauryan Empire was never referred in Indian sources as only Prachya desa or eastern country. Prachya desa was generally referred to Gupta Empire because Northern Saka Ksatrapas and Western Saka Ksatrapas were well established in North and West India. Megasthenes mentioned that Sandrocottus is the greatest king of the Indians and Poros is still greater than Sandrocottus which means a kingdom in the North-western region is still independent and enjoying at least equal status with the kingdom of Sandrocottus.

Image

Chandragupta Maurya and his successors were the most powerful kings of India. It was impossible for any other Indian king to enjoy equal status with Mauryan kings because Mauryans inherited a strongest and vast empire from Nandas. Therefore, Sandrocottus, the king of Prasii can only be Samudragupta not Chandragupta Maurya.

8. The Greek historian Plutarch mentioned that Androkottus (Sandrocottus) marched over the whole of India with an army of 600 thousand men. Chandragupta Maurya defeated Nandas under the leadership of Chanakya. There was no need for him to go on such expedition to conquer the whole of India because he has already inherited the Magadha kingdom of Nandas covering entire India. Actually, it was Samudragupta who overran the whole of India as details given in Allahabad pillar inscription.

9. According to Greek historians like Justinus, Appianus etc., Seleukos made friendship with Sandrocottus and entered into relations of marriage with him. Allahabad pillar inscription tells us that Samudragupta was offered their daughters in marriage (Kanyopayanadana ... ) by the kings in the North-west region. There is nothing in Indian sources to prove this fact with reference to Chandragupta Maurya.

10. The Jain work "Harivamsa" written by Jinasena gives the names of dynasties and kings and the duration of their rule after the nirvana of Mahavira. Jinasena mentions nothing about Mauryas but he tells us that Gupta kings ruled for 231 years. Western historians fixed the date of Mahavira-nirvana in 527 BCE which means Mauryas ruled after Mahavira-nirvana but Jaina Puranas and Jaina Pattavalis had no knowledge of Mauryas after Mahavira-nirvana. Thus, Mauryas ruled prior to Mahavira-nirvana. Therefore, Sandrocottus can only be identified with Samudragupta.

Mahavira (Sanskrit: महावीर:), also known as Vardhamana is the 24th Tirthankara of Jainism. He was the spiritual successor of the 23rd Tirthankara Parshvanatha. Mahavira was born in the early part of the 6th century BCE into a royal Jain family in Bihar, India. His mother's name was Trishala and his father's name was Siddhartha. They were lay devotees of Parshvanatha. Mahavira abandoned all worldly possessions at the age of about 30 and left home in pursuit of spiritual awakening, becoming an ascetic. Mahavira practiced intense meditation and severe austerities for 12 and a half years, after which he attained Kevala Gyan (omniscience). He preached for 30 years and attained Moksha (salvation) in the 6th century BCE, although the year varies by sect.

Historically, Mahavira, who preached Jainism in ancient India, was an older contemporary of Gautama Buddha. Scholars variously date him from the 6th to 5th century BCE, and his place of birth is also a point of dispute among them.

Mahavira taught that observance of the vows of ahimsa (non-violence), satya (truth), asteya (non-stealing), brahmacharya (chastity), and aparigraha (non-attachment) are necessary for spiritual liberation. He taught the principles of Anekantavada (many-sided reality): syadvada and nayavada. Mahavira's teachings were compiled by Indrabhuti Gautama (his chief disciple) as the Jain Agamas. The texts, transmitted orally by Jain monks, are believed to have been largely lost by about the 1st century CE (when the remaining were first written down in the Svetambara tradition). The surviving versions of the Agamas taught by Mahavira are some of Svetambara Jainism's foundation texts, but their authenticity is disputed in Digambara Jainism.

Image
Statue of Mahavira meditating in the lotus position at Shri Mahavirji, Rajasthan, India.

Mahavira is usually depicted in a sitting or standing meditative posture, with the symbol of a lion beneath him. His earliest iconography is from archaeological sites in the North Indian city of Mathura, and is dated from between the 1st century BCE and the 2nd century CE. His birth is celebrated as Mahavir Janma Kalyanak and his nirvana (salvation) and also his first shishya (spiritual enlightenment) of Shri Gautama Swami is observed by Jains as Diwali.

-- Mahavira, by Wikipedia


11. If Sandrocottus was indeed Chandragupta Maurya, why do none of the Greek sources mentioned about Asoka, the most illustrious and greatest of Mauryan kings? It is evident that Greek sources had no knowledge of Asoka. Therefore, the ancient Greeks were contemporaries to Gupta kings not Mauryas.

In view of the above, Samudragupta was the contemporary of Alexander not Chandragupta Maurya. Unfortunately, this distorted history is being taught to Indians since last 231 years. Indian historians also blindly followed on the footsteps of Western historians.

Western historians were born and brought up in a religious Christian society. They were faithful to the Biblical conception of the creation of the world in 4004 BCE. They knew the fact that the antiquity of the history of Greece and other European countries cannot be greater than 1000 BCE. When they encountered with the antiquity of ancient Indian history that is greater than 6776 BCE, Western historians could not believe it. Therefore, they started distorting the chronology of ancient India. First of all, Sir William Jones conspired and deliberately cut down 1200 years of Indian history by identifying Sandrocottus as Chandragupta Maurya. To cover up this distortion, Jones declared that Puranic account of Indian history is mythological and unreliable but selectively accepted the genealogy of various dynasties from Puranas. Actually, many Western historians pursued their research with an objective to curtail the antiquity of the chronology of ancient India so that the supremacy of ancient Greek civilization can be established.

Image

Western historians were fascinated with the history of Alexander from their childhood. They started searching the footprints of Alexander's invasion in India. Interestingly, there is no reference of Alexander's invasion in Indian literary sources because it was actually a non-event for Indians. Western scholars concocted the theory that the Yavanas mentioned in Indian sources are Greeks without any evidence. According to various Indian sources, Yavana kingdoms existed in Indian history since Mahabharata war that located in the west and north side across the Indus river. Thus, Indian Yavanas were more ancient than the birth of ancient Greek civilisation.

In fact, it can be confidently stated that the great victory of Alexander and the homesickness of Greek soldiers have been concocted by historians of Alexander who were employed by him to chronicle his achievements. Probably, the army of Alexander was comprehensively defeated by the Indian king Poros and the wounded Alexander and his army have to flee through the channels of Indus River and they landed on the shores of Arabian sea. They were then forced to march along the dry Makran and Persian Gulf coast and somehow finally, made it back to Babylonia where the wounded young Alexander died there in 323 BCE at the age of 33 years. It may be noted that Alexander employed the historians to chronicle his victories not the defeats.

Therefore, the Greek historians concocted the victorious army of Alexander fell homesick and feigned the ignorance of geography for the return journey through the channels of Indus River. It is unbelievable that the victorious army of Alexander fell homesick otherwise they could have amassed unimaginable wealth from India, the most prosperous country of the world of the times. Moreover, Megasthenes, who was sent as ambassador to King Poros by Seleukos, mentioned that Poros was even greater than Sandrocottus. If Poros was defeated and appointed as satrap by Alexander, how could he become greater than Sandrocottus? After the death of Alexander, his generals decided to divide his Empire among themselves but interestingly, no part of India east of Indus River was included as part of Alexander's Empire. Therefore, it seems that the victory of Alexander over the Indian king Poros, the homesickness of his army and the ignorance of geography were just concocted stories by paid Greek historians of Alexander.

Strabo once stated

"Generally speaking, the men who have hitherto written on the affairs of India were a set of liars. Deimachos holds the first place in the list; Megasthenes comes next; while Onesikritos and Nearchos with others of the same class, manage to stammer out a few words of truth."


As quoted by Kota Venkatachalam, Troyer also rejected the identification of Chandragupta Maurya with Sandrocottus and pointed out that one of the Chandraguptas of the Gupta dynasty should be taken as Sandrocottus. If Samudragupta is accepted as Sandrocottus the contemporary Indian king of Alexander and the epoch of Saka coronation era in 583 BCE, there will be no conflict in the traditional Indian records and epigraphic records. Moreover, we need not to declare certain copper plate inscriptions as forgeries. Unfortunately, the Eurocentric and the distortionist approach of Western historians caused extreme damage to the chronology of ancient India. These intellectuals having no integrity pursued their research by distorting and concocting numerous so-called historical facts which can be called nothing less than a "fraud".
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Re: Freda Bedi Cont'd (#3)

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William Claxton Peppe
Persons of Indian Studies
by Prof. Dr. Klaus Karttunen

Fuhrer was later found to have fraudulently laid claim to the discovery of about twenty relic-caskets at sites close to Lumbini, which allegedly bore Asokan, and even pre-Asokan inscriptions. One of these items supposedly contained a tooth-relic of the Buddha, which Fuhrer illicitly exchanged for gifts with a Burmese monk, U Ma (the correspondence between these two makes for lamentable reading, with Fuhrer exploiting U Ma’s gullibility quite unmercifully). Following an official enquiry into the matter, this tooth-relic was found to be ‘apparently that of a horse’: Fuhrer had explained its large size to an indignant U Ma by pointing out that according to ‘your sacred writings’ the Buddha was nearly thirty feet in height!

According to Fuhrer, this ‘Buddhadanta’ had been found by a villager inside a ruined brick stupa near Tilaurakot, and was ‘enshrined in a bronze casket, bearing the following inscription in Maurya characters: “This sacred tooth-relic of Lord Buddha (is) the gift of Upagupta” (the mentor of Asoka). Having obligingly parted with the relic, the villager had refused to part with the inscribed casket itself ‘which is still in his possession’. Fuhrer reported finding this bogus Asokan inscription during the selfsame visit which saw the discovery of the Asokan inscription at Lumbini. Moreover, according to Fuhrer, the Lumbini inscription included words which were supposedly spoken by Upagupta whilst showing Asoka the Buddha’s birth-spot: ‘It would almost appear as if Asoka had engraved on this pillar the identical words which Upagupta uttered at this place’, he tells us, all wide-eyed. However, what with a bogus Upagupta quote on the casket, an Upagupta quote on the pillar, and Fuhrer’s keen taste for forging Brahmi inscriptions, we may here recall that he had fraudulently incised Brahmi inscriptions on to stone four years earlier (see ‘Fuhrer's Early Years’). And indeed, this pillar inscription ‘appeared almost as if freshly cut’ when Rhys Davids examined it in 1900, a view echoed by Professors N. Dutt and K. D. Bajpai, who noted that ‘it appears as if the inscription has been very recently incised’ when they examined it fifty years later. W. C. Peppe observed that ‘the rain falling on this pillar must have trickled over these letters and it is marvellous how well they are preserved; they stand out boldly as if they had been cut today and show no signs of the effects of climate; not a portion of the inscription is even stained’.

Inscriptions on other Asokan pillars located at sites associated with the Buddha’s life and ministry -- Sarnath and Kosambi, for example -- contain no references to their Buddhist associations, as this pillar so conspicuously -- and twice -- does; and no other inscription makes reference to any erection of a particular pillar by Asoka (as this one does) either. And with the exceptions of Sarnath and Sanchi, where only broken bases of pillars have been found, the surfaces of all other inscribed Asokan pillars are almost covered with inscriptions, whereas this pillar, and the nearby Nigliva pillar, display only single meagre inscriptions of 4 -5 lines each, and as J. F. Fleet has pointed out, they are not really edicts at all....

The Piprahwa Discoveries

In January 1898, W. C. Peppe, manager of the Birdpur Estate in north-eastern Basti District, U. P., announced the discovery of soapstone caskets and jewellery inside a stupa near Piprahwa (see map) a small village on this estate. An inscription on one of these caskets appeared to indicate that bone relics, supposedly found with these items, were those of the Buddha. Since this inscription also referred to the Buddha’s Sakyan kinsmen, these relics were thus generally considered to be those which were accorded to the Sakyas of Kapilavastu, following the Buddha’s cremation. The following year, these bone relics were ceremonially presented by the (British) Government of India to the King of Siam, who in turn accorded portions to the Sanghas of Burma and Ceylon. Concerning this discovery, however, the following points should be noted:

• Peppe had been in contact with Fuhrer just before announcing the Piprahwa discovery (Fuhrer was then excavating nearby, at the Nepalese site of Sagarwa: see map). Immediately following Peppe's announcement, it was discovered that Fuhrer had been conducting a steady trade in bogus relics of the Buddha with a Burmese monk, U Ma. Among these items -– and a year before the alleged Piprahwa finds -- Fuhrer had sent U Ma a soapstone relic-casket containing fraudulent Buddha-relics of the Sakyas of Kapilavastu, together with a bogus Asokan inscription, these deceptions thus duplicating, at an earlier date, Peppe’s supposedly unique finds. Fuhrer was also found to have falsely laid claim to the discovery of seventeen inscribed, pre-Asokan Sakyan caskets at Sagarwa, his report even listing the names of seventeen ‘Sakya heroes’ which were allegedly inscribed upon these caskets. The inscribed Piprahwa casket was also considered to be both Sakyan and pre-Asokan at this time -- though its characters have since been shown to be typically Asokan -- and no other Sakyan caskets have been discovered either before or since this date.

• The bone relics themselves, purportedly 2500 years old, ‘might have been picked up a few days ago’ according to Peppe, whilst a molar tooth found among these items (and retained by Peppe) has recently been found to be that of a pig. The eminent archaeologist, Theodor Bloch, declared of the Piprahwa stupa that ‘one may be permitted to maintain some doubts in regard to the theory that the latter monument contained the relic share of the Buddha received by the Sakyas. The bones found at that place, which have been presented to the King of Siam, and which I saw in Calcutta, according to my opinion were not human bones at all’. Bloch was then Superintendent both of the ASI [Archaeological Survey of India] Bengal Circle and the Archaeological Section of the Indian Museum, and would presumably have drawn not only upon his own expertise in making this assertion, but also that of the zoologists in the Indian Museum itself. This museum -– formerly the Imperial Museum -- was then considered to be the greatest in Asia.

• The caskets appear to be identical to caskets found in Cunningham’s book ‘Bhilsa Topes’ (see Figs. 7-12) a source also used by Fuhrer for his Nigliva deceptions. A photograph of the ‘rear’ of the inscribed Piprahwa casket, taken in situ at Piprahwa in 1898 (and never published thereafter) discloses that a large sherd was missing from the base of the vessel at this time (see Fig. 8). Having closely examined this casket in 1994, I noted that a piece had since been inserted into this broken base, and that this had been ‘nibbled’ in a clumsy attempt to get this piece to fit. The photograph also reveals a curious feature on the upper aspect of the casket; this, I discovered, was a piece of sealing-wax (since transferred to the inside) which had been applied to prevent a large crack from running further. From all this, it is evident that this casket had been badly damaged from the start, a fact not mentioned in any published report. But is it likely, one is prompted to ask, that this damaged casket, supposedly containing the Buddha’s relics, would have been deposited inside the stupa anyway? Or is this the broken casket, ‘similar in shape to those found below’, which was reportedly found near the summit of the stupa, and which had vanished without trace thereafter? This casket -– also damaged -- was the first of the alleged Piprahwa finds; so did Peppe take it to Fuhrer, and did Fuhrer then forge the inscription on it? Is the Piprahwa inscription simply another Fuhrer forgery? As Assistant Editor on the Epigraphia Indica, Fuhrer would certainly have had the necessary expertise to do this, quite apart from his close association with the great epigraphist, Georg Buhler (who may have unwittingly provided Fuhrer with the necessary details, according to the existing accounts).

• On his return to the U.K., Peppe was contacted by the London Buddhist Society, and agreed to answer readers’ questions on his finds. Shortly afterwards however, the Society was notified that Peppe had suddenly been taken seriously ill, and was therefore unable to answer any questions as proposed. The Society declared the matter to be ‘in abeyance’ in consequence; but Peppe died six years later, leaving all such questions still unanswered.


• The declassified ‘Secret’ political files of the period reveal the disquiet felt by the Government of India over French and Russian influence at the Siamese royal court at this time. Hence, no doubt, this bequest!

In 1972 an Indian archaeologist, K. M. Srivastava, made the startling claim to have discovered yet further relics of the Buddha in a ‘primary mud stupa’ below the Peppe one. According to him, the ‘indiscriminate destruction’ caused by Peppe meant that the 1898 bone relics could not be safely determined to be those of the Buddha, and the inscribed casket somehow ‘pointed’ to those relics allegedly found (by him) lower down, which were thus the real relics of the Buddha as mentioned by the casket’s inscription. Since this bizarre proposal thus rests upon the notion that the 1898 inscription is genuine –- hardly likely, as we have seen -– then this claim becomes equally improbable in consequence. I also note that Srivastava makes no mention, in any of his publications on his alleged finds, of the earlier bequest of the Peppe relics to Siam. Naturally, one wonders why.

-- Lumbini On Trial: The Untold Story. Lumbini Is An Astonishing Fraud Begun in 1896, by T. A. Phelps


PEPPE, William Claxton. Birdpur, Gorakhpur dt. 1.2.1852 — Welshpool, Montgomeryshire 1937. British Engineer in India, interested in Archaeology. Son of William P. [Claxton]. Educated in Aberdeen, then studied there engineering. He inherited the indigo estate of Birdwood in Piprahwa (in U.P. close to Nepalese border), where he conducted excavations and in January 1898 found the famous stūpa and the vase with the Peppe inscription.

Retired 1904 and returned to the U.K. In 1911 living in Montgomeryshire, Wales.

Married 1884 Sophia Rosalie Hill (d. 1887), then 1890 Caroline Ella Hill, three sons and one daughter.

Publications: “The Piprahwa Stupa, containing relics of Buddha”, JRAS 1898, 573-588.

Sources: http://honeymooney.com/genealogy/getper ... tkaerheron, http://www.myheritage and other stray notes in Internet

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William Peppe
by The RAI Organization, UK
Accessed: 7/3/21

Image
Peppe, William
Died: 1890
Residence: Grantee, Birdpore Grant, Goruckpore, Bustee, N.W. Province, Birdpore Goruckpore, via Bella Harriya, India [1881]
Society Membership
membership: ASL, AI ordinary fellow
left: 1888.06 last listed
elected_AI: 1869
elected_ASL: 1869.11.02

Notes

Office Notes

House Notes


proposed 1869.10.12

Peppe [last e acute] in List 1879 [so have changed from Pepper which I had originally]

death noted in report of Council for 1890 (may have occurred in 1889)

Notes From Elsewhere

William George or William Claxton??

In 1842, my great-grandfather, William [Claxton] Peppé, and his brother, George (both civil engineers from Aberdeen University), received a commission from a London firm to set up and run a sugar mill. After arriving they duly built the sugar mill and started production. Unfortunately George’s health broke down shortly after arriving and had to return home.

With George gone, William had expected to be made manager, but this failed to happen. It was then that William heard of a local widow who needed a manager to run an estate called Birdpur in Northern India on the border with Nepal. He applied and got the job.

The widow’s estate was on land acquired from the kingdom of Oude by the Honourable East Indian Company who offered grants of land called "Jungle Grants" with a 50 year lease. Part of the land deal for anyone obtaining the grant was that after 50 years the land would be theirs to own. Very few people succeeded.

This land lay between the foothills of the Himalayas and the Ganges plain.

And while it was fertile land with many rivers and was known as the "Gorakpur Tarai" it was covered with jungle and swamps, and was notorious for malaria. Few people could work the land other than the "Tharus" who were native to the jungle and hunter/gatherers. However, my great-grandfather, despite the difficulties of the terrain and threat of malaria was able to put a certain amount of land under cultivation each year.

William set about clearing the land and building reservoirs, dams, and canals to enable him to cultivate it -- which he did successfully. Indeed, he was so successful at experimenting with different strains of rice that he eventually developed a Patna Rice, now known as American Long Grain Rice.

Furthermore, at the time of the Indian mutiny William fought with a band of his own loyal tenants against the mutineers.

For these services to the British government they gave him another estate and not content with this, he then went about buying two other estates adjoining Birdpur. Eventually the estate he managed was nearly fifty square miles.

William subsequently had a son -- William Claxton -– my grandfather, who became an assistant on the estate and when his father died he took over its’ management.
He too had a son -– my father, Humphrey Peppé.

After the 1st World War, in which my father fought, he studied civil engineering at Cambridge and then went out to India to become my grandfather’s assistant. Eventually he took over the running of the estate when my grandfather retired.

However, on Indian independence, the estate was nationalised and my father spent another thirteen years in India trying to broker a deal with the government so as not to lose everything he, his father, and my great-grandfather had worked so hard to create.

The story brought forward by Bones of the Buddha is a fascinating one: one of the British Raj in India, when the amateur archaeologist W.C. Peppe plowed a trench through an enormous stupa and found the 4th century BC burial remains.

The Bones of the Buddha is an historical entry in the PBS series Secrets of the Dead, published in 2013.

William Claxton Peppè wasn’t interested in the objects’ religious value. His grandson says: “He was a strict but well-loved man, a Victorian Christian who had married a vicar’s daughter.

Name: William C Peppe Birth: year Death: dd mm 1937 - city, Montgomeryshire, Wales

In January 1898, Mr W. C. Peppe, manager of the Birdpur Estate in north-eastern Basti District, U. P., announced the discovery of soapstone relic-caskets and jewellery inside a stupa near Piprahwa, a small village on this estate. An inscription on one of these caskets appeared to indicate that bone relics, supposedly found with these items, were those of the Buddha. Since this inscription also referred to the Buddha’s Sakyan kinsmen, these relics were thus generally considered to be those which were accorded to the Sakyas of Kapilavastu, following the Buddha’s cremation. The following year (1899) these bone relics were presented by the (British) Government of India to the King of Siam, who in turn accorded portions to the Sanghas of Burma and Ceylon.

William George Peppe, brutal murderer of 1857 in the eye of Hindustan (INDIA).

How William George Peppe became Hero For East India Company?

It was year 1857, The British were amazed and stunned. They could understand it well that the sepoy "Mutiny" has developed into a People's War and they realized it fully that the people's uprising is like a flood which sweeps away everything that comes in its way and spares nothing.

During this same period people of Mahua Dabar had killed Six British Army Officer in bits and pieces this was in revenge that British army had given to their fathers and to their village. In the early 19th century, the East India Company, eager to promote British textiles, had cut off the hands of hundreds of weavers in Bengal. Twenty weavers’ families from Murshidabad and Nadia had then fled to Awadh, whose nawab resettled them in Mahua Dabar and allowed them to carry on with their livelihood. Many of the first-generation weavers had already lost their hands, but they taught the craft to their sons and the small town of 5,000 people soon became a bustling handloom centre. It was around March-April 1857 when Zaffar Ali, a young man whose grandfather had migrated from Bengal, spotted a boat coming down the Manorama (a tributary of the Ghagra) on whose banks the town was located. The historians’ report names the six soldiers beheaded: Lt T.E. Lindsay, Lt W.H. Thomas, Lt G.L. Caulty, Sgt Edwards and privates A.F. English and T.J. Richie.

It was in consequence of this understanding that the Gorakhpur Judge W. Wynard and Collector W. Peterson appointed the Zamindar of Birdepur Willam Peppe as Deputy Magistrate of Basti and gave him half the troops of the 12th Irregular Horse Cavalry for his backing. Peppe was ordered to crush the people's uprising immediately by whatever means it may be possible.

So, on 20 June 1857, Peppe deployed the 12th Irregular Horse cavalry and surrounded Mahua Dabar from all sides and burned the township murdered thousands of people and burned them to ashes. Razed the entire town of Mahua Dabar. After this event he also mentioned on the colonial revenue records, that the area was marked as gair chiragi (non-revenue land). Soon this message reached like fire in every home and town of Hindustan that if any one revolt against British Empire he or they will be crushed to the ground, and very soon British Army gained its power again in India for this great work Willam Peppe was rewarded by East India Company he was granted land is in Basti district, round Birdpur. He was first manager and then owner of a large European estate there, which is still held by his successors, his sons Messrs. W. C. and G. T. Peppe and Mrs. Larpent, his daughter. Annie Jane Peppe married Lieut. Col. L. H. P. [Lionel Henry Planta de] Larpent, H. C. S. (References : Gazetteer; Foster B., M. N page# 822).


Image
Francis Seymour Larpent; Charlotte Rosamund Larpent (née Arnold)
by Unknown artist
oil on canvas, circa 1830
29 1/2 in. x 24 1/2 in. (749 mm x 622 mm)
Sitters: Charlotte Rosamund Larpent (née Arnold) (died 1879), Second wife of Francis Seymour Larpent. Sitter in 1 portrait. Identify
Francis Seymour Larpent (1776-1845), Civil Servant. Sitter in 1 portrait. Identify
Given by Francis Napier Beaufort-Palmer, 1951

-- Francis Seymour Larpent; Charlotte Rosamund Larpent (née Arnold), by National Portrait Gallery


PALMER, Francis Beaufort was born on July 7, 1845. Son of Reverend William Palmer (one of the originators of the Oxford Movement) and Sophia, daughter of Admiral Sir Francis Beaufort, Knight Commander of the Bath, Fellow of the Royal Society...

Spouse 1898, Georgiana Elizabeth, daughter of 8th Baron [Arthur John] de Hochepied Larpent [Father: John James de Hochepied Larpent [1783-1860]].

-- Francis Beaufort Palmer, by prabook.com


John James De Hochepied Larpent family tree

Children

2. Lionel Henry Planta [L.H.P.] De Hochepied Larpent 1834-1907

-- John James De Hochepied Larpent (1783-1860), by ancestra.ca


William George Peppe died in 1889 Inscription—In memory of William Peppe, son of George Peppe, died 1 9th July 1889. He rendered valuable services during the troubled times of the Indian Mutiny, which Government rewarded by a grant of land in this district. [Deputy Collector during the Mutmy. The Mutiny narrative only mentions him as burning a Muhammadan village (Mahua Dabar) whose inhabitants had murdered six officers, refugees from Fyzabad. He also rescued some other refugees. He was in fact the sole representative of Government, and had great difficulty in preserving his own life. His grant of land is in Basti district, round Birdpur. He was first manager and then owner of a large European estate there, which is still held by his successors, h:s sons Messrs. W. C. and G. T. Peppe and Mrs. Larpent, his daughter. Annie Jane Peppe married Lieut.*Col. L. H. P. Larpent, H. C. S.]

Willam G. Peppe death date is Abstract from book CHRISTIAN TOMBS AND MONUMENTS IN THE UNITED PROVINCES…BY E.A.B BLUNT I.C.S.

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Piprahwa
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 7/3/21

Piprahava
village
Image
Stupa at Piprahwa
Image
Location in Uttar Pradesh, India
Coordinates: 27.443000°N 83.127800°ECoordinates: 27.443000°N 83.127800°E
Country: India
State: Uttar Pradesh
District: Siddharthnagar
Languages: Official Hindi

Piprahwa (Hindi: पिपरहवा) is a village near Birdpur in Siddharthnagar district of the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. Kalanamak rice, a scented and spicy variety of rice is grown in this area.[1] It lies in the heart of the historical Buddha's homeland and is 12 miles from the world heritage site of Lumbini that is believed to be the place of Gautama Buddha's birth.

Piprahwa is best known for its archaeological site and excavations that suggest that it may have been the burial place of the portion of the Buddha's ashes that were given to his own Shakya clan. A large stupa and the ruins of several monasteries as well as a museum are located within the site. Ancient residential complexes and shrines were uncovered at the adjacent mound of Ganwaria.

Excavation by William Claxton Peppe

A buried stupa was discovered by William Claxton Peppe, a British colonial engineer and landowner of an estate at Piprahwa in January 1898. Following the severe famine that decimated Northern India in 1897, Peppe led a team in excavating a large earthen mound on his land. Having cleared away scrub and jungle, they set to work building a deep trench through the mound. After digging through 18 feet of solid brickwork, they came to a large stone coffer which contained five small vases containing bone fragments, ashes, and jewels.[2] On one of the vases was a Brahmi script which was translated by Georg Bühler, a leading European epigraphist of the time, to mean:

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Piprahwa vase with relics of the Buddha. The inscription reads ...salilanidhane Budhasa Bhagavate... "Relics of the Buddha Lord"

Sukiti-bhatinaṃ sabhaginikanam sa-puta-dalanam iyaṃ salila-nidhane Budhasa bhagavate sakiyanam[3]

"This relic-shrine of divine Buddha (is the donation) of the Sakya-Sukiti brothers, associated with their sisters, sons, and wives,[4]


This inscription implied that the bone fragments were part of the remains of Gautama Buddha, the founder of Buddhism.[5] Throughout the following decade or so, epigraphists debated the precise meaning of the inscription. Vincent Smith, William Hoey, Thomas Rhys Davids, and Emile Senart all translated the inscription to confirm that these were relics of the Buddha.[6][7]

In 1905, John Fleet, a former epigraphist of the Government of India, published a translation that agreed with this interpretation.[8] However, on assuming the role of Secretary of the Royal Asiatic Society from Thomas Rhys Davids, Fleet proposed a different reading:[9][10]

"This is a deposit of relics of the brethen of Sukiti, kinsmen of Buddha the Blessed One, with their sisters, their children and wives."[3]


Image
Handwritten note by discoverer W.C. Péppe to Vincent Arthur Smith about the inscription, 1898

This interpretation was firmly rejected by his contemporaries. Following such criticism Fleet wrote: "I now abandon my opinion".[11] Epigraphists of the time subscribed instead to the translation by Auguste Barth:

"This receptacle of relics of the blessed Buddha of the Śākyas (is the pious gift) of the brothers of Sukīrti, jointly with their sisters, with their sons and their wives."[12]


Over a hundred years later, in the 2013 documentary, Bones of the Buddha, epigraphist Harry Falk of Freie Universität Berlin confirmed the original interpretation that the depositors believed these to be the remains of the Buddha himself. Falk translated the inscription as "these are the relics of the Buddha, the Lord" and concluded that the reliquary found at Piprahwa did contain a portion of the ashes of the Buddha and that the inscription is authentic.[13]

In 1997, epigraphist and archaeologist Ahmad Hasan Dani noted the challenges that isolated finds present to paleographical study and to dating materials. He concluded that "the inscription may be confidently dated to the earlier half of the second century B.C." but noted that "the Piprahwa vase, found in the Basti District, U.P. (Uttar Pradesh), has an inscription scratched on the steatite stone in a careless manner. As the inscription refers to the remains of the Buddha, it was originally dated to the pre-Mauryan period, but it has been brought down to the third century B.C. on a comparison with Asokan Brahmi. The style of writing is very poor, and there is nothing in it that speaks of the hand of the Asokan scribes". [14] Dani's dating of the inscription puts it around 250 years after the generally agreed 480 BCE death of the historical Buddha which suggests that the stupa itself was built after the Buddha's lifetime. The time difference is most likely explained by the Emperor Ashoka’s sudden conversion to Buddhism. After slaughtering tens of thousands to secure his kingdom, Ashoka issued a decree to build stupas and redistribute the Buddha’s remains across his kingdom.[15]

Although there was some initial uncertainty about the translation, there is no record of any challenge to the authenticity of the find at the time.[16] However, in introducing the discovery to the members of the Royal Asiatic Society in April 1900, its secretary, Thomas Rhys Davids, stressed that 'the hypothesis of forgery in this case is simply unthinkable'.[17] Over a century later some have assumed that such doubts must have therefore existed most likely because government archaeologist, A.A. Führer, had been working in the region and had recently been exposed for plagiarism and forgery. The possibility of forgery was explored by writer and historian Charles Allen in his book The Buddha and Dr. Fuhrer and in his documentary Bones of the Buddha. He researches the unfolding of events at Piprahwa based on the letters of W.C. Péppe, Vincent Smith, and A.A. Führer, and concludes that Führer was unable to interfere with the discovery of the inscription made by W.C. Péppe.[18] Harry Falk, professor of Indology at the Freie Universität in Berlin, stated in the documentary that Führer could not have forged the Piprahwa reliquary inscription. Richard Salomon of the University of Washington notes that 'Forgeries tend to be either blatant imitations of genuine inscriptions, or totally aberrant texts, and if the Piprahwa inscription were a forgery - which I am certain is not the case - it would belong to the latter category.' He goes on 'the Piprahwa inscription rings true in all regards'.[19]

The main stupa at Piprahwa, one of the earliest so far discovered in India, was built in three phases. In the 6th-5th century BCE, around the time of the death of the Buddha, it was raised by piling up natural earth from the surrounding area. This was in accordance with a request of the Buddha who had asked that he be buried under the earth "heaped up as rice is heaped in an alms bowl."[20] Phase II occurred during Ashoka’s rule (and was likely completed after his death around 235 BCE) as part of the Emperor’s mission to "distribute the relics of the exalted one."[21] Ashoka opened up the original stupas containing the relics of the Buddha, then restored the stupa and interred a portion of what he had taken. The remaining relics were distributed to other new stupas. At Piprahwa, the restoration consisted of filling thick clay over the structure and of building two tiers to reach a height of 4.55m. In phase III, during the Kushan period, the stupa was extensively enlarged and reached a height of 6.35 metres (20.8 ft). The largest structure after the stupa is the Eastern Monastery that measures 45.11m x 41.14m with a courtyard and more than thirty cells around it. The complex includes an additional Southern Monastery, Western Monastery, and Northern Monastery.[22]

Distribution of the relics

Image
The five reliquaries discovered in Piprahwa.

Image
Portion of the Piprahwa vase inscription. The inscription reads [x] salilanidhane Budhasa Bhagavate... "Relics of the Buddha Lord" (Brahmi script).

Prince Prisdang (aka Jinavaravansa), a former ambassador to Siam and cousin to the King Rama V, had been ordained as a Buddhist monk in Sri Lanka and arrived at Piprahwa shortly after the discovery. He soon learned that W.C. Peppe had placed his finds at the disposal of the government.[23][24] His eloquent arguments to persuade British government officials to donate the bone relics to the King of Siam to share with Buddhist communities in other countries received some support from lower level British officials and worked their way up to the Viceroy. It was an obvious solution that might appease Buddhists who were upset that the recently discovered Bodh Gaya, believed to be the place of the Buddha's enlightenment, had remained under Hindu control. It was also a gesture of goodwill to a country that was being courted by the French, Russian, and Dutch superpowers of the time.[25] In 1899, a ceremony was held and the bone relics were handed off to an emissary of King Rama V and traveled to Bangkok. Prisdang’s request to be involved was not realized.[26][27]

The bone relics were immediately distributed across several locations, including Golden Mount Temple in Bangkok, Thailand,[27] Shwedagon pagoda in Rangoon, Myanmar, Arakan pagoda in Mandalay, Myanmar, Dipaduttamarama Temple in Colombo, Sri Lanka, Waskaduwe Vihara in Kalutara, Sri Lanka,[28] and the Marichiwatta stupa in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka.[11]

The majority of the gold and jewelry relic offerings were donated by the Indian government to the Indian Museum, Kolkata. Today, a replica urn is on display.[29] Photographs of the items are on display at the Kapilavastu Museum at Piprahwa that is visited by Buddhist pilgrims.

W. C. Peppe was allowed to retain a number of duplicates which are exhibited in museums today.[30][31] He also gave some pieces to Prince Prisdang and Prisdang's Buddhist master, Sri Subuthi.[32][28] A box of 12 flowers was most likely given to Thomas Rhys Davids and the Royal Archaeological Society and discovered as part of a clean up at the Buddhist Society headquarters in London in 2004.[33]

On 16th December 2554 ( 2011), a portion of these Kapilvatthu Buddha Relics was offered to the Sangha of Ratanawan Monastery. In January, 2012, some of these relics were enshrined in the Buddha Homage Reliquary Hall, Ratanawan Monastery, Thailand.

Many senior monks participated in this auspicious ceremony including Ajahn Sumedho and Ajahn Viradhammo.

Excavations by the Archaeological Survey of India

Image
Southern monastery

From 1971-1973, a team of the Archaeological Survey of India led by K.M. Srivastava resumed excavations at the Piprahwa stupa site. The team discovered a casket containing fragments of charred bone, at a location several feet deeper than the coffer that W.C. Peppe had previously excavated. As the relic containers were found in the deposits from the period of Northern Black Polished Ware, Srivastava dated the find to the fifth-fourth centuries BCE, which would be consistent with the period in which the Buddha is believed to have lived.[34] He also discovered 13 sealings which bore the same legend in Kushan script: 'Of the community of the monks of great Kapilavastu'. Today, the ancient sites of Piprahwa and Ganwaria host the Kapilavastu Museum, controlled by the Archaeological Survey of India.[22]

The bone fragments recovered by Srivastava's team are currently located at the National Museum, New Delhi.[35] In 1978, the Indian government allowed their share of the discovery to be exhibited in Sri Lanka and more than 10 million people paid homage. They were also exhibited in Mongolia in 1993, Singapore in 1994, South Korea in 1995, Thailand in 1996, and again in Sri Lanka in 2012.[36]

Location of ancient Kapilavastu

Srivastava's discovery of the terracotta sealings bearing the name Kapilavastu has led some scholars to believe that modern-day Piprahwa was the site of the ancient city of Kapilavastu, the capital of the Shakya kingdom, where Siddhartha Gautama spent the first 29 years of his life.[2][4][34][37] Others suggest that the original site of Kapilavastu is located 16 kilometres (9.9 mi) to the northwest, at Tilaurakot, in what is currently Kapilvastu District in Nepal.[38][39][40] This question is especially important to scholars of Buddhist history, as Kapilavastu was the capital of the Shakya kingdom. King Śuddhodana and Queen Māyādevī lived at Kapilavastu, as did their son Prince Siddhartha Gautama until he left the palace at 29 years of age.[41]

See also

• Bhattiprolu
• Bimaran casket
• Relics associated with Buddha
• Sanchi

Notes

References


1. Mishra 2005.
2. Peppe 1898, pp. 573–88.
3. Fleet 1907, pp. 129-130.
4. Bühler 1898, p. 388.
5. Peppe 1898, pp. 584–85.
6. Senart, Emile (1906). "Note sur l'inscription de Piprahwa". Journal Asiatique (Jan–Feb): 132–136.
7. Hoey, William (24 February 1898). "Piprahwa inscription". The Pioneer.
8. Fleet, John (October 1905). "Notes on three Buddhist Inscriptions". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. 37 (4): 679–691. doi:10.1017/S0035869X00033748.
9. Fleet, John (1906). The inscription on the Priprawa vase. Journal Of The Royal Asiatic Society Of Great Britain And Ireland For-1906. pp. 149-.
10. "Inscribed Relic Casket from Piprahwa". Museums of India. National Portal and Digital Repository. Archived from the original on 22 June 2015.
11. Allen 2008, p. 212.
12. Barth, Auguste (October 1906). "The inscription on the Piprahwa vase". Journal des Savants. 36: 124.
13. Secrets of the Dead: Bones of the Buddha - Transcript, PBS, retrieved 16 April 2015
14. Dani 1997, Chapter 3.
15. Strong, John (1989). The Legend of King Aśoka: A Study and Translation of the Aśokāvadāna. Motilal Banarsidass Publ.
16. Falk, Harry (2018). "The ashes of the Buddha". Bulletin of the Asia Institute: 45.
17. Rhys Davids, Thomas (1901). "Asoka and the Buddha relics". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. XIV: 398.
18. Allen 2008, p. [page needed].
19. Allen 2008, p. 261.
20. Allen 2008, p. 9.
21. Strong, John. Ashokavadana.
22. "The Stupa". Kapilavastu Museum. Archaeological Survey of India. Archived from the original on 15 March 2016.
23. Smith, Vincent (1898). "Government Correspondence" (741).
24. "The relics of Buddha". The Standard. Reuters. 19 December 1898. Retrieved 14 February 2019.
25. Rey, Himanshu Prabha (2014). The Return of the Buddha. Routledge. pp. 106–110.
26. Loos, Tamara (2016). Bones around my neck. Cornell University. p. 120.
27. Jinavaravansa & Jumsai 2003, p. 214.
28. Nanayakkara, Rasika (25 January 2013). "Exposition of Sacred relics". The Island.
29. Falk, Harry (2017). "The Ashes of the Buddha". Bulletin of the Asia Institute. 27: 53.
30. Smith, Vincent (1898). "Government Correspondence". British Library (740 /III-2790-2).
31. "Next stop Nirvana". Rietberg Museum Newsletter. November 2018.
32. Allen 2008, pp. 209–210.
33. Mackenzie, Vicki (21 March 2004). "Buried with the Buddha". The Sunday Times.
34. Srivastava 1980, pp. 103–10.
35. Srivathsan 2012.
36. "Kapilavastu relics arrive in Sri Lanka". Daily Mirror. 19 August 2012.
37. Srivastava 1979, pp. 61-74.
38. Allen 2008, p. 262.
39. Tuladhar 2002, pp. 1-7.
40. Sharda 2015.
41. Trainor, K (2010). "Kapilavastu". In Keown, D; Prebish, CS (eds.). Encyclopedia of Buddhism. Milton Park, UK: Routledge. pp. 436–7. ISBN 978-0-415-55624-8.

Sources

• Allen, Charles (2008). The Buddha and Dr Führer: an archaeological scandal (1st ed.). London: Haus Publishing. ISBN 978-1-905791-93-4.
• Allen, Charles (2012), "What happened at Piprahwa: A chronology of events relating to the excavation in January 1898 of the Piprahwa Stupa in Basti District, North-Western Provinces and Oude (Uttar Pradesh), India, and the associated 'Piprahwa Inscription', based on newly available correspondence", Zeitschrift für Indologie und Südasienstudien, 29: 1–19, OCLC 64218646
• Bühler, Georg (April 1898). "Preliminary note on a recently discovered Sakya inscription". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland (Correspondence: Note 14): 387–389. JSTOR 25207982.
• Dani, AH (1997), Indian Palaeography (3rd ed.), New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers, p. 56, ISBN 978-8121500289
• Fleet, J. F. (1907). "The Inscription on the Piprahwa Vase". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. 39: 105–130. doi:10.1017/S0035869X00035541. JSTOR 25210369.
• Jinavaravansa, P. C.; Jumsai, Sumet (2003). "The Ratna Chetiya Dipaduttamarama, Colombo". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Sri Lanka. New. 48: 213–236. JSTOR 23731479.
• Mishra, S (15 September 2005), "Kalanamak: the future of Indian scented rice?", Down To Earth magazine, New Delhi: Society for Environmental Communications, retrieved 29 November 2014
• Peppe, WC (July 1898), "The Piprahwa Stupa, containing relics of Buddha", With a Note by V.A. Smith. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland (Article XXIII): 573–88, JSTOR 25208010 – via JSTOR (subscription required)
• Sharda, Shailvee (4 May 2015), "UP's Piprahwa is Buddha's Kapilvastu?", Times of India
• Smith, V. A. (Oct., 1898), The Piprāhwā Stūpa, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, p. 868 – via JSTOR (subscription required)
• Srivastava, KM (1979), "Kapilavastu and Its Precise Location", East and West, 29 (1/4): 61–74, JSTOR 29756506 – via JSTOR (subscription required)
• Srivastava, KM (1980), "Archaeological Excavations at Piprāhwā and Ganwaria and the Identification of Kapilavastu", The Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies, 13 (1): 103–10
• Srivastava, KM (1996). Excavations at Piprahwa and Ganwaria (Memoirs of the Archaeological Survey of India No 94) (PDF). New Delhi: Archaeological Survey of India.
• Srivathsan, A (20 August 2012), "Gautama Buddha, four bones and three countries", Colombo Telegraph, Colombo, Sri Lanka, retrieved 29 November 2014
• Tuladhar, Swoyambhu D. (November 2002), "The Ancient City of Kapilvastu - Revisited" (PDF), Ancient Nepal (151): 1–7

External links

• Piprahwa Museum
• ASI
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Re: Freda Bedi Cont'd (#3)

Postby admin » Sun Jul 04, 2021 3:20 am

The Piprahwa Deceptions: Set-ups and Showdown
by T.A. Phelps
April 28, 2013



(This is a revised and expanded version of a talk given at Harewood House, UK, in 2006, at a conference convened to ‘clear the air’ on the thorny issue of the Piprahwa claims. Whilst challenging the reliability of those claims, it should not be regarded as any kind of endorsement, by default, of the Nepalese claim that Tilaurakot represents the site of Kapilavastu. My views on the ‘Kapilavastu Problem’ and related questions are set out in ‘Lumbini on Trial: The Untold Story’, at http://www.lumkap.org.uk which should be read in conjunction with this article).

The Piprahwa Deceptions: Set-ups and Showdown

‘The careful excavation of Mr Peppe makes it certain that this stupa had never been opened until he opened it…The hypothesis of forgery is in this case simply unthinkable. And we are fairly entitled to ask: “If this stupa and these remains are not what they purport to be, then what are they?”…Though the sceptics -– only sceptics, no doubt, because they think that it is too good to be true…’ (etc.)

-- ‘Asoka and the Buddha-relics’, by T.W. Rhys Davids, JRAS (UK) 1901.


In January 1898, Mr W. C. Peppe, manager of the Birdpur Estate in north-eastern Basti District, U. P., announced the discovery of soapstone relic-caskets and jewellery inside a stupa near Piprahwa, a small village on this estate. An inscription on one of these caskets appeared to indicate that bone relics, supposedly found with these items, were those of the Buddha. Since this inscription also referred to the Buddha’s Sakyan kinsmen, these relics were thus generally considered to be those which were accorded to the Sakyas of Kapilavastu, following the Buddha’s cremation.

The following year (1899) these bone relics were presented by the (British) Government of India to the King of Siam, who in turn accorded portions to the Sanghas of Burma and Ceylon.

DR FUHRER’S LETTERS TO U MA

When Peppe formally announced his finds to the local Collector on 20th January, 1898, his letter disclosed that he had been in contact with the Government archaeologist, Dr Alois Anton Fuhrer, who was then excavating at Sagarwa, just a few miles away across the Indo-Nepalese border. 1. A fortnight later, a letter was despatched from the Government of Burma to Fuhrer’s employer, the Government of the North-Western Provinces. 2. This revealed that Fuhrer had been conducting a secret trade in bogus Buddha-relics with a Burmese monk, U Ma, between September 1896, up to, and during, Peppe’s excavations in 1898. 3. Fuhrer’s letters to U Ma have never seen the public light of day, and a brief summary of their contents reads as follows:

• 22nd September, 1896: Fuhrer mentions sending U Ma some Buddha-relics from Sravasti.

• 19th November 1896: Fuhrer states that ‘The relics of Tathagata, sent off yesterday, were found in the stupa erected by the Sakyas of Kapilavastu over the corporeal relics (saririka-dhatus) of the Lord. These relics were found by me during an excavation of 1886, and are placed in the same relic casket of soapstone in which they were found. The four votive tablets of Buddha surrounded the relic casket. The ancient inscription found on the spot with the relics will follow, as I wish to prepare a transcript and translation of the same for you.’


This letter was sent to U Ma a year before the Piprahwa finds. These spurious relics of the Buddha, purportedly those claimed by the Sakyas of Kapilavastu after the Buddha’s cremation, together with a soapstone relic-casket, and an ‘ancient inscription’, are all, of course, details which are identical to those of the Piprahwa finds of 1898. From this, it will be seen that Fuhrer (with whom Peppe had been in contact) had thus fraudulently staged the Piprahwa finds a year before Peppe’s supposedly unique discoveries.

• 6th March 1897: Fuhrer refers to further ‘sacred relics of Buddha’, which he will keep until U Ma’s proposed visit to India.

• 23rd June 1897: Fuhrer mentions ‘a precious tooth relic of Lord Buddha’ which he will send to U Ma.

• 29th August 1897: Fuhrer says that he will ‘despatch at once a real and authentic tooth relic of the Buddha Bhagavat… along with many other relics of Lord Buddha’.

• 21st September 1897: Fuhrer sends U Ma ‘a molar tooth of Lord Buddha Gaudama Sakyamuni. It was found by me in a stupa at Kapilavatthu, where King Suddhodana lived. That it is genuine there can be no doubt’. Says that ‘the other relics will follow shortly.’

• 30th September 1897: Fuhrer despatches a bogus Asokan inscription allegedly found at Sravasti, and says that he is ‘sending more relics of Sakyamuni after some time’.

• 13th December 1897: Fuhrer mentions that he will return a silver box which U Ma had sent him, together with yet further ‘relics of Gotama Buddha’. Says that he is now ‘at Kapilavastu, in the Nepal Tarai’, where he has ‘so far found three relic caskets with dhatus – nail-parings, hairs, and bones – of the Lord Buddha Sakyamuni. All of these precious relics I will send you at the end of March’.

• 16th February 1898: (i.e. a fortnight after the arrival of the Burmese letter exposing Fuhrer’s deceptions, and three weeks after Peppe’s announcement of his supposed finds). Having received an indignant letter and telegram from U Ma (who finally realised that he had been duped) Fuhrer writes to him from ‘Camp Kapilavastu’, i.e. Sagarwa. Fuhrer states that he can ‘quite understand that the Buddhadanta that I sent you a short while ago is looked upon with suspicion by non-Buddhists, as it is quite different from any ordinary human tooth’ (it was subsequently shown to be ‘apparently that of a horse’). He goes on : ‘But you will know that Bhagavat Buddha was no ordinary being, as he was eighteen cubits in height (about 27 feet) as your sacred writings state. His teeth would therefore not have been shaped like others…Kapilavastu, where the tooth was found in an ancient relic mound, is now a jungle, and overgrown with forest…I shall send you a copy of an ancient inscription which was found by me along with the tooth. It says “This sacred tooth relic of Lord Buddha is the gift of Upagupta”. As you know, Upagupta was the teacher of Asoka, the great Buddhist emperor of India. In Asoka’s time, about 250 BC, this identical tooth was believed to be a relic of Buddha Sakyamuni. My own opinion is that the tooth in question was a genuine relic of Buddha’.

From these letters, we see that Fuhrer had thus been conducting a secret trade in sham relics of the Buddha both before, and during, the similar supposed finds at Piprahwa. We shall note that these bogus items included those relics of the Buddha that were claimed by the Sakyas of Kapilavastu after the Buddha’s cremation – precisely the same stupendous claim which was made for the Piprahwa relics – together with a soapstone casket and ‘ancient inscriptions’ in Asokan Brahmi characters, details also identical to those of the Piprahwa finds. And since Peppe had been in contact with this notorious forger and cheat just before announcing his supposed finds, we shall surely conclude that Fuhrer’s earlier deceptions were thus merely a ‘dry run’, as it were, for the events at Piprahwa itself.

Moreover, in his subsequent Progress Report, Fuhrer claimed that at Sagarwa he had discovered the inscribed relic-casket and stupa of Mahanaman (the successor to the Buddha’s father at Kapilavastu) together with the relic caskets of seventeen ‘Sakya heroes’, their names - all of which he carefully listed - being supposedly inscribed upon these caskets in ‘pre-Asoka characters’. 4. A few months later, however, the full extent of Fuhrer’s U Ma deceptions was finally revealed, and V. A. Smith was appointed to investigate Fuhrer’s office at the Lucknow Museum. 5. Smith denounced all of Fuhrer’s Nepalese Sakyan inscriptions as ‘impudent forgeries’, and Fuhrer himself was summarily dismissed shortly thereafter. 6. The following year (1899) Drs Hoey and Waddell visited the Nepalese Tarai, and discovered that Fuhrer had also ‘lied and lied on a grand scale’ concerning his discoveries at other Nepalese sites, Hoey remarking that ‘one is appalled at the audacity of invention here displayed’. 7

To sum up then: in early 1898, we have two supposed discoveries, those of Sagarwa and Piprahwa respectively. Both of these discoveries were made within the same month, by two parties a few miles from and in contact with each other, and one of these parties was a notorious forger of inscriptions. Both parties purported to have discovered unique, inscribed, pre-Asokan, Sakyan relic-caskets from Kapilavastu, items which have never been found either before or since. Fuhrer’s Sagarwa claims were then exposed as fraudulent, whilst Peppe’s Piprahwa finds had been fraudulently duplicated by Fuhrer a year earlier.

But why then were Fuhrer’s claims unmasked, whilst those of Peppe were not? As we have noted, it was the Government of Burma which had exposed the U Ma forgeries, whilst subsequent events, and the official letters relating to these, supply the answer to the Peppe question also. In his letter to the Government of India on Piprahwa, the local Commissioner, William Hoey, drew attention to the presence in India at this time of a crown prince of Siam, Jinavaravansa, who had then assumed the robe of a Buddhist monk. 8. This gentleman quickly got downwind on this supposed find of Buddha-relics at Piprahwa, and promptly expressed a keen desire for them to be made over to Siam. Having drawn attention to Jinavaravansa’s request, Hoey then recommended that the Government of India should ‘manifest its goodwill’ towards surrounding Buddhist countries by acceding to this request (pointing out that Siam was also ‘a country bordering on Burma’, a recently-acquired British possession) whilst V. A. Smith, now Acting-Secretary to the North-Western Provinces Government, declared that ‘intense interest will be aroused in the Buddhist world, and all Buddhist countries will desire to share in relics of such exceptional sanctity’. 9

JUST TOO GOOD TO BE TRUE

By the 1890s, Britain and France had successfully taken large slices of territory from Siam, and in a desperate attempt to preserve his country’s independence Siam’s king, Chulalongkorn, was obliged to play off one imperial power against the other. During this period, the king also cultivated a close and personal friendship with the Russian leader Tsar Nicholas, a fact which gave Britain considerable cause for alarm, particularly as both the French and Russians were offering to train up the Siamese armies around this time. In furtherance of his diplomatic aims, the Siamese king set forth on a nine-month Grand European Tour in 1897. He was accorded a full royal welcome by the monarchies, presidents, and heads of state of Italy (where he met the Pope) Switzerland, Austria, Hungary, Russia, Sweden, Denmark, Holland, Belgium, Spain, Portugal, and France. Having arrived for a two-month stay in Britain - his son was then receiving his education at Harrow, a well-known English public school – he was officially welcomed by the Prince of Wales, and was also presented to Queen Victoria, who was by then the Empress of India. Immediately upon his return to Siam, the Buddha’s relics were supposedly discovered at Piprahwa and presented to the king, who was also accorded recognition as the leader of the Buddhist world by the British Empire. This opportunity to ‘manifest its goodwill’ was thus, for the Government of India, an opportunity that was simply too good to be missed, and this cynical piece of imperial realpolitik was allowed to go ahead with consequences that have seriously benighted Buddhist studies ever since. Is it any wonder then, that those unnamed ‘sceptics’ mentioned by Rhys Davids (see my opening quotation) would dismiss this tiresome imperial stunt as ‘just too good to be true’ shortly thereafter? 10.

THE BONE RELICS OF 1898

Writing of the Piprahwa stupa in 1904, Dr Theodor Bloch, Superintendent of the Eastern Circle of the Archaeological Survey of India, declared that ‘one may be permitted to maintain some doubts in regard to the theory that the latter monument contained the relic share of the Buddha received by the Sakyas. The bones found at that place, which have been presented to the King of Siam, and which I saw in Calcutta, according to my opinion were not human bones at all’. 11. Bloch was then Superintendent of the Archaeological Department of the Indian Museum, Calcutta, and would doubtless have relied not only on his own archaeological expertise before making this extraordinary allegation, but also that of his zoological colleagues at the Museum, which was then considered to be the greatest museum in Asia.

Peppe himself retained a tooth from the alleged Piprahwa finds.12. This tooth was taken by the author, Charles Allen, to the Natural History Museum in London, where palaeontologists declared it to be the molar tooth of a pig. In his latest book, ‘The Buddha and Dr Fuhrer’, Allen (who supports the authenticity of the Peppe claims) attempts to explain away the distinctly awkward presence of this tooth by claiming that it came from a broken casket found by Peppe near the summit of the stupa. 13. There is not the slightest evidence for this assertion : Peppe himself states only that this casket was ‘full of clay and embedded in this clay were some beads, crystals, gold ornaments, cut stars etc’. 14. Moreover, we have already noted Bloch’s observation that the bone relics from Piprahwa did not appear to be of human origin. Since portions of these items are now enshrined at the Wat Saket Temple (Thailand) the Shwe Dagon Pagoda (Rangoon) Anuradhapura (Ceylon) and in the Nittaiji Temple in Japan, this raises the appalling spectre that for over a century the Buddhist world may have been venerating the remains of some ancient pig.

As for the precise location of the bone relics when they were allegedly found within the Piprahwa stupa itself, the existing accounts present startling contradictions. The first published reference to these items appeared in the ‘Pioneer’ newspaper a few days after Peppe’s official announcement, and apparently came from Peppe himself. 15. This stated that all of the caskets contained jewellery and ‘quantities of bones in good preservation’ (so good, in fact, that Peppe later declared that they ‘might have been picked up a few days ago’, a curious observation to make upon bones which had supposedly survived a blazing funeral pyre 2500 years earlier). 16. Smith and Fuhrer however (both of whom had visited Peppe to examine the finds) stated that these ‘sacred fragments’ had been ‘enshrined’ in a decayed wooden vessel which was also found within the coffer. 17. Since the bones were finally handed to the Siamese together with these decayed wooden fragments, this would presumably confirm this wooden casket as their original location, though this then raises further awkward questions about their real identity in consequence.

THE PEPPE CASKETS AND THEIR INSCRIPTION

The four steatite caskets of 1898 from Piprahwa (Fig. 1) are virtually identical in appearance to caskets which were interred in the 2nd century BCE at stupas in the Sanchi area. These caskets are shown in Alexander Cunningham’s ‘Bhilsa Topes’, a book which was utilised by Fuhrer for other deceptions. 18. The steatite of which the Piprahwa caskets are made is still being worked in India today, I shall add ; I recently bought a couple of incense-holders made of exactly the same material, which were made in Varanasi.

During a visit to the Indian Museum, Calcutta, in 1994, I carefully examined the inscribed Piprahwa casket, and noted features not mentioned in any report. A photograph taken in situ at Piprahwa in 1898 shows a curious feature on the centre of the lid, and also reveals that a large piece was then unaccountably missing from the base (Fig. 2). My examination revealed that the former was a piece of sealing-wax (since transferred to the inside) which had originally been stuck on to prevent a large crack from running further, while a subsequent ‘repair’ to the base – an inset piece – looked to be a pretty botched affair also. All of which reveals that this casket had been badly damaged from the start – that it had originally been broken in fact – again, a fact not noted in any report. But is it likely, one is prompted to ask, that the Buddha’s relics would have been enshrined in this damaged casket, as claimed? Or is this the ‘broken’ casket which was reportedly found by Peppe near the top of the stupa, and which was ‘similar in shape to those found below’? 19. This casket - the first of the alleged finds - apparently vanished into thin air thereafter : it is not found in the Indian Museum collection, or on their Accessions List (which I also examined), it was not mentioned in Smith’s detailed JRAS list of the finds, and no drawing or photograph was ever made of it either. So whatever happened to this casket? Did it become the inscribed casket – which was also broken, as we have noted - and did Fuhrer himself forge the inscription upon it? Is the Piprahwa inscription simply another Fuhrer forgery? Fuhrer certainly had the palaeographical knowledge to perform this, particularly as he was then in touch with Buhler (who may also have unwittingly provided him with emendations to the inscription, according to the published accounts). 20

Charles Allen’s book contains a photograph of the earliest-known copy of the Piprahwa inscription, which was sent by Peppe to Smith. This inscription was, in fact, very carelessly engraved upon the casket, and shows startling irregularities in some of its characters. Since Peppe wouldn’t have had the slightest knowledge of this ancient and forgotten script, he should, of course, have faithfully reproduced these ‘mistakes’ when he made his copy of it, but he didn’t : his copy shows perfectly-drawn Asokan Brahmi characters (Figs. 3 and 4). Moreover, Smith’s transliteration of Peppe’s copy completely omits the two final characters – ‘yanam’ - of the all-important word ‘sakiyanam’, showing the alleged Sakyan association with these relics. Allen attempts to explain this astonishing omission by saying that Smith had evidently regarded these two characters as ‘random scratches’, but they are quite clearly depicted in Peppe’s copy, and were presumably added to it later on (which also accounts for their being placed above the line of the others). 21. This explains why none of the January 1898 letters between Peppe, Smith and Fuhrer (which are cited by Allen) make any reference at all to this all-important Sakyan connection, and shows that the inscription was, in fact, engraved upon the casket in various stages around this time – doubtless by Fuhrer - Buhler’s later emendations included.

THE SAGARWA JEWELLERY

We have already noted that Peppe was in contact with Fuhrer while the latter was excavating at Sagarwa, across the nearby Nepalese border. The difficulties surrounding precisely what was discovered by Fuhrer at Sagarwa, and the subsequent fate of those items, would now appear to be quite insurmountable. All of the jewellery, caskets, and other items found at Sagarwa promptly disappeared, and the Nepalese authorities have assured me that they have no idea of their present whereabouts either. Smith and Peppe, curiously, ‘rode up unannounced’ on January 28th, whilst Fuhrer was excavating Mound Number Five, and Smith noted seeing ‘a few gold stars, similar to those subsequently found at Piprahwa’ (though Smith’s use of the word ‘subsequently’ is inexplicable here, since Peppe’ had announced his finds a week before this visit). Mound Number Four at Sagarwa (which was excavated just before this visit) was later declared by P.C. Mukherji to have been ‘very rich in yielding relics’ (i.e. jewellery) but only ‘a naga and six relics of sorts’ were shown in Mukherji’s report, hardly ‘a very rich yield’. So was all this missing Sagarwa jewellery utilized for the supposed finds at Piprahwa, one wonders? We have already noted Smith’s comment on the ‘similarity’ of the Sagarwa items to those of Piprahwa, and having spoken to the Curator at Fuhrer’s former museum at Lucknow, I was informed that the curiously-marked bricks from Sagarwa would appear to lie uncatalogued at this location. The Peppe collection includes specimens of eight-petalled lotuses in gold leaf, and lotus seed-pods with tiny holes drilled in them to represent seeds. One of the drawings of the Sagarwa items made by Fuhrer’s draughtsman shows an eight-petalled lotus in gold leaf, with tiny holes drilled into its centre to represent seeds, whilst the Sagarwa bricks showed 21 eight-petalled lotuses carved into their surfaces also.

THE LEGALITY OF THE PEPPE COLLECTION

The question also arises as to whether Peppe’s collection of jewellery from Piprahwa was legally retained by him thereafter. V. A. Smith assured the Government of India that ‘Mr Peppe has generously placed all the items discovered at the disposal of Government, subject to the retention by him, on behalf of the proprietors of the estate, of a reasonable number of duplicates of the smaller objects’ (Smith also referring to ‘a few duplicates’ in his JRAS article, ‘The Piprahwa Stupa’). 22. Since Peppe, however, retained not merely ‘a few duplicates’ of the jewellery, but around one-third of the actual jewellery itself – about 360 pieces - it is evident that Smith’s assurance that Peppe would ‘place all the objects at the disposal of Government’ (a legal obligation anyway, according to Smith) was not met, and the question thus arises as to whether Peppe legitimately retained these items thereafter, particularly as they were then removed from India after Independence. 23. One also wonders why Smith, then Acting Secretary to the North-Western Provinces Government, found it necessary to lie about those ‘duplicates’ to the Government of India.

LATER FINDS AT PIPRAHWA

In 1962, Debala Mitra, then Superintendent of the Eastern Circle of the Archaeological Survey of India, was invited by the Nepalese authorities to conduct a survey of the sites in the Nepalese Tarai, with a view to their development for pilgrimage purposes. Her subsequent report (1969) was highly critical of these sites however, and when the Nepalese refused to publish her findings, Mitra summarised them as an appendix – entitled ‘Kapilavastu’ - to her ‘Buddhist Monuments’ book, published in India (1971). In this, she declared that the 1898 inscription provided a ‘strong presumption’ for Piprahwa being the site of Kapilavastu, and added that ‘intensive excavation in the monasteries at Piprahwa is likely to reveal some monastic seals or sealings’, which if found ‘will prove the identity of Kapilavastu with Piprahwa or otherwise’. 24

An Indian archaeologist, K. M. Srivastava (also from the Eastern circle of the ASI) promptly commenced further excavations at Piprahwa, and claimed to have discovered a ‘primary mud stupa’ below the one excavated by Peppe. This supposedly yielded yet more soapstone vessels (none of which bore inscriptions) containing bones. According to Srivastava, the ‘indiscriminate destruction’ caused by Peppe’s excavation meant that the bone relics found in 1898 could not reliably be shown to be those of the Buddha, and the inscription on the 1898 casket somehow ‘pointed’ to the bones supposedly found lower down, which were thus the real relics of the Buddha in consequence. He also claimed to have discovered - precisely as Debala Mitra had predicted – various clay sealings and the lid of a pot, all bearing the word ‘Kapilavastu’, in monastic remains at the Piprahwa site (though neither Peppe nor P. C. Mukherji had found a single specimen of such sealings when they excavated at these selfsame remains in 1898). 25. Having delivered a sharply critical review of Srivastava’s claims however, the eminent archaeologist and historian, Herbert Härtel, then added that ‘To declare that the bones in one of the reliquaries in the lower chambers are those of the Buddha is not provable, and therefore not tenable. In our opinion, it is high time to set a token of scientific correctness in this extremely important matter’. 26 Needless to say, however, Härtel’s strictures on ‘this extremely important matter’ have since been met with a thunderous silence from the academic fraternity at large.

During my 1994 visit to the Indian Museum, I found an elaborate wooden model of a stupa displayed, in appearance similar to the great stupas at Sanchi and Amaravati (Fig. 5). This purported to be a model of the Piprahwa stupa itself, and inside it was a wooden copy of the inscribed casket, displaying two pieces of bone. The accompanying caption declared that these were ‘relics of the Lord…which were found in 1972 at Piprahwa, Basti District, U.P., supposed to be ancient Kapilavastu, the capital of the Sakyas, the clan of Sakyamuni Buddha’, and stated that the Piprahwa stupa was ‘encircled by railings, having gateways at four cardinal points, embellished with beautiful sculptures of the Buddha and contemporary life’. When I enquired who was responsible for this item, I was informed that it was Mr Srivastava. However, as I was able to verify by a visit to the Piprahwa stupa, none of these ‘railings’, ‘gateways’, or ‘beautiful sculptures of the Buddha and contemporary life’ exist at the actual site itself (Fig. 6). I then visited the National Museum in Delhi, where I discovered two of Mr Srivastava’s soapstone caskets containing yet further ‘relics of the Lord’ (and ostentatiously displaying lumps of clay on the caskets themselves, thus ‘proving’, presumably, that they had been properly unearthed as claimed). Having examined these items as closely as I was permitted – the Museum guard levelled a loaded rifle at me when I got too close – I then paid a visit to the Curator of Buddhist Antiquities, J. E. Dawson, and mentioned the 1898 bequest to Siam, when supposed relics of the Buddha were also found. He had no knowledge of this however, and promptly began telephoning around the Museum, urging staff to report to his office. Pretty soon the room was full, and he asked me to repeat this information, of which no-one else present appeared to have any knowledge. During the ensuing discussion I mentioned that Krishna Rijal, then Nepal’s leading archaeologist, had also told me of a commission which had been set up, under Rajiv Gandhi, to investigate the authenticity of Mr Srivastava’s Buddha-relics, but which had never published its conclusions thereafter. This immediately prompted one of the staff to call out ‘They are false!’ an outburst which shocked everyone into silence. I asked him to repeat this assertion, which he did. I then asked him how he knew this, and he replied that an Indian professor had told him. ‘And how does he know?’ I enquired. ‘Because he was on the commission!’ came the prompt reply.

© T. A. Phelps, 2008. Comments on this article would be most welcome. Please address them to Terry Phelps at taphelken@hotmail.com

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REFERENCES

1. Government of India Proceedings, Part B, Department of Revenue and Agriculture, Archaeology and Epigraphy, August 1898, Proceeding no. 15, File no. 30 0f 1898, Page 2 (National Archives of India, New Delhi). Researchers should note that all of the official (i. e. Government) correspondence on the Piprahwa events (i. e. both Part A and Part B) can be found in the Department of India Proceedings (Home : Public) for 1898 and 1899, at the Oriental and India Office Collections, London, which is thus an absolutely indispensable source of information on these events. In particular, the following should be examined : July 1898, proceedings 225-31, pp. 1311-28 ; December 1898, proceedings nos. 258-62, pp. 2573-77; April 1899, proceedings 3-20, pp. 627-34; and June 1899, proceedings nos. 160-67, pp. 1341-55.
2. Government of India Proceedings, Part B, Department of Revenue and Agriculture, Archaeology and Epigraphy, August 1898, File no. 24 of 1898, Proceedings 7-10. (National Archives of India, New Delhi).
3. Ibid. See also V. A. Smith’s ‘Prefatory Note’ to P.C. Mukherji’s ‘A Report on a Tour of Exploration of the Antiquities of the Tarai, Nepal’, footnote, p. 4 (Report no. 26, Archaeological Survey of India, New Imperial Series, 1901).
4. A. Fuhrer, Annual Progress Report, Archaeological Survey, North-Western Provinces and Oudh Circle, Epigraphical Section, year ended 1898.
5. Government of India Proceedings, Part B, Department of Revenue and Agriculture, Archaeology and Epigraphy, October 1898, Proceedings nos. 22-33, File no. 13 of 1898, Serial no. 18 in file. (National Archives of India, New Delhi).
6. V. A. Smith, Annual Progress Report, Archaeological Survey, North-Western Provinces and Oudh Circle, y/e 1899, p. 2. See also ref. 3 (Smith) p. 4.
7. Government of the North-Western Provinces and Oudh Proceedings, Public Works Department, B & R Branch, ‘Miscellaneous’, August 1899, Proceeding no. 90-91, pp. 29-33. (Oriental and India Office Collections, British Library, London). The same details are also disclosed in the Government of India Proceedings, Part B, Department of Revenue and Agriculture, Archaeology and Epigraphy, April 1899, File no. 6 (see ‘Enclosure 1’ (Report) of letter no. 53A, and also letter no. 41A in this file). (National Archives of India, New Delhi).
8. See ref. 1. According to Charles Allen (see ref. 13) Jinavaravansa visited Piprahwa – and thus, presumably, saw the inscribed casket – a week after Peppe announced his supposed finds in January 1898, but there is not the slightest support for this assertion. Jinavaravansa arrived at Piprahwa in April of that year, by which time the casket had been inscribed (see ref. 21)
9. See ref. 1.
10. See website entitled ‘King Chulalongkorn Rama V : His Travels and His Voyages’ for details of this episode in the King’s career. For details of the British concern regarding the Russian/French proposals to train up the Siamese armies, see ‘Political and Secret’, Home Correspondence, 1898 (Oriental and India Office Collections, British Library, London).
11. ‘Notes on the Exploration of Vaisali’, by Theodor Bloch, Annual Report, Bengal Circle, Archaeological Survey of India, year ended April 1904, p. 15.
12. ‘Buried With the Buddha’, by Vicki Mackenzie, ‘The Sunday Times Magazine’ (UK), 21st March, 2004, pp. 36-42.
13. ‘The Buddha and Dr Fuhrer’, by Charles Allen, Haus Publishing (UK) 2008, p. 260. See also ref. 12, p. 38 (photograph). I note, incidentally, that Allen writes (pp. 60-1) of a pillar at ‘Khango’ which was mentioned by Buchanan. According to Allen, ‘the site of this pillar has never been identified’, and ‘the pillar itself was almost certainly broken up within a few years of Buchanan’s visit to this area’. This is the well-known pillar at Kahaon, full details of which are given in the ASI reports (Old Series) Vols. 1 and 16. It is still there I shall add, and its details – including a photograph - are available on the Internet.
14. W. C. Peppe, ‘The Piprahwa Stupa, containing relics of Buddha’, p. 574, JRAS (UK) 1898). It hardly needs pointing out that if Allen’s proposed ‘solution’ to the problems raised by this tooth was correct (and as I have shown, there is not a shred of evidence to support it) it would still fail to explain why a pig’s tooth was placed in a reliquary and then interred in a stupa which supposedly contained the Buddha’s relics. Moreover, since this casket was allegedly ‘similar in shape to the vases found lower down’ it should presumably be ascribed to the same period as these anyway, and Allen’s proposal becomes yet more untenable in consequence.
15. See item ‘Birdpur Ruins’, in ‘News and Notes’, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (UK) 1898, pp. 457-8. Curiously, there is no reference to either bones or inscription in Peppe’s letter to the local Collector, officially announcing his finds.
16. See ref. 14 (Peppe) p. 576.
17. ‘The relics consisted of some fragments of bone. These sacred fragments had been deposited in a wooden vessel, which stood on the bottom of a massive coffer’ (Smith) : see ‘The Pioneer’ (Lucknow/Allahabad newspaper) 1st March, 1898, or the Journal of the Maha Bodhi Society, Calcutta, 1st April 1898, which carries a reprint of this ‘Pioneer’ article by Smith on pp. 94-6. For Fuhrer’s observations on the matter, see ref. 4, p. 3 (‘Another casket of fragrant red sandalwood, in which had been enshrined portions of the bone relics of Gautama Buddha, collected from his funeral pile, was found almost decayed.’). Smith visited Piprahwa a few days after Peppe’s announcement of his alleged finds, but astonishingly, omits any mention of what he saw there.
18. See ref. 3 (Smith) and also ref. 6 (Smith).
19. See ref. 14, in which Peppe states that ‘At a distance of ten feet from the summit a small broken soapstone (steatite) vase, similar in shape to the vases found lower down, was discovered. This vase was full of clay, and embedded in this clay were some beads, crystals, gold ornaments, cut stars etc.’ Since this merely ‘broken’ casket was thus sufficiently intact to be ‘full’ of clay and other items, it could hardly have been either ‘badly smashed’ or ‘completely shattered’, as Allen and Srivastava have claimed.
20. In his ‘Preliminary Note on a Recently Discovered Sakya Inscription’ (JRAS, 1898, 387-9) Buhler wrote that having received an ‘eye-copy’ of the inscription from Fuhrer, he wrote back and ‘begged Mr Peppe to look if any traces of the required I in the first word, of the medial i in the second, and of a vowel-mark in the last syllable of bhagavata are visible.’ Three weeks later Fuhrer’s deceptions with U Ma had been exposed and Buhler was dead, having drowned in mysterious circumstances. Had Buhler heard of Fuhrer’s deceptions and realised that he had also been duped? Had he perhaps even collaborated with Fuhrer on earlier deceptions (he had certainly been Fuhrer’s champion) and thus feared exposure and disgrace himself?
21. See ref. 13 (Allen). pp. 50-55, and 77-8 (Peppe’s copy of the inscription is shown on p. 54). Allen’s book draws very extensively on my own sixteen-year researches into the Piprahwa events it should be added, though no acknowledgment is made of this ‘borrowing’. Some of the Peppe private papers which are cited by Allen have now been deposited with the Royal Asiatic Society in London, and reveal a very different version of these events from that given by the official reports. Smith, for example, referred in three of his reports to an ‘unannounced visit’ which he and Peppe had made to Fuhrer’s Nepalese camp on the 28th January 1898, but these (unpublished) Peppe papers show that this visit had been secretly arranged between these three parties well beforehand. So why did Smith and Peppe pay a laborious (and unofficial) visit to Fuhrer at this time, if not to set up the entire Piprahwa scam? Most revealing of all, however, is item no. 32 in these papers, which happily succeeds in giving the entire show away. This shows a handwritten paragraph by Peppe, in which he shows a copy of the final version of the inscription. Underneath this copy is the statement ‘Translation from Hoey and Buhler’. This statement reveals the two sources from which the final inscription was created, viz, those of Hoey’s ‘Pioneer’ translation (Feb. 1898) together with that proposed by Buhler (see ref. 20) the latter received by Peppe in mid-March (and also coinciding with Fuhrer’s visit to Peppe, after leaving Nepal). A careful comparison reveals that the inscription was indeed a ‘translation from Hoey and Buhler’, being a judicious blending of these two versions, which was inscribed on the casket in mid-March, 1898. Thus the two sources from which the inscription was created are here unwittingly named by Peppe himself, and this effectively confirms that it was simply a modern forgery.
22. Government of India Proceeedings, Part B, Department of Revenue and Agriculture, Archaeology and Epigraphy, August 1898, Proceeding no. 15, File no. 30 of 1898 (National Archives of India, New Delhi, though see ref. 1). See also ‘The Piprahwa Stupa’, by V. A. Smith, JRAS (UK) 1898, p. 868.
23. ‘The Annihilation of Lord Buddha’s Family’, article by Paripurnanand Verma, in ‘The Pioneer’, dated 18th August 1956, which shows that the jewellery was then still at Birdpur. Interestingly, Verma was a Member of the Legislative Assembly, and proposed that Peppe ‘hand them over to our Lucknow Museum’. A copy of this article is kept among the Peppe Papers in the library of the Department of South Asian Studies at Cambridge University, together with a privately-printed copy of Peppe’s original JRAS article. This varies considerably from the JRAS version, and makes for interesting reading in consequence.
24. Debala Mitra, ‘Buddhist Monuments’ (Calcutta, Dec. 1971) p. 253.
25. ‘Discovery of Kapilavastu’ (1986) ‘Buddha’s Relics from Kapilavastu’ (1986) and ‘Excavations at Piprahwa and Ganwaria’ (1996) all by K. M. Srivastava. Conflicting accounts exist as to whether Srivastava commenced his excavations at Piprahwa in ignorance of Debala Mitra’s conclusions, but as a member of the same Archaeological Circle he would surely have been aware of these. I also note that no mention is made, in any of Srivastava’s writings on Piprahwa, of the bequest of the 1898 relics to Siam.
26. ‘On the Dating of the Piprahwa Vases’, by Herbert Härtel, in ‘South Asian Archaeology 1997’, pp. 1011-24 (Rome 2000). An eminent Nepalese writer, Dhooswan Sayami, has dismissed Srivastava’s claims as nothing but ‘a well-hatched plan and archaeological stratagem’ (‘Ancient Kapilavastu : Recent Politics’, Vasudha, Vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 3-4, May-Jun 1977 : quoted on p. 31 of ‘Archaeological Remains of Kapilavastu, Lumbini, Devadaha’, by Krishna Rijal, Kathmandhu, 1979).

ILLUSTRATIONS

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Fig. 1. The Peppe caskets, photographed in 1898.

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Fig. 2. The inscribed casket (‘rear’ view) photographed at Piprahwa in 1898.

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Fig. 3. The two characters for ‘ki’ and ‘ti’ (which are part of the word ‘sukiti’) as shown on the inscribed Piprahwa casket. Note the marked discrepancies between these items and their correctly-drawn equivalents in Fig. 8

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Fig. 4. This shows the correct depiction of the characters shown in fig. 7. Having no knowledge of this obscure script, Peppe should have repeated the irregularities shown in the Fig. 7 characters when making his copy, but he didn’t. He depicted them correctly, as above.

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Fig. 5. Srivastava’s model of the Piprahwa stupa, photographed in 1994.

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Fig. 6. The Piprahwa stupa itself.
(Source - http://www.piprahwa.org.uk/The%20Piprah ... ptions.htm)
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Part 1 of 2

Francis Napier Beaufort-Palmer
from Various Sources

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When Tibet finally lost her freedom in 1959 and the Dalai Lama was forced into exile, Rumbold, and old India hands like Sir Olaf Caroe (a former Foreign Secretary to the Indian Government and Governor of the North-West Frontier Province) and Hugh Richardson (Head of British Mission, Lhasa), joined with Francis Napier Beaufort-Palmer to found the Tibet Society of the UK, an organisation that for many years stood alone in advocating Tibet's independence. Members of the society persistently challenged Chinese propaganda, principally by letters to the broadsheet papers, until the British media came to understand that there was a more reliable source for news about Tibet than the Anglo-China Association and the Chinese Ambassador.

For 11 years, from 1977 to 1988, Rumbold served the Tibet Society as its president. In 1991, with Hugh Richardson, he produced for the All Party Parliamentary Group on Tibet a pamphlet, Tibet, the Truth about Independence, which remains the most succinct and authoritative account of Tibet's status and the British government's relations with Tibet.

-- Obituary: Sir Algernon Rumbold, by John Billington

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The Founding of Tibet Relief Fund
by Tibet Relief Fund
Accessed: 3/7/20

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We've been having a bit of re-organise here in the office and, with kind help from volunteers Carole and Neil, we have unearthed some fascinating documents and photos dating all the way back to Tibet Relief Fund's beginnings in 1959. One such photo was of Francis Napier Beaufort-Palmer, the founder and first chairman of Tibet Relief Fund.

Mr. Beaufort-Palmer was a remarkable man with a strong sense of social justice and was particularly motivated by helping people in small countries who suffered at the hand of foreign powers. Following news of the Dalai Lama's escape from Tibet, in April 1959 he wrote a letter to The Times suggesting that a society be set up to support Tibet. In July, a further letter was sent to The Times informing readers that the newly formed Tibet Society had opened a "Tibet Relief Fund" to bring practical relief to Tibetan refugees; from this Tibet Relief Fund was established. Now, over 50 years later, our work covers a broader brief including projects inside Tibet.

Francis Beaufort-Palmer was Chairman of Tibet Relief Fund for 15 years and remained a trustee until he died ten years later in 1984.

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TIBETAN REFUGEES

Sir. – Recent devastating events in Tibet caused over 15,000 Tibetans to cross the perilous Himalayas into India. It may be a long time before these unfortunate people can safely return to their overrun country. Our own consciences should allow us neither to neglect nor forget them.

The Indian Government has manfully coped with this addition to its own problems at home. In this country we are bound in honour to help relieve needs of the Tibetan refugees, because from 1905 to 1947 there was a special relationship between Tibet and the United Kingdom – a relationship handed on to the new India.

On balance we think it wisest to concentrate chiefly on collecting money which can be used for the benefit of the refugees, not least in the purchase of necessary antibiotics and other medicaments. The Tibet Society has opened a Tibet Relief Fund for which we now appeal in the hope of a generous response. Donations should be sent to the address below or direct to the National Bank Ltd. (Belgravia Branch), 21 Grosvenor Gardens, S.W.I.

Yours faithfully,

Thubten Jigme Norbu; F.M. Bailey; Birdwood; J.D. Boyle; [Indian Foreign Secretary Sir] Olaf Caroe; Clement Davies; A.D. Dodds-Parker; Peter Fleming [Master of Deception: The Wartime Adventures of Peter Fleming, by Alan Ogden]; Thomas Moore; [Esmond Harmsworth, 2nd Viscount Rothermere] Harmsworth; Marco Pallis; Hugh E. Richardson; Francis Napier Beaufort-Palmer, Chairman; Major J.C.W. Napier-Munn [Tac HQ Calcutta (Advanced HQ ALFSEA)], Hon. Secretary; D.C. Nicole, Hon. Treasurer, The Tibet Society.
The Tibet Relief Fund, 58 Eccleston Square, S.W. I., Letter to the Times, July 31, 1959, p.7./quote]

-- The Founding of Tibet Relief Fund, Tibet Matters, Issue 17, Autumn 2013, by Tibet Relief Fund


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ADMINISTRATIVE AND SPECIAL DUTIES BRANCH
The London Gazette
January 21, 1941
P. 417-418

The undermentioned are granted commissions for the duration of hostilities: --
As Pilot Officers on probation....

19th Dec. 1940.
Francis Napier BEAUFORT-PALMER (89510).

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OFFICERS SERVING ON THE ACTIVE LIST OF THE R.A.F.
by National Library of Scotland
Accessed: 7/4/21

Administrative and Special Duties Branch
Pilot Officers
1940

(R.A.F.V.R.) P.
Beaufort - Palmer, Francis Napier

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The Sphere
An Illustrated Newspaper for the Home
May 16, 1925

Content:

20. In the Public Eye - Small pictures of: Sir William Ramsey, Madame Edvina, Dr George A Reisner, Mr Francis Napier Beaufort-Palmer, Sir Frank Dicksee, Miss Lula Vollmer, Miss Nadine March, Miss Barbara Cartland.

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Department of Manuscripts: Acquisitions, January 1973 to December 1974
The British Library Journal
Vol. 1, No. 2 , pp. 191-196 (6 pages)
AUTUMN 1975

RECENT ACQUISITIONS

Department of Manuscripts

Acquisitions, January 1973 to December 1974

The following list includes manuscripts incorporated into the collections between January 1973 and December 1974. The inclusion of a manuscript in this list does not necessarily imply that it is available for study....

Correspondence and papers of the Napier family, supplementing Add.MSS. 49086-49172, 54510-54564; 1790-1865. Add.MS. 58209; Add.Ch.75767, 75769-75790. Presented by the executors of Mrs. Violet Bunbury Napier.

Benjamin Disraeli, Earl of Beaconsfield: correspondence, memoranda, etc.; 1867-73, n.d. Add. MSS 58079V presented by F.N. Beaufort-Palmer, Esq.; 58210


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-- The life and letters of Lady Sarah Lennox, 1745-1826, daughter of Charles, 2nd duke of Richmond, and successively the wife of Sir Thomas Charles Bunbury, and of the Hon. George Napier; also a short political sketch of the years 1760 to 1763, by Henry Fox, 1st lord Holland; by Napier, Lady Sarah Lennox Bunbury, 1745-1826; Holland, Henry Fox, Baron, 1705-1774; Ilchester, Mary Eleanor Anne Dawson, countess of; Ilchester, Giles Stephen Holland Fox-Strangways, Earl of, b. 1874; Napier, Henry Edward, 1789-1853

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George Napier
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 7/4/21

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Colonel The Honourable
George Napier
Col. George Napier
Born: 11 March 1751
Died: 12 October 1804 (aged 53)
Allegiance: Great Britain
Service/branch: British Army
Years of service: 1767–1804
Rank: Colonel
Battles/wars: American War of Independence
Spouse(s): Elizabeth Pollock ​(m. 1775; died 1778)​; Lady Sarah Lennox ​(m. 1781)​
Children: Henry Napier; Louisa Mary Napier; Sir Charles James Napier; Emily Bunbury, Lady Bunbury; Sir George Thomas Napier; Sir William Francis Patrick Napier; Richard Napier; Henry Edward Napier; Caroline Napier; Cecilia Napier

Colonel George Napier (11 March 1751 – 13 October 1804), styled "The Honourable", was a British Army officer, most notable for his marriage to Lady Sarah Lennox, and for his sons Charles James Napier, William Francis Patrick Napier and George Thomas Napier, all of whom were noted military officers, collectively referred to as "Wellington’s Colonels". He also served as Comptroller of Army Accounts in Ireland from 1799 until his death in 1804.

Birth

George Napier was the younger son of Francis Napier, 6th Lord Napier and his wife Henrietta Maria Johnston.

Military service

Napier was commissioned into the 25th Foot in 1767 and was promoted Lieutenant in 1771. He became the regiment's Quartermaster in 1776. In 1778 he transferred to the 80th Regiment of Foot (Royal Edinburgh Volunteers) as a Captain. He served in the American War of Independence on the staff of Sir Henry Clinton.[1] He sold his commission in 1781, but was commissioned into the 1st Foot Guards in 1782. In 1783 he transferred to the 100th Regiment of Foot (Loyal Lincolnshire Regiment) as a Captain. In 1794 he was promoted Major, transferred to the 87th Foot, and then transferred again to the newly raised Londonderry Regiment as Lieutenant-Colonel. In 1800 he was promoted Colonel.

Marriages

On 22 January 1775 he married Elizabeth Pollock (died 1778), and together they had one daughter, Louisa Mary Napier (died 1856) and one son, Henry Napier, born 1778.

On 27 August 1781 he married Lady Sarah Lennox, daughter of Charles Lennox, 2nd Duke of Richmond. He was described at the time as being “impoverished”. Her previous marriage had ended in scandal and divorce; George was Sarah's second husband, Sarah was George's second wife. Together they raised eight children, including three who were to become famed military officers:

• General Sir Charles James Napier GCB (10 August 1782 – 1853)
• Emily Louisa Augusta Napier (1783 – 1863), married Sir Henry Bunbury, 7th Baronet
• Lieutenant-General Sir George Thomas Napier KCB (1784 – 1855)
• Lieutenant-General Sir William Francis Patrick Napier KCB (17 December 1785 – 12 February 1860)
• Richard Napier (1787 – 1868) married Anna Louisa Stewart, daughter of Sir J. Stewart.
• Captain Henry Edward Napier RN (5 March 1789 – 13 October 1853)
• Caroline Napier (1790 - 1810)
• Cecilia Napier (1791 - 1808)

In 1785 he moved his family to Celbridge in County Kildare, Ireland, where George eventually earned a post as Comptroller of Army Accounts. Lady Sarah was the sister of the very wealthy Lady Louisa Conolly and Emily FitzGerald, Duchess of Leinster who lived nearby.[2] During the Irish Rebellion of 1798, in which one of the rebel leaders was his nephew Lord Edward FitzGerald, he is said to have armed his five sons, put his house in a state of defence, and offered an asylum to all who were willing to resist the insurgents.[3][4]

Trivia

In 1999, a 6-part miniseries called Aristocrats, based on the lives of Sarah Lennox and her sisters, aired in the U.K. George Napier appears at various ages in the series, played by Martin Glyn Murray and Jeremy Bulloch.[5]

It is incorrectly stated that George Napier's grandson, Colonel Napier, brought the first pair of skis to Davos in 1888, starting the popular sport of Alpine skiing that had formerly been the activity of a few experts. The actual "Colonel Napier" who was responsible for the growth of Alpine skiing was the son of Robert Napier, 1st Baron Napier of Magdala[6]

References and notes

1. Hibbert, Christopher, "Wellington: A Personal History", Addison-Wesley, 1997, Chapter 1. From NY Times "Books" on-line, accessed 2008-11-21.
2. Stella Tillyard “Aristocrats" (1998)
3. Bloy, Marjorie, "Sir William Francis Patrick Napier (1785-1860)", British Foreign Policy 1815-65, historyhome.co.uk, accessed 2008-11-21.
4. Lee, Sidney, ed. (1894). "Napier, Charles James" . Dictionary of National Biography. 40. London: Smith, Elder & Co.
5. "Aristocrats" (1999), IMDb.com, accessed 2008-11-21.
6. "Skiing Heritage Journal". September 1993.

External links

• "Introduction Bunbury Papers" (PDF). - letters written to Sarah Lennox/Bunbury
• Lt.-Gen. Sir George Thomas Napier, thePeerage.com, accessed 2008-11-21.

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Lady Sarah Lennox
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 7/4/21

Image
Lady Sarah Lennox
Lady Sarah Bunbury Sacrificing to the Graces by Sir Joshua Reynolds, 1765
Born: 14 February 1745
Died: August 1826 (aged 81)
Spouse(s): Sir Charles Bunbury, 6th Baronet ​(m. 1762; div. 1776)​; Hon. George Napier ​(m. 1781; died 1804)​
Children: Louisa Bunbury; Sir Charles James Napier; Emily Napier; Sir George Thomas Napier; Sir William Francis Patrick Napier; Richard Napier; Henry Edward Napier; Caroline Napier; Cecilia Napier
Parent(s): Charles Lennox, 2nd Duke of Richmond; Sarah Cadogan

Lady Sarah Lennox (14 February 1745 – August 1826) was the most notorious of the famous Lennox sisters, daughters of Charles Lennox, 2nd Duke of Richmond.

Image

Charles Lennox, 2nd Duke of Richmond, 2nd Duke of Lennox, 2nd Duke of Aubigny, KG, KB, PC, FRS (18 May 1701 – 8 August 1750) of Goodwood House near Chichester in Sussex, was a British nobleman and politician. He was the son of Charles Lennox, 1st Duke of Richmond, 1st Duke of Lennox, the youngest of the seven illegitimate sons of King Charles II. He was the most important of the early patrons of the game of cricket and did much to help its evolution from village cricket to first-class cricket.

Lennox was styled Earl of March from his birth in 1701 as heir to his father's dukedom. He also inherited his father's love of sports, particularly cricket.
He had a serious accident at the age of 12 when he was thrown from a horse during a hunt, but he recovered and it did not deter him from horsemanship.

March entered into an arranged marriage in December 1719 when he was still only 18 and his bride, Hon. Sarah Cadogan, was just 13, in order to use Sarah's large dowry to pay his considerable debts. They were married at The Hague.

In 1722, March became Member of Parliament for Chichester as first member with Sir Thomas Miller as his second. He gave up his seat after his father died in May 1723 and he succeeded to the title of 2nd Duke of Richmond. A feature of Richmond's career was the support he received from his wife, Sarah [Cadogan], her interest being evident in surviving letters. Their marriage was a great success, especially by Georgian standards.

Their grandson who became the 4th Duke is known to cricket history as the Hon. Col. Charles Lennox, a noted amateur batsman of the late 18th century who was one of Thomas Lord's main guarantors when he established his new ground in Marylebone.

-- Charles Lennox, 2nd Duke of Richmond


Early life

After the deaths of both her parents when she was only five years old, Lady Sarah was brought up by her elder sister Emily in Ireland. Lady Sarah returned to London and the home of her sister Lady Caroline Fox when she was thirteen. Having been a favourite of King George II since her childhood, she was invited to appear at court and there caught the eye of George, Prince of Wales (the future King George III), whom she had met as a child.[1]

When she was presented at court again at the age of fifteen, George III was taken with her. Lady Sarah's family encouraged a relationship between her and George III.[2] Lady Sarah had also developed feelings for Lord Newbattle, grandson of William Kerr, 3rd Marquess of Lothian. Although her family were able to persuade her to break with Newbattle, the royal match was scotched by the King's advisors, particularly John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute. It was not normal at the time for monarchs to have non-Royal spouses. Lady Sarah was asked by King George III to be one of the ten bridesmaids at his wedding to Princess Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.[3]


Family and marriages

Lady Sarah refused a proposal of marriage from James Hay, 15th Earl of Erroll, before marrying Charles Bunbury, eldest son of Reverend Sir William Bunbury, 5th Baronet, on 2 June 1762 at Holland House Chapel, Kensington, London. He succeeded his father as sixth Baronet in 1764.

Lady Sarah had an affair with Lord William Gordon, the second son of the Duke of Gordon, and gave birth to his illegitimate daughter in 1768. The child was not immediately disclaimed by Sir Charles, and received the name Louisa Bunbury. Nevertheless, Lady Sarah and Lord William eloped shortly afterwards, in February 1769, taking the infant with them. Lord William soon abandoned her. Sir Charles refused to take her back, and Lady Sarah returned to her brother's house with her child, while her husband introduced into Parliament a motion for a divorce on grounds of adultery, citing her elopement. Lady Sarah resisted the motion, and it was not until 14 May 1776 that the decree of divorce was issued.

Lady Sarah married an army officer, Hon. George Napier, on 27 August 1781 and had eight children:


• General Sir Charles James Napier (10 August 1782 – 29 August 1853); married Elizabeth Oakeley in April 1827. He remarried Frances Philipp in 1835.
• Emily Louisa Augusta Napier (11 July 1783 – 18 March 1863); married Lt.-Gen. Sir Henry Bunbury, 7th Baronet (nephew of her mother's first husband) on 22 September 1830
• Lieutenant-General Sir George Thomas Napier (30 June 1784 – 8 September 1855); married Margaret Craig on 22 October 1812. They had five children. He married Frances Blencowe in 1839.
• Lieutenant-General Sir William Francis Patrick Napier KCB (17 December 1785 – 12 February 1860); married Caroline Fox (granddaughter of his aunt Lady Caroline Fox) on 14 March 1812. They had five children.
• Richard Napier (1787 – 13 January 1868); married Anna Louisa Stewart, daughter of Sir J. Stewart, in 1817.
• Captain Henry Edward Napier RN (5 March 1789 – 13 October 1853); married Caroline Bennett. They had three children.
• Caroline Napier (1790–1810); died at the age of twenty.
• Cecilia Napier (1791–1808); died at the age of seventeen.

In popular culture

In 1999, a six-part mini-series based on the lives of Sarah Lennox and her sisters aired in the UK. It was called Aristocrats, and Sarah was played by actress Jodhi May.[4]

References

1. "Lady Sarah Bunbury Sacrificing to the Graces". Art Institute of Chicago. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 19 August 2013.
2. Napier, Priscilla (1971). The Sword Dance: Lady Sarah Lennox and the Napiers. New York: McGraw-Hill.
3. "Holland House and its history Pages 161-177 Old and New London: Volume 5. Originally published by Cassell, Petter & Galpin, London, 1878". British History Online.
4. https://www.imdb.com/title/tt0204082/maindetails[bare URL]
• Ilchester, ed., Countess (1901). The Life and Letters of Lady Sarah Lennox, 1745–1826. London: John Murray.
o "Review of The Life and Letters of Lady Sarah Lennox, 1745–1826 edited by the Countess of Ilchester and Lord Stavordale". The Quarterly Review. 195: 274–294. January 1902.
• Curtis, Edith R. (1946). Lady Sarah Lennox: An Irrepressible Stuart, 1745–1826. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons.
• Hall, Thornton (2004). Love Romances of the Aristocracy.
• Napier, Priscilla (1971). The Sword Dance: Lady Sarah Lennox and the Napiers. New York: McGraw-Hill.
• Tillyard, Stella (1994). Aristocrats: Caroline, Emily, Louisa, and Sarah Lennox, 1740–1826. London: Chatto & Windus.

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Francis Beaufort
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 7/4/21

Image
Sir Francis Beaufort, KCB [Order of the Bath] FRS [Fellow of the Royal Society] FRGS [Royal Geographical Society] FRAS [Royal Astronomical Society] MRIA [Royal Irish Academy]
Beaufort c. 1851
Hydrographer of the Navy
In office: 19 May 1829 – 25 January 1855
Preceded by: Sir Edward Parry
Succeeded by: John Washington
Personal details
Born: 27 May 1774, Navan, County Meath, Ireland
Died: 17 December 1857 (aged 83), Hove, Sussex, England
Resting place: St John's Church Gardens
Spouse(s): Alicia Wilson (1815–1834); Honora Edgeworth (1838–1857)
Children: Francis Lestock Beaufort; Emily Anne Beaufort
Father: Daniel Augustus Beaufort
Relatives: Frances Beaufort (sister); Henrietta Beaufort (sister); Daniel de Beaufort (grandfather)
Occupation: Hydrographer, mariner
Known for: Beaufort cipher, Beaufort scale
Awards: Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath (1848)
Military service
Branch: Royal Navy
Service years: 1790–1855
Rank: Rear admiral
Wars: French Revolutionary Wars; Napoleonic Wars

Sir Francis Beaufort KCB FRS FRGS FRAS MRIA (/ˈboʊfət/; 27 May 1774 – 17 December 1857) was an Irish hydrographer, rear admiral of the Royal Navy, and creator of the Beaufort cipher and the Beaufort scale.

Early life

Francis Beaufort was descended from French Protestant Huguenots, who fled the French Wars of Religion in the sixteenth century. His parents moved to Ireland from London. His father, Daniel Augustus Beaufort, was a Protestant clergyman from Navan, County Meath, Ireland, and a member of the learned Royal Irish Academy. His mother Mary was the daughter and co-heiress of William Waller, of Allenstown House. Francis was born in Navan on 27 May 1774.[1] He had an older brother, William Louis Beaufort and three sisters, Frances, Harriet, and Louisa. His father created and published a new map of Ireland in 1792.[2] Francis grew up in Wales and Ireland until age fourteen.[3][4] He left school and went to sea, but never stopped his education. By later in life, he had become sufficiently self-educated to associate with some of the greatest scientists and applied mathematicians of his time, including Mary Somerville, John Herschel, George Biddell Airy, and Charles Babbage.

Francis Beaufort had a lifelong keen awareness of the value of accurate charts for those risking the seas, as he was shipwrecked at the age of fifteen due to a faulty chart. His most significant accomplishments were in nautical charting.

Career

Early naval career


Beginning on a merchant ship of the British East India Company, Beaufort rose to midshipman during the Napoleonic Wars, to lieutenant on 10 May 1796, and commander on 13 November 1800. He served on the fifth rate frigate HMS Aquilon during the Battle of the Glorious First of June off Ushant in Brittany in 1794, when Aquilon rescued the dismasted HMS Defence and exchanged broadsides with the French ship-of-the line, Impétueux.

When serving on HMS Phaeton, Beaufort was badly wounded leading a cutting-out operation off Málaga in 1800; the action resulted in the capture of the 14-gun polacca Calpe. While recovering, during which he received a "paltry" pension of £45 per annum, he helped his brother-in-law, Richard Lovell Edgeworth, to construct a semaphore line [An optical telegraph is a semaphore system using a line of stations, typically towers, for the purpose of conveying textual information by means of visual signals] from Dublin to Galway. He spent two years at this activity, for which he would accept no remuneration.[5]

Command

Beaufort returned to active service and was appointed a captain in the Royal Navy on 30 May 1810. Whereas other wartime officers sought leisurely pursuits, Beaufort spent his leisure time taking depth soundings and bearings, making astronomical observations to determine longitude and latitude, and measuring shorelines. His results were compiled in new charts.

The Admiralty gave Beaufort his first ship command, HMS Woolwich. He sailed her to the East Indies and escorted a convoy of East Indiamen back to Britain. The Admiralty then tasked him with conducting a hydrographic survey of the Rio de la Plata estuary in South America. Experts were very impressed by the survey Beaufort brought back. Notably, Alexander Dalrymple remarked in a note to the Admiralty in March 1808, that "we have few officers (indeed I do not know one) in our Service who have half his professional knowledge and ability, and in zeal and perseverance he cannot be excelled."[6]

Anatolia

After the Woolwich, Beaufort received his first post-captain commission, commanding Frederickstein.[7]

Throughout 1811–1812, Beaufort charted and explored southern Anatolia, a region he referred to as Karamania, locating many classical ruins, including Hadrian's Gate [Hadrian's Gate is a triumphal arch located in Antalya, Turkey, which was built in the name of the Roman emperor Hadrian, who visited the city in the year 130]. An attack on the crew of his boat (at Ayas, near Adana), by Turks interrupted his work and he received a serious bullet wound in the hip. He returned to England and drew up his charts.

In 1817, he published his book Karamania; or a brief description of the South Coast of Asia Minor, and of the Remains of Antiquity.[8]

Hydrographer of the Navy

In 1829, Beaufort was elected as a Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society,[9] and in the same year, at the age of 55 (retirement age for most administrative contemporaries), Beaufort was appointed as the British Admiralty Hydrographer of the Navy. He served in that post for 26 years, longer than any other Hydrographer. G.S. Ritchie, himself Hydrographer (1966–1971) described this period as the "High Noon" of Admiralty surveying.[10]:189–199 The geographical scope of surveying was greatly increased, both in home waters and overseas. The production of new charts increased from 19 in 1830 to 1230 in 1855.[10]:196

In 1831 a Scientific Branch of the Admiralty was formed, which as well as the Hydrographic Department included the great astronomical observatories at Greenwich, England, and the Cape of Good Hope, Africa, and the Nautical Almanac and Chronometer Offices, and Beaufort was responsible for the administration.[10]:195 Beaufort directed some of the major maritime explorations and experiments of that period. He played a leading role in the search for the explorer, Sir John Franklin, who was lost during his last polar voyage to search for the legendary Northwest Passage.[11]

Beaufort was interested in scientific affairs beyond the confines of navigation. As a council member of the Royal Society, the Royal Observatory, and the Royal Geographical Society (which he helped found), Beaufort used his position and prestige as a top administrator to act as a "middleman" for many scientists of his time. Beaufort represented the geographers, astronomers, oceanographers, geodesists, and meteorologists to that government agency, the Hydrographic Office, which could support their research. In 1849 he assisted in the publication of the Admiralty Manual of Scientific Enquiry, to assist both Navy personnel and general travellers in scientific investigations, ranging from astronomy to ethnography.[12][10]:198

Beaufort trained Robert FitzRoy, who was put in temporary command of the survey ship HMS Beagle after her previous captain committed suicide. When FitzRoy was reappointed as commander for what became the famous second voyage of the Beagle, he requested of Beaufort "that a well-educated and scientific gentleman be sought" as a companion on the voyage.[10]:203 Beaufort's enquiries led to an invitation to Charles Darwin, who later drew on his discoveries in formulating the theory of evolution he presented in his book The Origin of Species. Later, when Beaufort persuaded the Board of Trade to set up a Meterorological Department, Fitzroy became its first Director[10]:192

Using his many connections, including the Royal Society, Beaufort helped to obtain funding for the Antarctic voyage of 1839–1843 by James Clark Ross for extensive measurements of terrestrial magnetism, coordinated with similar measurements in Europe and Asia.[3]:303 (This is comparable to the International Geophysical Year of our time.)

Beaufort promoted the development of reliable tide tables around British shores, publishing the first edition of the Admiralty Tide Tables in 1833.[13][14] This inspired similar research for Europe and North America. Aiding his friend William Whewell, Beaufort gained the support of the Prime Minister, Duke of Wellington, in expanding record-keeping at 200 British Coastguard stations. Beaufort gave enthusiastic support to his friend, Sir George Airy, the Astronomer Royal and noted mathematician, in achieving a historic period of measurements by the Greenwich and Good Hope observatories.

By the time Beaufort retired the Admiralty Chart series was a truly world wide resource with 2,000 charts covering every sea.[15]

Retirement

Beaufort retired from the Royal Navy with the rank of rear admiral on 1 October 1846, at the age of 72. He became "Sir Francis Beaufort" on being appointed KCB (Knight Commander of the Bath) on 29 April 1848, a relatively belated honorific considering the eminence of his position from 1829 onward. In 1840, he was elected to the American Philosophical Society.[16]

Personal life

Beaufort's extant correspondence of 200+ letters and journals contained portions written in personal cipher. Beaufort altered the Vigenère cipher, by reversing the cipher alphabet, and the resulting variant is called the Beaufort cipher. The deciphered writings have revealed family and personal problems, including some of a sexual nature. It appears that between 1835 and his marriage to Honora Edgeworth in November 1838, he had incestuous relations with his sister Harriet. His diary entries, in cypher, show that he was tortured by guilt over this.[3]

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The Beaufort family tomb in St John's Church Gardens, London

He died on 17 December 1857, at age 83 in Hove, Sussex, England. He is buried in the church gardens of St John at Hackney, London, where his tomb may still be seen. His home in London, No. 51 Manchester Street, Westminster, is marked by an historic blue plaque noting his residency and achievements.[17]

Family

Beaufort married, firstly, Alicia Magdalena Wilson, daughter of Lestock Wilson R.N. under whom he had first served; she died in 1834.[18] Of their children, three daughters and three sons were living in 1859.[19] They included:

• Daniel Augustus Beaufort (1813/4–1898), cleric, married in 1851 Emily Nowell Davis, daughter of Sir John Francis Davis, 1st Baronet.[20][21]

Sir John Francis Davis, 1st Baronet KCB (16 July 1795 – 13 November 1890) was a British diplomat and sinologist who served as second Governor of Hong Kong from 1844 to 1848. Davis was the first President of Royal Asiatic Society Hong Kong.

Davis was the eldest son of East India Company director and amateur artist Samuel Davis while his mother was Henrietta Boileau, member of a refugee French noble family who had come to England in the early eighteenth century from Languedoc in the south of France.

Samuel Davis (1760–1819) was an English soldier turned diplomat who later became a director of the East India Company (EIC). He was the father of John Francis Davis, one time Chief Superintendent of British Trade in China and second governor of Hong Kong.

Samuel was born in the West Indies the younger son of soldier John Davis, whose appointment as Commissary general there had been signed by King George II in 1759 and countersigned by William Pitt. After his father died, Davis returned to England with his mother (who was of Welsh descent, née Phillips) and his two sisters. He became a cadet of the EIC under the aegis of director Laurence Sulivan in 1788, and sailed for India aboard the Earl of Oxford, which also brought the artist William Hodges to India, arriving in Madras in early 1780.

In 1783, Warren Hastings, the Governor of the Presidency of Fort William (Bengal) assigned Davis "Draftsman and Surveyor" on Samuel Turner's forthcoming mission to Bhutan and Tibet. Unfortunately, the Tibetans (or more probably the Chinese ambans, the de facto authority in Tibet) viewed his "scientific" profession with suspicion and he was forced to remain in Bhutan until Turner and the others returned. Whilst in Bhutan he turned his attention to recording the buildings and landscape of the country in a series of drawings. These were published some 200 years later as Views of Medieval Bhutan: the diary and drawings of Samuel Davis, 1783.

On his return from Bhutan, in around 1784 he became Assistant to the Collector of Bhagalpur and Registrar of its Adalat Court. In Bhagalpur he met lawyer and orientalist William Jones who had recently founded The Asiatic Society of which Davis subsequently became a member. The two became firm friends based on their shared love of mathematics while along with another member of The Asiatic Society, Reuben Burrow, Davis studied astronomical tables obtained by the French astronomer Guillaume Le Gentil, French Resident at the Faizabad court of Shuja-ud-Daula who in turn had obtained them from Tiruvallur Brahmins on the Coromandel Coast. The tables showed accurate Indian scientific knowledge of astronomy dating back to the third century BCE. As part of his research, Davis also learned Sanskrit and Hindi. For the next ten years, Jones and Davis carried on a running correspondence on the topic of jyotisha or Hindu astronomy. While in Bhagalpur, Davis also met landscape artist Thomas Daniell and his nephew William whom he encouraged to visit the Himalayas. In 1792 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society.

Davis' next appointment was as Collector of Burdwan, a town in the Bengal Presidency. He then spent 1795–1800 in Benares (now Varanasi), this time as Magistrate of the district and city court. Benares was also home to former ruler of Oudh State, Wazir Ali Khan, who had been forcibly deposed by the British in 1797. In 1799, the British authorities decided to remove Ali Khan further from his former realm and as a result rioting broke out. Davis singlehandly defended his family by shepherding them to the roof of his residence and defending the single access point with a pike. The incident was the subject of a book by his son, John F. Davis, entitled Vizier Ali Khan or The Massacre of Benares, A Chapter in British Indian History published in London in 1871.

During the remainder of his stay in India, Davis held a succession of more senior positions including Superintendent-General of Police and Justice of the Peace at Calcutta, member of the Board of Revenue and Accountant-General of India.
He resigned from the civil service in February 1806 and after a stop at St. Helena to engage in his love for painting, arrived back in England in July the same year.

He was elected a director of the EIC in October at the instigation of President of the Board of Control, Henry Dundas and to the latter's disgust, acted independently thereafter until his death in 1819.

"At the time of the renewal of the [company's] Charter in 1814, the Committee of the House of Commons entrusted him [Davis] with the task of drawing up, in their name, the memorable "Fifth Report on the Revenues of Bengal", which remains a monument of his intimate acquaintance with the internal administration of India"

While in Burdwan, Davis married Henrietta Boileau, who was from a refugee French noble family who had come to England in the early eighteenth century from Languedoc in the South of France. She was the first cousin of John Boileau, 1st Baronet of Tacolnestone Hall in Norfolk. The couple went on to have four sons and seven daughters. Their eldest son John Francis Davis, became second Governor of Hong Kong followed by Lestock-Francis and Sullivan, both of whom died in India in 1820 and 1821 respectively. Their daughters were as follows:

• Henrietta-Anne, who married Henry Baynes Ward in 1821.
• Anne, who married Lieutenant-Colonel Henry Dundas Campbell in 1827
• Maria–Jane, who married Lieutenant Colonel John Rivett-Carnac, RN in 1826.[10]
• Elizabeth, who married Sir Henry Willock, KLS.
• Frances, who died in 1828.
• Alicia, who married the Reverend John Lockwood, rector of Kingham in 1832.
• Julia, who in 1839 married John Edwardes Lyall, Advocate-General of Bengal, who died in 1845 of cholera.[/b][/size]

-- Samuel Davis (orientalist), by Wikipedia


In 1813, Davis was appointed writer at the East India Company's factory in Canton (now Guangzhou), China, at the time the centre of trade with China. Having demonstrated the depth of his learning in the Chinese language in his translation of The Three Dedicated Rooms ("San-Yu-Low") in 1815, he was chosen to accompany Lord Amherst on his embassy to Peking in 1816.

On the mission's return Davis returned to his duties at the Canton factory, and was promoted to president in 1832. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society the same year.

Davis was appointed Second Superintendent of British Trade in China alongside Lord Napier in December 1833, superseding William Henry Chicheley Plowden in the latter's absence. After Napier's death in 1834, Davis became Chief Superintendent then resigned his position in January 1835, to be replaced by Sir George Robinson. Davis left Canton aboard the Asia on 12 January.

In 1839, Davis purchased the Regency mansion Holly House, near Henbury, Bristol, where he built an observatory tower built housing a clock installed by Edward John Dent, who would later be responsible for building Big Ben. It remained the Davis family home for seven decades thereafter.

Governor of Hong Kong

Having arrived from Bombay on HMS Spiteful on 7 May 1844, he was appointed governor and commander-in-chief of Hong Kong the next day.:47 During his tenure, Davis was unpopular with Hong Kong residents and British merchants due to the imposition of various taxes, which increased the burden of all citizens, and his abrasive treatment of his subordinates. Davis organised the first Hong Kong Census in 1844, which recorded that there were 23,988 people living in Hong Kong.

In the same year, Davis exhorted China to abandon the prohibition on opium trade, on the basis of its counter productiveness, relating that, in England,


... the system of prohibitions and high duties ... only increased the extent of smuggling, together with crimes of violence, while they diminished the revenue; until it was a length found that the fruitless expense of a large preventive force absorbed much of the amount of duty that could be collected, while prohibited articles were consumed more than ever.


Weekend horse racing began during his tenure, which gradually evolved into a Hong Kong institution. Davis founded the China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society in 1847 and he was its first president.

Davis left office on 21 March 1848, ending unrelenting tensions with local British merchants who saw him as a stingy, arrogant and obstinate snob. His early decision to exclude all but government officials from the Executive and Legislative Councils on the basis that "almost every person possessed of Capital, who is not connected with Government Employment, is employed in the Opium trade" could not have made co-operation any easier. He departed the colony on 30 March via the P&O steamer Pekin. He returned to England, where he rejoined Emily, who had stayed there throughout his governorship.

Personal life

Davis married Emily, the daughter of Lieutenant Colonel Humfrays of the Bengal Engineers in 1822. They had one son and six daughters:[2]

• Sulivan (13 January 1827 – 1862); died in Bengal.
• Henrietta Anne
• Emily Nowell; married Reverend D. A. Beaufort in 1851, eldest son of Francis Beaufort, the inventor of the eponymous wind scale.
• Julia Sullivan; married Robert Cann Lippincott in 1854
• Helen Marian (died 31 January 1859)
• Florence
• Eliza (died 20 October 1855)

In 1867, a year after the death of his wife Emily, Davis married Lucy Ellen, eldest daughter of Reverend T. J. Locke, vicar of Exmouth, in 1867. A son, Francis Boileau, was born in 1871.

He was a created a baronet on 9 July 1845 and appointed a Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath (KCB) on 12 June 1854. Having retired from government, Davis engaged in literary pursuits. In 1876, he became a Doctor of Civil Law of the University of Oxford after a donation of £1,666 in three percent consol bonds to endow a scholarship in his name for the encouragement of the study of Chinese.

-- John Francis Davis, by Wikipedia


• Francis Lestock Beaufort (1815–1879), served in the Bengal civil service, from 1837 to 1876.[22]

Francis Lestock Beaufort (1815–1879), was a son of Sir Francis Beaufort and the author of the Digest of I Criminal Law Procedure in Bengal (1850).

-- Francis Lestock Beaufort, by Wikipedia


• Sophia Mary Bonne married the Rev. William Palmer in 1838.[23]

PALMER, Francis Beaufort was born on July 7, 1845. Son of Reverend William Palmer (one of the originators of the Oxford Movement) and Sophia, daughter of Admiral Sir Francis Beaufort, Knight Commander of the Bath, Fellow of the Royal Society.

-- Francis Beaufort Palmer, by prabook.com


Francis Napier Beaufort-Palmer, youngest son

Ancestors

1. Francis Napier Beaufort-Palmer (Mason)
2. Sir Francis V. Beaufort Palmer 1845 - ante 1941
3. Rev. William Palmer (Beaufort) 1803 - post 1881


-- Francis Napier Beaufort-Palmer, youngest son, by genealogy.org


• Emily Anne Smythe (1826–1887) was a hero of Bulgaria, a writer, illustrator and advocate of change in the training of nurses.[24]

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Lady Strangford, Emily Ann Smythe or Emily Anne Beaufort (1826 – 24 March 1887) was a British illustrator, writer and nurse. There are streets named after her and permanent museum exhibits about her in Bulgaria. She established hospitals and mills to assist the Bulgarians following the April Uprising in 1876 that preceded the re-establishment of Bulgaria. She was awarded the Royal Red Cross medal by Queen Victoria for establishing another hospital in Cairo....

In 1858 she set out on a journey with her elder sister to Egypt. The book that she wrote, Egyptian Sepulchres and Syrian Shrines was dedicated to her sister, and describes the places she visited in Syria, Lebanon, Asia Minor and Egypt with beautiful illustrations based on her sketches from her journey. The volume was so popular that it was re-issued several times.


Of the ancient oasis city, Palmyra she writes:

"I was once asked whether Palmyra was "not a broken-down old thing in a style of slovenly decadence?" It is true its style is neither pure nor severe: nothing over which the lavish hand of hasty and Imperial Rome has passed is ever so: but, Tadmor [Palmyra] is free from all the vulgarity of real decadence; it is so entirely irregular as to be sometimes fantastic; the designs are overflowing with richness and fancy, but it is never heavy: it is free, independent, bizarre, but never ungraceful; grand indeed, though hardly sublime, it is almost always bewitchingly beautiful." (pp. 239–40)

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Color lithograph panorama of Palmyra, Syria by Nicholas Hanhart after Emily Anne Beaufort Smythe, 1862.

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Egyptian Sepulchres and Syrian Shrines by Beaufort

Strangford received a critical review of her 1861 book Egyptian Sepulchres and Syrian Shrines by Percy Smythe, later Viscount Strangford. Unusually, this led to them meeting and their marriage.

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Percy Ellen Algernon Frederick William Sydney Smythe, 8th Viscount Strangford (26 November 1825 – 9 January 1869) was a British nobleman and man of letters.

He was born in St Petersburg, Russia, the son of the 6th Viscount Strangford, the British Ambassador, Ottoman Turkey, Sweden, and Portugal.
During all his earlier years Percy Smythe was nearly blind, in consequence, it was believed, of his mother having suffered very great hardships on a journey up the Baltic Sea in wintry weather shortly before his birth.

His education began at Harrow School, whence he went to Merton College, Oxford. He excelled as a linguist, and was nominated by the vice-chancellor of Oxford in 1845 a student-attache at Constantinople.

While at Constantinople, where he served under Lord Stratford de Redcliffe, Smythe gained a mastery not only of Turkish and its dialects, but of almost every form of modern Greek, from the language of the literati of Athens to the least Hellenized Romaic. He had already a large knowledge both of Persian and Arabic before going east
, but until his duties led him to study the past, present and future of the sultan's empire he had given no attention to the tongues which he well described as those of the international rabble in and around the Balkan peninsula.

On succeeding his brother as Viscount Strangford in 1857 he continued to live in Constantinople, immersed in cultural studies. At length, however, he returned to England and wrote a good deal, sometimes in the Saturday Review, sometimes in the Quarterly Review, and much in the Pall Mall Gazette. A rather severe review in the first of these organs of the Egyptian Sepulchres and Syrian Shrines of Emily Anne Beaufort (1826–1887) led to a result not very usual, the marriage of the reviewer and the author.

One of the most interesting papers Lord Strangford ever wrote was the last chapter in his wife's book on the Eastern Shores of the Adriatic. That chapter was entitled "Chaos," and was the first of his writings which made him widely known amongst careful students of foreign politics. From that time forward everything that he wrote was watched with intense interest, and even when it was anonymous there was not the slightest difficulty in recognising his style, for it was unlike any other.

Percy Smythe was president of the Royal Asiatic Society in 1861–64 and 1867–69.


-- Percy Smythe, 8th Viscount Strangford, by Wikipedia


In 1859 and 1860 she was travelling in Smyrna, Rhodes, Mersin, Tripoli, Beirut, Baalbek, Athens, Attica, the Pentelicus mountains, Constantinople and Belgrade. During the whole journey she kept a journal recording all that she experienced.

When Strangford published her second book Eastern Shores of the Adriatic in 1864 it had a final anonymous chapter title "Chaos," which is attributed to her husband, Percy Smythe, 8th Viscount Strangford. This work is considered important in his writing career. Her husband was twice president of the Royal Asiatic Society in the 1860s. He died in 1869 and as they had no children his titles became extinct.

Following her husband's death Strangford volunteered to serve as a nurse in (probably) University College Hospital in London. In 1874 her studies led her to advocate a change in the way that nurses were trained. She published Hospital Training for Ladies: an Appeal to the Hospital Boards in England.
She advocated that nurses should be allowed to train and work part-time. She believed that the training to be a nurse would benefit many women in their role within a family. This idea did not gain official backing as the major objective at the time was to establish nursing as a profession and not as a part-time activity for amateurs.

The war crimes that were taking place in Bulgaria in 1876 gained her attention. Christians had suffered massacres by the Ottomans and Strangford initially joined one committee and then she set up her own. Thousands of pounds were raised by the Bulgarian Peasants Relief Fund and she went to Bulgaria in 1876 with Robert Jasper More, eight doctors and eight nurses. Both she and More wrote letters to The Times to report and gather more funds. Strangford believed that the Bulgarians and not the Serbs would be important as the Ottoman Empire shrank. These were views that she had shared with her husband. Strangford found the Bulgarians to just need the tools for their own self-improvement and she was impressed that their first priority was a school. She built a hospital at Batak and eventually other hospitals were built at Radilovo, Panagiurishte, Perushtitsa, Petrich and at Karlovo. She also provided subsidies to a flour mill and a number of saw mills.

In 1883 Queen Victoria awarded her the Royal Red Cross for creating, with Dr Herbert Sieveking the Victoria Hospital, Cairo. The hospital continued in operation thanks to a grant of £2,000 per year from the Egyptian government taking in local students for training and offering first class accommodation on a private basis.


Strangford edited A Selection from the Writings of Viscount Strangford on Political, Geographical and Social Subjects which she published in 1869 and Original Letters and Papers upon Philology and Kindred Subjects in 1878. She also published her brother-in-law's novel Angela Pisani after his death and she helped found the Women's Emigration Society with Caroline Blanchard which arranged for British women to find jobs abroad.

In her later years, Lady Strangford had a London home at 3 Upper Brook Street, Mayfair. She died on board SS Lusitania of a stroke in 1887. She was travelling through the Mediterranean en route for Port Said where she was to create a hospital for seamen. Her body was returned to London and buried in Kensal Green Cemetery.[2]

-- Lady Strangford, by Wikipedia


Beaufort married again in 1838, to Honora Edgeworth, the daughter of his brother-in-law Richard Lovell Edgeworth and his second wife. (Francis' sister Frances Beaufort had married Edgeworth as his fourth wife years earlier in the 1810s.)

Legacy

Wind force scale

Main article: Beaufort scale

During these early years of command, Beaufort developed the first versions of his Wind Force Scale and Weather Notation coding, which he was to use in his journals for the remainder of his life. From the circle representing a weather station, a staff (rather like the stem of a note in musical notation) extends, with one or more half or whole barbs. For example, a stave with 3½ barbs represents Beaufort seven on the scale, decoded as 32–38 mph, or a "moderate Gale".

Geographical legacy

Beaufort, like other patrons of exploration, has had his name given to many geographical places. Among these:

• Beaufort Sea (arm of Arctic Ocean)
• Beaufort Island, Antarctic


Cryptographic legacy

Beaufort created the Beaufort cipher. It is a substitution cipher similar to the Vigenère cipher.

References

1. Mollan, R Charles (2002). Irish Innovators. Royal Irish Academy. p. 49. ISBN 978-1-874045-88-5.
2. "A new map of Ireland : civil and ecclesiastical". Library of Congress. Retrieved 7 July 2017.
3. Alfred Friendly, Beaufort of the Admiralty, Hutchinson, 1977
4. Image:BeaufortTomb.JPG
5. Marshall, John (1828). Royal naval biography; or, Memoirs of the services of all the flag-officers, superannuated Rear-Admirals, Retired Captains, Post Captains and Commanders whose names appeared on the Admiralty list of Sea-Officers of the year 1823, or who have since been promoted. Supplement Part II. London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown and Geen. pp. 82–94.
6. John de Courcy Ireland. "Francis Beaufort (Wind Scale)". On-line Journal of Research on Irish Maritime History. Retrieved 29 November 2014.
7. Courtenay, Nicholas (2002). "8". Gale Force 10 – The life and legacy of Admiral Beaufort. Review.
8. Beaufort, Francis (1817). Karamania, Or A Brief Description Of The South Coast Of Asia Minor. London: R. Hunter.
9. Hume, Robert (17 March 2014). "Why wind guru Beaufort had to hide a stormy personal life". Irish Examiner. Retrieved 16 March 2016.
10. Ritchie, G.S. (1967). The Admiralty Chart. London: Hollis & Carter.
11. Ross, W.Gillies (2004). "The Admiralty and the Franklin search". The Polar Record. 40 (4): 289–301. doi:10.1017/S003224740400378X.
12. John Frederick William Herschel (1849). A Manual of Scientific Enquiry: Prepared for the Use of Her Majesty's Navy : and Adapted for Travellers in General. J. Murray.
13. Doodson, Arthur Thomas; Warburg, Harold Dreyer (1941). Admiralty Manual of Tides. H.M. Stationery Office. pp. 137–138. ISBN 978-0-7077-2124-8.
14. Warburg, H.D. (1919). "The Admiralty Tide Tables and North Sea Tidal Predictions". The Geographical Journal. 63 (5): 308–326. JSTOR 1779472.
15. Morris, Roger (November 1996). "Two hundred years of Admiralty charts and surveys". The Mariner's Mirror. 82 (4): 426. doi:10.1080/00253359.1996.10656616.
16. "APS Member History". search.amphilsoc.org. Retrieved 9 April 2021.
17. "Francis Beaufort Blue Plaque". openplaques.org. Retrieved 13 May 2013.
18. Rodger, N. A. M. "Beaufort, Sir Francis". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/1857. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
19. Royal Society (1857). Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Taylor & Francis. p. 526.
20. "Beaufort, Daniel Augustus (BFRT831DA)". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge.
21. Lodge's Peerage and Baronetage (knightage & Companionage) of the British Empire. Hurst & Blackett. 1861. p. 685.
22. "Beaufort, Francis Lestock (BFRT831FL)". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge.
23. Walford, Edward (1869). The County Families of the United Kingdom Or, Royal Manual of the Titled and Untitled Aristocracy of Great Britain and Ireland. R. Hardwicke. p. 752.
24. Baigent, Elizabeth. "Smythe, Emily Anne, Viscountess Strangford (bap. 1826, d. 1887)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/25963. (Subscription or UK public library membershiprequired.)

Further reading

• Webb, Alfred (1878). "Beaufort, Sir Francis" . A Compendium of Irish Biography. Dublin: M. H. Gill & son.
• Alfred Friendly. Beaufort of the Admiralty. Random House, New York, 1973.
• Nicholas Courtney. "Gale Force 10, the life and legacy of Admiral Beaufort". London: Review. 2002.
• Huler, Scott (2004). Defining the Wind: The Beaufort Scale, and How a 19th-Century Admiral Turned Science into Poetry. Crown. ISBN 1-4000-4884-2.
• Laughton, John Knox (1885). "Beaufort, Francis" . In Stephen, Leslie (ed.). Dictionary of National Biography. 04. London: Smith, Elder & Co.
• Laughton, John Knox; Rodger, Nicholas (2008) [2004]. "Beaufort, Francis". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/1857. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)

External links

• Works by Francis Beaufort at Open Library
• Works by or about Francis Beaufort at Internet Archive
• Works by or about Francis Beaufort in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
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William Napier, 9th Lord Napier
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 7/4/21

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The Lord Napier
Chief Superintendent of British Trade in China
In office: 31 December 1833 – 11 October 1834
Preceded by: Position created
Succeeded by: John Francis Davis
Personal details
Born: 13 October 1786, Kinsale, Ireland
Died: 11 October 1834, Macau
Spouse(s): Elizabeth Cochrane-Johnstone
Profession: Naval officer, trade envoy

William John Napier, 9th Lord Napier, Baron Napier (Chinese: 律勞卑) FRSE (13 October 1786 – 11 October 1834) was a British Royal Navy officer and trade envoy in China.

Early life

Napier was born in Kinsale, Ireland, on 13 October 1786. He was the son of Francis Napier, 8th Lord Napier (1758–1823) and the father of Francis Napier, 10th Lord Napier and 1st Baron Ettrick (1819–1898).

He enlisted in the Royal Navy in 1803 and served -- with distinction -- as a midshipman on HMS Defiance at the Battle of Trafalgar (1805). He later served as lieutenant under Thomas Cochrane, 10th Earl of Dundonald.

In 1818 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. His proposers were Sir David Brewster, Sir George Steuart Mackenzie, and John Playfair.[2]

A peer of Scotland, Lord Napier was an elected Scottish representative in the House of Lords from 1824 to 1832. In December 1833, upon the ending of British East India Company's monopoly on trade in the Far East, he was appointed by Foreign Secretary Lord Palmerston, a family friend of Napier, as the first Chief Superintendent of Trade at Canton (now Guangzhou), in China. The Second and Third Superintendents were John Francis Davis and Sir George Best Robinson, respectively. He arrived at Macau on 15 July 1834 on board the East India Company frigate Andromanche, and reached Canton ten days later, with the mission of expanding British trade into inner China. Lacking the necessary diplomatic and commercial experience, he was not successful in achieving the objective.

Having failed to secure a meeting with Lu Kun, the Governor-general of the Liangguang, Napier's frustration in failing to break an intractable trade deadlock and secure the rights of British traders led to his favoring a military solution. He sent the frigates Andromache and Imogene to Whampoa on 11 September, defying an edict issued by Lu Kun, in a 'casualty-less' skirmish of cannon fire as the British warships breached defences at the Bocca Tigris. After a prolonged stalemate, Lord Napier, sapped by typhus, was forced to retire to Macau in September 1834, where he died of the fever on 11 October.
Originally buried in Macau, he was later exhumed for reburial at Ettrick in Scotland.

Napier was the first British representative to suggest seizing Hong Kong. In a dispatch to Lord Palmerston on 14 August 1834, he suggested a commercial treaty, backed by an armed force, be done to secure the rights and interests of European merchants in China. He recommended that a small British force "should take possession of the Island of Hongkong, in the eastern entrance of the Canton River, which is admirably adapted for every purpose".

Family

Lord Napier married Elizabeth Cochrane-Johnstone (c. 1795–1883), daughter of Scottish adventurer Andrew Cochrane-Johnstone, in 1816; they had two sons and six daughters. His eldest son, Francis Napier, also entered diplomatic service and was promoted by Palmerston for the rest of his life.

Honours

Following his death, the British Government placed a memorial to him before the Macao Customs Office. After being lost for a short time, it was moved to the Hong Kong Cemetery, and then to the Hong Kong Museum of History, where it now rests.

Notes

1. Laughton, J. K.. "Napier, William John, ninth Lord Napier of Merchistoun (1786–1834)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (2004 ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/19773.
2. Biographical Index of Former Fellows of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 1783–2002 (PDF). The Royal Society of Edinburgh. July 2006. ISBN 0-902-198-84-X.
3. Hanes & Sanello 2004, p. 27.
4. Lydia He. LIU; Lydia He Liu (30 June 2009). The Clash of Empires: the invention of China in modern world making. Harvard University Press. p. 47. ISBN 978-0-674-04029-8.
5. Eitel 1895, p. 56
6. "Family of William John NAPIER, 9th Lord NAPIER and Elizabeth COCHRANE-JOHNSTONE".

Further reading

• Eitel, E. J. (1895). Europe in China: The History of Hongkong from the Beginning to the Year 1882. London: Luzac & Company.
• Hanes, W. Travis; Sanello, Frank (2004). Opium Wars: The Addiction of One Empire and the Corruption of Another. Sourcebooks. ISBN 9781402229695.
• Hoe, Susanna; Roebuck, Derek (1999). The Taking of Hong Kong: Charles and Clara Elliot in China Waters. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon Press. ISBN 0-7007-1145-7.
• Melancon, Glenn. "Peaceful Intentions: The First British Trade Commission in China, 1833-5,” Historical Research 73 (2000) password required.
• Morse, Hosea Ballou. International Relations of the Chinese Empire: The Period of Conflict: 1834-1860. (1910) online pp 118-144
• Napier, Priscilla (1995). Barbarian Eye: Lord Napier in China, 1834, the Prelude to Hong Kong. London: Brassey's. ISBN 9781857531169.
• Welsh, Frank; Rao, Maya (1996). A Borrowed Place: The History of Hong Kong. ISBN 1-56836-134-3.

External links

• The Napier Affair (1834)
• Another description of the Napier Affair

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Francis Napier, 10th Lord Napier
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 7/4/21

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The Right Honourable The Lord Napier, KT [Order of the Thistle] PC [Privy Council of the UK]
Portrait of Francis Napier, 10th Lord Napier in 1866
Acting Viceroy of India
In office: 24 February 1872 – 3 May 1872
Monarch: Queen Victoria
Preceded by: Sir John Strachey, As Acting Viceroy
Succeeded by: The Lord Northbrook
Governor of Madras Presidency
In office: 27 March 1866 – 19 February 1872
Preceded by: Sir William Thomas Denison
Succeeded by: Alexander John Arbuthnot, As Acting Governor
Ambassadors of the United Kingdom to Russia
In office: 1861–1864
Preceded by: John Crampton
Succeeded by: Andrew Buchanan
Personal details
Born: 15 September 1819, Thirlestane Castle, Selkirkshire, United Kingdom
Image
Thirlestane Castle.
Died: 19 December 1898 (aged 79), Florence, Kingdom of Italy
Nationality: British
Spouse(s): Anne Jane Charlotte Manners
Alma mater: Trinity College, Cambridge

Francis Napier, 10th Lord Napier and 1st Baron Ettrick, KT, PC (15 September 1819 – 19 December 1898) was a Scottish polyglot, diplomat and colonial administrator. He served as the British Minister to the United States from 1857 to 1859, Netherlands from 1859 to 1860, Russia from 1861 to 1864, Prussia from 1864 to 1866 and as the Governor of Madras from 1866 to 1872. He also acted as the Viceroy of India from February to May 1872.

Francis Napier was born on 15 September 1819 to William John Napier and had his early education through private tutors. He joined the Trinity College, Cambridge in 1835 but did not complete his graduation. Instead, he mastered foreign languages and served as a diplomat in foreign missions. In 1866, he was appointed Governor of Madras and served from 1866 to 1872. On the assassination of the Earl of Mayo, the then Viceroy of India in February 1872, Napier was appointed to act temporarily as the Viceroy of India and served from February to May 1872. Napier returned to the United Kingdom in July 1872 and in his later life, chaired the Napier Commission. Napier died at Florence, Italy on 18 December 1898 at the age of 79.

Napier was made a Knight of the Thistle in 1864. In 1872, he was created Baron Ettrick in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in recognition of his services in India.

Early life and education

Francis Napier was born on 15 September 1819 to William John Napier, the 9th Lord Napier of Merchistoun and his wife, Elizabeth Cochrane-Johnstone at Thirlestane Castle in Selkirkshire. He was the eldest son of the couple.

Napier had his early education in private and was schooled at Saxe-Meiningen. He joined Trinity College, Cambridge in 1835 but did not complete his graduation. However, he acquired a knowledge of a few foreign languages under the tutorship of one Rev. Walter Patterson. Napier became the 10th Lord Merchistoun on the death of his father William John Napier on 11 October 1834.

Diplomatic career

Due to his fluency in multiple languages, Napier's lack of educational qualifications was overlooked and he was appointed to the British embassy at Vienna and later, Constantinople, where he served as an attache. In 1848, Napier was appointed Secretary of the British delegation at Naples. He served as the Acting Ambassador for a period of eighteen months in Naples, when Italy was embroiled in the Sicilian insurrection.

After his experience in Naples, he found time to publish a book assessing contemporary painters in Naples.[1] An aristocratic haughtiness regarding the local populace infuses his writing, dismissing the skills of more than one artist, and in reactionary fashion, the revolutionary instincts of the masses. In the preface, he writes:

It was the fortune of the author to hold a diplomatic employment at the Court of Naples, during a period in which the appropriate pastimes of that pleasant city were discarded for the illusions and regrets of political change. These transactions, of which the melancholy issue is notorious, were of a nature to engross and often to darken the thoughts of one, who had an intimate knowledge and a foreboding view of the revolutionary drama; the resources of society were limited by the suspicions and passions which altered and envenomed the conversation even of cultivated men; and the author was induced, alike by necessity and taste, to expend his relaxation and recover his serenity in the study of the local Arts.

— Notes on Modern Painting at Naples, 1850


Napier's handling of affairs as acting ambassador in Naples impressed the then Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, Lord Palmerston. He was posted to the British embassy at St Petersburg, where he became a close confidante of Tsar Alexander II. After serving short, satisfactory terms at the British embassies at St Petersburg and Constantinople, Napier was appointed envoy extraordinaire and minister plenipotentiary to the United States and served from 1857 to 1859. Napier's tenure in Washington was soon mired in controversy. The abolitionist Charles Sumner and elements of the Northern press accused the British minister of being a pro-slavery partisan. More damaging still in the eyes of the British government was the claim that he had taken upon himself to declare in conversations that Britain recognized the Monroe Doctrine, when all the British governments till then had repudiated it. Critics at the Foreign Office accused him of "giving up everything the United States can wish for, even before they ask it", which for them explained Napier's immense popularity with Washington's influential residents. He was recalled and given the less sensitive post of minister to the Netherlands.[2] Napier served there from 1859 to 1861 and in Prussia from 1864 to 1866. He was then appointed Governor of Madras in 1866 and served from 27 March 1866 to 19 February 1872.

Governor of Madras

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Napier Bridge in Chennai

As soon as Napier took office as the Governor of Madras, he was faced with a severe famine in Ganjam District. He took the services of Florence Nightingale whom he had known in Constantinople. Napier undertook many major irrigation schemes during his tenure. The Pennar Dam was completed during his tenure and two other irrigation works, the Rushikulya Dam in Ganjam and the Mullaperiyar Dam were conceived during his tenure.

Despite being at odds with different viceroys over financial issues throughout his tenure, Napier was able to resolve disputes in an amicable manner due to the friendly relations he had with Sir John Lawrence and well as his successor, Richard Bourke, 6th Earl of Mayo. When the Earl of Mayo was assassinated in the Andamans on 8 February 1872, Napier was designated to act as the Viceroy of India and he served for a short time before being relieved by Lord Northbrook. For his creditable performance as Governor of Madras, Napier was created Baron Ettrick of Ettrick in the peerage of the United Kingdom.[3]

In 1869, Napier constructed the Napier Bridge across the Coovum River in Chennai.[4] The Napier Park in Chennai[5] and the Napier Museum in Trivandrum, Travancore were set up in his memory. Between 1866 and 1872,[6] he had partially restored the Thirumalai Nayakkar Mahal as well, which was earlier demolished considerably by Grandson of King Thirumalai Nayak.


In addition there is a surgical ward in Stanley Medical College Hospital in Chennai, named in his honor. The ward was originally built with the help of donations by the Governor Napier.

Later life and death

At the end of his term as acting Viceroy of India, Napier returned to the United Kingdom and acted as the President of the Social Science Association during its meetings at Plymouth and Glasgow in October 1874.[7] During this time, Napier also served in the London School Board.[7]

Lord Napier was the chairman of the Napier Commission[7](the Royal Commission of Inquiry into the Condition of Crofters and Cottars in the Highlands and Islands) which was appointed in 1883 and reported in 1884.

Napier died in Florence, Italy on 19 December 1898 at the age of 79.[7]

Honours

Napier was appointed to Privy Council in 1861 and made a Knight of the Thistle in 1864.

Family

Napier married Anne Jane Charlotte (1824–1911) on 2 September 1845. The couple had four sons.[8]

• William Napier, 11th Lord Napier (1846–1913)
• John Scott (1848–1928)
• R. N. Basil (1850–1874)
• Mark Francis (1852–1919)

Portrait

The New York Times gives a short physical description of Napier on his appointment as Viceroy of India.
Lord Napier is sixty-two years old, considerably above middle size, strong, healthy, with calm, handsome face, gray hair and whiskers, an early riser, very often a late goer to bed, gifted with inexhaustible energy, tact common sense and acuteness of judgement.[9]

References

1. Napier, Lord Francis (1855). Notes on Modern Painting at Naples.. West Strand, London: John W. Parker and Son. pp. I.
2. Brian Jenkins, Lord Lyons, A Diplomat in An Age of Nationalism and War, McGill-Queen's University Press, 2014, pp. 85–89.
3. "GREAT BRITAIN.; The American Squadron Protest of English Catholics Against Italy's Coorse to the Pope-Governor-General of India" (PDF). The New York Times. London. 17 July 1872.
4. "Special lighting on Napier Bridge". The Hindu. Chennai. 29 July 2010.
5. Illustrated guide to the South Indian Railway: including the Mayavaram-Mutupet, and Peralam-Karaikkal railways. Higginbotham's. 1900. pp. 18.
6. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 22 April 2012. Retrieved 26 July 2013.
7. "BARON NAPIER IS DEAD.; He Was at One Time British Minister to This Country" (PDF). The New York Times. 19 December 1898.
8. "The Royal Household in Scotland". Burke's Landed Gentry of Scotland. Burke's Peerage. p. 1104.
9. "LORD NAPIER.; The Next Ruler for the Eastern Empire of Britain His Record What May be Expected of Him" (PDF). The New York Times. 17 February 1872.

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Francis Napier Beaufort-Palmer, youngest son
by genealogy.org
Accessed: 7/3/21

Ancestors

1. Francis Napier Beaufort-Palmer (Mason)
2. Sir Francis V. Beaufort Palmer 1845 - ante 1941
4. Rev. William Palmer (Beaufort) 1803 - post 1881
5. F/? Beaufort (Palmer) + ante 1881


Spouses

1. 23rd Jul 1929 Jessie (Sylvia) Mason (Beaufort-Palmer)

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Francis Napier Beaufort-Palmer
by billiongraves.com
Accessed: 7/3/21

Died: 24 Sep 1984
Cemetery: Hove Cemetery (South), Old Shoreham Road, Hove, Brighton and Hove, England, United Kingdom

***********************

William Palmer (theologian)
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 7/5/21

The Reverend William Palmer
Born: William Patrick Palmer, 14 February 1803
Died: October 1885 (aged 81–82), London, England
Spouse(s): Sophia Bonne ​(m. 1839; died 1872)​
Ecclesiastical career
Religion: Christianity (Anglican)
Church: Church of England
Academic background
Alma mater: Trinity College, Dublin; Worcester College, Oxford
Influences: Charles Lloyd[1]
Academic work
Discipline: Theology
School or tradition: High-church Anglicanism[2]
Institutions: Worcester College, Oxford[3]

William Patrick Palmer (1803–1885), who called himself Sir William Palmer, 9th Baronet, from 1865 (although his claim to the title was never acknowledged), was an Anglican theologian and liturgical scholar of the 19th century.

Life

Born 14 February 1803,[4] Palmer graduated from Worcester College, Oxford. He was an early supporter and influence in the Oxford Movement, but was superseded by John Henry Newman and Edward Pusey. Palmer initially supported the Tracts for the Times, but as opposition to the Oxford Movement grew, he withdrew his support, prompting a cooling in his friendship with Newman and a slow decline in his involvement with the movement.[2] Palmer died in October 1885 in London.[2]

Works

Palmer was author of the Origines Liturgicæ and Treatise on the Church of Christ (1838).[2] The latter formulated the notion, called the "Branch Theory" that, provided that both the apostolic succession, and the Faith of the Apostles are kept intact, then there the Church exists, albeit in one of its branches. This was applied to the Anglican Church.

References

Footnotes


1. Andrews 2015, p. 23.
2. Nockles 2004.
3. Douglas 2012, p. 560; Lebreux 1998, p. 7.
4. Nockles 2004; Rigg 1895, pp. 168–169.

Bibliography

• Andrews, Robert M. (2015). Lay Activism and the High Church Movement of the Late Eighteenth Century: The Life and Thought of William Stevens, 1732–1807. Brill's Series in Church History. 70. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill. doi:10.1163/9789004293793. ISBN 978-90-04-29379-3. ISSN 1572-4107.
• Douglas, Brian (2012). A Companion to Anglican Eucharistic Theology. Volume 1: The Reformation to the 19th Century. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill. doi:10.1163/9789004221321. ISBN 978-90-04-21930-4.
• Lebreux, Marie-Pascale (1998). William Palmer of Magdalen College: An Ecclesiastical Don Quixote (MA thesis). Montreal: McGill University. Retrieved 5 October 2018.
• Nockles, Peter B. (2004). "Palmer, William Patrick (1803–1885)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/21225.
• Rigg, James McMullen (1895). "Palmer, William (1803–1885)" . In Lee, Sidney (ed.). Dictionary of National Biography. 43. New York: Macmillan and Co. pp. 168–170.

External links

• Works by or about William Palmer in libraries (WorldCat catalog)

***********************

Francis Beaufort Palmer
by prabook.com
Accessed: 7/5/21

Francis Beaufort PALMER

Background

PALMER, Francis Beaufort was born on July 7, 1845. Son of Reverend William Palmer (one of the originators of the Oxford Movement) ...

The Oxford Movement was a movement of High Church members of the Church of England which eventually developed into Anglo-Catholicism. The movement, whose original devotees were mostly associated with the University of Oxford, argued for the reinstatement of some older Christian traditions of faith and their inclusion into Anglican liturgy and theology. They thought of Anglicanism as one of three branches of the "one holy, catholic, and apostolic" Christian church. By the 1840s many participants decided that the Anglican Church lacked grace, and converted to Roman Catholicism.

The movement's philosophy was known as Tractarianism after its series of publications, the Tracts for the Times, published from 1833 to 1841. Tractarians were also disparagingly referred to as "Newmanites" (before 1845) and "Puseyites" (after 1845) after two prominent Tractarians, John Henry Newman and Edward Bouverie Pusey...

Tractarians argued for the inclusion of traditional aspects of liturgy from medieval religious practice, as they believed the church had become too "plain"...

[T]he Oxford Movement was also criticised for being both secretive and collusive....

It incorporated ideas and practices related to the practice of liturgy and ceremony to incorporate more powerful emotional symbolism in the church... the Eucharist gradually became more central to worship, vestments became common, and numerous Roman Catholic practices were re-introduced into worship....

One of the results was the establishment of the Christian Social Union, of which a number of bishops were members, where issues such as the just wage, the system of property renting, infant mortality and industrial conditions were debated...

Concerns that Tractarianism was a disguised Roman Catholic movement were not unfounded; Newman believed that the Roman and Anglican churches were wholly compatible. He was received into the Roman Catholic Church in 1845 and was ordained a priest of the Church the same year. He later became a cardinal (but not a bishop)...

Others associated with Tractarianism.

Lord Salisbury


-- Oxford Movement, by Wikipedia


and Sophia, daughter of Admiral Sir Francis Beaufort, Knight Commander of the Bath, Fellow of the Royal Society.

Image
Sir Francis Beaufort, KCB [Order of the Bath] FRS [Fellow of the Royal Society] FRGS [Royal Geographical Society] FRAS [Royal Astronomical Society] MRIA [Royal Irish Academy]

-- Francis Beaufort, by Wikipedia


Education

Studied at University College, Oxford.

Career

Bar, 1873; Bencher Inner Temple, 1907. Ivt. cartulary-register 1907.

Works

Company Precedents, for Use in Relation to Companies: Subject to the Companies Acts 1862 to 1883 (Classic Reprint) (Excerpt from Company Precedents, for Use in Relation to C...)

The Companies ACT, 1900, with Explanatory Notes and Appendix Containing Prescribed and Other Forms; Together with Addenda to "Company Precedents" (Paperback) - Common (Unlike some other reproductions of classic texts (1) We h...)

Company Precedents, for Use in Relation to Companies Subject to the Companies Acts 1862 to 1883. with Copious Notes (Unlike some other reproductions of classic texts (1) We h...)

Conveyancing and Other Forms and Precedents: Relating to Companies Incorporated Under the Companies Acts, 1862 to 1867. with Copious Notes (This book was originally published prior to 1923, and rep...)

Membership

Clubs: Athenaeum, Burlington Fine Arts.

Clubs: Athenaeum, Burlington Fine Arts.

Connections

Spouse 1898, Georgiana Elizabeth, daughter of 8th Baron [Arthur John] de Hochepied Larpent [Father: John James de Hochepied Larpent [1783-1860]; Mother: Georgiana Frances Reeves [1801-1886]; Spouse: Catherine Mary Melville (m. 9/27/1859); Child: Sybil Margurite Gonne de Hochepied Larpent].

Father: William Palmer

Mother: Sophia

Spouse: Georgiana Elizabeth

**********************

John James De Hochepied Larpent (1783 - 1860)
by ancestry.ca
Accessed: 7/5/21

John James De Hochepied Larpent family tree

Father: John Larpent: 1741 - 1824
Mother: Anna Margaretta Porter 1758 - 1832
Spouse(s): Georgiana Frances Reeves 1801 - 1886
Children

1. Arthur John Hochpied Larpent 1832 - 1887
2. Lionel Henry Planta [L.H.P.] De Hochepied Larpent 1834 - 1907
3. Egmont De Hochepied Larpent 1841 - 1912
4. Rev. George Porter De Hochepied Larpent 1839 - 1871. Born in Bel Antwerp British Subject in 1839 ...
5. Clarissa Catherine Larpent 1830 - 1861
6. Geraldine De Hochepie. Larpent 1836 - 1913
7. Augustus De Hochepied Larpent 1827 - 1827
8. Louisa De Hochepied Larpent 1833 - 1920
9. Juliet De Hochepied Larpent 1829 - 1829
10. Frederick De Hochepied Larpent 1843 - 1919

**********************

In January 1898, Mr W. C. Peppe, manager of the Birdpur Estate in north-eastern Basti District, U. P., announced the discovery of soapstone relic-caskets and jewellery inside a stupa near Piprahwa, a small village on this estate. An inscription on one of these caskets appeared to indicate that bone relics, supposedly found with these items, were those of the Buddha. Since this inscription also referred to the Buddha’s Sakyan kinsmen, these relics were thus generally considered to be those which were accorded to the Sakyas of Kapilavastu, following the Buddha’s cremation. The following year (1899) these bone relics were presented by the (British) Government of India to the King of Siam, who in turn accorded portions to the Sanghas of Burma and Ceylon.

William George Peppe, brutal murderer of 1857 in the eye of Hindustan (INDIA).

How William George Peppe became Hero For East India Company?

It was year 1857, The British were amazed and stunned. They could understand it well that the sepoy "Mutiny" has developed into a People's War and they realized it fully that the people's uprising is like a flood which sweeps away everything that comes in its way and spares nothing.

During this same period people of Mahua Dabar had killed Six British Army Officer in bits and pieces this was in revenge that British army had given to their fathers and to their village. In the early 19th century, the East India Company, eager to promote British textiles, had cut off the hands of hundreds of weavers in Bengal. Twenty weavers’ families from Murshidabad and Nadia had then fled to Awadh, whose nawab resettled them in Mahua Dabar and allowed them to carry on with their livelihood. Many of the first-generation weavers had already lost their hands, but they taught the craft to their sons and the small town of 5,000 people soon became a bustling handloom centre. It was around March-April 1857 when Zaffar Ali, a young man whose grandfather had migrated from Bengal, spotted a boat coming down the Manorama (a tributary of the Ghagra) on whose banks the town was located. The historians’ report names the six soldiers beheaded: Lt T.E. Lindsay, Lt W.H. Thomas, Lt G.L. Caulty, Sgt Edwards and privates A.F. English and T.J. Richie.

It was in consequence of this understanding that the Gorakhpur Judge W. Wynard and Collector W. Peterson appointed the Zamindar of Birdepur Willam Peppe as Deputy Magistrate of Basti and gave him half the troops of the 12th Irregular Horse Cavalry for his backing. Peppe was ordered to crush the people's uprising immediately by whatever means it may be possible.

So, on 20 June 1857, Peppe deployed the 12th Irregular Horse cavalry and surrounded Mahua Dabar from all sides and burned the township murdered thousands of people and burned them to ashes. Razed the entire town of Mahua Dabar. After this event he also mentioned on the colonial revenue records, that the area was marked as gair chiragi (non-revenue land). Soon this message reached like fire in every home and town of Hindustan that if any one revolt against British Empire he or they will be crushed to the ground, and very soon British Army gained its power again in India for this great work Willam Peppe was rewarded by East India Company he was granted land is in Basti district, round Birdpur.
He was first manager and then owner of a large European estate there, which is still held by his successors, his sons Messrs. W. C. and G. T. Peppe and Mrs. Larpent, his daughter. Annie Jane Peppe married Lieut. Col. L. H. P. [Lionel Henry Planta de] Larpent, H. C. S. (References : Gazetteer; Foster B., M. N page# 822).

-- William Claxton Peppe: Persons of Indian Studies, by Prof. Dr. Klaus Karttunen

***********************

Arthur John de Hochepied Larpent, 8th Baron de Hochepied Larpent
by the peerage.com
Last Edited=13 Feb 2017
Accessed: 7/5/21

Arthur John de Hochepied Larpent, 8th Baron de Hochepied Larpent1

M, #585043, b. 18 March 1832, d. 24 August 1887

Arthur John de Hochepied Larpent, 8th Baron de Hochepied Larpent was born on 18 March 1832.1 He was the son of John James de Hochepied Larpent and Georgiana Frances Reeves.1 He married Catherine Mary Melville [1838-1872] on 27 September 1859 at Hove, Sussex, England.1 He died on 24 August 1887 at age 55.1

Children of Arthur John de Hochepied Larpent, 8th Baron de Hochepied Larpent and Catherine Mary Melville

1. John Melvill de Hochepied Larpent, 9th Baron de Hochepied:
2. Henrietta Kemble de Hochepied Larpent1 b. 23 Sep 1865, d. 1941
3. Sybil Margurite Gonne de Hochepied Larpent1 b. c 1868, d. 1948

Children of Arthur John de Hochepied Larpent, 8th Baron de Hochepied Larpent and Catherine Mary Melville

1. 9th Baron John Melvill de Hochepied Larpent, Male, 1860–1903
2. Clarissa Catharine de Hochepied Larpent, Female, 1862–Deceased
3. Georgiana Elizabeth de Hochepied- Larpent, Female, 1863–1923
4. Henrietta Kemble de Hochepied Larpent, Female, 1865–1941
5. Catherine Mary Louisa de Hochepied Larpent, Female, 1867–1953 (Stoke Bishop, Gloucestershire, England, United Kingdom)
6. Sybil Marguerite Gonne de Hochepied Larpent, Female, 1868–1948
7. Beatrice Charlotte Frances de Hochepied, Female, 1870–1942


-- by ancestors.familysearch.org

Citations

[S4567] Bill Norton, "re: Pitman Family," e-mail message to Darryl Roger LUNDY (101053), 6 April 2010 and 19 April 2011. Hereinafter cited as "re: Pitman Family."

**********************

Sir Francis Beaufort Palmer
by Holmescourt.org
Accessed: 7/3/21

Born: 1846, Marylebone, London
Marriage: Georgiana Elizabeth de Hochepied Larpent in 1898 in Kensington, London 27
Died: 15 June 1917, London aged 71

Image
Francis Seymour Larpent; Charlotte Rosamund Larpent (née Arnold)
by Unknown artist
oil on canvas, circa 1830
29 1/2 in. x 24 1/2 in. (749 mm x 622 mm)
Sitters: Charlotte Rosamund Larpent (née Arnold) (died 1879), Second wife of Francis Seymour Larpent. Sitter in 1 portrait. Identify
Francis Seymour Larpent (1776-1845), Civil Servant. Sitter in 1 portrait. Identify

Given by Francis Napier Beaufort-Palmer, 1951

-- Francis Seymour Larpent; Charlotte Rosamund Larpent (née Arnold), by National Portrait Gallery


Charlotte Rosamund (Arnold) Larpent (abt. 1792)
by WikiTree
Accessed: 7/5/21

Charlotte Rosamund Larpent formerly Arnold
Born about 1792 [location unknown]
Daughter of [George Arnold Arnold of Halstead Place, Kent] and [mother unknown]

Image
George Arnold Arnold (1748 - 1805), British (English) School

Category: Art / Oil paintings
Date: 1768 - 1805
Materials: Oil on canvas
Measurements: 744 x 610 mm
Place of origin: England
Collection: Knightshayes Court, Devon (Accredited Museum) NT 541116

-- George Arnold Arnold (1748 - 1805), British (English) School, by nationaltrustcollections.org


[sibling(s) unknown]
Wife of Francis Seymour Larpent — married 4 Dec 1829 [10 Dec. 1829] in All Souls Mary le Bone, Middlesex, England, United Kingdom
[children unknown]
Died [28 April 1879.] [Bath]
Profile last modified 22 Aug 2020

Biography

Charlotte was born about 1792.

Sources

1. "England Marriages, 1538–1973 ", database, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:NJWD-C2Z : 13 March 2020), Francis Seymour Larpent, Esquire, 1829.

2, "England and Wales Census, 1841," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:MQKZ-MVK : 22 May 2019), Francis Larpent, Dorking, Surrey, England, United Kingdom; from "1841 England, Scotland and Wales census," database and images, findmypast (http://www.findmypast.com : n.d.); citing PRO HO 107, The National Archives, Kew, Surrey.


General Notes:

Barrister (1911)

Noted events in his life were:

1. He appeared on the census in 1871 in 62 Montagu Square, St. Marylebone, London.

2. Census UK 1911: 1911, 29 Bryanston Square, Marylebone, London.

3. Resided: 15 June 1917, 29 Bryanston Square, Marylebone, London. 13

4. He had an estate probated on 12 September 1917 in London. 13

Francis married Georgiana Elizabeth de Hochepied Larpent in 1898 in Kensington, London.27 [England and Wales free Marriage Index, 1837-1915.] (Georgiana Elizabeth de Hochepied Larpent was born c 1865 in Bombay, India 10 [1911 UK Census.] and died on 26 April 1923 in London 13 [13 England and Wales National Probate Calendar, 1861-1941, England and Wales National Probate Calendar (Index of Wills and Administration), 1861 - 1941 (Ancestry.co.uk).])

************************

Palmer's Company Law -- A Practical Handbook for Lawyers and Business Men. With an Appendix containing the Companion (Consolidation) Act, 1908, and Rules. Eighth Edition. By Sir Francis Beaufort Palmer, Bencher of the Inner Temple. Royal 8vo. 1910. Price 12s. 6d. cloth.

Palmer's Company Precedents -- For use in relation to Companies subject to the Companies Acts.

Part I: General Forms. Tenth Edition. By Sir Francis Beaufort Palmer Bencher of the Inner Temple, assisted by the Hon. C. MacNaghten, K.C., and Edward Manson, Barrister-At-Law. Royal. 8vo. 1910. Price 38s. cloth.

Part II: Winding-Up Forms and Practice. Tenth Edition. By Sir Francis Beaufort Palmer. Royal 8vo. 1910. Price 32s. cloth.

Part III: Debentures and Debenture Stock. Tenth Edition. By Sir Francis Beaufort Palmer. Royal 8vo. 1907. Price 25s. cloth.

**************************

Sir Francis Beaufort Palmer
by Open Library
1845-1917
31 works

Company law
by Sir Francis Beaufort Palmer, Geoffrey Morse
First published in 1902

Company precedents
by Sir Francis Beaufort Palmer
First published in 1956

(Palmer's) Company guide
by Sir Francis Beaufort Palmer
First published in 1946

Palmer's corporate insolvency
by Sir Francis Beaufort Palmer
First published in 1996

(Palmer's) Private companies
by Sir Francis Beaufort Palmer
First published in 1941

Private companies
by Sir Francis Beaufort Palmer
First published in 1877

Private companies, their formation and advantages and the mode of converting a business into a private company
by Sir Francis Beaufort Palmer
First published in 1949

Palmer's Company precedents
by Sir Francis Beaufort Palmer, K.W. Mackinnon, R. Buchanan-Dunlop
First published in 1951

Peerage law in England
by Sir Francis Beaufort Palmer
First published in 1978

Company precedents for use in relation to companies subject to the Companies (consolidation) Act, 1908
by Sir Francis Beaufort Palmer

Milner a Palmers Company Cases 1987 V 3
by Sir Francis Beaufort Palmer
First published in 1988

Schmitthoff C M Palmer Comp Law V1 Special E24
by Sir Francis Beaufort Palmer
First published in 1987

Milner a Palmers Company Cases 1988 V 4
by Sir Francis Beaufort Palmer
First published in 1989

Company Cases
by Sir Francis Beaufort Palmer
First published in 1986

Company law
by Sir Francis Beaufort Palmer
First published in 2000

Peerage Law in England
by Sir Francis Beaufort Palmer
First published in 2007

Palmer's Company Precedents
by Sir Francis Beaufort Palmer, R A K Wright, Buchanan-Dunlop
First published in 1960

Peerage law in England
by Sir Francis Beaufort Palmer
First published in 1907
The Shareholders' and Directors' Legal Companion: A Manual of Every Day Law and Practice, for ..
by Sir Francis Beaufort Palmer
First published in 1882

The Shareholders' and Directors' Companion: A Manual of Every-day Law and Practice for Promoters ..
by Sir Francis Beaufort Palmer
First published in 1880

*************************

A Handbook of Tibetan Culture [Excerpt]
by Graham Coleman
Copyright The Orient Foundation, 1993

About the Book: Over the past nine years the Orient Foundation has compiled a database that brings together information on over 600 Tibetan-related organizations throughout the world. Compiled under teh auspices of HH The Dalai Lama, this book provides comprehensive information about Tibetan Buddhism and culture for the general public including: Museums, teaching centres, retreat centres and publications listed in a country-by-country gazetteer.

About the Author: Graham Coleman is President of the Orient Foundation for Arts and Culture (UK), a major Tibetan cultural conservancy organization. He has been editing Tibetan Buddhist poetry and prose texts in cooperation with various distinguished translators since the mid-1970s, and is the writer and director of the acclaimed feature documentary "Tibet -- A Buddhist Trilogy."

TIBET SOCIETY AND RELIEF FUND OF THE UK

Address: Olympia Bridge Quay, 70 Russell Road, Kensington, London, UK, W14 8JA.

Tel: 071-603 7764.

Telex/Fax: 071-603 7764.

Year Established: 1959.

Founder: Francis Napier Beaufort Palmer.

General Description: The society was founded in June 1959 in order to give expression to the widespread interest and deep concern aroused in the UK by the Chinese occupation of Tibet. The objects are: to promote the cause of Tibetan independence, to bring before the world the sufferings of the oppressed people of Tibet, to assist those Tibetans who had fled from Tibet to India and elsewhere and to promote understanding of Tibetan history, culture and religion.

Facilities and Services: Members receive periodical newsletters giving the latest information about the Tibetan situation in general and the society's activities. The latter include lectures, film sows, exhibitions and social events.

Ecumenical Centres:

BUDDHIST SOCIETY

Address: 58 Eccleston Square, London, UK, SW1V 1PH.

Tel: 071 834 5858.

Distribution Details: The Society publishes a quarterly journal entitled The Middle Way.

Year Established: 1924.

Lama/Scholar: Ven. Sumedho Bhikkhu.

General Description: The Buddhist Society was established in 1924; it is one of the oldest Buddhist Societies in Europe. The object of the society is to publish and make known the principles of Buddhism and to encourage the study and application of these principles. The society adheres to no one Buddhist school, and aims to give the newcomer an impartial introduction to the many branches of Buddhism practised in Britain today.

Teaching Programme: A comprehensive programme of all classes, lectures and special events held at the Society is printed in the quarterly journal The Middle Way.

Facilities and Services: The Society's premises are open to both members and non-members between 2 and 6pm every day except Sunday. Public lectures and classes are mostly held from 6:30pm. Members are entitled to use the society's General Lending and Reference Libraries, the former either by direct borrowing or by post.

Government Offices

OFFICE OF TIBET (UK)

Address: Linburn House, 342 Kilburn High Road, London, UK, NW6 2QJ.

Tel: 071 328 8422.

Telex/Fax: 071 624 4100.

General Description: Bureau of the Representative of H.H. the Dalai Lama for the UK and Scandinavia.


Libraries

BRITISH LIBRARY OMPB

Address: Great Russell Street, London, UK, WC1 3DG.

INDIA OFFICE LIBRARY AND RECORD NEWS, DEPT. ORIENTAL MSS AND PRINTED BOOKS

Address: British Library, 197 Blackfriars Road, London, UK, SE1 8NG.

WELLCOME INSTITUTE, FOR THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE

Address: 183 and 200 Euston Road, London, UK, NW1 2BP.

Tel: 071 383 4414.

Telex/Fax: 071 388 3164

Year Established: 1913.

Founder: Sir Henry Wellcome.

General Description: The Wellcome Institute for the History of Medicine is a reference library and contains manuscripts, xylographs, books, paintings and drawings chiefly connected with the history of medicine. The institute has acquired prior to 1970 seventy-seven Tibetan manuscripts, fifty-four Tibetan xylographs, one modern print in Tibetan script, a mani stone, twenty-eight thangkas, eighteen banners, ten other paintings and drawings and eight printing blocks. Museum objects are on indefinite loan to the Science Museum.

Museums

ASHMOLENA MUSEUM

Address: Department of Eastern Art, Ashmolen Museum, Oxford, Oxfordshire, UK, OX1 2PH.

Tel: 0865 278071.

Telex/Fax: 0865 278018.

Year Established: 1683.

Founder: Elias Ashmole.

General Description: The Department of Eastern Art holds a collection of several hundred Tibetan artefacts, some being on longterm loan from the Bodleian Library and a private collection. Bronze and other metal images and various ritual objects and vessels predominate. There are also over 100 thangkas at present in the collection; the majority of which are on loan. A selection from the collections is on permanent display in the department's galleries.

BRITISH MUSEUM, DEPARTMENT OF ORIENTAL ANTIQUITIES

Address: Great Russell Street, London, UK, WC1B 3DG.

Tel: 071 636 1555.

Telex/Fax: 071 323 8480.

Year Established: 1753.

General Description: The British Museum was founded by an Act of Parliament in 1753. The material from Tibet includes objects in the following categories: religious and ritual equipment of all kinds, costumes, arms and armour, banner paintings, inscriptions, bookcovers, sculpture in most media, and some categories of domestic equipment.

******************

OF THE ORIENT FOUNDATION: About Us
by The Orient Foundation
Accessed: 7/3/21

Activities:

The principal activity of the Foundation is the multimedia documentation of Classical Indian and Tibetan Knowledge Resources and the development of regional and international access to these resources.

Creating, Conserving and Developing Access to Multimedia Documentary Resources:

Beginning in 1995, the Foundation assisted in the setting up of twenty-four fully equipped multimedia documentation centres and libraries in the major Tibetan monasteries of India. The project’s archive and administrative hub is housed at the Foundation’s New Media Centre in the library building of the Central University for Tibetan Studies in Sarnath, U.P. To date, the multimedia documentation programme has resulted in the live recording and archiving of 20,500 hours of oral commentary to the key classical texts of Indo-Tibetan culture by the greatest masters, scholars, doctors and artists of the 20th and 21st centuries. In addition, a still image archive of over 19,000 photographs has been created and over 900 hours of digital video documentation of the classical arts traditions has been completed. This documentation programme, has been supported by grants from the Sir Dorabji Tata Trusts, the Prince Claus Fund and the Ministry of Culture (Government of India).

From the start of the project, each partner library received analogue master and distribution copies of the documentary records created in their educational institution and each partner library has provided day-to-day access to the documentary materials to their institution’s scholars and students.

In 2007, the Foundation completed the digitization of the entire master analogue collections and in January 2010, the Foundation completed the compression of the entire master digital collections into MP3 format (for audio material), MP4 format (for video material) and JPEG format (for photographic material).

In March 2010, copies of the entire oral commentarial archive began to be distributed throughout the network of partner monastery and nunnery libraries in both India and Nepal. (See partner list.) In order to increase the security of the master archival materials, both master analogue and digital copies of the entire archive are now held at the Songtsen Library in Dehradun and the Tibetan Yungdrung Bon Library at Dolanji.

Throughout the development of both the analogue and digital multimedia resource materials the Foundation has followed the technical guidelines as set out by the National Sound Archive of the UK, the National Film and Television Archive of the UK, and UNESCO.

In April 2010, the process of creating an internet based multimedia platform for providing worldwide access to the Foundation’s archival resources began. The online multimedia digital archive was completed and launched in March 2012. (See: http://www.tibetan-knowledge.org.) New documentary materials are being added to the archive continuously and the online resource is being regularly updated, as new documentary materials are digitally processed and catalogued.

Since 2010, in order to provide a means whereby apprentice artists could study the surviving works of earlier generations of eminent artists, the Foundation has been working in partnership with the major museums, monasteries and private collectors in India and Nepal, who hold classical Tibetan art collections. As a result, the most exemplary thangkas, held in over 30 collections, have either been photographed in situ by Foundation staff or high resolution photographs have been donated to the archive by the collection holders. Between 2011 and 2012, the Foundation assisted in the creation of the first online training resource for classical Tibetan artists. (See: http://www.tibetan-arts.org.)

Training:

In 1997, the Foundation assisted in an All-India initiative to introduce the benefits of networked, multilingual, multimedia Information Technologies to the Vice Chancellors of India’s leading universities and the heads of India’s major archives, libraries and museums, co-funded by the European Commission and the Ford Foundation.

Since 1997, the Foundation has conducted regular workshops at the Central University for Tibetan Studies for its network of partner monastery and nunnery libraries. These workshops have focused on providing training in multimedia documentation, archival conservation and library distribution methods.
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