Neuschwanstein: A fairy tale darling's dark Nazi past

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100 Years Later, Dearborn Confronts The Hate Of Hometown Hero Henry Ford
by Bill McGraw
January 24, 2019, 11:45 PM

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Deadline Detroit publishes “Henry Ford and ‘The International Jew’” with permission from The Dearborn Historian, a city-funded quarterly magazine of the Dearborn Historical Commission. The story appears in the Historian’s current issue, which marks the 100th anniversary of Dearborn native Henry Ford buying the weekly Dearborn Independent, which he used to attack Jews.

The Historian story is Dearborn’s first detailed examination of Ford’s anti-Jewish crusade, whose content lives on today in the online world of anti-Semites and other hate groups as anti-Semitic incidents are on the rise. While Ford’s dark side has been off-limits in Dearborn
, the city has taken steps in recent years to come to terms with its other symbol of hate, Orville Hubbard, the segregationist mayor from 1942-78.

The story’s author and editor of The Historian is veteran Detroit journalist Bill McGraw, a Dearborn resident who co-founded Deadline Detroit with Allan Lengel. The Historian has no online presence; the story has been edited for posting on a website.


Chapter 1: Mass-Producing Hate

Henry Ford was peaking as a global celebrity at the conclusion of World War I, having introduced the $5 workday, assembly line and Model T -- revolutionary changes that transformed the way people lived. Reporters staked out the gates of his Fair Lane mansion. Ford loved the limelight and he constantly made news, even running for the U.S. Senate in Michigan as a Democrat in 1918. He narrowly lost.

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Cover design: Lauren Davies

In the midst of his fame, Ford became a media mogul of sorts, forming the Dearborn Publishing Company and purchasing the sleepy Dearborn Independent weekly newspaper, which was dying of red ink. He published the paper under his name for the first time 100 years ago, in January 1919.

Under Ford, the Independent became notorious for its unprecedented attacks on Jews. But Ford’s anti-Semitism traveled far beyond the Dearborn borders. Showing the marketing expertise that had catapulted Ford Motor into one of the world’s most famous brands, Henry Ford’s lieutenants vastly widened the reach of his attacks by packaging the paper’s anti-Semitic content into four books. Experts say “The International Jew,” distributed across Europe and North America during the rise of fascism in the 1920s and ‘30s, influenced some of the future rulers of Nazi Germany.

In 1931, two years before he became the German chancellor, Adolf Hitler gave an interview to a Detroit News reporter in his Munich office, which featured a large portrait of Ford over the desk of the future führer. The reporter asked about the photo.

“I regard Henry Ford as my inspiration,” Hitler told the News.

Ford’s anti-Jewish campaign provoked protests and a boycott of Ford Motor automobiles in the 1920s. Ford offered an apology -- received by the public with great skepticism -- and closed the paper in 1927. It was too late, though, as copies of “The International Jew” spread widely before and after World War II, influencing generations of anti-Semites. The glowing imprimatur of Henry Ford lent credibility to the preposterous charges against Jews the books contained.

But what might have been lost to history as an ugly curiosity has proven to be a Pandora’s box, as the Internet age has given Ford’s anti-Semitic literature a powerful new life. Today, a century after Ford purchased the Dearborn Independent and 72 years after his death, his legacy of hate is stronger than ever -- it flourishes on the websites and forums of white nationalists, racists and others who hate Jews.

Today, “The International Jew” by Henry Ford plays a significant role in fomenting resentment as the United States grapples with rising numbers of hate crimes and anti-Semitic incidents, ascendant white nationalism and a gunman armed with an AR-15-style assault rifle who massacred 11 people at a Pittsburgh synagogue in October. When he surrendered, the gunman told police he “wanted all Jews to die.”

An essay posted by the Anti-Defamation League on its website says that by resurrecting decades-old texts such as “The International Jew,” today's anti-Semites demonstrate the longevity of their beliefs, legitimizing them to both dedicated followers and potential recruits.

Because of Ford’s fame, “The International Jew” has been a “particularly powerful tool for haters trying to validate their hostile beliefs,” the essay adds.

Two examples of Ford’s influence online today: On Stormfront, a white nationalist online forum, a contributor has taken the screen name Dr. Ford and uses a photo of Henry Ford as a profile image. On the same forum, a participant whose screen name is AllisonRM wrote last year:


“I'm currently reading The International Jew: Essays from the Dearborn Independent (Ford)… Read these great books!...We, the white race, need to encourage ourselves and our children.”


Heidi Beirich, an expert on extremism in the United States at the Alabama-based Southern Poverty Law Center, said extremist websites contain thousands of references to Ford and “The International Jew.”

“In the world of the racist right, Henry Ford is almost a living, breathing human being, “ Beirich said in an interview. She added that extremist leaders use Ford “as an inspiration” and “validator” to impress people while enlisting them to join the movement.


It’s not just extremist websites that are peddling Ford’s books. Shoppers can buy “The International Jew” by Henry Ford on the websites of Amazon, Barnes & Noble and Walmart.

“This is a wonderful book that should be required reading for all Americans,” wrote Tara, in a five-star Amazon review. “Sadly, many people like to label Henry Ford as an anti-Semite, when nothing could be further from the truth.”

This is a wonderful book that should be required reading for all Americans. Sadly, many people like to label Henry Ford as an anti-Semite, when nothing could be further from the truth. Ford was a deeply moral man, to whom honesty, work, and sobriety were sacred concepts. He was a gentle man who shared a love of all living things, a man who was so gentle that he postponed a hay harvest because ground birds were brooding in the field. Ford was a man of peace, saying that he would give his entire fortune if he could shorten World War I by a single day. The workers in his factories loved and revered him.

Henry Ford devoted years of his life and a substantial part of his fortune to awakening the American people to the enemies of our nation. Ford had become convinced that there was an organized, dangerous, largely secret, and incredibly powerful menace to the United States, almost completely Jewish at its highest levels, and he was determined to do something about it. He earnestly believed that if this menace was exposed to the light of day, that moral and responsible Jews would cast out this cancerous group from their midst. He was honestly surprised by the abuse he received from most of his Jewish friends and business associates after his educational work had begun.

Henry Ford believed that if the press would not tell the truth on what he termed the Jewish Question, then it was his duty to his God and his country to do it himself. He purchased what was at the time a small weekly newspaper in his hometown in Michigan, The Dearborn Independent, and turned it into his national voice, with nationwide distribution. His espousal of traditional values combined with a practical populism struck a chord with many Americans, for soon the humble weekly had turned into an influential giant, with a circulation at one point of nearly half a million. Ford lost money on the paper, selling it for five cents per copy or one dollar a year. When Jewish censorship kept it off the newsstands in some cities, Ford made it available through the local Ford agencies. He neither solicited nor accepted advertising because he would not have the paper subject to Jewish or any other outside influence. The masthead meant exactly what it said – Independent.

Ford gathered around him some of the most talented writers and researchers in the business, virtually cleaning out the editorial staff of the Detroit News. He hired the best private investigators. He employed the services of patriotic Congressmen and diplomats. He dispatched his agents to foreign countries in order to dig up the facts.

1920 marked the beginning of the publication, in serial form, of Henry Ford’s research series in the Dearborn Independent. Each week, the paper carried a major story exposing an aspect of Jewish power and influence. One of the men Ford had hired away from the Detroit News, who would eventually become the head of the Dearborn Independent, was the brilliant editor and columnist William J. Cameron. At first, Cameron protested bitterly at the subject matter of the articles on the Jewish Question and almost bolted with a few other staffers who didn’t want to touch this “forbidden” subject. But as the evidence began piling up, he became convinced that Ford was absolutely right. He was the author of most of the Independent’s articles in this series, and stayed with Ford for the next 20 years. These articles would eventually be collected in book form under the title The International Jew. The articles were a sensation and the book became a nationwide success, in fact one of the greatest best-sellers of all time.

While Ford’s educational series on Jewish power was running, the Independent had a circulation of between a quarter million and a half million copies per week. When the articles were reprinted in book form, eventually to fill four volumes, it was not unusual for each press run, of which there were many for each volume, to total over 200,000 copies. It is estimated that more than 10 million copies of the book were sold in the United States alone. The International Jew was translated into sixteen languages, including Arabic, and was distributed by the millions in Europe, South America, and the Middle East. Each of the 4 volumes was a full-sized book of about 250 pages, and was sold for a mere 25 cents. Ford lost nearly $5 million on this venture, and that does not count the losses to his business to several Jewish boycotts and lawsuits.

In this book, which is backed up by irrefutable evidence, Ford exposes Jewish financial and commercial control, usurpation of political power, monopoly of necessities, and autocratic direction of the very news that the American people read.

The motive of his work was simply to make the facts known to the people. The motive of prejudice or any form of antagonism doesn’t have a leg to stand on, especially when the irrefutable evidence, which is presented in the book, speaks for itself.

This book is a magnificent piece of work, a priceless distillation of many thousands of man-hours of expensive research and compilation, a magnifying glass applied to the hidden sources of immorality, vice, degeneracy, and subversion. The International Jew was available in libraries and bookstores all across America. As already pointed out, it was one of the biggest best-sellers of all time. Henry Ford felt that his book was so important that at one point a copy was presented to all purchasers of new Ford automobiles. Yet today this book is almost impossible to find. You will not be able to buy it in your local bookstore, nor check it out at your local library. If it were not for a few courageous Americans keeping it in print and available to you, you would not be able to find it at all.

The truth is that here in a so-called “democratic, pluralist” America this book had been nakedly suppressed. Is it because this book is a hate-filled anti-Jewish polemic? No, not at all. The book’s tone is not at all anti-Jewish, and again and again it appeals to the reason and moral sense of its Jewish readers to put a stop to the abuses of their leaders. It is scrupulously fair, even-handed, and factual. It is because of its extensive documentation and the unassailable facts which it presents that it has been suppressed. For The International Jew is a threat – it’s a threat to those men of money and power who would put a sack over our heads and force us unknowingly and unwillingly into the “New World Order” they have been preparing for us for decades. This book is a threat to those who would take away our weapons of self-defense, and who would take away our freedom and the future of our children.

Henry Ford did not have to do what he did. He was the living incarnation of success. He was by far the richest industrialist of his day. He was loved and admired by millions. Among the common people, he was ranked with the greatest men of all time. Political power could have been his had he wanted it. But he did go forward with his investigation and explication of the Jewish Question at the cost of a large portion of his wealth, at the cost of much of the time and energy of an aging older man, and at the cost of the alienation of many friends, associates, and even family members. He well knew that he was potentially putting his life in peril by opposing those powerful moneyed interests. Henry Ford did this because he felt a higher duty, a duty that transcended all of those considerations. Henry Ford acted in obedience to a duty which we of our generation must rediscover if our children are to have a future. Wherever we find it, and whatever disguise it wears – we must oppose evil.

-- A Book for All Americans, by Tara (Delran, NJ)


As a Roman Catholic, I did not agree with everything that was written in this book, but I must say that I find it refreshing to see that there are still a handful of Christians in the world who truly understand what it means to die to the world in order to live for God. I absolutely admire the Botkin family and would do anything to have them for my next door neighbors.

God gives children to parents, not primarily that they may assist the family, but that they may be brought up in the fear of God and be directed in the way of eternal salvation. This book is a confirmation to me of my lifelong belief that my role as a parent is not to prepare my children for careers in the world,(as the world and most people in the Church suppose) but to prepare them for Heaven. Parents who have expended all of their time, energy, and finances in an effort to launch their children into successful careers, while completely neglecting their chief role, which is to bring their children up in the fear of God and to direct them in the way of eternal salvation have failed miserably and have completely lost sight of the reason why God entrusted children to them in the first place.

God has entrusted parents with a deposit, and not just any deposit; He has entrusted parents with the eternal souls of their sons and daughters. Whether parents want to reflect on this sobering reality or not, the truth is that when they stand before the judgment seat of Christ, the souls of their children will be required of them by God. In that day, parents will not answer to God for the type of career they prepared their children for; they will answer to Him for the religious instruction which they personally gave to their children day in and day out, as well as the manner in which they raised them to fear and serve the Lord.

The sad reality is that most parents will be eternally damned along with their children because of their gross negligence in this regard. Most parents are not bringing their children up in the fear of God, and they certainly are not directing them in the way of eternal salvation. Children have not been given to parents as a present, which they may dispose of as they please, but as a trust, for which if lost through their negligence, they must render an account to God.

Here in the United States, we have a very twisted, distorted, warped, and erroneous view of what Christianity and a life of penance are supposed to look like. We have "Church - America Style," not Christianity, as Christ has decreed. We have men and women who want discipleship on their terms, not on those set forth by the Master. We know nothing - absolutely nothing - of what it means to deny oneself, take up one's cross, live a life of penance, and to detach ourselves completely from the disordered values and priorities of this world. Instead of taking our cue from Eternal and unchanging Word of God, we take it from the culture and from the people of this world who live in open rebellion against God.

Many of the people who harshly criticized the authors of this book did so, not because the authors were in ignorance, but because they themselves were ignorant of what God requires of parents when it comes to the raising of their children. Mr. and Mrs. Botkin have it right, and they have done what is right in the sight of God. It could very well be that in seeing the proper way in which Mr. and Mrs. Botkin have raised their children, some of the harsh critics were pricked in their own consciences regarding areas in which they may have been negligent.

St. Augustine once said, "People usually hate the truth for the sake of whatever it is that they love more than the truth."

If more women would take their responsibilities as wives and mothers seriously, our world would not be in the deplorable shape that it is in. I blame the condition of this country on married women who work outside the home more than on any other group of people. Ladies, your vocation is your family. The Botkin daughters understand this, and they have remained true to it. It seems to me that many of the harsh critics may have abandoned and neglected their true vocation, and they are angry at females like the Botkin girls, who love God too much to do the same.

This is a wonderful book, which I highly recommend to all who are not afraid to walk alone with God in a world that is enslaved, not only to sin, but to conformity as well.

-- A Wonderful Book (So Much More, by Anna Sofia Botkin), by Tara (Delran, NJ)


And then there are the ads. After I explored the availability of Ford’s anti-Semitic books on Amazon in connection with this story, ads for “The International Jew” by Henry Ford began popping up on my Facebook page. They appeared next to ads for what I was actually shopping for -- a winter coat.

Chapter 2: Transforming a Country Weekly

Starting with the issue of May 22, 1920, Ford began using the Independent to attack Jews. Every week for nearly two years, the paper published articles that assailed Jews for being sneaky and treacherous and conspiring to control the global financial system, a common Jewish stereotype. Ford also accused Jews of scheming to dominate such American industries as Hollywood, farming and liquor distribution.

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Hot Off the Press: Starting with the issue of May 22, 1920, Ford's Independent began attacking Jews.

“There is no other racial or national type which puts forth this kind of person,” the Independent said in June 1920. “It is not merely that there are a few Jews among international financial controllers -- it is that these world controllers are exclusively Jews.”

While anti-Semitism goes back centuries, Ford’s salvos were likely the most sustained printed attacks on Jews the world had ever seen. With his wealth and resources, Ford remains the most formidable anti-Semite in American history.

In 2019, many educated Americans have a vague understanding that Ford had anti-Semitic sentiments. Few people are aware of the details, though, of how Ford spent millions on his paper and the “International Jew” series of books.

The books spread like a virus, translated into 12 languages and distributed on three continents in the years after World War I. The books appeared as fascist forces were organizing, especially in Germany, one of the countries targeted by Ford’s agents.

In its first couple of years, Ford sold more than 2 million copies of “The International Jew.” His underlings deliberately declined to copyright the content, so other anti-Semites were free to publish the books. That is one reason Ford’s paper and books are widely available today, in printed form and online. With no copyright, it’s nearly impossible to stop their proliferation.

Chapter 3: Henry Ford, Publisher

After paying $1,000 for the Independent (about $18,000 in today’s dollars), Ford named his closest aide, Ernest Liebold, the newspaper’s general manager. Liebold was a hardcore anti-Semite.

“He hated everything Jewish, and he saw the publication as a vehicle for promoting his agenda,” Steven Watts wrote in “The People’s Tycoon: Henry Ford and the American Century.”

Ford and Liebold then assembled a crack editorial team by raiding the Detroit News.

For top editor, Ford hired News’ executive Edwin Pipp, a liberal Catholic who had been a muckraking Detroit reporter known as a soft touch because he wrote stories about people down on their luck. William Cameron, a Canadian immigrant who was a star reporter and editorial columnist for the News, came aboard as the lead writer.

Experts have long debated the roles of these three in the production of the Independent, but a general consensus has emerged that Ford, not a skilled writer, talked over ideas with Liebold, who ordered Pipp and Cameron to transform them into stories. Some historians believe Cameron “undertook his assignment disgustedly,” as David Lewis wrote in “The Public Life of Henry Ford,” adding that Cameron ”was either unable or did not try to dissuade Ford from launching the attack.” However disgusted he might have been, Cameron remained a Ford aide into the 1940s.

In serving as the link between Ford and the rest of the world, Leibold was strategic and menacing. With Ford’s money, Liebold organized a network of spies, many with government intelligence backgrounds, to snoop around outposts of Jewish life in America, paying special attention to community leaders. The agents funneled the information to Liebold in Dearborn as grist for the Independent’s anti-Jewish campaign.

Henry Ford ordered that the Independent not be used to publicize him or the company, though the paper’s nickname was “The Ford International Weekly” and Ford forced his dealers to conduct subscription campaigns. Some dealerships threw a copy of the Independent into newly sold Model Ts. Circulation eventually reached 900,000, making it one of the biggest periodicals in the country.

The Independent carried a weekly column by Ford -- verbosely ghost-written by Cameron -– that filled “Mr. Ford’s Page.” Ford commented on many everyday subjects, but virtually never used his column for the most blatant anti-Semitic content. The Independent’s attacks on Jews ran separately, often starting on page one, almost always without a byline.

Under Ford, the Independent was tabloid in form, cost five cents and ran 16 pages. Its motto: “Chronicler of the Neglected Truth.”

At the beginning, the Independent was unremarkable, filled with long-winded feature articles on national and international subjects such as farming in Europe, the Smithsonian Institute or a cure for leprosy. Most critics found the paper soporific, a Saturday Evening Post without the pizazz.

It was only months, though, before the Independent took a sinister tack. Ford’s pet peeves -– distant capitalists, aliens who refuse to assimilate, Bolsheviks (all code words for Jews) -- began creeping into the Independent’s pages, according to Neil Baldwin’s 2001 book, “Henry Ford and the Jews: The Mass Production of Hate.”

“His own page took on a strident tone as Ford lashed out against unnamed, hidden influences that continued to trouble him,” Baldwin wrote.

Circulation lagged in the early going and Ford lost the equivalent of $3.5 million in today’s dollars in the first year. Staffers knew changes had to be made. “Find an evil to attack,” Joseph J. O’Neil, a veteran New York newspaperman, urged Liebold in a memo. “LET’S FIND SOME SENSATIONALISM,” he typed with emphasis.

Beginning with the issue of May 22, 1920, Ford found his target. That issue of the Dearborn Independent kicked off a 91-week campaign of insults, criticism and lies directed at Jews from Dexter and Davison to Krakow, Poland.

“The International Jew: The World’s Problem,” read the inaugural page-one headline.

“There is apparently in the world today a central financial force which is playing a vast and closely organized game with the world for its table and universal control for its stakes,” the article said.

In subsequent weeks, the Independent hammered Jews for scheming to take over Broadway theater, baseball, American agriculture and countless other domains. Ford’s paper also popularized an early 20th-Century forgery from Russia, “The Protocols of the Elders of Zion,” which similarly purports to show Jews are bent on world domination.

Chapter 4: Jews and Others Fight Back

The Independent -- put out by Henry Ford, Dearborn-born and bred, legendary Tin Lizzie wizard, American folk hero and one of the world’s richest men -- shocked Jewish Americans and many other citizens of diverse backgrounds. It wasn’t long before they began to counterattack. The Independent was controversial from coast to coast in its day.

Pipp, whose Catholic conscience would not allow him to run an anti-Semitic journal, quit and began publishing his own paper, Pipp’s Weekly, that was often critical of Ford. Cameron took Pipp’s place. Ford’s wife, Clara, and Edsel, his only child, put off by the anti-Jewish articles, reportedly distanced themselves from the Independent.

The Ford family and company executives in Dearborn repeatedly congratulated the management of Ford Werke on the fine work they were doing under the Nazis. In October of 1940 Edsel Ford wrote to Heinrich Albert to say how pleased he was that the company’s plants in occupied lands were continuing to operate. “It is fortunate that Mr. Schmidt is in such authority as to be able to bring out these arrangements,” said Edsel, who died of cancer during the war. The same letter indicates that Ford was quite prepared to do business with the Nazis if Hitler won the war. Though it was difficult to foresee what would happen after the fighting ended, Edsel told Albert, “a general rearrangement of the ownership of our continental businesses may be required. You will no doubt keep as close to this subject as possible and we will have the benefit of your thoughts and suggestions at the proper time.”....

The Treasury Department found that Ford headquarters in Dearborn was in regular contact with its properties in Vichy France. In one letter, penned shortly after France’s surrender, Dollfus assured Dearborn that “we will benefit from the main fact of being a member of the Ford family which entitles us to better treatment from our German colleagues who have shown clearly their wish to protect the Ford interest as much as they can.” A Ford executive in Michigan wrote back, “We are pleased to learn from your letter…that our organization is going along, and the victors are so tolerant in their treatment. It looks as though we still might have a business that we can carry on in spite of all the difficulties.”

The Ford family encouraged Dollfus to work closely with the German authorities. On this score, Dollfus needed little prodding. “In order to safeguard our interests -- and I am here talking in a very broad way -- I have been to Berlin and have seen General von Schell himself,” he wrote in a typed note to Edsel in August of 1940. “My interview with him has been by all means satisfactory, and the attitude you have taken together with your father of strict neutrality has been an invaluable asset for the protection of your companies in Europe.” (In a handwritten note in the margin, Dollfus bragged that he was “the first Frenchman to go to Berlin.”) The following month Dollfus complained about a shortage of dollars in occupied France. This was a problem, however, that might be merely temporary. “As you know,” he wrote Dearborn at the time, “our [monetary] standard has been replaced by another standard which -- in my opinion -- is a draft on the future, not only in France and Europe but, maybe, in the world.” In another letter to Edsel, this one written in late November of 1940, Dollfus said he wanted to “outline the importance attached by high officials to respect the desires and maintain the good will of ‘Ford’ -- and by ‘Ford’ I mean your father, yourself and the Ford Motor Company, Dearborn.”

All this was to the immense satisfaction of the Ford family. In October of 1940, Edsel wrote to Dollfus to say he was “delighted to hear you are making progress…. Fully realize great handicap you are working under.” Three months later he wrote again to say that Ford headquarters was “very proud of the record that you and your associates have made in building the company up to its first great position under such circumstances.”

Dearborn maintained its communication with Ford of France well after the United States entered the war. In late January of 1942, Dollfus informed Dearborn that Ford’s operations had the highest production level of all French manufacturers and, as summed up by the Treasury report, that he was “still relying on the French government to preserve the interests of American stockholders.”

During the following months, Dollfus wrote to Edsel several times to report on damages suffered by the French plant during bombing runs by the Royal Air Force. In his reply, Edsel expressed relief that American newspapers that ran pictures of a burning Ford factory did not identify it as a company property. On July 17, 1942, Edsel wrote again to say that he had shown Dollfus’s most recent letter to his father and to Dearborn executive Sorenson. “They both join me in sending best wishes for you and your staff, and the hope that you will continue to carry on the good work that you are doing,” he said.


-- [Henry] Ford and the Führer, by Ken Silverstein


As the Independent launched its anti-Semitic campaign and sent the paper, unsolicited, to libraries and school across the nation, protests broke out. Some cities attempted to ban the paper, but such moves raised First Amendment issues. Jews organized Ford Motor boycotts. Former President William Howard Taft, a future U.S. Supreme Court chief justice, slammed Ford in a speech. Later, he joined outgoing President Woodrow Wilson and dozens of other VIPs in signing a petition that denounced the Independent.

“God help Henry Ford. God forgive him,” said well known New York Rabbi Stephen Wise, who called Ford the “most contemptible little liar that ever lived.”

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Henry Ford with his ghostwriter, William Cameron.

Louis Marshall, a New York lawyer and towering figure in the American Jewish community, played a key role in combatting Ford and the Independent. His first move was to send Ford a telegram, saying the articles “constitute a libel upon an entire people.”

The Independent was unimpressed. “Your rhetoric is that of a Bolshevik orator,” it fired back, linking Jews and Bolshevism, a common anti-Semitic trope.


In Detroit, Rabbi Leo Franklin, the head of Temple Beth El and an outspoken foe of discrimination, found himself caught between Ford and Marshall. Franklin was a Ford friend and former neighbor who had received yearly Model T’s as a gift. Marshall, in Manhattan, urged a more militant approach toward Ford in Detroit that Franklin was slow to adopt. Franklin eventually returned his 1920 Model T and told the Detroit News that Ford “has fanned the flames of anti-Semitism throughout the world.”

Chapter 5: An Independent Target Sues and Ford Shuts the Paper

After nearly two years, Ford suddenly halted the attacks in December 1922. Just as unexpectedly, he resumed them in 1924 when he went after Aaron Sapiro, a young Jewish activist from California who had become a leader in the farm co-op movement.

Sapiro fought back. He filed a $1 million libel suit against Ford, igniting weeks of sensational coverage in the national press. The case came to trial in 1927, though juror misconduct led to a mistrial.

Ford, freed from being forced to testify under oath, a position from which he had embarrassed himself in the past, issued an apology to Sapiro. Ford also took back all of his attacks on Jews
and withdrew “The International Jew,” though that proved to be much easier promised than done. He settled out of court with Sapiro.

In his apology, Ford called himself “deeply mortified” by the attacks, but blamed underlings, denying he knew about the articles in advance. He relieved Liebold and Cameron from their posts at the Independent, but kept them on the company payroll for years. Few close observers -- or average Americans -- believed Ford was so removed that he hadn’t been aware of prominent articles in his own newspaper that had sparked an international outcry.

In an editorial headlined “Forgiveness without Fawning,” the Detroit Jewish Chronicle echoed many other papers in casting doubt on Ford’s claim that he had been unaware of the paper’s content.

“That Mr. Ford does not accept personal responsibility for the anti-Semitic articles is also obvious,” the editorial said. “His action in this respect is what is commonly known as ‘passing the buck.’”

Ford closed the Independent in December 1927. But the damage had been done.

“Ford’s well-publicized decision was disingenuous,” wrote Victoria Saker Woeste in “Henry Ford’s War on Jews,” because he knew that even after closing the paper, his hate literature already lived on in hundreds of thousands of copies of “The International Jew."


Chapter 6: Why?

Why did Henry Ford -- the entrepreneur Fortune magazine in 1999 named “Businessman of the 20th Century” -- spend so much time and money attacking Jews?

Searching for clues, because Ford never discussed his anti-Semitism in depth, historians often have focused on his childhood amid the farms of what is now the streets of east Dearborn. While only a long walk from Detroit in the 1860s and ‘70s, Ford grew up isolated from Jews and most other minorities, and 19th-Century rural America was a place where ancient Jewish stereotypes were widespread.

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The International Jew, Volumes I and II

Experts also point to Ford’s close friend, Thomas Edison, an anti-Semite who approved of the Independent’s campaign, and Ford’s close relationship with Ernest Liebold, whose anti-Semitic views were well known. Historian Douglas Brinkley wrote that Ford’s “increasingly vicious anti-Semitism appears to have grown out of his antipathy toward powerful bankers.”

Ford’s criticism of Jews and hatred of Wall Street were “the foibles of the Michigan farm boy who had been liberally exposed to Populist notions,” wrote historian Richard Hofstadter.

“Ford disliked Jews who he believed exercised disproportionate control over the institutions that were vital to the rural-mercantile economy he wanted to build,” wrote Victoria Saker Woeste.

Chapter 7: Ford Family and Company Win Praise for Reparations

The response to Henry Ford’s anti-Semitism by the Ford family and Ford Motor Co. has received considerable praise from Jewish organizations and other observers.

“The Ford family and Ford Motor Company embarked upon correctives even before the Old Man passed away, Neil Baldwin wrote in “Henry Ford and the Jews: The Mass Production of Hate.”

On its website, the Anti-Defamation League says:

In the decades following Ford's death in 1947, the Ford family and the Ford Motor Company have engaged in numerous projects and endeavors in the public interest, including many that have been supportive of Jewish concerns.


In 1997, for example, the Ford Motor Company sponsored the first screening of Steven Spielberg's "Schindler's List," commercial-free, on national television. Ford Motor is credited with extending economic credit to the young state of Israel and supporting Jewish charities at home and abroad.

Today, two generations of the Ford family are well represented on the board of one of the country’s most elaborate historical complexes, The Henry Ford, in Dearborn, formerly called Greenfield Village, which Henry Ford founded. The chairman of the board is S. Evan Weiner, of the Edward C. Levy Co. in Detroit, who is Jewish.

In November, Weiner welcomed a largely Jewish crowd of several hundred people in the museum during a one-day collaboration with the Jewish Historical Society of Michigan: “The Henry Ford…Through a Jewish Lens.” The program examined Ford’s bigotry and, through pop-up exhibits, celebrated Jews as American innovators.

Steven Watts, a historian at the University of Missouri and author of “The People’s Tycoon: Henry Ford and the American Century,” spoke about Ford’s exalted place in American culture, but added: “It’s hard to find a more blatant anti-Semite in American history.”

Larry Gunsberg, an officer at the Jewish historical society, told the Jewish News that he found the event “an excellent way for the community to embrace the generational change in the Ford family.”

On the “My Jewish Detroit” website, historical society President Risha B. Ring said, “This monumental conversation is long overdue.”

Chapter 8: Ford and the Führer

Henry Ford’s hate campaign took a disturbing turn in the 1920s and ‘30s, when it intersected with Adolf Hitler’s path to power. The collision produced what the 21st Century calls synergy.

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Ford's books inspired Adolph Hitler, scholars say.

Copies of “The International Jew” began re-appearing in the 1930s in the U.S., South America and Europe, especially in Germany, where the Nazi Party was poised to take power. Books wound up on a table in the office of Hitler’s National Socialist German Workers’ Party in Munich.

“Hitler’s ravings and public speeches against Jews frequently were based on Ford’s anti-Semitic literature,” Ford expert David Lewis wrote.

One leading Nazi, Baldur von Shirach, the Reichsjugendführer (Hitler Youth leader) in the 1930s, became an anti-Semite after he read “The International Jew” in German, von Shirach testified at the Nuremburg war-crime trials. Found guilty of crimes against humanity for helping to send thousands of Viennese Jews to their deaths, von Shirach served 20 years in Spandau prison.

“If Henry Ford said that Jews were to blame, why, naturally we believed him,” von Shirach is quoted as saying in Baldwin’s “Henry Ford and the Jews.”

Von Shirach added: “You have no idea what a great influence this book had on the thinking of German youth.”

Numerous historians have noted that Ford is the only American mentioned in Hitler’s “Mein Kampf” memoir. After asserting that Jews were increasingly exerting control over American labor, Hitler wrote, “one great man, Ford, to their exasperation, still holds out independently.”

Experts on Hitler have noted Ford’s literature influenced Hitler’s writing in “Mein Kampf.” Reading “The International Jew,” which became a hit in Germany after being published in German in 1922, helped push Hitler further into “conspiratorial anti-Semitism,” Thomas Weber wrote in “Becoming Hitler: The Making of a Nazi.”

“Henry Ford is important for having provided to Hitler confirmation, coming from the very heart of America, of an idea that had been brewing in his mind,” Weber wrote. The idea was that Jews’ control of global finance was behind the world’s problems.

“Henry Ford thus turned into an anti-Semitic icon for Hitler.”

In summer 1938, with the German Wehrmacht having marched into Austria, and despite years of deflecting charges he was an anti-Semite, Ford accepted a 75th birthday present from Hitler. It was the Grand Cross of the Supreme Order of the German Eagle, the highest award the regime bestowed on foreigners.

The golden Maltese cross, surrounded by four small swastikas, was presented to Ford in Ford Motor’s Dearborn offices by Fritz Haller, the German vice consul in Detroit.

News reports about the birthday present from Hitler triggered a bitter backlash across the nation. Ford apologized, again. And again, people laughed when they read his words.

“Acceptance of a medal from the German people does not, as some people seem to think, involve any sympathy on my part with Nazism,” Ford said.

“Those who have known me for many years realize that anything that breeds hate is repulsive to me.”


We can’t know what was in Ford’s heart when he said those words. Perhaps he was genuinely remorseful. Perhaps he accepted the medal to avoid embarrassing an international diplomat, or for business reasons.

In addition to scheming to overthrow the Soviet Union in league with National Socialists, Aufbau played a pivotal role in coordinating Hitler's preparations for a putsch against the Weimar Republic. Aufbau helped the National Socialist Party to build a substantial war chest for its intended coup by contributing funds from Aufbau members or allies such as Kirill as well as by channeling funds from Henry Ford, the wealthy American industrialist and politician....

Some White emigre Aufbau members possessed valuable American connections. Colonel Boris Brazol resided in New York, where he played a leading role in the Russkoe natsionalnoe obschestvo (Russian National Society). This organization supported Grand Prince Kirill Romanov's candidacy for Tsar. As we shall see, Aufbau increasingly backed Kirill for Tsar. Brazol also worked on the staff of the American industrialist and politician Henry Ford's anti-Semitic newspaper, The Dearborn Independent. In particular, Brazol provided information on the "Jewish question." Scheubner-Richter praised Brazol as "one of the leading personalities in the Russian emigre circles of America." Brazol also spent much time in Munich, though he was not officially registered there. He collaborated with Scheubner-Richter and furthered Aufbau's cause by writing anti-Semitic literature. ...

The primary American connection to the German far right was most likely the anti-Semitic industrialist and politician Henry Ford.


-- The Russian Roots of Nazism: White Emigres and the Making of National Socialism, 1917-1945, by Michael Kellogg


That Ford and a number of other American firms -- including General Motors and Chase Manhattan -- worked with the Nazis has been previously disclosed. So, too, has Henry Ford’s role as a leader of the America First Committee, which sought to keep the United States out of World War II. However, the new materials, most of which were found at the National Archives, are far more damning than earlier revelations. They show, among other things, that up until Pearl Harbor, Dearborn made huge revenues by producing war matériel for the Reich and that the man it selected to run its German subsidiary was an enthusiastic backer of Hitler. German Ford served as an “arsenal of Nazism” with the consent of headquarters in Dearborn, says a US Army report prepared in 1945.

Moreover, Ford’s cooperation with the Nazis continued until at least August 1942 -- eight months after the United States entered the war -- through its properties in Vichy France. Indeed, a secret wartime report prepared by the US Treasury Department concluded that the Ford family sought to further its business interests by encouraging Ford of France executives to work with German officials overseeing the occupation. “There would seem to be at least a tacit acceptance by [Henry Ford’s son] Mr. Edsel Ford of the reliance…on the known neutrality of the Ford family as a basis of receipt of favors from the German Reich,” it says....

Ford Motor set up shop in Germany in 1925, when it opened an office in Berlin. Six years later, it built a large plant in Cologne, which became its headquarters in the country. Ford of Germany prospered during the Nazi years, especially with the economic boom brought on by World War II. Sales increased by more than half between 1938 and 1943, and, according to a US government report found at the National Archives, the value of the German subsidiary more than doubled during the course of the war.

Ford eagerly collaborated with the Nazis, which greatly enhanced its business prospects and at the same time helped Hitler prepare for war (and after the 1939 invasion of Poland, conduct it). In the mid-thirties, Dearborn helped boost German Ford’s profits by placing orders with the Cologne plant for direct delivery to Ford plants in Latin America and Japan. In 1936, as a means of preserving the Reich’s foreign reserves, the Nazi government blocked the German subsidiary from buying needed raw materials. Ford headquarters in Dearborn responded -- just as the Nazis hoped it would -- by shipping rubber and other materials to Cologne in exchange for German-made parts. The Nazi government took a 25 percent cut out of the imported raw materials and gave them to other manufacturers, an arrangement approved by Dearborn.

According to the US Army report of 1945, prepared by Henry Schneider, German Ford began producing vehicles of a strictly military nature for the Reich even before the war began. The company also established a war plant ready for mobilization day in a “‘safe’ zone” near Berlin, a step taken, according to Schneider, “with the…approval of Dearborn.” Following Hitler’s 1939 invasion of Poland, which set off World War II, German Ford became one of the largest suppliers of vehicles to the Wehrmacht (the German Army). Papers found at the National Archives show that the company was selling to the SS and the police as well. By 1941 Ford of Germany had stopped manufacturing passenger vehicles and was devoting its entire production capacity to military trucks. That May the leader of the Nazi Party in Cologne sent a letter to the plant thanking its leaders for helping “assure us victory in the present [war] struggle” and for demonstrating the willingness to “cooperate in the establishment of an exemplary social state.”

Ford vehicles were crucial to the revolutionary Nazi military strategy of blitzkrieg. Of the 350,000 trucks used by the motorized German Army as of 1942, roughly one-third were Ford-made. The Schneider report states that when American troops reached the European theater, “Ford trucks prominently present in the supply lines of the Wehrmacht were understandably an unpleasant sight to men in our Army.” Indeed, the Cologne plant proved to be so important to the Reich’s war effort that the Allies bombed it on several occasions. A secret 1944 US Air Force “Target Information Sheet” on the factory said that for the previous five years it had been “geared for war production on a high level.”

While Ford Motor enthusiastically worked for the Reich, the company initially resisted calls from President Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Churchill to increase war production for the Allies. The Nazi government was grateful for that stance, as acknowledged in a letter from Heinrich Albert to Charles Sorenson, a top executive in Dearborn. Albert had been a lawyer for German Ford since at least 1927, a director since 1930 and, according to the Treasury report, part of a German espionage ring operating in the United States during World War I. “The ‘Dementi’ of Mr. Henry Ford concerning war orders for Great Britain has greatly helped us,” Albert wrote in July of 1940, shortly after the fall of France, when England appeared to be on the verge of collapse before the Führer’s troops....

“there could be no doubt about the complete incorporation, as regards personnel, organization and production system, of Ford Werke into the German national economy, in particular, into the German armaments industry.”...

As 1941 progressed, the board of Ford Werke fretted that the United States would enter the war in support of Britain and the government would confiscate the Cologne plant. To prevent such an outcome, the Cologne management wrote to the Reich Commission that year to say that it “question[ed] whether Ford must be treated as enemy property” even in the event of a US declaration of war on Germany. “Ford has become a purely German company and has taken over all obligations so successfully that the American majority shareholder, independent of the favorable political views of Henry Ford, in some periods actually contributed to the development of German industry,” Cologne argued on June 18, 1941, only six months before the bombing of Pearl Harbor....

The Nazis never nationalized Ford’s German property...

By 1943 half of Ford Werke’s work force comprised foreign captives, including French, Russians, Ukrainians and Belgians. In August of 1944 a squad of SS men brought fifteen prisoners from the Buchenwald concentration camp to Ford Werke. The German researcher Karola Fings, co-author of Working for the Enemy, a book on Nazi slave- and forced-labor programs, to be published this spring, says Ford’s worker-inmates toiled for twelve hours a day with a fifteen-minute break. They were given 200 grams of bread and coffee for breakfast, no lunch and a dinner of spinach and three potatoes or soup made of turnip leaves.

An account by Robert Schmidt, the man appointed to run Ford Werke in 1939, states that the company used forced laborers even before the Nazis put the plant in trusteeship....Schmidt said that the Gestapo began to play an important role at Ford Werke after the first foreign workers arrived. With the assistance of W.M. Buchwald, a Ford employee since the mid-thirties, the Gestapo carefully monitored plant activities. “Whenever there was the slightest indication of anti-Nazi feeling, be it amongst foreigners or Germans, the Gestapo tramped down as hard as possible,” Schmidt told the Army.

Meanwhile, Ford Werke offered enthusiastic political support for Hitler as well. The fraternal ties between Ford and the Nazis is perhaps best symbolized by the company’s birthday gift to the Führer of 35,000 Reichsmarks in April of 1939. Ford Werke’s in-house publication couldn’t have been more fanatically pro-Nazi if Josef Goebbels had edited it.

-- [Henry] Ford and the Führer, by Ken Silverstein


Or perhaps anti-Semitism infected him to the bone, and his apology was as cynical as it seems to us. What we do know is that this chapter of his life, which lasted less than a decade, reverberates a century later in a crude hatred that seems impossible to eradicate. It’s an ugly side of the patriarch of one of America’s greatest families and founder of one of its best-known companies.

And the ugliness won’t go away. In November, a reader left this Amazon review of “The International Jew”:

“It's just amazing how enlightened Henry Ford became while living in a world of jew contrived deception ramping up in the USA. The European converted (fake) zionist jew has conquered amerika. Judaism = communism.”
[/quote]

The reader gave “The International Jew” five stars.
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Re: Neuschwanstein: A fairy tale darling's dark Nazi past

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Part 1 of 8

Investigation of Un-American Propaganda Activities in the United States: Appendix, Part IV: German-American Bund: Three Documents on the German-American Bund
by Special Committee on Un-American Activities
House of Representatives
Seventy-Seventh Congress
First Session
on
H. Res. 282

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INVESTIGATION OF UN-AMERICAN PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN THE UNITED STATES
SPECIAL COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
SEVENTY-SEVENTH CONGRESS
FIRST SESSION
ON
H. Res. 282
TO INVESTIGATE (1) THE EXTENT, CHARACTER, AND OBJECTS OF UN-AMERICAN PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN THE UNITED STATES, (2) THE DIFFUSION WITHIN THE UNITED STATES OF SUBVERSIVE AND UN-AMERICAN PROPAGANDA THAT IS INSTIGATED FROM FOREIGN COUNTRIES OR OF A DOMESTIC ORIGIN AND ATTACKS THE PRINCIPLE OF THE FORM OF GOVERNMENT AS GUARANTEED BY OUR CONSTITUTION, AND (3) ALL OTHER QUESTIONS IN RELATION THERETO THAT WOULD AID CONGRESS IN ANY NECESSARY REMEDIAL LEGISLATION

APPENDIX— PART IV
 
GERMAN-AMERICAN BUND

Printed for the use of the Special Committee on Un-American Activities

MAR 27 1944

SPECIAL COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES
WASHINGTON, D. C.
MARTIN DIES, Texas, Chairman
JOE STARNES, Alabama
NOAH M. MASON, Illinois
JERRY VOORHIS, California
J. PARNELL THOMAS, New Jersey
JOSEPH E. CASEY, Massachusetts
HARRY P. BEAM, Illinois
Robert E. Stripling, Secretary and Chief Investigator
J. B. Matthews, Director of Research

THREE DOCUMENTS OF THE GERMAN-AMERICAN BUND

I. Source or the Documents


The three documents, whose originals form a part of the exhibits submitted herewith, were obtained by duly constituted authorities from the personal effects of G. Wilhelm Kunze, Bundesfuhrer of the German-American Bund. The committee has satisfied itself concerning the authenticity of the documents.

G. Wilhelm Kunze was named Bundesfuhrer of the German-American Bund after Fritz Kuhn, the former Bundesfuhrer, was committed to prison in the State of New York.

II. The Three Documents

The three documents which are presented in this report speak for themselves. The following observations concerning them are, however, in order at this point:

(1) They attest the ruthless efficiency of the military set-up which characterizes Hitler's machine in Germany.

(2) The discipline to which members of the German-American Bund are subject is clearly reflected in the endless rules and regulations which extend to the minute details of the Bund members' lives. The documents speak of "absolute loyalty" and "blind obedience." Document #3 says of the OD Platoon Leader: "He will never complain of his superiors before his comrades, but will display the absolute loyalty and correct behavior which he expects from his men. The blind obedience that will be absolutely necessary in serious situations can be provided only if the Platoon represents a true association of comrades which feels respect for and confidence in its leader" (p. 1608).

(3) The German-American Bund organization clearly anticipates violence by its assertion that "the OD man gives assurance that our movement will, at the sacrifice of life if necessary, remain the inexorable opponents of Jewish Marxism * * *" (p. 1611).

(4) The German-American Bund extols the "fanaticism" which has characterized Hitler and his movement in Germany. According to Document #3, "anyone who is not filled with this unshakable faith and courage and cannot march along as a fanatical fighter does not belong in the OD; to have embraced the National Socialist view of things means definitively breaking off all ties with liberal halfway measures" (p. 1611). This is a clear espousal of the totalitarian, as opposed to the democratic, way of life.

(5) The following quotations indicate something of the religious bigotry of the Germany-American Bund: "All OD men and OD Leaders in particular are required to procure a certificate of Aryan blood" (p. 1610). "We are looking for men who enter our organization not in order to procure personal advantages or to be allowed to play soldier pleasantly, but who intend with their whole power to eradicate the red Jewish pestilence in America" (p. 1611).


We refuse to permit the effort of Communist, Fascist, and other totalitarian-minded groups to pervert this powerful medium into an instrument for the dissemination of un-American ideas and beliefs. We pledge ourselves to fight, with every means at our organized command, any effort of any group or individual, to divert the loyalty of the screen from the free America that give it birth.

-- Motion Picture Alliance for the Preservation of American Ideals, by Wikipedia


(6) The German-American Bund aims at the establishment of a new kind of government in the United States, one which incorporates the principle of Nazi religious bigotry. According to Document #2, "the duty of the Bund Fuhrer is to maintain and develop the AV by every adjustment to the temporary requirements of the times as the defensive and offensive movement of the national consciousness of American Germanism dedicated philosophically (Weltanschaulich), national-socialistically, and politically to the service of an actually independent, aryan-governed United States of North America" (p. 1552).

(7) Document #1 reveals the keeping of systematic records on "enemies" of the German-American Bund. "Record cards containing personal information about friends, enemies, merchants, politicians, association officers, and similar whom we should know are to be made out in duplicate exactly as are those for members, patrons, and Youth Command members, and submitted monthly;
one card is to be retained by the Unit or Branch Directorate; the other is to be sent to the National Executive Committee" (p. 1491). "Yellow cards bearing the letter 'F' are intended for enemies. Where they are German a 'D' is to be inserted at the top. They are not to be used for Jews. Light blue cards bearing the letter 'J' are for Jews" (p. 1492). Hitler explained to Rauschning his system of keeping just such a card file on "friends" and "enemies."

(8) Document #1 specifies the manner in which a meeting of the Bund shall be closed, as follows: "To a free, Gentile-ruled United States and to our fighting movement of awakened Aryan Americans, a three-fold rousing 'Free America! Free America! Free America!" (p. 1495).


(9) The documents reveal the principle of secrecy practised in the Bund, as follows: "All names and addresses of Bund members and officers must be kept confidential and must not be divulged to anyone " (p. 1490). "Names and descriptions of those available for work in the block, the block leader commits to memory, but he is bound upon his honor not to betray any member's name or description to the public" (p. 1560). "Patrons may be admitted also under 'cover' names and 'cover' addresses (fictitious)" (p. 1581).

(10) These documents betray an assumption regarding the status of Americans of German descent which the committee finds wholly false. Document #2 declares: "We owe to ourselves, our ancestors, and our descendants, the right to be a free people, and not the despised spit-upon menials of inferior despots (dictators) who deserve still to be cursed by our children" (p. 1582). While the committee has failed to find any shred of evidence that Americans of German descent are subjected to the kind of discrimination implied in this statement, it is of the opinion that the very spirit of the German-American Bund is calculated to breed the discrimination against which it pretends to fight.

(11) Many passages in these documents betray the existence of a close political and ideological tie between the German-American Bund and Hitler's movement in Germany. For example, Document #1 specifies: "Closing song at 'Horst-Wessel' memorials and other memorials in honor of the fallen of the Hitler-Movement: All four stanzas of the 'Horst-Wessel' song (salute during last stanza)" (p. 1500). Provision is made for the celebration of the birthday of Adolf Hitler (p. 1499). "When a representative of the Reich speaks at a celebration, the German national anthem is to be played immediately after his address" (p. 1496). Speaking of the regulations contained in Document #2, it is stated that "they are the result of the serious study not only of the experiences of our Bund and its predecessors, but also of the experiences of the old home under the leadership (Fuhrung) of the greatest German of all times" (p. 1583). This is a frank acknowledgement of the source of much of the German-American Bund's set-up in Hitler's movement in Germany.


III. Investigation of the Bund

From the very beginning of its existence, the Special Committee on Un-American Activities has made the German-American Bund one of the subjects of its investigation. The first witness heard by the committee in the summer of 1938 testified at length on the nature and activities of this organization. Since that time, more than a score of witnesses have added to the evidence which the committee has assembled with a view to determining the character and activities of the Bund.

On the basis of the voluminous testimony which the committee has heard, the conclusion has been reached that the German-American Bund is an un-American organization engaged in promulgating the ideology and attempting to further the interests of nazi-ism in the United States. That conclusion is reinforced by the original documents which form a part of the exhibits in this report.

In order that a complete picture of the German-American Bund may be presented at this time, the previous findings of the committee are included in this report.

In its report to the House of Representatives at the beginning of 1939, the committee made the following resume of evidence which had been placed before it:

In its investigation of Nazi and Fascist activities in the United States, this committee, recognizing the splendid work done by the McCormack Committee, which made its report to Congress on February 15, 1935, has started where that group left off.

The so-called McCormack Committee investigated and traced the Nazi movement in the United States from the days when Kurt Georg Wilhelm Luedecke became their first real representative here on through the various steps taken until we come to the creation of the the German-American Bund.

The German-American Bund had as its predecessors the "Teutonia Society" and "The Friends of the New Germany."

This committee had divided its Nazi and Fascist investigation into a number of subtitles which we classify as follows: Storm troops, correspondence and records, youth movement, consular aid, funds and propaganda, guns, rifle ranges, etc., Nazi-Fascist merger, German Bund, Italian Black Shirts, Un-American organizations.

It was definitely shown that the Nazi activities in the United States have their counterpart in everything that has been and is being done by similar movements of Nazi minorities in Mexico, South America, and Europe.

These Nazi activities in the United States are traceable to and linked with Government-controlled agencies in Nazi Germany, and it is not unreasonable to suppose that unless checked immediately an American-Nazi force may cause great unrest and serious repercussions in the United States.

At this point it should be made distinctly clear that the Nazi ranks in the United States are not really German-Americans but rather American-Germans. In other words, they consider themselves the identical type of minority as the Polish-German minority in Poland, the Austrian-German minority which recently brought about the annexation of Austria, or the Sudeten Germans in Czechoslovakia (vol. 2, p. 1108).

As an indication of the thoroughness with which this Nazi minority has been operating in this country through its connections with Germany, evidence was introduced showing that the official newspaper of the German-American Bund has had advance information on what was about to transpire in Germany and gave every evidence of intimate knowledge of events to come.

This committee heard testimony showing that the use of storm troops, the youth movement, the training and drilling, the consular aid — in fact all of the Nazi activities here are on lines identical with those used abroad.

There are approximately 80 Bund posts in the United States. There are no positive or definite figures of the membership although it can be stated that there are approximately 25,000 active members in the German-American Bund. The fact has also been established that some 100,000 persons are willing to be seen at the public manifestations of the Bund.*

STORM TROOPS

From this membership, the German-American Bund can muster within its own ranks a uniformed force of 5,000 storm troops and it was testified that in time of necessity this force could be augmented with "strong-arm" detachments of allied groups, such as Italian Black Shirts, Silver Shirts, Ukrainians, White Russians, and similar organizations (vol. 2, p. 1110).

Repeatedly it has been asserted that the storm-troop division of the Bund is nothing more than a force of ushers for public meetings. The fact is that this storm-troop division of the Bund is patterned after the Hitler storm troops and its members are the political soldiers of a Hitler-inspired movement in the United States. A witness testified that from the manpower of this force the Bund, working hand in hand with the German Government, can draft men for a sabotage, machine and spy net.

Despite assertions by the heads of the German-American Bund that there are no German citizens in the storm-troop ranks, evidence presented before this committee clearly shows that members of that organization in all parts of the United States have privately admitted that they are not American citizens but are German citizens and in many cases have boasted that they never intend to become American citizens.

* Subsequent investigations revealed that there were 100,000 members and supporters of the Bund.


This committee has failed to find any reason for the existence of such storm-troop groups, but there is no Federal statute to prevent their formation and activities.

A witness testified that Herman Schwarzmann, leader of the Astoria, Long Island, post, read a book of German Army instructions to his storm troops, explaining it as follows:

I am reading this to you not so much because I want you to know what my duties are, but because some day all of you may be fuehrers of your own groups. You can reach these heights if you work hard and come to thoroughly understand the problems before us. Every storm trooper should look forward to the day when he may become a fuehrer himself. He must know how to handle people, he must understand people, he must be able to lead and teach them.

I tell you that exactly what happened some years ago is happening now in this country. In Germany the people finally rose up in resentment. This will happen here. It is inevitable. When that day comes, and it is probably not far off, we must be prepared to fight for the right kind of government. We must win the masses to our side. There will be bloodshed and fighting. We shall have to do our part.


No one knows where we shall have to go — New Jersey, New York, or some other part of the country, or what we may be called upon to do. When that time comes every man must be thoroughly trained to assume his responsibility. The important duties, of course, will fall upon the shoulders of our membership. (Implying the storm-troop membership.)

You may think I am just dreaming or talking in the clouds. But I tell you I know what I'm talking about. This trouble will come probably sooner than you think. It has to come, judging from the trends of the Nation.

When we understand how Germans handled their situation in Germany we shall know how to handle the difficulty which will arise in America. In all likelihood the day of trouble will come — Der Tag — with a financial crisis in Washington. Then will be the time to wipe out our enemies.

Remember we are still Germans, for blood is stronger than paper, even though we are also American citizens. And as American citizens we have the same rights as any other citizen. But our rights have not been observed. The storm troops are not even permitted to march on the streets. The controlled press will not print our side of the story. Some day that will be changed, for some day we shall demand our rights.


It was testified before the committee that although the Nazis in this country claim to follow democratic ideas in electing their officers in reality the elections were conducted along the lines of recent European plebiscites where everything is under such control that no one dares vote against the machine (vol. 2, p. 1113).

Another indication of the close connection between the German-American Bund and the Fatherland is to be found in the evidence showing that crews of German warships have been entertained by the storm troops of the Bund. German World War veterans are active in storm-troop ranks and help train and drill the men.

Many Bund storm troopers are constantly urged to make and have made trips to Germany, returning with great quantities of Nazi propaganda material (vol. 2, p. 1114).

Members of the Nazi groups have been found to be working in some of the great aviation manufacturing companies of the United States. They were found working in the United States Navy shipyards where they had succeeded in securing positions which placed them in direct possession of secret plans for the construction of United States Navy battleships of the latest type. They have even been assigned to trial runs on the latest type of these ships (vol. 2, p. 1115).

This committee also learned that as the result of its recent national convention in New York — the one held in September 1938 — the German-American Bund is planning to create a strictly American division in conjunction with the bund. First steps in this direction have already been taken by the high command of the German-American Bund. If this plan is carried out, a merger of a number of minor subversive forces in this country may be expected under the swastika leadership of Fritz Kuhn and the German-American Bund.

CORRESPONDENCE AND RECORDS

The investigation of this committee into Nazi activities was seriously hampered and handicapped because as soon as the resolution creating the committee had been adopted by the Congress, officials of the German-American Bund issued an order to their posts throughout the country to destroy all their records.

Dr. Otto Willumeit, 4344 North Sheridan Road, Chicago, Ill., in a sworn statement made on July 15, 1938, said:

I became an American citizen in 1932 at Hammond, Ind. Shortly after taking over the leadership of the local chapter, I received a letter from Fritz Kuhn, of New York. I carried this letter with me for about a month and recently tore it up as I did not believe it was important. This letter, although I do not remember the exact wording, advised me that in view of the coming congressional investigation of the bund, Mr. Kuhn deemed it advisable for me to destroy all correspondence between the local bund and Germany. He further pointed out that no matter how harmless it may be, the letters could be interpreted in a different light (vol. 1, p. 42).


Another affidavit, part of the proof that Fritz Kuhn, head of the German-American Bund, had ordered records of that organization destroyed, was made by George Froboese, who resides at 3227 North Second Street, Milwaukee, Wis., and who is the leader of the middle west district of the bund. He stated:

I have been asked by Mr. Kuhn to destroy such private letters as may be interpreted as being inconsistent with the proper behavior of an American citizen (vol. 2, p. 1144).


However, the investigator for the committee was able to secure possession of 25 letters which constituted correspondence between the Chicago Bund post and Nazi Germany (vol. 1, pp. 29 through 40).

In this correspondence it was definitely shown that the Foreign Institute of the Nazi Government at Stuttgart was one of the instrumentalities used in assisting the German-American Bund in spreading propaganda in this country.
One of the letters (vol. 1, p. 31) proves conclusively a Nazi Government plan to take American children on vacations to Germany and the letter states that "properly handled, this can be of the utmost importance for the development of foreign connections."

And another quotation from the same letter —

Friendships cannot be made early enough. Youth is especially susceptible at this period. The impressions of a youth in a foreign country influence hundreds of his comrades on his return.


Other correspondence definitely indicates that German consulates in the United States have been the clearing houses for much of the Nazi activity here (vol. 1, p. 38).

Throughout this entire correspondence there is definite evidence and proof that the groups operated in this country are directed by organizations in Germany which get their support and direction from the German Government itself. Despite this connection, none of these groups in this country have registered with the Secretary of State in accordance with the foreign propaganda law which became effective September 8, 1938.

In fact, the Foreign Institute at Stuttgart is being conducted by one Fritz Gissibl, a former leader of the Nazi group in this country and whose brother even now is a member and leader of the Nazi group in Chicago.

Photographs placed in evidence before the committee, properly identified, show a number of German consuls in this country taking an active part in the affairs of the German-American Bund and particularly in the Nazi festivities arranged at a number of camps throughout the United States (vol. 2, p. 1122).

YOUTH MOVEMENT

Some German-American children are being Hitlerized by the leaders of the German-American Bund, despite the fact that under the American law every child born in this country is an American citizen.

The evidence thus far heard indicates that every effort is being expended by the bund's high command to instill in these boys and girls, most of whom have never even been outside the United States, the doctrines of racial and religious hatreds preached under the pagan German kultur (vol. 2, p. 1123).

American ideals and principles of democracy are boldly shoved into the background and a worship of Hitlerism is inculcated in these youthful unsuspecting minds. Although the committee's investigator frequently visited Nazi camps in various parts of the country, he testified that never once was there an occasion where he saw these nazified children led to a Christian religious service in a youth camp.

Health, Hitler, Heils, and Hatred are the "4-H's" used by United States Nazis to prevent Americanization of children whose parents are members of the German-American Bund.

In the coming years all the unity and all the efforts will be required in order to put a stop to the former crippling by the Americanization of their young —


declares the bund yearbook, reprinted from the German magazine Deutsche Arbeit, in referring to children of Germany who have emigrated to America.

Hence —


the yearbook states, after pointing out that Germany's youth movement at home must confine itself to German children still in the Fatherland —

the youth groups of the German-American Bund are a real achievement for Germany.


In forwarding this program, childish voices ring out in a crescendo of "Heil Hitlers" in German-American camps throughout the Nation.

These American boys and girls sing hymns to Der Fuehrer and to the Fatherland they never have seen.  

"Our youth are the lifeline of our movement," leaders repeatedly insist. "We may be gone soon and the youth must carry on our fight. * * *."

Under the guise of health, some German-American children are being trained and marched away from the democratic traditions of America.

They must learn to speak fluent German and to understand the Nazi ideology. They listen to lectures on the Hitler philosophy and the policies of the Third Reich.

In its youth movement, as in the parent organization, the bund professes a defense of the United States Constitution and "true Americanism." But the camps are completely Nazi Germany. The United States is forgotten except for an occasional display of American flags. The swastika of Germany is the important flag to the boy and girl scouts. "Old Glory" is of secondary importance (vol. 2, p. 1124).

The scouts eat, sleep, talk, and dream nazi-ism with the same fervor of the regimented youth of Germany. They are taught to avoid outside "contaminating influences." American history, according to testimony before the committee, is revised in public addresses for them to show that this country has been saved from destruction only through the influence of German-Americans.

Just as in Germany, the youth movement is divided into three sections — the Jungenschaft (boys); the Maedchenschaft (girls), and the Jungvolk (smaller children too young to join other groups).

Youngsters are thrust into the Jungvolk organization when only 5 and 6 years old. They wear uniforms of brown and blue shorts or skirts, white blouses with Hitler-brown scarfs. Older boys wear brown shirts with Sam Browne belts, military trousers and boots, and are armed with long hunting knives and spears.

Youths graduate into the "Ordnungs Dienst," the storm-troop organization of the bund, and are trained mentally and physically to lead the troops when the often predicted "trouble" comes. Scouts are told they must be prepared to withstand the onrush of the coming "red" revolution.


From their elders, scouts learn to be suspicious of strangers. They will not discuss the bund unless they know the listener is sympathetic. The investigator for the committee testified that he entered Turner Hall at Eighty-fifth Street and Lexington Avenue in the Yorkville German section of New York City, where the bund holds many of its meetings, and asked a young scout fuehrer where the bund headquarters were situated.

"Bund?" the youth asked in pretended ignorance. "I don't know anything about the bund."

Investigation by this investigator disclosed that beyond the door he was guarding a group of boys and girls [who] were attending one of the "Bundes-Redner-Schule." A propaganda film showing the delights of new Germany was part of the day's instruction.

Landesjugendfuehrer (national youth leader) is Theodore Dinkelacker, 9238 Lamont Avenue, Elmhurst, Long Island. Under 30, Dinkelacker devotes all of his time to drilling and teaching potential national socialists. He leads them in parades behind the storm troops at summer festivals and in the city drill halls of the bund during the winter.

Our youth love the fight—


Dinkelacker explained to a witness.

They are mostly sons and daughters of old fighters and thus they will not permit the fighting spirit of the bund to die out.

National socialism is a world-wide philosophy of strength. We teach our youth along these lines so that they may take the right road in life. We instill in them pride of German nationality and race. We insist on order and discipline to build character and a broad athletic program to build the body.


Youth builds are proud of being the future of "the only fighting organization in German-America" Dinkelacker says according to testimony before the committee, and "will always look down with contempt upon those who avoid the battle, who gather in little groups and clubs in order, when they reach manhood, to change into rabbit-breeding societies or bowling clubs" (vol. 2, p. 1125).

All boys and girls —


he continued, according to this same testimony —

have the obligation to keep themselves strong and healthy for their German race; healthy in order to transmit as a link in an unending chain the heritage of our ancestors to the coming generation; strong in order to ward off every attack against the German race; politically and economically.


The bund youth group "does not only have the purpose to breed a new generation, as certain malicious tongues assert," Dinkelacker explained, according to the testimony of a witness before the committee.

We wish to train the young to become useful members of the German racial community. We wish to train our youth groups to such an extent that by observation we may be able to pick out talented boys and girls, support them in their education, and thus create the possibility that the most capable be placed at the head, for the benefit not only of the German element but of the entire Nation.


Camp Hindenburg, near Grafton, Wis., 18 miles north of Milwaukee, is the "summer home" of Chicago and Milwaukee scouts. The camp is in its third year. There was also testimony that two signs, one in blue and one in red, point the way to the camp down a gravel road from U. S. Highway 141. The signs are lettered merely "A. V." The camp itself is set in the valley surrounded by wooded hills with the Milwaukee River providing swimming facilities on the west side of the tract. There is a parking lot for autos through which one must pass before entering the camp proper. The camp and lot are separated by a wire fence with a single pole carrying a sign "Private property."

Unlike the eastern camps, there are no elaborate permanent buildings at Camp Hindenburg. The Kaffee Kucha (coffee kitchen) and beer stand are housed in small wooden structures. Tents are set in a circle. In the center is a tall flagpole from which are flown the American flag and the Jungenschaft flag — a white streak of lightning or half swastika on a black background. Regulation German swastika flags are displayed on special occasions.

About 80 boys from Chicago and Milwaukee gave up the tents on August 1, after a 2- week stay at the camp, and about 100 girls moved in. The boys and girls marched behind a military band of German World War veterans to the flagpole for a ceremony, during which the boys' flag was replaced by that of the girls' organization.

Uniforms worn by the Chicago and Milwaukee boys include a wide brown belt with a silver buckle bearing a swastika and the legend "Blut and Ehre" (blood and honor). One boy displaced a hunting knife which had a similar inscription on the blade.

Chicago boys and girls when not in camp meet once a week or oftener at the Bundesheim (bund home) at 3853 North Western Avenue and at the south side headquarters at 605 West Sixtieth Street. They also attend the Theodore Koerner Schule, operated at the north side home.

The American Nazi youth movement is much stronger in the East and Middle West than in the Far West.

According to one witness, the west coast bund members enthusiastically welcomed Erich Barischoff, member of the Brooklyn, N. ., Jungenschaft, who appeared at Deutsches Hans, Los Angeles headquarters, August 1, after a 24-day hike across the country. Erich was en route to the Dutch East Indies and thence to Germany to visit relatives. According to testimony before the committee he had nothing but scorn for the American Boy Scouts (vol. 2, p. 1126).

They're sissies —


he exclaimed.

They don't know what hardships are like. They take little walks while we travel hundreds of miles. There is no comparison between the American Boy Scouts and the Jungenschaft. The Americans are babies alongside of us.


The Philadelphia youth encampment is part of the bund layout of the Deutschorst Country Club, near Croydon, Pa. Forty boys and 25 girls live in tents and in an old mansion, which had been used at one time as a speakeasy and later as a home for wayward girls before the bund leased it 4 years ago, according to testimony before the committee. The owner offered to sell the property to the bund for $12,000 4 years ago but boosted his price to $18,000 last summer just before the lease expired.

A Philadelphia storm trooper in a conversation with his fuehrer, G. W. Kunze, on July 25, revealed "how we fooled those newspapermen." A reporter and photographer of the Philadelphia Record spent several hours at the camp that day.

They didn't see a thing and got only a lot of pictures that don't mean anything —


the trooper explained.  

The funniest thing happened when they went to the youth camp. All they saw was the boys and their tents with a little American flag on the staff. They didn't get to see our flag.


The trooper indicated the swastika had been removed purposely for the day in anticipation of newspaper photographers.

Efdende camp, 9 miles north of Pontiac, Mich., serves the Detroit post. It does not compare in size or in buildings and improvements with the eastern camps. Entrance is down a side road off United States Highway 10 at the Springfield Gladiola Farms. A small sign reads "Summer Camp A. V." Detroit members are cautious about displaying swastikas or other Hitler emblems at their camp.

A small frame building houses a kitchen and bar near the lake shore while headquarters for the Jungenschaft is beyond an athletic field. About 20 girls and 30 boys are accommodated in separate units of a one-story building.  



The most elaborate of the bund's camps are Siegfried, near Yaphank, Long Island, and Nordland, near Andover, N. J. It was at a youth celebration at Camp Siegfried on July 11, that National Leader Fritz Kuhn, according to testimony, said:

The youth of our great bund are the hope, the life line of our organization. Through them we must live into the future. It is, therefore, necessary that we must stand united behind them, educate them and raise them to manhood and womanhood with our ideals embedded in their hearts. We must fight together for their freedom.

We must work to win over the youth of all German-Americans and some day when our labor has reaped its reward we shall hear fine and strong German-American youths come marching from the east and west, from the south and north— marching onward to build a greater nation.


When "Achtung!" (Attention) rings out over the loudspeaker system in the eastern camps, scouts as well as storm troopers hurry to attention. If it is Sunday morning at Camp Siegfried, boys and girls form into separate ranks and prepare to greet storm troopers and other bund members arriving from New York on a special train.

Some of the scouts march behind the German swastika and the American flag to the railroad station 2 miles away through Yaphank. They line up at attention beside the track and, as the train pulls in, their arms are outstretched in a Hitler salute to the arriving guests.

With a band blaring a stirring German march, the scouts and guests — 500 or more strong — march back through the village to the camp where another contingent of scouts is at attention "heiling" the arriving storm troops.

At Siegfried and at other eastern bund camps, separate tent encampments for boys and girls are set back in the woods, away from the main building and cottages where their parents drink beer and dance. Sentries stand guard at entrances to the rows of tents. Visitors — even parents of the scouts — are not permitted in the youth camps proper. Scouts on duty in the camps must come to the entrances to visit with their parents. If not on duty, they are permitted to roam through the entire camp layout at will.

A German steel helmet and a long lance are part of the equipment of the guard at the entrance to the boys' camp at Siegfried. The lance and helmet are passed along to each boy as he takes up sentry duty. Commands and conversations among the scouts are entirely in German, but they politely answer questions in English (vol. 2, p. 1127).

Discipline is rigid. Some scouts are assigned to duty at soft-drink stands in camp on Sunday. Others carry water to perspiring troopers.

German-Americans can send their children to the camp for from $3.50 to $5 a week. If their parents have the money, the children remain in camp all summer and enjoy a theoretical 3-month trip to Germany.

Camps are supported partly from contributions. Otto Arndt, one of the most active of the New York area storm troops, according to testimony, said his contributions to the Jungenschaft amounted to $25,000 during a year.

A collection was taken up for the Jungenschaft at the end of a night boat trip up the Hudson which outwardly had no connection with the bund, but which was sponsored by the Steneck travel bureau.

The youth camp at Siegfried is a half mile around a lake from the main camp building. A two-story stucco building, adaptable for winter use, serves as headquarters. Tents are pitched on wooden foundations back in the woods. At Camp Nordland, set in the wooded hills of Sussex County, N. J., the tents are in one end of the 100-acre tract.

Heels click together and the right arm goes out in a Hitler salute when a scout, boy or girl, is addressed by a youth leader or any storm trooper in uniform.

Singing forms an important part of the camp training. Both boys and girls are divided into older and younger groups and learn numerous songs in praise of Hitler and the new Germany. The boys also have a fife, bugle, and drum corps, members of which are equipped with red and white epaulets.

As part of their training for "true Americanism," scouts sing "Heute Hoert Uns Deutschland — Morgen Die Ganze Welt!" (Today Germany hears us, tomorrow the whole world) and "We are the friends of the New Germany" (vol. 2, p. 1128).

They join enthusiastically in singing "Deutschland Ueber Alles" and the "Horst Wessel," the Hitler national anthem, but have a difficult time remembering "The Star-Spangled Banner."

Girl scouts are trained in the folk dances of Germany and perform at the various bund functions.

For some of the smaller girls, camp life brings the ordeal of living away from their parents for the first time.

How quickly a German-American boy can become a part of the Hitler youth program was explained to a witness who appeared before the committee, by a woman bund member. She said, according to this witness, her youthful cousin scorned the camp idea at first, but after one visit came home singing Nazi songs and remarked that the German scouts were "real kameraden." After another visit, he became a member. Today, at 19, he is a fuehrer and has learned to speak German.

"His older brother", she said, "who is in the United States Navy, makes fun of the boy's scout uniform and his Hitler salute. But we tell him not to mind, the older brother will learn the truth before long and realize he too must join the new Germany."

The bund also maintains camps near Buffalo, Schenectady, Cleveland, Los Angeles, San Diego, Oakland, Calif., Spokane, Seattle, Portland, Oreg., and at St. Louis.

All bund leaders — from Fuehrer Fritz Kuhn down to minor leaders in local posts — recognize the importance of the youth movement, but none more than Carl (Papa) Nicolay, South Brooklyn leader and national speaker since the inception of the organization.

Nicolay, who is nearing 60, is the most enthusiastic and most verbose of the bund speakers.

Nicolay wrote of the wonders of Germany under Hitler:

The gradual education away from shallow internationalism and the often but not too obvious meaninglessness of its decadent liberalism and democracy * * * to sound and rational nationalism, which in its very desire for the strength of its own country and people, will not only tolerate but look to similar national strength in others, but make for real peace, therefore, instead of war.


He wrote of the joy of Hitler youth but did not mention the signs over Nazi youth camps: "You were born to die for Germany."

In Germany, all young people are forced by the state youth laws to become members of the Hitler Youth or the League of German Girls and undergo national socialist schooling. American children of bund members "love the fight" in the words of the national leader, Theodor Dinkelacker, and don't need a law to force them into the regimented organization.
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Re: Neuschwanstein: A fairy tale darling's dark Nazi past

Postby admin » Wed Sep 25, 2019 7:54 am

Part 2 of 8

In a mimeographed paper issued by the American nazi youth movement, Hitler is termed "the prophet of a new and nobler chapter in the course of human events." His creed is world-wide, youthful Americans are told.

He leads the struggle for race preservation against the melting pot idea of international-minded dabblers in theoretical concepts of the "brotherhood" of all races.

The setting up of a nation in order; clean and strong, free and unified, is a miracle which only proves the prophet is divinely inspired with God-given powers and insight.

The slumbering embers Adolf Hitler has fanned into fire in the hearts of Aryan men will break out into a mighty blaze that will consume the enemy when he raises his red rags.

The world quivers with the convulsions of an approaching earthquake that will shake each nation to its bedrock, bury everything corrupt, and outmoded, and clear away to leave a world of virile, progressive, race-conscious nations.


The article, signed by Paul M. Ochojski, in charge of the English columns of the youth paper, thus tells American children of the same "approaching revolution" which bund speakers warn their members to prepare for (vol. 2, p. 1129).

In another article, Ochojski declares Germans are "vanishing" in the United States because they "aren't organized and fighting" against their enemies.

Rallying American children of bund members to answer the battle call to fight, Ochojski warns that unless action is taken Germans in America are "doomed to become a gray, raceless mixture of unskilled laborers having no voice in politics and no economic power."

There is no more immigration of new blood from Germany to freshen up the dying cadaver of Germanic America —


the writer explains.

Organize, keep alive German language and traditions, learn useful and higher trades, go to schools and colleges, enter professions and politics, fight the enemies of Germany.


Discipline of bund youth was praised by Herr Weiss, physical education instructor at the organization's Philadelphia youth camp, Deutschhorst, near Croydon, Pa. He told the committee's investigator the boys and girls in camp obeyed orders "just like little soldiers."

The boys wore hunting knives encased in leather holsters attached to their belts. Handles of the knives showed a small swastika. Asked if the knives were made in New York:

No-


One boy is said to have replied.

The knives come straight from Germany and they can't send enough to supply everybody who wants one. When the next boat comes over, it will bring many knives, but there will not be enough to take care of all the orders.


Youth Leader Dinkelacker declared at the bund national convention:

It is highly important that we train them to think our way — the right way. Every bit of support you give this movement, whether it be financial or otherwise, is deeply appreciated and most significant. Urge your children and the children of your friends and relatives to join with us. We have great camps and training schools for them. The children will benefit by this training indoors and outdoors and will learn to understand the true meaning of our case and when they have reached mature life, they will rise to fight with us and will send their children to us.


The aims of the Amerika-Deutscher Volksbund as printed in its yearbook includes much the same message for youth.

To this youth we bind ourselves in duty to the end that some day it may feel bound in duty to our nationality and complete what we have begun. To have trained and strengthened and schooled them for national and racial responsibility, to be clean, healthy, and strong men and women, that some day shall be the fairest reward for our pains, activity, and sacrifices.


An example, pointed out to the committee, of the arrogance of the American-Nazi machine in its march to indoctrinate Nazi idealism in American youth was discovered recently in St. Louis, where reside some 100,000 German Americans, forming nearly one-eighth of the city's population (vol, 2, p. 1130).

It was testified that Nazi propaganda was slyly worked into the public schools of that city in recent months under the guise of summer German-language classes; that ostensibly, the plan was to simply teach the German language and sing German folk songs, but before very long it became apparent this was not at all the real purposes of the classes. Instead, instructions drifted into Nazi doctrines.


According to evidence before the committee, these classes were inaugurated through the efforts of a Mr. Walter Rist, a native-born citizen of St. Louis, last May. Fifteen fellow teachers and laymen were enlisted for this propaganda work. These instructors, according to this same testimony, offered their services without compensation, at least none from the schools. They also obtained classrooms in two public schools and succeeded in enrolling some 400 students.

Some highly interesting facts in conjunction with this Nazi propaganda schooling of American boys and girls has, however, come to the attention of the committee. After every Saturday class, trucks picked up some 50 of the children and carried them 55 miles to a Nazi camp near Stanton, Mo. This camp site is operated by the Deutsch-Amerikanische Berufgemeinschaft and is under the direction of Eberhard von Blankenhagen, former Consul Secretary of the German Embassy in Washington, according to this same testimony.

In manner similar to other Nazi camps throughout the country, this site is run with Prussian military precision. German is spoken everywhere and children are forced to don uniforms and so make their appearances at meetings and meals.

American educational institutions throughout the United States offer in their curriculums any number of German classes. Yet despite this fact, according to a witness, the German-American Bund has set up a German school system of its own. If these bund schools are purely for teaching the German language, why has the bund created a secret school system of its own?

Schools just like these Bund classes have been opened by Nazi minorities not just in the United States but also in many other lands, such as South America, Poland, and in the Sudeten areas.

At the national convention of the German-American Bund held a year ago in the Biltmore Hotel, New York, Bund officials from all sections of the United States heard at length a talk by a representative of the Polish-German Bund on this very subject. He outlined in detail just how the Nazi minority in Poland had succeeded in setting up this hidden school system, along with its own Kultur church system. And to the cheers of bund leaders, he forecast that the day is not far off when Germany would succeed in building up through the German-American Bund an identical program in the United States (vol. 2, p. 1131).

The spread of the Hitler youth movement within the ranks of the German-American Bund is reflected in a list of boys' units which have been established, which are experiencing a continued growth in numbers. This list includes the following:

Eastern district: Manhattan, N. Y.; Brooklyn, N. Y.; Buffalo, N. Y.; Hudson County, N. J.; Philadelphia, Pa.; Newark, N. J.; Nassau County, Long Island; Astoria, Long Island; Bronx, N. Y.; White Plains, N. Y.; Jamaica, Long Island; South Brooklyn, N. Y.; Schenectady, N. Y.; Yonkers, N. Y.; Lindenhurst, Long Island; Pittsburgh, Pa.; Passaic, N. J.

Middle West district: Detroit. Mich.; Chicago, Ill.; Milwaukee, Wis.; Cleveland, Ohio; and Kenosha, Wis.

Western district: Los Angeles, Calif.


It is of interest to note the purchase of a site for youth camps in Camp Siegfried, at a cost of $8,000, that Theodore Dinkelacker, national youth leader of the German-American Bund, has advised that the money used in this purchase was raised by loans from the Long Island membership of the German-American Bund, and particularly from parents of the children. Dinkelacker also declared that the older boys in the children's camp are given instructions in ways in which they should avoid it. He stated that the older boys are also given instructions in national socialism.

However, when this same national youth leader was asked:

Do you give them instructions in our democratic form of government?


Dinkelacker is said to have replied as follows:

No, they are too young to understand about Republicans, Democrats, etc.


In other words, it is the belief of the bund that these boys and girls are too young to be taught Americanism but old enough to instill in them Nazi ideology.

Along this same line it is of interest to note that Spellsberg, who was a former leader of the San Francisco storm troops, does not think it is worthwhile for the bund to try to win over these German Americans who came to the United States before the World War. Spellsberg, who trained speakers of the Germany-American Bund for propaganda purposes, points out instead as follows: "Get the youth!"

So closely related is the youth movement of the German-American Bund to that of the Hitler youth in Germany that they even sing the songs of the Hitler youth and reprint them in their song books (vol. 2. p. 1132).

On page 3 of the issue No. 6 of Junges Volk for June 1937, there are German songs of this character. The first song contains the words:

We have sworn an oath to our flag.


The second verse states:

The flag is our faith in God, people, and country,
Whoever wants to rob it, may rather take our lives and hands,
We shall care for the flag like for our good mother
Because the flag means tomorrow and honor and courage.


It should be made very clear in this connection that the flag referred to by the bund and its youth movement is not the Stars and Stripes of America but the swastika of Germany,

Another song on the same page is quoted as follows:

Fly, you sparks, fly into our time,
Announce war to all far and near
Who dare argue with us and who
Carry discord in their hearts.


On page 4 of the same issue there appears a song which is quoted as follows:

Youth, Youth — We are-the future soldiers.
Youth, Youth — We are the ones to carry out future deeds.
Yes; through our fists will be smashed who stands in our way.

Youth, Youth — We are the future soldiers.
Youth, Youth — We are the ones to carry out future deeds.
Fuehrer — We belong to you; yes, we comrades belong to you.


Again, it is pointed out that in the last line of this verse, the word "Fuehrer" does not refer to the President of the United States or any other American, but to Adolf Hitler, of Germany.

In effect, therefore, the Bund babies sing:

Hitler, we belong to you; yes, we comrades belong to you.


The practice of spreading Nazi propaganda through educational institutions does not, however, stop here. It has crept into many American institutions of higher learning.

One of the most alarming ways of Nazi propaganda along this line has swept through the ranks of exchange students to universities.

The purpose of the "exchange students" to universities has long been to foster good will and peace among the nations. The American student in a European university learns of the customs, habits, and cultural progress of the country in which he studies. The European student in an American school learns to appreciate American culture. The result is greater understanding.

But this worthwhile aim has been neglected in the exchange of German students for American, Now, American students are being indoctrinated with the aims of nazi-ism in Germany both abroad and at home to the detriment of democratic institutions in America (vol. 2, p. 1133).

Take, for instance, the case of the Committee on American Youth Camp in Germany. This committee arranges trips and stays for American youths in Germany. On the letterheads of this committee there is found the names of the following persons:

Dr. Colin Ross, Munich.
Professor Sprengling, University of Chicago.
Mrs. Dupont Ruoff, Wilmington, Del.
Mr. Leslie Bissel, Munich.
Mrs. Elsie von Johnson, Munich (formerly of Galveston).


It should be noted that according to testimony we heard, Dr. Colin Ross is a Nazi propagandist who spends his time between Germany and the United States. He has been one of the outstanding speakers for the German-American Bund and has been a writer for the Weckruf, official organ of the bund (vol. 2, pp. 1133 and 1134).

It is of interest to note that the following article in connection with the Student Exchange idea, which appeared November 14 in the New York Times, having been cabled from Berlin:

Berlin. — A marked increase in the number of American private preparatory schools exchanging students with the official National Socialist boarding schools, called National Political Education Institutes, is represented here as another victory for national socialism over foreign prejudice.

Several American boarding schools have been sending students for a year's training in National Socialist institutions. This year has been a notable increase in the American schools taking part. In the past there has been no difficulty in finding young National Socialists to go to the United States since their expenses are paid by the State. However, very few young Americans could be found for exchange purposes. Largely because of vigorous propaganda by the international schoolboy fellowship, this situation has been altered. The American boys here undergo a year's thorough training in national socialism and wear the customary brown-shirt uniform.


Photographs taken at many of the youth camps were introduced in evidence. In one instance pictures of children six years old were shown with the swastika, regulation German Army steel helmets and spears instead of the American flag.

CONSULAR AID

Denials to the contrary notwithstanding, this committee was greatly impressed with the evidence presented showing that there is a relationship existing between the German Government and the German-American Bund through the activities of Nazi consuls in this country.

Fritz Kuhn, leader of the German-American Bund, informed this committee's investigator at a time when the latter was disguised as a storm trooper that not only did he have power over the Ambassador and consular set-up in the United States but that he also had a special secret arrangement directly with Adolf Hitler, of Germany.

Ramifications of this "arrangement," Kuhn declared, also included a secret relationship between the German-American Bund and Dr. Hans Heinrich Dieckhoff, present German Ambassador to the United States, and German consuls throughout the country. (See vol, 2, p. 1149.)

In his executive office on the second floor of the bund national headquarters at 178 East Eighty-fifth Street, New York City, on the night of August 16, 1937, this committee's investigator testified that he spoke with Kuhn concerning a trip he had made to the Pacific coast and told him of the difficulties the Los Angeles Post had had with the German consul there. According to this testimony, Kuhn exclaimed:


My God, what's the matter with them. They know what to do. Why don't they let me know about it? I've heard before of this trouble in Los Angeles. Schwinn talked it over with me.


(This Schwinn is Hermann Schwinn, western leader of the German-American Bund. He is from Los Angeles.)

Oh, well, maybe Schwinn took my order of instructions with him to Germany and forgot to send it to his district.


It was at this point that Kuhn made the following statement to the investigator for the committee:

You see, I have a certain special arrangement with Hitler and Germany that whenever any of our groups have trouble with the consulates in their districts that they are to report it to me in full detail. I then take it up with the Ambassador. Germany is not to be troubled with it unless I get no satisfaction from the Ambassador.

That is exactly why there is a new Ambassador to the United States, and that is exactly why many consuls have been and still are being removed. All the new consuls are National Socialists and are under special instructions to give us the fullest cooperation in every way.


It should be pointed out that Dr. Hans Heinrich Dieckhoff, present Ambassador, was sent to the United States, May 14, 1938, to replace Dr. Hans Luther, whose policy, bund leaders said, did not coincide with those of the bund and the Nazi Party in Germany. There have been numerous consulate changes during the last 2 years, and bund leaders a year ago predicted that more would follow.

One of the new consuls general appointed a little over a year ago was Manfred von Killinger, who was assigned to San Francisco on June 11, 1937. It was shortly after his appointment that the committee's investigator visited San Francisco and, on the night of August 16, 1937, reported to Kuhn that the San Francisco post of the German-American Bund was well pleased with its new consul. Kuhn stated, according to the investigator for the committee:

Of course, he is the kind of consul we want everywhere.


An article of considerable interest in this connection with the affairs of Baron von Killinger was published only recently in the Salt Lake City Tribune — to be exact, on August 16. The following excerpts from the article:

"The German Government looks upon bund activities in America exclusively as an internal problem of this country, since only American citizens may belong to bunds," Baron Manfred von Killinger, German consul general at San Francisco, asserted here Monday.


It is a fact that the ranks of the American-German Bund include not only American citizens but also aliens. This fact has been established in admission to the committee investigator by various members of the bund to the effect that "they are German citizens and intend to remain aliens."

The article continues as follows:

The consul, rated as the No. 2 German in America and close friend of Hitler, was a storm-troop leader in middle Germany and, after Hitler's rise to power, became Prime Minister of Saxony, relinquishing this position in 1935, when state governments were abolished, to enter the diplomatic service.

Although denying emphatically any connection between the German Government and bund camps and organizations for training pro-Nazis in this country, Baron von Killinger expressed sympathy with bund aims.

"The bund leader in Los Angeles has conferred with me and asked me to address members there," the consul related, "but that does not mean I have gone to them."


It is known that Von Killinger has addressed meetings on the coast, and newspapers on the Pacific coast have carried many articles and pictures of these gatherings, many of them showing Consul von Killinger.

Consul von Killinger was also reported as stating that the activities against certain religious groups in this country, as practiced by the German American Bund, are "for the good of America."

The committee had before it evidence (vol. 2, p. 1151) that certain American citizens residing in California had made trips to Germany for the purpose of being schooled in the art of Nazi propaganda and enlightenment. In one instance the father of one of these men (vol. 2, p. 1151) told this committee's investigator that his son's expenses to Germany had been paid through a secret arrangement between the German-American Bund and the Nazi Government.


The consuls and diplomatic representatives of Nazi Germany in this country show a much closer cooperation with the nationalists of their country than any other similar group accredited here.

In fact, the evidence introduced plainly shows that American Citizens have received Nazi propaganda by mail in packages carrying the imprint of the Nazi consulate at St. Louis (vol. 2, p. 1156).

In addition to the close relationship between the German consular service and the German-American Bund throughout the United States, cooperative actions have been noted also between bund officials and officials of German steamship lines.

According to the daily press, Fritz Kuhn, leader of the German-American Bund, has denied the accuracy and authenticity of statements attributed to him by the investigator for this committee. This committee has informed the aforementioned Kuhn that it would be very glad to have him appear as a witness and make his denials under oath provided he came in with clean hands and brought with him the full and complete records of his organization showing not only the membership but the amounts and sources of moneys received and the manner in which they have been expended.

FUNDS AND PROPAGANDA

Propaganda direct from the German Ministry of Propaganda and Enlightenment is distributed by bund officials and evidence was introduced showing definitely that printed propaganda material was shipped from Germany to United States citizens directly. These packages contained, according to the testimony, considerable Nazi propaganda which was printed in Germany for distribution in the United States, considerable Fascist propaganda which was printed in Great Britain for distribution here, and much material of antiracial and antireligious character which was printed here, shipped to German Government agencies, and then reshipped to the United States for distribution in this country.

Much of this propaganda is designed for the specific purpose of preaching the gospel of national socialism and the aim of Nazi Germany in foreign lands from every conceivable angle. The names of the American citizens to whom this material was sent from Germany were not permitted in the record because many of them feared reprisals from agents of Nazi Germany.

Some of the packages containing German material carried with them letters from one Johannes Klapproth, who is in charge of the American section of the World Service, one of the chief Nazi propaganda agencies. This agency, located in Erfurt, Germany, ships materials to the United States and elsewhere. It was referred to briefly on the opening day of testimony and the evidence presented here is in full substantiation of statements made at that time.

Before continuing however, it is well first to consider the background of Mr. Klapproth. Without making any personal reference to this man, but relying on another Federal Government department, Klapproth's record is herewith presented, this record being no different from that already in possession of this committee:

Klapproth was an original member of the German Nazi Party before Hitler rose to power. He is fanatically antiracial and deeply interested in the Silver Shirts movement. He is continually exchanging reading matter with Silver Shirt leaders. He was the organizer of the Friends of New Germany in San Francisco and vicinity. In April 1934 he wrote a report to Germany on the slow progress of the San Francisco Bund at that time, blaming Consul Heuser for this condition.

He is acquainted intimately with George Deatherage and Kositsin and corresponds with them. Klapproth is now in Germany.

He came to the United States in 1928. He is an engineer. Going east, he became the gauleiter [district leader] of Brooklyn for the Nazi movement. This was early in 1935. He returned to the bay region, supposedly after a visit to Germany, where he boasted of having had a conference with Goering during the summer of 1936.

Klapproth toured the west coast with Deatherage for the purpose of interviewing pro-Nazi elements. He received mail at the German consulate in San Francisco. This fact alone once again establishes the tie-up between the German Government and the German-American Bund.


The packages coming here from abroad contained printed material from the pen of Ernst Goerner, of Milwaukee, Wis.; pamphlets from the Knights of the White Camellia, an organization founded by George E. Deatherage, of Charleston, W. Va.; leaflets from the Russian National Union; and issues from the Christian Free Press, printed in Glendale, Calif.

Contained in the exhibits of propaganda presented to the committee was a very expensive magazine glorifying Germany's industrial achievements. It is significant that while Naziland defaults on its bonds and no American firm can take its money out of the country, it is able to finance and distribute such propaganda.

One paradox in this particular propaganda maneuvering is the fact that the aforementioned Klapproth, apparently backed by a huge fund for this Nazi work, still asks gullible Americans to send him money for his printed matter which creates racial and religious bigotry in this country.

A superior court judge in California, without requesting it in any way, received four pieces of propaganda put out by the Nazis and printed in Germany, and envelopes advertising George Deatherage and his American Nationalist Confederation of Charleston, W. Va., which utilizes the swastika as its symbol (vol. 2, p. 1178).

The following affidavit has a vital bearing on this whole matter:

* * * being duly sworn, upon his oath says * * *; That he received, on or about July 25, 1938, the accompanying pamphlet, entitled "World Service," which he has attached to this affidavit as exhibit A. That the same was mailed to him from Erfurt, Germany, in the enclosed envelope, which has been marked "Exhibit B."

That he did not subscribe for this pamphlet, or publication, and did not request that it be sent to him. That it is one of a series along similar lines that he has been receiving at intervals over a considerable period of time.

That he makes this affidavit in order that any parties interested, including the congressional investigation committee of which Congressman Martin Dies is chairman, may be informed that printed matter of this character is being forwarded direct from Germany to citizens of this country, unsolicited and without their request, as propaganda of a nature to breed racial and religious intolerance (vol. 2, p. 1178).


Another step in the activities of the Nazi propaganda machine is shown in the interview had with one Karl Neumeister, 1898 Daly Avenue, New York City. The investigator for this committee testified that he interviewed Neumeister with the following result:

Neumeister admitted under questioning that he is engaged in spreading Nazi propaganda. He explained he was doing this kind of work because he believed in the principles of Hitlerism. He admitted that he goes around checking up on people to whom material of this type is mailed from Germany and that he does everything in his power to get these people to take more Nazi propaganda and assist in its distribution throughout the United States.

That many Germans living in the United States go abroad and take an oath of fealty to the Fuehrer of Germany was shown by evidence taken from a German newspaper, Der Montag, published in Berlin, under date of August 27, 1938.

Printing a dispatch from Stuttgart, this newspaper stated:

Der Treueschwurder vielen tausende Auslandsdeutschen auf den Fuehrer and die nationalen Lieder beschlossen die eindrucksvolle Feierstunde.


The English translation is:

The oath to the Fuehrer of the many thousands of Germans living abroad and national songs closed the impressive festivities.


Fifty Americans had taken part in this annual meeting of the Auslandsdeutschen Institute according to our testimony.

Repeatedly we have been told that there is no connection between the German-American Bund and the Nazi Government or its political subdivisions, repeatedly we have been told that no allegiance to Adolf Hitler is required, and yet here we have an officially inspired newspaper published in Germany telling us that an oath of fealty was taken.

The newspaper refers to this year's meeting as the Sixth Reich Congress of the Germans in Foreign Countries with delegates attending from many countries throughout the world.

GUNS, RIFLE RANGES, ETC.

Pistol and rifle ranges for all storm troops of the German-American Bund were to be set up according to plans formulated at the convention of the bund, held in New York City in July 1937, according to testimony heard by this committee on October 5, 1938.

Local Nazi units in Philadelphia, Buffalo, Reading, Pa., and Detroit have target ranges and the Philadelphia Nazi post uses heavy .22-caliber rifles which are cocked like regulation Army guns.

A target range was set up at Camp Siegfried, Yaphank, Long Island, and on one occasion Herman Schwarzmann, head of the Astoria, Long Island, group, announced that the men were to be "trained to shoot and to take care of guns" (vol. 2, pp. 1206 and 1207).

A shooting range near Cleveland, Ohio, was also described in our records.

Bund fuehrers informed storm troops that the various German World War veterans in their ranks would train the younger men in the use of arms.

It was also testified to that many of these former German soldiers now in the bund storm troops ranks are expert riflemen, gunsmiths, and machine gunners.

Testimony also revealed that bund storm troops join National Guard divisions in order to obtain training in the use of various types of American Army guns.

The committee, in addition, heard testimony which revealed that less than a year ago German espionage began to make a major effort in the United States (vol. 2, pp. 1234 and 1235).

Within the past year one section of the Gestapo, service section No. 2, under the direction of Colonel Nicolai, has added three new departments, Nos. 23, 24, and 25, all three specifically devoted to espionage in the United States.

Department 23 specializes in economic espionage — the obtaining of American manufacturing and industrial secrets.

Department 24 specializes in military intelligence.

Department 25 specializes in Nazi propaganda.


Of what type this propaganda will be, and how it will affect the United States, can be learned from pamphlet No. 7 of the Instructions for Our Friends Overseas — a small brochure printed in a total edition of 500 copies and given only to reliable agents. A short excerpt will amply convey the spirit of this "armed propaganda":

German propaganda in the United States must be handled more tactfully than it has been done before. It will not be possible to subsidize American newspapers except in very rare cases — and only newspapers of minor importance.

The fundamental aim must always be to discredit conditions in the United States and thus make life in Germany seem enviable by contrast. It will therefore be to the best interests of the Reich to cooperate secretly with all persons or groups who criticize the American system, regardless on what ground. The line to be taken in all such cases is to exaggerate the strength of Germany and to contrast it with the weakness of democracies.


In its report to the House of Representatives at the beginning of 1940, the committee added the following to its findings on the German-American Bund:

Fritz Kuhn, the fuehrer of the German-American Bund, claims that his organization is nothing more than a political group whose primary purpose is to promote the welfare and best interests of the citizens of the United States and to assist in a solution of their problems. Testimony before the committee, however, both from hostile and friendly witnesses, establishes conclusively that the German-American Bund receives its inspiration, program, and direction from the Nazi Government of Germany through the various propaganda organizations which have been set up by that Government and which function under the control and supervision of the Nazi Ministry of Propaganda and Enlightenment.

The bund presently has three major administrative divisions in the United States — the eastern, the mid western, and the far western — each under the direction of a division leader who takes his orders from Fritz Kuhn, the National Fuehrer. There are in the three divisions 47 districts and in the districts are a total of 69 local posts or units. It has been impossible to accurately determine the extent of the bund's membership due to the secrecy with which it operates and the fact that all membership lists, correspondence, and other records have been destroyed by order of the national leader, an admission he made on the witness stand to this committee. In the absence of membership lists, the committee has had to accept as the best available figure the statement of Fritz Kuhn concerning the bund's membership. He testified that the bund has a membership of approximately 20,000 to 25,000. (A Department of Justice investigation made of the bund in 1937 placed the membership at 6,500.) In addition to the regular membership, it has what is known as the sympathizer or "fellow traveler" group, consisting of those who are sympathetic to the bund but do not actively participate in its proceedings. He testified that the sympathizer group is composed of approximately 80,000 to 100,000 individuals.

It was established that the German-American Bund operating in the United States is similar to the Nazi groups which were built up in Austria and Czechoslovakia prior to their annexation by Germany. The August 31, 1939, issue of the Deutscher Weckruf and Beobachter, official newspaper of the bund, printed an article written in German under the following title:

Fritz Kuhn, America's Henlein. [1] German-American Bund, the organization of which he is the leader, eight to ten thousand uniformed storm troops. The duel, Kuhn versus Dewey.


It was established that the program and the activities of the German-American Bund are similar to Nazi organizations in Germany and in other countries. The bund newspaper makes frequent use of material emanating from Nazi propaganda sources, such as "World Service." The emblem of the National Socialist Party, the swastika, also is the emblem of the German-American Bund.

Fritz Kuhn, in defending the position that the bund is strictly an American political organization, claims that members of the bund must be American citizens. The following is a quotation from the "Weckruf," official organ of the bund, which is illustrative of the bund's attitude with reference to citizenship:

We may have lying in the closet different citizenship papers and yet we are all German men and links of a big German community of hundreds of millions.


In 1936 Fritz Kulin accompanied a large delegation of bund members to Germany ostensibly for the purpose of visiting the Olympic games. The group paraded in uniform of the Orderly Division (storm troops), and the parade was reviewed by Adolf Hitler. Following the parade, Fritz Kuhn and other officials of the German-American Bund were received by the German Fuehrer, at which time they presented him with a golden book containing autographs of bund members and delivered to him a contribution of $3,000 for the German winter relief fund. This money had been solicited from bund members, some of whom, according to Kuhn's testimony, were unemployed and on relief.

In his testimony with reference to the meeting with Hitler, Kuhn stated that no report was made by him concerning bund activities in the United States and that the subject was not mentioned during the interview. However, the December 10, 1936, issue of the official bund newspaper carried an article concerning a speech which Kuhn made in San Francisco following his return from Germany. According to the article, Kuhn stated in his speech that Chancellor Hitler advised him, "Go back and carry on your fight."  

1. Karl Henlein, the leader of the Nazi minority group in Czechoslovakia before annexation by Germany.


It was established through the testimony of Fritz Kuhn that the bund had worked sympathetically with other organizations throughout the United States and cooperates with them. Kuhn testified that some of these groups are the Christian Front, the Christian Mobilizers, the Christian Crusaders, the Social Justice Society, the Silver Shirt Legion of America, the Knights of the White Camellia and various Italian Fascist, White Russian, and Ukranian organizations. Kuhn testified that some of the leaders of these groups had addressed meetings sponsored by the bund and that representatives of the bund in turn frequently appeared as speakers at meetings and gatherings sponsored by the above-named groups. It was also established that the bund cooperated with some of these organizations and their leaders by exchanging literature and publications with them and by publishing material emanating from them in the official organ of the bund. Numerous articles have appeared in the bund newspaper expressing the bund's approval of the activities of the organizations already mentioned. The literature put out by the various groups and individuals named is distributed or sold at the bund camps, meetings, and other gatherings.

The following excerpt from the testimony of Fritz Kuhn is indicative of his attitude:

Mr. Whitley (examining the witness). Mr. Kuhn, what are the relations between Mr. Joe McWilliams and his Christian Mobilizers and the German-American Bund?

Mr. Kuhn. They are very friendly to each other, because the Christian Front, the Christian Mobilizers, really have ideas which we sponsor 100 percent.


With reference to the exchange of literature and propaganda material between the bund and various Fascist groups, the committee received testimony that the following are standard reading in bund camps: Hitler's Mein Kampf, Pelley's booklets and publication, Liberation, the books of Julius Streicher (German propagandist), and the Rev. Charles E. Coughlin's publication, Social Justice.

The German-American Bund, like the National Socialist Party in Germany, pays particular attention to the training of its youth. Testimony was heard that members of the youth movement were taught nothing concerning American institutions or ideals, and that they were encouraged to be extremely critical of the United States and its Government. It was also found that the uniforms worn by the members of the youth groups, their camps and program of activities were similar in every respect to those of the Hitler youth movement, and that the Nazi salute was the accepted gesture of greeting.

It was established that groups of leaders of the German-American Bund youth movement are frequently sent to Germany for special training. Testimony was received from a witness who was a member of a group of 15 boys and 15 girls from various parts of the United States who were selected by the bund to be sent to Germany for special training. According to the witness, all instructions concerning arrangements and the trip came from V. D. A. (League of Germans Living Abroad), one of the Nazi propaganda agencies; and all plans and arrangements with reference to the trip were carried out with the utmost secrecy.

It was established through the two witnesses, both former bund members, that there is a political agent on all German ships and that these political agents maintain contact with the Nazi representatives in foreign countries. They are intermediaries for transmission of instructions to the bund leaders in the United States and they receive reports from these leaders concerning the bund's activities, according to the witnesses.

A former bund member on the west coast testified that German agents engaged in espionage activities, contacted bund leaders in the United States and sought and received their cooperation. This witness also testified that he had heard discussions among bund leaders with reference to the manner in which the bund, through its members in various industrial plants, could effectively carry out a program of sabotage in case such action became necessary.

Evidence was heard by the committee that members of the bund had assisted German agents whose arrests were sought by officials in the United States in avoiding apprehension and had helped get them out of the United States with the cooperation of German ships.

Evidence also was taken indicating that Nazi propaganda agencies, through officials of the German Government in the United States, have attempted to propagandize educational institutions in this country. It was testified that a German consul general had offered, on behalf of the German Government to subsidize German departments in American universities provided the professors were "acceptable'' to the Nazis.

Cooperating groups. — The committee has found abundant evidence of the cooperation of certain other organizations with the German-American Bund. This is a more serious matter than is the direct strength or influence of the bund itself. For example, in August 1938 a so-called anti-Communist convention was held at the bund headquarters in Los Angeles at which Hermann Schwinn, leader of the bund on the west coast, was one of the principal speakers; and Arno Risse, bund leader, who has since fled the country, was one of the two or three persons most active in promoting and making arrangements for the convention. According to the testimony of Henry D. Allen, one-time Silver Shirt leader, organizer of the American White Guard, and prominent figure in Fascist circles generally, the following persons participated in this convention:

Kenneth Alexander, Southern California leader of the Silver Shirts; J. H. Peyton, of the American Rangers; Chas. B. Hudson, of Omaha, Nebr., organizer and leader of America Awake, who accompanied General Moseley when he appeared before the committee; Mrs. Leslie Fry, alias Paquita Louise De Shishmareff, mysterious international figure who has since fled the country, then leader of the Militant Christian Patriots; representatives of Italian Fascist and White Russian organizations; and a number of others of similar point of view.


Some White emigre Aufbau members possessed valuable American connections. Colonel Boris Brazol resided in New York, where he played a leading role in the Russkoe natsionalnoe obschestvo (Russian National Society). [117] This organization supported Grand Prince Kirill Romanov's candidacy for Tsar. [118] As we shall see, Aufbau increasingly backed Kirill for Tsar. Brazol also worked on the staff of the American industrialist and politician Henry Ford's anti-Semitic newspaper, The Dearborn Independent. In particular, Brazol provided information on the "Jewish question." [119] Scheubner-Richter praised Brazol as "one of the leading personalities in the Russian emigre circles of America." [120] Brazol also spent much time in Munich, though he was not officially registered there. He collaborated with Scheubner-Richter and furthered Aufbau's cause by writing anti-Semitic literature. [121]

At least two other White emigre Aufbau members possessed important American ties. General Biskupskii's cousin Vladimir Keppen received a $500,000 fortune from a parent in America, and he put much of this money at Aufbau's disposal. [122] General Konstantin Sakharov also possessed connections with America. After making a name for himself as an extraordinarily capable Tsarist officer, he had served as the chief of the General Staff of General Aleksandr Kolchak's White army in Siberia during the Russian Civil War. [123] From Siberia, he had maintained relations with the German General Staff. [124] After the Bolsheviks had captured and executed General Kolchak, Sakharov had led the remains of the latter's White army over Lake Baikal into the Russian Far East. [125] Sakharov had tried to travel to Europe as a representative of the White cause, but the Entente had refused to allow him entry because of his pro-German views. He had left for America instead. [126] He arrived in Munich from America in 1921 and immediately joined Aufbau. "[127]

-- The Russian Roots of Nazism: White Emigres and the Making of National Socialism, 1917-1945, by Michael Kellogg


Bund literature mingled with that of William Dudley Pelley, Robert Edmondson, Mrs. Fry, and George Deatherage on the tables of this convention.

It is clear to the committee that this convention was in no real sense an anti-Communist convention but rather another of a series of attempts to unite some of the various forces of intolerance, racial hatred, Naziism and Fascism in order to achieve greater influence in the United States. This effort like others of its kind yielded no apparent results.

"Well, I don’t believe [The Communist Party] is a political party. I believe it is an un-American thing. The thing that I resent the most is that they are able to get into these unions, take them over and represent to the world that a group of people that are in my plant, that I know are good, 100 percent Americans, are trapped by this group, and they are represented to the world as supporting all of those ideologies, and it is not so, and I felt that they really ought to be smoked out and shown up for what they are, so that all of the good, free causes in this country, all the liberalisms that really are American, can go out without the taint of Communism. That is my sincere feeling on it." (Eliot 193)

-- Walt Disney's testimony to HUAC, from "Walt Disney: Hollywood’s Dark Prince," by Marc Eliot


Allen further testified that he was sent out by Mrs. Fry on an extended trip throughout the country, and that all his expenses were paid by Mrs. Fry, but Allen did not know her source of the money. During the course of this trip Allen visited George Deatherage, leader of the Knights of the White Camellia, James True of Washington, D. C, publisher of the so-called Industrial Control Reports, Gerald B. Winrod, Kansas preacher, Nazi protagonist, and unsuccessful candidate for the Senate, Robert Edmondson, disseminator of Fascist literature, and Fritz Kuhn. On this same trip Allen went to Atlanta, Ga., to attempt to "buy the Ku Klux Klan" for Mrs. Fry for the sum of $75,000. He testified that he talked to Hiram W. Evans, head of the Klan, but that Evans "was not interested in the idea."

In releasing this report on the activities of Nazi agents in the United States the committee wishes to make the emphatic statement that neither the committee as a whole nor any of its individual members entertains the slightest doubt of the unswerving loyalty to the United States of our fellow citizens of German descent. In a number of cases it was their cooperation which made disclosures of bund activities possible. They felt that it was as much in their interest as in that of the Nation as a whole that the committee endeavored to bring to light some of the facts concerning the operations of Nazi agents and the leaders of the German-American Bund.

The question of the form of government of the German or any other nation is not one that concerns either this committee or the American people. But attempts by any foreign agency to influence American citizens in favor of a foreign form of government and against American democracy is quite a different matter and one concerning which the Committee on Un-American Activities has immediate and great concern.

In its report to the House of Representatives at the beginning of 1941, the committee called attention to the effectiveness of the method of exposure in dealing with an organization such as the German-American Bund. The committee said:  

When we began our work, the German-American Bund had a hundred thousand followers who were pledged to its fuehrer, Fritz Kuhn. The very first exposure which our committee undertook in the summer of 1938 was that of the German-American Bund. The first volume of our hearings opens with a hundred pages of detailed testimony on the un-American and subversive character of the bund.

During the past week the committee published a translation of the official, confidential Manual of the Storm Troopers of the German-American Bund. That document proves conclusively that the German-American Bund is an organization which is highly militarized, and which requires absolute loyalty on the part of its members.

Today Fritz Kuhn is in Sing Sing prison and the German-American Bund has been thoroughly discredited. James Wheeler-Hill, former secretary-treasurer of the bund, is also in prison. Our exposures have provided thousands of innocent people with adequate protection against the false claims of the bund. Its drastically reduced membership and following may now be held to consist only of those whose loyalty is to Hitler.

When we began our work, the bund and a score of Nazi-minded American groups were laying plans for an impressive united front federation — a federation which would be able to launch a first-rate Nazi movement in the United States. By our exposure of these plans, we smashed that Nazi movement even before it was able to get under way.
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Re: Neuschwanstein: A fairy tale darling's dark Nazi past

Postby admin » Wed Sep 25, 2019 7:55 am

Part 3 of 8

[Document #1 in German]

[Translation of Document #1]

AMERICAN GERMAN VOLKSBUND. GERMAN AMERICAN BUND

Basic Instructions For Unit and Branch Directorates

German-English index of jurisdictional, service, and headquarters designations and rank insignia

Rules For the Conduct of Meetings and the Celebration of Festivals

UNIT ORDER LISTS WITH DESCRIPTIONS AND SAMPLES

The Unit The Branch OF THE German-American Bund

To the Unit Leader/ Branch Leader/of _____ Bund Member _____ Address _____

BASIC INSTRUCTIONS FOB UNIT AND BRANCH DIRECTORATES

(1) The Unit/the Branch/ _____ is number (command number) and is a part of Section No. _____, District No _____, Region No _____, and Department No._____

(2) Your Section leader is Bund Member _____, telephone _____, address _____. Your Department Leader is Bund member _____, telephone _____, address _____.

Our Bund Fuehrer is Bund member Fritz Kuhn, Address: Fritz Kuhn, German American Bund, P. O. Box #1, Station "K," New York, N. Y.

(3) Mail for the National Executive Committee but not for the Bund Fuehrer personally, (new applications, settlements, orders, and (official communications intended only for some particular office of the National Executive Committee), should be addressed to the German-American Bund (office) P. O. Box #1, Station "K," New York, N. Y.

Each different type of inquiry, settlement, or order should be submitted under separate cover, the combining of different types of questions, etc., in one and the same letter causes much needless work and considerable delay in replying; since not all problems are handled in the same office and such a letter must be transmitted from one office to another.

(4) Checks and Money Orders should be made payable to: German American Bund, except for payments to the "Weckruf" (the Call) or to the DKV. (German Consumers League)

Checks, remittances, reports, notices, and subscriptions for the "Weckruf" should be sent to _____.

Checks and other mailable matter for the German Consumers' League should be mailed to _____.

(5) Except in the case of the address of the National Executive Committee and the "Weckruf" all names and addresses of Bund members and officers must be kept confidential and must not be divulged to anyone. Where units and branches begin to operate publicly they must rent a P.O. Lock Box under the name "AVAU"; such an address may be made public without exposing the office or the address of the officer to the general public.

(6) MEMBERSHIP. DUES. PERSONNEL RECORDS

(a). New admissions of Bund members: Newly proposed Bund members (BMR) are considered merely as candidates for membership until they have been obligated at a member meeting and have received their membership cards. This cannot be done until a period of four weeks has elapsed.

During the period of candidacy three investigators appointed by the Unit-Branch inquire into the accuracy of the candidate's personal declarations (address, passport, citizenship papers, sureties, etc.) In addition, the associational or lodge affiliations and degrees of the candidate must be ascertained.


Membership cards must not be sent to candidates through the mails but must be presented to them ceremonially at a member meeting as provided under "Regulations for meetings" and "festival celebrations". (Registration.)

(b) Enrolling of Patrons: It is not necessary to investigate the personal declarations of patrons, since they are not members and are not admitted to member meetings. Patrons' cards are mailed to them.

(c) New admissions of Youth Command Members: Youth Command Membership cards are presented ceremonially to Youth Command members (JMR) at a meeting of the Youth Unit Command by the Youth Unit Commander.

(d) Acceptance of Youth Command Members into full AV Membership: Youth Command Members (JMR) who have reached the age of acceptance receive their Bund membership cards as described in the foregoing, without being subjected to the delay required of candidates and without an investigation of their personal declarations.

(e) Member, Patron and Youth Command Acceptance Certificates: New acceptance (admission) certificates for Bund members and patrons, according to form, and filled out legibly with a typewriter or in ink and undersigned (subscribed) by the Unit, or, Branch leader are to be transmitted to the National Executive Committee accompanied by an admission fee of $1.00 and half the voluntary propaganda contribution after the unit and branch directorates have recorded the personal declarations of the new Bund members in duplicate upon personal (personnel) cards provided for the purpose. (Explanation of personal, (personnel record) cards under "h") . One card is retained by the Unit or Branch; the second is transmitted to the National Executive Committee with the certificate of admission (acceptance).

Youth Command admission (acceptance) certificates, undersigned by the Unit or Branch leader are to be transmitted to the National Youth Command with an admission fee of 20 cents and a Youth Personal (Personnel) Record. The second (duplicate) Youth Personnel Record Card is retained by the Unit or Branch.

(f) Requirements for Admission: Consult the text of the different certificates of admission.

(g) Dues. The monthly member or patron dues for men and independent women Bund members or patrons are 75 cents. Of this sum, 25 cents are to be sent to the National Executive Committee with the monthly settlement, and 5 cents to the Department Directorate; 45 cents are retained by the Unit or the Branch.

The Unit or Branch leader may reduce the monthly dues of a needy Bund member to a minimum of 30 cents, which must be accounted for (for which settlement must be made). In special cases this minimum should be paid by the fellowship (Kameradschaft).

Married women and unemployed adult women members of Bund members' families and members of their household pay 30 cents monthly as Bund members or patrons, of which only the 25 cents for National Executive Committee must be accounted for.

Youth Command Members pay maximum monthly dues of 20 cents, of which 10 cents must be transmitted to the National Youth Command with the monthly Youth Command settlement. The remaining 10 cents are retained by the Unit or Branch Treasury. Youth fuehrers (male) who have completed their eighteenth year, and youth fuehrers (female) who have completed their twenty-first year do not pay Youth Command dues but are full Bund members. The obligation of the Units or Branches to contribute to the Department, Bund, and National Youth treasurer is not determined by the punctuality of payment of Bund members, Patrons, or Youth Command members, but by the appearance of the respective names on the Bund members, patron, or Youth Command registers (lists).

(h) Record Cards (Karteikarten): Record cards containing personal information about friends, enemies, merchants, politicians, association officers, and similar persons whom we should know are to be made out in duplicate exactly as are those for members, patrons, and Youth Command members, and submitted monthly: one card is to be retained by the Unit or Branch Directorate; (lie other is to be sent to the National Executive Committee.

A white card printed in black is provided for German-speaking Bund members; and a similar one, printed in red, is for English speaking Bund members. The same kind of cards but bearing a star at the top, are for patrons.

Membership and patron cards bearing a red stripe are to be used for Bund members and patrons who have withdrawn voluntarily. But they must always show the reason as, for example, "loss of interest", "gone to Germany", etc. "Those cards must not be used for excluded Bund members (BMR).

Rose colored (pink) cards, bearing the letter "D", are intended for German-speaking non-members who may be regarded as at least not inimical.

Green cards, bearing the letter "A" are intended for non-inimical English-speaking Americans.

Yellow cards bearing the letter "F" are intended for enemies. Where they are German a "D" is to be inserted at the top. They are not to be used for Jews.

Light blue cards bearing the letter "J" are for Jews.


Large pink cards with the letters "JV" are for youth; yellow cards with the letters "JM" are for the Young Women's Unit; blue cards with the letters "JS" are for the boy's unit: green cards with the letters "MS" are for the girls' unit; and white cards with the letter "M" are for the maidens' union.

For friendly associations a large green card has been provided; for neutral and doubtful, a white; and for enemy a red.

(7) ACTIVITIES, REPORTS, WORK PLANS

(a) A brief, factual, activities report on the work of a preceding month is to be prepared monthly as well, also, as an activities plan for the two months next ensuring. Reports and suggestions are to be organized as follows:

1. Member meetings.

2. Public Speaking Evenings.

3. Fellowship Evenings (Kemeradschaft).

4. Motion Picture or other Cultural Evenings.

5. Celebrations.

6. Programs in Camps or National homes.

7. Participation in the programs of other organizations.

8. Branch Meetings (OD Youth, Women).

9. Miscellaneous (parades, propaganda).

(b) A copy of the activities reports and plans is to be sent to the qualified Section and Department Directorates and to the National Executive Council.

(8) OFFICE SUPPLIES. PRINTED MATTER. FLAGS

The necessary printed matter, forms, certificates, cash-books, seals, insignia, flags, etc. may be requisitioned from the National Executive Committee under the terms of the enclosed order list.

(9) FUEHRER PRINCIPLES. ELECTIONS. APPOINTMENTS AND REMOVALS

(a) The AV is conducted upon the fuehrer principle. Consequently there are no elections nor majority resolutions (decisions) except as provided under (b) and (c).

(b) At the January member meeting the annual secret election is held under the supervision of the qualified Department leader or his deputy. All attendent Bund members who are not in arrears may participate in the election by a vote of "Yea" or "Nay" ("Ja" order "Nein"), according to whether or not they are in agreement with (approve of) the conduct (management) of their Unit- Branch leader. Unmarked ballots are counted as "Yea". If more than one-third of the ballots cast are "Noes" the Unit-Branch leader is replaced by another by the Department leader according to regulations.

(c) At the final member meeting before the annual National Convention, the Unit-Branch leader proposes (nominates) members of his Unit (Branch) as delegates to the Convention. He should, if he is not indispensible, be a delegate himself, the remaining delegates should at least be officers.

The number of delegates is fixed by Bund orders and depends upon the numerical strength of the Unit (Branch. At this member meeting the Unit-Branch leader holds an election for the delegates. Only those candidates who receive at least a two-thirds vote are chosen.

(d) In all other matters of an official nature the Unit-Branch leader makes the final decision, naturally in conformity with the regulations of his superior.

He, himself, receives his commission from his Department leader with the approval of the Bund fuehrer.

The Unit-Branch leader appoints his officers with the approval of the Department leader. (Youth fuehrers are appointed with the approval of the National Youth Fuehrer, and OD Fuehrers with the approval of the National OD Fuehrer). Even in connection with these appointments the qualified Department leader is notified opportunely of every contemplated appointment. The Unit-Branch leader may remove his officers under the same circumstances.

To resign voluntarily from office constitutes evasion of duty, he who would relinquish his office honorably first makes application to his superior to be relieved of the duties of office, recommends a potential successor, and continues to perform his duties until his application is accepted.

Appointments: The Unit-Branch leader fills out a commission according to the following form for his officers and sends it with a copy for approval to the Department leader, or the National Youth Fuehrer or to the National OD Fuehrer.

AV Letterhead

Unit Directorate X
Branch Directorate X

Date _____
Address:

Certificate of Appointment

I Herewith appoint Bund member No _____ N _____ N _____ to be (a) (an) (OD Unit Commander) (Public Relations Leader) (Treasurer) (respectively) of the Unit (Branch) X _____.

Free America!
Signed _____
Unit Leader
Branch Leader
[seal]

Approved _____
Department Leader
(Natl. OD Fuehrer)
(Natl. Youth Fuehrer)
 
Until approved by the Department leader, the National OD Fuehrer or the National Youth Fuehrer all such appointments are merely provisional and all removals merely furloughs (suspensions?).

Members of secret societies (lodges, etc.) are not eligible to become officers or auditors.

Consequently all responsibility is at the top and every officer holds his office solely as the deputy of his superior. But it must be understood that true fuehrership is constructed not upon "cadaver"-like submissiveness but rather upon confidence and voluntary allegiance: A superior should strive to stimulate the spirit and joy of initiative and of service among his Kamerads by a constant readiness to listen to their suggestions and to assure to them that authority within their respective spheres which their responsibilities entail.

But title hunters who aspire to power while shirking responsibility he should not tolerate. The secret of the fighting strength of the movement lies in the principle of Fuehrership, the utilization of which makes it possible to impose responsibility upon some particular individual for every transaction and which excludes concealment behind anonymous majorities. In the filling of offices and the performance of Bund duties no fraternal chicanery may be permitted to intrude.

(10) DEVELOPMENT OF THE UNIT, BRANCHES AND SUBORDINATE COMMANDS

(a) (For Units and small Branches). For the present hold only closed, unpretentious meetings at which only Bund members and dependable acquaintances are present in order that the outward battle may not begin until your group is ready to take it up. You will find that the necessary internal endowment and solidity combined with mouth to mouth propaganda and aided by means of leaflets or letters, even without public activity, is valuable, and yields rich rewards. A precipitous procedure could destroy your branch.

The time for the public appearance of your group will be determined by the Unit-leader under whose supervision you exist as a Branch leader or by yourself when your Branch has been declared to be a Unit.

(b) For Branches: First of all, appoint a Treasurer, an OD Fuehrer, and a Public Relations leader. You may appoint additional officers when you are ready to assume additional duties.


Even though the importance of a uniformed, strictly disciplined OD unit may not be apparent at once to a new, small Branch we are constrained to observe after long experience that for the results we have obtained thus far we are indebted first and above all else to the existence of the OD, that has ubiquitously borne the chief burden of the practical work, and that without this service the Bund would not have been able to withstand several crisis. Even though the officer and the OD man may not often be able to appear publicly in uniform in their own small communities they should attend this important school nevertheless. In every one of even the smallest branches, therefore, an OD Unit unquestionably should be established, for by no other means and is it possible to secure for the Bund this most valuable support of discipline, preparedness and Kameradship.

See separately Issued OD Service Regulations.

(c) Rally the children of German descent! Organize a Youth Command regardless of how small your beginning may be. Open a language school or strive unceasingly to establish and promote a philosophical (weltanschanlich) German program in existing German schools. Distribute the periodical "Junges Volk."

See Youth Command Regulations issued separately.

(d) Try to have the German, pro-German (deutschfreundlich), and non-Jewish commercial enterprises of your neighborhood join the German Consumers' League (DKV), the economic organization of the Bund. See Officer Regulations under Economics Director.

(e) Send clippings of all local press notices that might be of interest in our fight in quadruplicate to the Department Directorate and to the National Executive Committee. See Officer Regulations under Information Director.

(f) Note the provisions under Meeting Regulations and Celebrations. Use the Information Service letters of the National Executive Committee for short presentations on Public Speaking Evenings.

Distribute the most important single arm of the movement, the "Weckruf" (The Call).

In all things conduct yourself according to the following guiding principles, (the only principles) by which the preservation of Germanic America can be effected:

The philosophical, political, and economic direction (Fuehrung) of Germanic America and the philosophical, political, education (rearing) of the youth of Germanic America is the concern of the German-American Bund and its branches alone (exclusively). In these spheres there is no place for illicit loves (paramours may not be recognized). Other organizations are to be treated according to their acceptance of these principles.

Part II

RULES FOR MEETINGS


All public affairs, public speaking evenings, Kameradship evenings, etc., as well as all member meetings and other official appearances of the AV or its branches have at least one official (business) part that must be conducted in conformity With the following provisions, except where, under "Celebrations," exceptions have been noted or where they may be permitted by the National Executive Committee in writing.

It must be understood that these provisions constitute merely a desirable model and need be followed merely to the extent that circumstances may permit. The extent to which they may be adaptable to the different meetings and celebrations is explained under "Celebration Programs" ("Festfolgegestaltung).

These provisions do not apply to the conduct of the "German Consumers League" (DKV), The Newspaper Corporation, or the Settlement Associations.

(A) All in official attendance upon meetings wear the uniform of their service.

(B) The Chairman of the meeting is the qualified official. (Bund Fuehrer, Department leader, Regional leader, District leader. Section leader, Unit leader, Branch leader, Cell leader, Block leader, or his representative.)

(C) The official meeting begins with the first stanza of the National Anthem of the United States, "The Star Spangled Banner." The Chairman and all in official attendance face the audience. The anthem is announced only by the musical note by which it is recognized; the entire audience rises at once without request and sings. Those in uniform salute with their right hands at their caps, those not in uniform stand erect with their hands at their sides.

(D) At Member meetings and at certain celebrations a text is read immediately after the signing of the National anthem while the audience stands, as follows: "Our meeting today (to be stated) is based upon the following text taken from (speech or book): (text) 'Free America'! At the closing, 'Free America!', by the Chairman, the audience responds, and all not on duty take seats. At meetings at which the reading of a text is omitted, the Chairman says merely 'Free America!' The Text chosen for a particular period is announced by the National Executive Committee."

(E) Then follows the greeting and a brief statement of the purpose of the meeting; the Chairman is not supposed to anticipate the remarks of the speaker selected for the occasion.

Speakers are introduced briefly as they arise, by stating their rank, place of service, name, and the subject of their address; although the audience should be given all necessary information about the speaker, all fraternal flattery is absolutely prohibited. Groups are presented either by their group designations or by the rank and name of their leader.

Any comments about speakers at the conclusion of their remarks must be brief, simple and truthful: Expressions of thanks are to be reserved for non-members and should not be extravagant. In greeting (or welcoming) the salutation. "Ladies and Gentlemen" should be avoided (omitted) disciplinary reasons. Bund members and guests of German nationality are not to be introduced as Mister ("Herr") but as "Bund member" or "fellow-countryman" (Volksgenosse). The term "Mister" ("Herr") is to be applied only to persons not of German descent.

(F) The official conclusion consists of the erstwhile prescribed closing song and "Free America," which follows immediately. Flag retirements follow "Free America." The concluding "Free America" never must be omitted at any meeting; and during its recital all standards must be at the front.


The Chairman announces the conclusion as follows: "We shall now close our _____ (the official part of _____) _____ with the (song) _____ '. No long-winded exhortations to rise, etc. The musical note is struck, and all rise and sing while giving the official salute. The Chairman and all officiating personnel stand in front of and face the audience. For information concerning the salute see OD Service Regulations, p. 15, under "Official Salute".

Immediately upon the conclusion of the closing song and before he (as the audience) has lowered his arm the Chairman recites 'Free America'! as follows: "To a free, Gentile-ruled United States and to our fighting Movement of awakened Aryan Americans, a three-fold, rousing, 'Free America!' 'Free-America!' 'Free-America!'." The audience repeats the word 'America' after the Chairman, and arms are lowered after the third repetition. The salute is concluded by bringing the right hand to the left breast and then lowering it to the side. The English conclusion is used only at meetings conducted entirely in English.

(G) General:

(G1) American and Bund flags occupy the place of honor at all meetings, except as otherwise provided under "Celebrations program"; they should be OD standards. Standards are never hung but must always be kept on staffs and set-up by uniformed OD guards.

(G2) In the decorating of auditoriums all "tricky", fraternity "stuff" is to be avoided. Flags and more flags, arms, shields with battlecries, swastika (Hakenkrenze) and Bund emblems, living green; the colors red, gold, white, green and blue preferred. Simple, dignified decorum. At the celebration for the establishment of the Reich and Adolf-Hitler Birthday Celebrations, pictures or busts of Hitler; at George Washington Birthday celebrations and American Independence Day celebrations pictures or busts of Washington.

(G3) Smoking and drinking are prohibited during the business part of all meetings. At long celebrations refreshment pauses may be provided.


(G4) All flag drills must be held immediately before the singing of the American National Anthem, in order that the flags may be at the front during the singing of this song. During long celebrations all (members of the drill team) but the color guard may retire, to return again at the conclusion.

The retiring of the standards follows immediately after the conclusion. When the Bund fuehrer or one of his proxies speaks all participating uniformed branches stand during his address.

(G5) During the visits (presence) of representatives of a higher ranking officer, the officer in charge must provide these visitors with orderlies and guards. In addition seats must be reserved for them to which they must be conducted immediately before the beginning of the official part of the program. When the Bundfuehrer appears the OD forms in line.

If the Bund Fuehrer or his representative appears during a meeting, the Command "Attention" is given, and the program is interrupted in order to welcome (greet) him.

When the Bund Fuehrer or his representative appears as the speaker no one will follow him, except the Chairman, who will close the meeting.

(G6) When a representative of the Reich speaks at a celebration, the German national anthem is to be played immediately after his address. But if (according to regulations) the closing song of the particular celebration should be the German national anthem, then the Bund Propaganda song is to be substituted for it as the closing song. When representatives of nations other than America are present in their representative capacity the National anthem of their country is played immediately after their address.

(G7) Dancing is permissible in connection with all celebrations except at memorials, etc. See "Rules for Celebrations" Programs should be arranged so that after the official part at least two or more hours may be devoted to dancing before the legal closing hour. The accompanying dance, provided "Jazz" is prohibited, is a permissible attraction throughout.

(G8) Booktable, "Weckruff" and order blanks, Youth literature, propaganda literature, and certificates of admission should never be omitted at a public meeting.

Festival (Celebration) Programs

The following provisions are intended to supplement the regulations under "Meeting Regulations". Except for the changes effected by the written orders of the National Executive Committee all official meetings and celebrations of the AV and its branches are to be conducted strictly in accordance with the appropriate provisions of the following regulations so far as circumstances may permit. Exceptions: Programs of the DKV, the Newspaper Corporation and the Settlement Associations intended for their own development, even though having a philosophical (weltanschaulich) aspect.

(1) EXECUTIVE MEETINGS, FUEHRER CONFERENCES

Meeting regulations. Executives (officers) or associates or subordinate fuehrers submit reports on their activities and are given instructions for future work. The Chairman should urge constant criticism, advice, and suggestions and constantly stimulate his associates to independent thought and action, ever mindful of the fact that every proper fighter renders more, and more willing, work when he has been given the authority and the freedom of action which his responsibility necessitates. And every associate must be conscious of the fact that he is responsible neither to his Kamerads nor to the public, but only to his superior, and that in any given case he must conduct himself strictly in accordance with the decisions of his superior.

(2) MEETINGS AND "HOME EVENINGS" OF THE BRANCHES

Consult OD Service Regulations, Youth Command Regulations, Women's Division Regulations.

The most important essential of profitable activity and in the removal of misunderstanding, suspicion, and discord between the different branches is the restriction of each branch to its own domain. At meetings of the OD only OD matters should be discussed; at Women's Division meetings only matters affecting Women; and at Youth meetings only matters affecting youth, should be considered.

If Fuehrers (men or women) of any branch desire to have proposals, criticisms, or complaints concerning other branches considered, they should call on the qualified fuehrer of the Branch affected and not on other associates of their own Branch, or, indeed, upon the general membership.

(3) MEMBER MEETINGS

A, B, C, D, E, F, and G as under "Meeting Regulations". Only Bund members (BMR) and Youth Command members (JMR), with their membership cards as evidence, who are not in arrears, are admitted. Patrons are not admitted. Candidates for membership whose membership cards have reached the Unit from the National Executive Committee should be provided in advance with a written invitation, which will admit them for the purpose of acceptance (into the Bund). All participants are on duty and consequently wear uniforms and insignia. OD standards in front. Officers in front, facing the audience. Uniformed personnel advance at the opening and do not withdraw to take their places until they have been inspected and ordered to do so by the commanding officer. Procedure: Before opening, payment of dues, entry on the "present list" (roll). After the reading of the text and the welcome, inspection of uniformed branches; report of officers; strictly in accordance with the previously received instructions of a Chief Executive the reading of certain portions of Bund orders currently received and intended only for the ears of the membership; discussion of the work of the past period, and information concerning the distribution of the work of existing projects and meetings; discussion of proposals and criticisms by members; and in conclusion obligating of New BMR, (Bund Members) and the ceremonial installation of new officers.

Registers (rolls) never are read and in no other way is the audience to be given any information concerning the numerical strength of any Unit. The regularity of the treasury conduct is to be certified to the membership quarterly by accounts-and-treasury (book and treasury) auditors appointed by the Chief Executive and bound to secrecy except to their superiors, but no detailed information concerning the financial status of the Unit is to be given to the membership. This is necessary because unfortunately no member assembly is actually a closed meeting from which nothing reaches the general public and because the financial or other strength or weakness of a Unit is not a public matter.

Executives and officers never should assail or criticize one another in the presence of the membership. Differences of opinion which cannot be adjusted within administrative circles must be fought out at the top; externally and below there must be absolute unanimity between administration and executives.

Discussion in the member meeting is based upon the request of the Chief Officer for criticisms of past performances and activities and for suggestions concerning prospective meetings and undertakings. The practice of criticising persons and the preferment of complaints has no place at meetings and is to be prohibited. Such criticism must be presented to the qualified officer of Chief orally or in writing without drawing the general membership into sympathy; complaints must be adjudicated officially. (See Officer Regulations and statutes of the AV). Arguments or other characteristics of a parliamentary Jewish school ("Polish diet," "hell broke loose") have no place in a member meeting. The confidential (secret) voting (elections) in January and prior to the National Convention must be the only deviations from a strictly disciplined muster.

If an excess of suggestions and criticisms from otherwise indifferent Bund members (BMR) develops meetings it can be brought to an end most quickly by calling upon these Bund members (BMR) to take hold immediately of the problem themselves in order that through diligent cooperation they may first win the fight to become bombastic critics.

We need to learn from the conclusive experiences of those Units that never have permitted boasted liberalism to develop and therefore have been able best to withstand the severest tests of our movement.

The obligating of new Bund members (BMR) proceeds as follows:

The standard bearers align themselves on the right and left of the Officer (The American flag on the right of the Officer with the front toward the audience) and the Treasurer gives him (the officer) the membership cards. The candidates are requested to step forward and stand in front of the officer facing the audience. The officer presents the candidates to the membership and asks if there be (are) any objections to the acceptance of any one of the proposed candidates, in order, in a given case, to postpone a challenged acceptance until after investigation. The candidates face the Officer, who explains to them briefly the principles of the Movement. He then proceeds from one to the other, addresses each by name, requests of them the pledge (no oath) to obey the regulations of the Bund according to their duty as Bund members (BMR), (Whereupon they answer "Yes"), gives them their membership cards and the regulations of the Bund extends them his hand and greets them as new Kamerads with 'Free America", and the official salute, which they repeat after him.

The meeting is closed immediately after the new Bund members (BMR) have been obligated. Closing song: The Bund Propaganda song. (Candidates who for weighty reasons prefer to remain unknown need not to accepted (admitted) publicly: but in such cases the investigation before final acceptance must be conducted with particular thoroughness.  

Installation of new officers takes place before the obligating of new Bund members (BMR). (See Officer regulations.)

At the close of the meeting Kameradly "get-together" and the singing of camp songs.

(4) EDUCATIONAL AND SPEAKING EVENINGS

A, B, C, D, E, F, and G, as under "Meeting Regulations." Standards in front, Chairman and Speaker in front, facing the audience. Book-table, information and application table. Chairs in rows, seat at tables. Speaking Evenings are intended for the general public. Addresses and presentations to be simple (easily understood) not too deep nor too numerous. All presentations to be directed toward a central theme. One or two languages. The language meetings begin in English and close in German with a brief intermission between parts in order that persons unable to speak German may have an opportunity to leave.

Educational evenings to present an educational atmosphere; audience to be inspired, "essential points to be transcribed." References to appropriate literature.

At both meetings stimulate questions of a philosophical (weltanschaulich) political nature. Educational evenings may be combined with Member meetings or Branch musters. Closing song: English stanza of the Bund song. (Salute while singing).

(5) MOTION PICTURES AND STAGE PROGRAMS, CHAMBER-MUSIC, LITERARY AND OTHER PURELY CULTURAL EVENINGS

B, C, E, F, and G as under "Meeting Regulations." A not required. D may be omitted down to the Welcome. No standards. American and Bund flags. Official conclusion matter of choice or according to the cultural presentation. Closing song: English stanza of the Bund song (salute) Accompanying dance permissible.

Cultural or Propaganda Evenings under cover titles or without the official part may be held only under special, written permission of the Department Directorate.

(6) KAMERADSHIP EVENINGS

A, B, C, D, E, F, and G as under "Meeting Regulations." D is omitted down to the welcome. The official part constitutes the beginning and should be very brief; the Kameradshaft evening proper follows immediately after the closing "Free America"! The official part consequently consists of the usual singing, welcome, statement of purpose, and conclusion. Closing song: English stanza of the Bund song (accompanied by salute). Standards front during the official part.

Kameradship evenings should be held by those branches for which in any given case it is necessary to propagandize; and when possible the chairmanship is turned over to the Fueherer (man or woman) of such branch. But such evenings may be held also as manifestations of the solidarity of the movement by the Units (of the Department) under the direction of some particular branch. American and Bund flags as decorative flags.

Neither at Kameradship evenings nor at any other time may there be any stage presentation that may be designated as tending to ridicule or traduce (defame) any religious faith; for to attack us on this ground is the favorite pursuit of our opponents.

And it must be observed strictly that national anthems and other ceremonial, national songs are not to be sung at the bar (beer-table) and they must not be used as dance tunes.

(7) PROPAGANDA EVENINGS

As under (4), (5) or (6) according to circumstances. The purpose of the Propaganda Evenings is not merely to explain generalities in broad outlines, to indoctrinate the initiate, or to serve our nationality by cultural offerings, but above all to induce non-member fellow-countrymen, who have been solicited, to join.

(8) CONSECRATION OF FLAGS. ANNIVERSARIES (FOUNDATION CELEBRATION)

A, B, C, D, E, F, and G as under "Meeting Regulations". They must be strictly ceremonial and martial, without pretentiousness. Martial spirit. German or German and English. All participating branches must wear uniforms. If possible parade of colors with cooperation of other Units and organizations. Brass band, chairs in rows, not at tables. American and Bund flags as decorative flags. Foundation celebrations of the Bund are not "Anniversaries" (Stiftungsfeste)!

At flag consecrations all cultural offerings occur in the first part, while the actual consecration ceremony constitutes the principal part and the close. At the consecration all advance. The flags to be consecrated are covered (veiled) carried to the stage by a qualified officer accompanied by an OD detail, consecrated by the Bund Fuehrer or his proxy and turned over to the color guard. During consecration the soft music, to accompany the Star Spangled Banner or the Bund song, according to whether it is an American flag or a Bund flag. American flags must be consecrated first. During consecration all give the official salute. Closing song: The Bund song. (Salute during last stanza) Accompanying dance permissible.

(9) ALLEGIANCE OBSERVANCES

The George Washington Birthday celebration in honor of the founder of the Nation, the Adolf-Hitler Birthday celebration in honor of the philosophical (weltanschaulich) "leader". Symbol of all German descendants, the Independence Celebration, and German Day are the four allegiance celebrations that must be observed by every Unit no matter how small it may be and, whenever possible, on the day prescribed below. An alternate day may be the following Saturday or Sunday. If it is not possible to hold a large celebration, it may be observed in a private home.

(9a) GEORGE WASHINGTON'S BIRTHDAY CELEBRATION

February 22. A. B, C, D, E, F, and G as under "Meeting Regulations". In English. All branches in uniform. Parade of the colors, if possible. American and Bund flags (American flags predominant). Washington pictures and busts. Chairs in rows, not at tables. Recite "Pledge of Allegiance", with soft music and singing of "My Country 'tis of Thee". (America). Clothing song: English stanza of the Bund song. (Salute). Accompanying dance permissible.

(9b) ADOLF HITLER BIRTHDAY CELEBRATION

April 20. A, B, C. D. E. F, and G as under "Meeting Regulations". In German, with a short introduction in English in consideration of the non-German-speaking participants. All branches in uniform. If possible flag presentation. German flags among others. Hitler pictures or busts. Chairs in rows, not at tables. Cultural activities in first part. Second part martial, with the principal address immediately before the close, and retirement of the colors. Closing song: German National anthem. Accompanying dance permissible.

(9c) INDEPENDENCE CELEBRATION

July 4. Outdoors if possible. As under (9a).

(9d) GERMAN DAY

October 6 or on the first Saturday or Sunday in October. Washington and Hitler pictures or none. All other details as under (9b). German Day represents not merely the participation of Germania in the development of the United States but also its national-philosophical (weltanschaulich) alliance with the old home.

Allegiance Celebrations may be held with or under the direction of other organizations provided the conditions under (10) are complied with.

(10) REICH FOUNDATION CELEBRATION, JAN. 30

Potsdam Celebration. March 21; and other similar celebrations especially associated with Germany: As under (9b).

(11) LABOR DAY

May 1. Outdoors. A, B, C, D, E, F, and G as under "Meeting Regulations". German and English. All branches in uniform. Brass bands. Afternoon, popular amusement. Toward evening, if possible, torch-light procession. Parade of the Colors. Official part around a May fire. American and Bund flags. Flags on poles. If possible, the allegorical presentation of the different crafts and the unity of all laboring fellow-countrymen of hand and head (that is the unity of Labor, mental and physical).

(12) HARVEST THANKSGIVING DAY

In honor of Agriculture (Farmers).

First Sunday in October or last Sunday in September. Outdoors. No fire. Generally as under (11).

(13) MEMORIALS

A, B, C, D, E, F, and G as under "Meeting Regulations."

German or German and English. Formal and martial. All branches in uniform. Chairs in rows, not at tables. At celebrations reminiscent of Germany or held concurrently with Germany, German flags may be included (among others). No gay garlands or trumpery in the auditorium. Welcome by the officer, remainder of the program in the hands of the OD with place of honor for retired soldiers. No religious ceremony nor the reading of scriptural passages; no speeches that, lacking skillful or masterful handling, might make the speaker appear laughable or ridiculous. Advance of the colors with roll of drums and slow cadence. First part of the celebration in undertones with decorations and lighting in accordance with the desired psychological effect. No weepy, weak celebration with a depressive psychology. At the roll call of the fallen: Roll of the drums.Conclusion of the first part with a lowering of the colors (except the American) and playing of the song of the good Kamerad (guten Kamerdan). Immediately thereafter, without pause, the command "Standards up" ("Fahnen hoch"!), elevated spirits, and brighter lights. Retirement of the colors lively with march music (in marching time). Closing song at "Horst-Wessel" memorials and other memorials in honor of the fallen of the Hitler-Movement: All four stanzas of the "Horst-Wessel" song (salute during last stanza). Closing song at German National Memorial day at other War Memorial Celebrations reminiscent of Germany: the German National anthem. Accompanying refreshment permissible. No dancing of any kind at such celebrations.

(14) CELEBRATION OF THE SOLSTICE

Outdoors. A, B, C, D, E, F, and G as under "Meeting Regulations". In German. Formal and martial. Trumpets and brass bands. Presentation of the colors and torch-light procession in honor of the Youth branches. All participating branches must be in uniform. During the day Youth Convention. Official part during the evening at the solstice fire. Large flags on poles. (American and Bund). An erected or suspended large, white or silver-striped "Swastika", in front of and beneath which the Chairman and the Speakers stand. Presentations quartered about the wood pile: standards in front in a circle about the wood pile. The Officer lights the fire while an oath of allegiance is directed upon the flames. Memorials and lowering of the flags (up to the American). Fire speech of each branch. All sing: "Flamme empor" (Flames empor) (Flames aloft). Principal address. Conclusion, and retirement. Closing song: The Bund Propaganda song (salute during last stanza).

No proceedings or speeches indicative of any particular faith; but likewise no ridicule of any particular creed. Accompanying dance permissible.

Significance of the Winter-Solstice Celebration: (Gratitude to the Almighty for the proclaimed return of the life-giving sun. Gratitude for the victory of light over darkness; of life over death. Rededication to the continuation of the battle of Good over Evil; of the Gentile spirit, the spirit of the affirmation of life and ennobling exaltation, over the Jewish spirit of life negation, red destruction and the enslavement of Gold. Confession of nationality.

Significance of the Summer-Solstice Celebration: Gratitude for vitality (vigor) symbolized in sun and fire, which the continuation of the purifying battle has made possible. Renewal of pledges through approaching difficult and dark times.


(15) CHRISTMAS CELEBRATION

B, C, D, E, F, and G as under "Meeting Regulations". A not required. Standards not required. In German. Not martial. No brass bands. American and Bund flags may be used as decorations. On the stage, setting of winter forest; decorations of swastika, blue candles and evergreens with glittering snow, lametta, and white candles. Principal trees should not be brightly trimmed, except at the tip: swastika or blue candles. White-covered tables in the auditorium, with evergreens and blue or red candles. Distribution of children's presents on the stage. Adults to be served with coffee and cake. Santa Claus (Christmas man) and the singing of Christmas carols permissible. No reading of scriptural passages; no manger performances etc; nothing that could be considered as symbolic of any particular creed; leave religious celebrations to the churches. Speeches and other presentations should tend to explain the symbol of the celebration in reference to the significance of the Winter solstice, proclaiming the beginning of a new existence after the death of Winter and evoking the joy of giving, especially to youth. The swastika (Hakenkreuz) is symbolic of the will of the Gentile to live; the blue candles are symbolic of the community of all Germania at Christmas.

Distribution of baskets of food, and certificates for coal, to the needy; but names of recipients of aid must not be read nor disclosed in any other way. Christmas "market", lottery, auction, etc., and accompanying dance permissive; but during the official part the spirit of the celebration must not be disturbed by the details of these matters.

Closing song: The Bund song. (Salute during last stanza).

(16) PARTICIPATION IN THE PROGRAMS OF OTHER ORGANIZATIONS

Official participation is permissible only where Bund uniforms and Standards or a Bund speaker are admitted and where our sacred symbols and principles are respected; at German organizations only if (1) superiors attend, and (2) at every program at which we display German flags and at which we would sing the German National anthem, they do likewise.

If at any program, at which the AV or one of its branches or subordinate units participates or is a guest, fighting Germania, its Fuehrer, or the old home is offended by a responsible official or from the stage, all Bund members (BMR) must at once leave the program under all circumstances except where a qualified Officer or Executive is present and commands a different course that would constitute an equally apparent protest.

"Weckruf", Youth periodicals, and other Public Relations Materials must be distributed at every opportunity. Wherever permissible the book table should be set up.

The constant first thought must be that strength, time, and money must serve the Movement and its members first of all, constantly and everywhere and that they may not be inconsiderately dissipated by filling the halls of universal organizations. Wherever the cause of the Bund is served, assistance may be rendered, but where such assistance would tend to contribute to the dismemberment of Germania, while little, moth-eaten organizations incapable of independent existence and consequently undeserving of further existence might be artificially kept alive by such assistance, it must be refused.

Part III

Translation of Territorial, Service, and Rank Designations. (1)


XXXXXXX Abschnitt Drei XXXXXXX

Uberseizung Der Gebiets-, Amts-und Dienstgradbezeichnungen

(1) — Gebietsieseichnungen: Territorial Designations: Bundes-, Landes- National
Gau- Department
Gebiet(s) Region
Kreis(-) District
Bezirk(s-) Section
Oetsgruppe(n-) Unit
Stutzpunkt(-) Branch
Zelle(n-) Cell
Block (-) Block  
Gau Ost - Eastern Department
Gebiet Nr. I - Region No. I
Gebiet II - Region II
Gau Mittelwest - Midwestern Department
Gebiet II - Region III
Gebiet IV - Region IV
Gebiet V - Region V
Gau West - Western Department
Gebiet VI - Region VI
Gebiet VII - Region VII

(2) — Dienststellenbezeichnungen: Headquarters Designations:
bundeskanzlei - National Headquarters
Gauleitung - Department Headquarters
Geschaftsstelle - Executive Offices
Verlag - Publishing Offices
bundesheim - Bund Home
Jugendheim - Youth Home
Landheim - Country Home
Jugendlager - Youth Camp
Siedlung- Settlement
Versam Mlungsort - Meeting Place

(3) Amstbezeichnungen: (Beispiele) - Service Designations (Examples)
Bundesleitung - National Executive Committee
Landes-Op-Fuhruxg XXXXX (LODF) - National OD Command
Landesjugendfuhrung (LJF) - National Youth Command
Landesfrauenfuhrung (LFF) - National Women's Command
Bundesschatzmeisterei - National Treasury Directorate
Bundesgeschaftsfuhrung - National Secretariate
bundesorganisationsleitung - National Organizing Directorate
Bundeswerbeleitung - National Public Relations Directorate
Bundespresseleitung - National Press Directorate
Bundeswirtschaftsleitung (DKV)- National Economics Directorate Bundesnachrichtendienstleitung - National Information Directorate
Bundesuschla) Untersuchungs-und Schlichtungsausschuss) - National Arbitration Board
Gauk Assenleitung - Department Treasury Directorate
Gebiets-Op-Fuhrung - OP Region Command
Kreisjugendfuhrung - District Youth Command
Bezirksfrauenshaftsleitung - Section Women's Directorate
Ortsgruppengeshacftsfuhrung - Unit Secretariate
Stutzpunkschriftfuhrung - Branch Secretariate
Gauleitung - Department Executive Committee
Zelleleitung - Cell Executive Committee
OP-Abteilungsfuhrung - OP Unit Command
Jugendahteilungsfuhrung (OD- und Jugendeinheit der Ortsgruppe oder des Stutzpunktes). - Youth Unit Command
Lagerleitung - Camp Directorate
Siedlungsleitung - Settlement Directorate
Jungenschaftsfuhrung - Boys' Command
Madchenschaftsfuhrung - Girls' Command
Arbeitsdiensr- (AD)-Fuhrung - Labor Service Command
Sanitatsdienst- (SD_-Fuhrung - First Aid Command
Frontkampfer- (FK)- Fuhrung - War Veterans' Command
 
(4) - Dienstgradbezichnungens (Belsp'ele) - Rank Designations (Example) - Officer
Amtswalter - Assistant
Mitarbeiter - Cell Official
Zellenwalter Blockwart- Block Official
Der Bundesfuhrer - The National Leader
Gauleiter-Ost - Eastern Department Leader
Gebietsleiter-VI - Sixth Region Leader
Kreisleiter-Ohio - Ohio District Leader
Bezirksleiter-Long Island - Long Island Section Leader
Ortsgruppenleiter-Chicago - Chicago Unit Leader
Stutzpunktleiter - Branch Leader
Zellenleiter-Yorkville - Yorkville Cell Leader
Blockleiter-Yorkville-8 - Eighth Yorkville Block Leader
Landes-OD-Fuhrer (Der Bundesfuhrer) - Order Division (Op) Commander-in-Chief (The National Leader)
Lades-Op-Fuhrer - National Op-Commander
Gau-Op-Fuhrer - Op Department Commander
Gebiets-Op-Fuhrer - Op Region Commander
Kreis-Op-Fuhrer - Op District Commander
Bezirks-Op-Fuhrer - Op Section Commander
Op-Abteilungsfuhrer - Op Unit Commander
Op-Zugfuhrer - Op Detail Commander
Op-Gruppenfuhrer - Op Group Commander
Bundesschatzmeister - National Treasurer
Bundesgeschaftsfuhrer - National Secretary
Bundesfrauenshaftsreferent - National Women's Division Director
Landesfrauenfuhrerin - National Women's Commander
Landesjugendfuhrer - National Youth Commander
Landesjungenfuhrer - National Boys' Commander
Landesmadchenfuhrerin - National Girls' Commander
Bundespressleiter - National Press Director
Gauwertschaftleiter (DKV-AMTS Walter) - Department Economics Director
Gebeitswerbeleiter - Region Public Relations Director
Kreisorganisationsleiter - District Organizing Director
Bezirkspolitikleiter - Section Political Director
Ortsgruppenjugendreferent - Unit Youth Director
Jugendabteilungsfuhrer - Youth Unit Commander
Ortsgr/Frauenschaftsleiterin - Unit Women's Division Leader
Schriftfuhrer, Geschaftsfuhrer (Bei Fundesleitung Geschaftsfuhrer) - Secretary
Kassenleiter (Be Bundesleitung Schatzmeister) - Treasurer
Kommissarischer-Leiter - Acting-Director
Stellvertretender-Leiter - Vice-Director of __
Uschlavorsitzer - Arbitratoin Board Chairman
Rangabzeichen, Standort Abzeichen - Rank Insignia, Location Insignia
Bundesabzeichen - Bund Membership Emblem
Frauenschafts-, Jugendschaftsabzeichen - Women's Division Emblem, Youth Division Emblem

Division of the Nation Into Principal Jurisdictions

Eastern Department


Region No. I. The Districts (States) Maine: New Hampshire; Vermont; Massachusetts; Rhode Island; Connecticut; New York; New Jersey; Eastern Pennsylvania, including the Sections (Counties) of Potter, Clinton, Center, Blair, Huntingdon, and Franklin. In addition, the Districts of Delaware, Maryland, District of Columbia, and Virginia. The division of Pennsylvania into two parts for geographical reasons has no relation to political-party affairs in so far as they are statewide. In these matters the District Directorate of Western Pennsylvania is subordinate to that of Eastern Pennsylvania.

Region No. II. The Districts of North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi and Tennessee.

Midwestern Department

Region No. III. Pennsylvania west of the Section boundaries of the Districts of Eastern Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Kentucky, Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, and Wisconsin.

Region No. IV: Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota, Iowa, Missouri, Nebraska, and Kansas,

Region No. V: Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Texas, and New Mexico.

WESTERN DEPARTMENT

Region No. VI: Colorado, Utah, Arizona, Nevada and California. Region No. VII: Montana, Wyoming, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington.

The Principal (Chief) (Headquarters)

Jurisdictions below the Section are the Unit, Branch, Cell, and Block. For more detailed explanation of the arrangement of these jurisdictions see "Organizational Structure of the German Bund" (Officer Regulations)

General Definitions

Headquarters (Principal) (Chief) Jurisdictions (Hoheitsbereiche):

Collective Geographical term: The Headquarters (Principal Jurisdictions of the AV are the Nation, the Departments, Regions, Districts, Sections, Units, Branches, Cells, and Blocks.

Headquarters (Principal, Chief) Officers: Hoheitstraeger: Collective Executive Designation: Officers at the heads of Directorates. The Bund Fuehrer the Department Director, Regional Director, District Director. Section Director, Unit Director, Branch Director, Cell Director, Block Director.

Division Chiefs (Fachamtswalter) Collective designation of executives who belong to the staff of a Headquarters Officer and who, therefore, direct a division within a Headquarters Jurisdictional Directorate: OD Fuehrer from the OD Command Fuehrer up; Youth Fuehrer, from Youth Unit Commander and Unit Branch Youth 'Director up; Women's Division Leader; Treasurer; Secretary; Press Director; Political Director; Information Director; Education Director; Organizing Director; Public Relations Director; Economics Director (DKV executive); Camp, Settlement, and Home Director from Unit-Branch officer up. Associates: Collective assignation for the immediate subordinates of the associates. Divisions (Gliederungen) OD Division, Women's Division, Youth's Division. Subdivisions (Untergliederungen) Youth (Young folk). Young Women's subdivision. Boy's subdivision, Girl's Subdivision, and Maiden's subdivision. Division Units (Gliederungseinheiten) The OD or Youth Unit, the OD Detail, Youth Detail the OD Group, and the Youth tenship (teenship?) Subordinate Organizations: The (DKV) German Consumer's League Inc., and the various periodicals-home-and settlement corporations, etc.

Order List

Orders should be sent to James Wheeler-Hill, P. O. Box 75, Station "K", New York, N. Y. Orders should give the number of the article; all mailing costs must be paid by the purchaser:

Image

Uniform articles, which become the property of the purchaser (pants, shirts, caps, leather, ties, coats, (etc.), may be ordered through appropriate offices or through the DKV.
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Re: Neuschwanstein: A fairy tale darling's dark Nazi past

Postby admin » Thu Sep 26, 2019 7:32 am

Part 4 of 8

Document #2 in German] 

[Translation of Document # 2]

AMERICAN GERMAN VOLKSBUND. GERMAN AMERICAN BUND

Organizational Set-up (Organic Structure) and Administrative Regulations and Member Regulations (Membership) Regulations

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Part I: Administrative Offices (Officers): Subordinate Relations
Part II: Sovereign Jurisdictions (Principal Administrative Jurisdictions), Sovereigns (Principal Officers) (Chiefs)
Part III: Departmental Division (Structure): Departmental Heads (Chiefs)
Members
See Also: "Basic instructions for precinct and column leadership, (management)" "Organizational set-up of the OD Service" "Organizational set-up of Youth Administration Service" "Organizational set-up of Women's Administration Service" and Bund ordinances, National OD ordinances, National Youth Administration Service ordinances, National Women's Administration ordinances, and other Bund ordinances since the National Convention of 1938.
NOTE: The requirements (provisions) of the various regulations are valid to the extent that they have not been or may not be altered by subsequent regulations of the Bund administration.
Every regulation issued by a Bund officer constitutes a supplement — amendment or repeal — of/to any previously existing valid regulation or order.
Every sovereign (chief) (Principal Administrative Officer) is required to keep a register in which he must note the effect of new orders (issued from time to time) upon existing regulations.
At Bund Administration,
New York, January 2, 1940.

Part I: Offices (OFFICERS)

1. AV (Amerikadeutscher Volksbund) Offices. Except in the squares and blocks the staff of every sovereign (Chief) (Principal Administrative Officer) (Bund administration, area administration, regional administration, state administration, district or county administration, precinct administration, and column administration) consists of the sovereigns (chiefs) immediately subordinate (to him) and the following departmental heads.

a-b. Treasury leader (In the Bund managements, the Bund Treasurer)

a-b-c. Honorary secretaries or principal (chief) appointed business managers. (Secretarial duties generally are to be performed by the most appropriate departmental head as a part of his duties).

b. Organization leader

b. Intelligence Service leader

b. Commercial leader (Industrial leader) (Budget Leader) (DKV Development)

c. Propaganda leader

c. Press leader (Publicity leader)

c. Educational leader

c. Political leader

b-d. OD Fuehrers

c. Youth fuehrers

c. Youth reporters (only in precincts and columns)

f. Women's Department Service leader (In the Bund management, Women's Bund reporter and Women's National fuehrer)

(Women leaders participate in administrative meetings upon invitation of a sovereign (Principal Administrative Officer) (Chief) Sovereigns (Principal Administrative Officers) who are in charge of a local or national home or summer camp appoint a home leader or a camp leader as a departmental head.

Officers are to be created only under conditions of actual, practical need, and not merely for the purposes of distributing titles. In columns and small precincts it is advisable to assign the foregoing jurisdictions grouped under "b" to the organization leader and those under "c" to the propaganda leader.

For information concerning associates and assistants of departmental heads see Part II and OD, Youth, and Women's Department Service Regulations.

2. Square Offices (Officers): Square leaders are sovereigns (principal Administrative officers), hold the rank of precinct department heads, and belong to the staff of the precinct or column leader.

The staff of a square administration consists of the block leaders of the square and the following square executives: Treasury administrator, organization administrator, propaganda administrator, and Women's department administrator. The square has no jurisdiction over any branch service activities; such OD or Youth units as he may need for special occasions he requests of the qualified division fuehrer.

3. Block Offices: Block leaders are the lowest ranking sovereigns (Principal Administrative Officers) of the AV, hold the rank of square executives, and belong to the staff of their square leader. Together with the square executives and the OD platoon fuehrers they constitute the lowest ranking executives of the Bund.

The staff of a block leader consists of block watchers (a man and a woman) for each house group in the Block. The Block has no special superintendent for Treasury matters, organization, propaganda, etc., but each block watcher has charge of the necessary treasury, organization, and propaganda activities of his assigned house groups; while the women watchers are in charge of the particular duties of the Women's Department in each house group assigned to them.

4. Subordinate Relations: (Services, Activities). There are two kinds of subordinate (Services) relations to the AV: disciplinary and departmental (functional).

Superiors empowered to appoint, remove and penalize are disciplinary superiors.

Superiors empowered to issue departmental orders and to give impersonal service directions are functional superiors.

4a. Sovereigns (Principal Administrative Officers) (Wearers of yellow rank insignia) are disciplinary and functional superiors of all officers, offices, branches, and services and subordinate organizations in their sovereign (Principal) jurisdictions.

4b. Departmental Chiefs (Wearers of black or red rank insignia) are disciplinary and functional superiors of their immediate associates within that sovereign jurisdictional management of which they are staff members; but they are only functional superiors of the corresponding department heads of subordinate sovereign (principal) jurisdictions.

4c: Examples of disciplinary subordinate relationships: A precinct leader (Chief) (Sovereign) appoints and removes his precinct department heads and his square and block leaders with the approval of his area leader or the National OD Fuehrer or National Youth Fuehrer according to regulations; he has jurisdiction, also, within the limits of Bund regulations, over penalty furloughs (suspensions?) and the power of exclusion in relation to all the associates and members or patrons within his precinct.

The Area Women's Leader (Departmental Executive) appoints and removes her immediate associates and their assistants, within the Area Women's Division (Service) with the approval of her area leader.

She is only the functional departmental superior of the women leaders of the regions, states, districts, precincts, and columns, however, and has no jurisdiction over their appointment and removal, but may merely report any possible deficiencies on their part to the qualified sovereign (Chief).

4d. Examples of functional (departmental) subordinate relationship: The Bund organization leader issues Bund-organization orders with the countersignature of the Bund Fuehrer that are binding as issued upon all sovereigns (Chiefs) and organization leaders down to the block. He issues, in addition, with the countersignature of the Bund Fuehrer, organizational directions which are to be adopted by each subordinate sovereign jurisdiction in accordance with such peculiar conditions as may prevail in his jurisdiction. Even though he is the disciplinary superior of the associates and assistants of the Bund organization office he is not the disciplinary superior of the organization leaders of the areas, the regions, the states, the districts, or the columns, but is able to influence their appointment, penalization, or removal only to the extent of reporting any deficiency of service on their part to the qualified sovereign. (Chief)

The corresponding principles apply to all offices and branches of all sovereign (Principal) jurisdictions.

PART II: THE SOVEREIGNS (PRINCIPAL ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICERS) (CHIEFS) SOVEREIGN JURISDICTIONS (PRINCIPAL ADMINISTRATIVE JURISDICTIONS)

1. The Sovereigns (Chiefs): Within the administration, (Chiefs) sovereigns hold a unique position. In contrast to them, the departmental chiefs, who are in charge of functional activities, bear only partial responsibility, and serve merely as the council of the sovereigns; the latter govern a large domain, a sovereign jurisdiction, in which they bear full responsibility for the movement.

1a. Sovereigns (Chiefs) (Principal Administrative Officers) are in order of importance:

1. The Bund Fuehrer

2. Area leaders

3. Regional leaders

4. State (Circuit) leaders.

5. District or county leaders.

6. Precinct or Column (local) leaders

7. Square (Ward) (Cell) leaders

8. Block leaders

1b. Sovereign Jurisdictions (Principal Administrative Jurisdictions):

The Bund (The Nation)

The Areas (Sections)

The Regions (Groups of States)

The Circuits (The States)

The Districts (Groups of Counties)

The Precincts and Columns (towns, villages, cities)

The Squares (Divisions of towns, villages, cities)

The Blocks (Subdivisions of squares)

1c. Sovereigns (Chiefs) represent the Bund in their sovereign jurisdictions externally and internally and are responsible to their superiors for the entire status of the movement in those jurisdictions. Sovereigns (Chiefs) exercise general supervision over all their subordinate officers and are responsible for the maintenance of discipline in their respective sovereign jurisdictions.

Departmental chiefs (in addition to their responsibility to their departmental superiors) are especially responsible to the qualified sovereign for their jurisdictional activities as commissioners (deputies) of such sovereigns.

Sovereigns (Chiefs) (Principal Administrative Officers) are the disciplinary and functional superiors of all of their subordinate sovereigns, departmental chiefs, associates, assistants, Bund members, Prospective Citizens League members and Youth Administration (Service) in their sovereign jurisdictions. From the column and precinct leaders up sovereigns (Chiefs) (Principal Administrative Officers) have jurisdiction, within the limits of Personnel regulations, over the powers of penalization and exclusion.

Until confirmation or approval by qualified superiors all appointments and removals constitute merely nominations (provisional appointments) or furloughs (suspensions) and all orders, only provisional directions. In urgent exceptions each sovereign may issue orders having immediate validity, but he must report these immediately to his superiors and justify them.

Certificates of appointment of newly appointed officers are to be issued only after three months of uncontested service and must be sent to the qualified superior for confirmation. Even nominations may be made only with the approval of a qualified superior.

Sovereigns are obligated to the orderly and good care of all their members and they must be available to all at regular and fixed hours for purposes of conference.

1d. For information concerning rank and geographical insignia and the standards of the sovereigns see "OD Regulations," pages 11, 13, and 14, as well as the Bund orders, only by means of which changes may be effected.

1e. For information concerning designations and boundaries of sovereign jurisdictions see "Directions for the Administration of Precincts," Part III, page 18.

See especially also "Membership Regulations" Rights, duties and qualifications (responsibilities) of the (Chiefs)

Sovereigns (Principal Administrative Officers): Organizational Structure of the Sovereign jurisdictions.

2. The Bund Fuehrer: The duty of the Bund Fuhrer is to maintain and develop the AV by every adjustment to the temporary requirements of the times as the defensive and offensive movement of the national consciousness of American Germanism dedicated philosophically (Weltanschaulich), national-socialistically, and politically to the service of an actually independent, aryan-governed United States of North America.

In order that this movement, as the final refuge of Germanism in America, may make the necessary unchallenged Fuehrer pretensions to every vital aspect of American Germanism it is his duty to provide for the consideration, the promotion, and the preservation of the vitally significant educational, political, economic, scientific, and purely cultural achievements of all branches, estates, and confessions of faith of this Germanism in the Bund. For the protection of the movement the Bund Fuehrer must be able to maintain the constant support of at least three Bund officers. This Bund administration has the power by unanimous vote, to call a National Convention for the purpose of hearing any charges which it might prefer against the Bund Fuehrer.

In all other matters the will of the Fuehrer as the solely responsible Fuehrer of the Bund, the (services) branches, and the subordinate organizations, is the first law of the movement except during a session of the National Convention. The Bund Fuehrer is responsible only to the National Convention, is subject to only a few rules of the Convention, and can be removed from his office only by the Convention.

During the term for which he is chosen by the Convention he makes the final, definitive decision in every issue affecting the movement in any way; he has full power of disposal and ownership over the Bund, its equipment, its estates, and its monetary and other possessions.

Until confirmation by the Bund Fuehrer, which requires his countersignature to respective membership cards, every new applicant for membership is only a candidate. The Bund Fuehrer has the power to refuse acceptance into the movement (admission to the movement) without cause. In addition he has the power to overrule any commission of investigation or conciliation (adjustment) and to dismiss (suspend) any member, relieve him of his duties, or finally, to exclude him from the movement.

Generally, within the foregoing limits, he appoints and removes all Bund executives, including the area leaders. The executive appointments and removals, as well as all the orders, of all Bund departmental chiefs and area leaders require the approval of the Bund Fuehrer for Bund validity.

Only the Bund Fuehrer is authorized to make statements or to enter into negotiations binding upon the entire movement.

2a. The Representative of the Bund Fuehrer (Deputy) (Vice Bund Fuehrer)

The deputy Bund fuehrer is appointed and removed by the Bund Fuehrer. It is his special duty to assist the Bund Fuehrer in all routine matters affecting Bund officers and area management. As the Commissioner (duty, proxy) of the Bund Fuehrer he is the superior of all officers and members. He must keep constantly informed, by means of visits, of all Bund matters, decisions, and conferences and, in order to preserve and maintain unified activity, he must, if occasion require, take charge of all sovereign jurisdictions and branches, (services).

During the absence of the Bund Fuehrer he assumes all the rights and duties of the Bund Fuehrer and holds them until the latters return or until a National Convention may determine otherwise.

3. The Area Leader: The area leader is the direct subordinate of the Bund Fuehrer and is a Bund Administrator. He is appointed and removed by the Bund Fuehrer and is responsible only to him.

The area leader is responsible for the philosophical (comprehensive) (Weltanschaulich) political, economic, and cultural status of the movement in the area entrusted to him.

It is his special duty, with such support as he may be able to secure from subordinate sovereigns, to develop and train fuehrer material (talent) for the area and the Bund management, and, by means of visits, to establish new columns in all parts of his area.

The designation of the area and the establishment of its boundaries are done in accordance with the instructions of the Bund Fuehrer and by the Bund organization leader.

All executives and members of the area are subordinate disciplinarily to the area leader. He appoints and removes (1) his area departmental chiefs and regional leaders; (2) the state leaders of the area upon recommendation of the regional leaders; (3) the district or county leaders of the area upon recommendation of the qualified State leaders; and (4) the precinct and column leaders of the area upon recommendation of the appropriately qualified State leaders. His appointments and removals, as well as his area orders, require the confirmation (approval) of the Bund Fuehrer for Bund validity.

In the event of an inadequate supply of qualified, fuehrer talent, area departmental chiefs function temporarily also as regional leaders, in order that the special duties of the regional leaders — the study of the national and commercial policies, and the industrial and agricultural peculiarities of the frequently diverse sections of the area — may be undertaken as quickly as possible. In addition, these regional leaders or their associates, in the event of a deficiency of other available qualified executives, should assume the special functions of the State leaders without delay — the study of the legal and political status of the different States.

All appointments and removals of the area executives, regional leaders, State, district, and precinct, or column leaders of the area, as well as the orders of the area executives (area departmental chiefs and regional leaders) require the confirmation (approval) of the area leader for Bund validity.

All departmental orders of the Bund departmental chiefs are binding upon the leaders as issued; the functional directions of the Bund departmental chiefs are to be executed in consideration of (in conformity with) the special conditions that prevail in the area.

The area leader is notified of all official correspondence between the Bund management and subordinate officers in the area management. It is his duty, when necessary, to take over the duties of subordinate sovereign jurisdictions, either by order (correspondence, etc.) or by visit and in the event of faulty execution of Bund orders to correct conditions.

He must submit a financial and an "activities" report to the Bund Fuehrer by the 10th of each month with notes on contemplated area activities, on the reasons for possible difficult execution of Bund assignments, and on conditions requiring special consideration in the several sections of the area, as well as all kinds of suggestions.

He must conduct regular conferences with his area department chiefs and regional managers, attend the State management meetings whenever possible, and visit "every last" one of the columns in the area at least once a year. His general official expenditures are defrayed by the Bund treasury, although the expenses of his official trips are to be distributed among the precincts and columns in accordance with their ability to pay.

3a. The "deputy" (Representative of the Area Leader) Area Leader: The deputy area leader should be a departmental area executive or a regional leader of the district. He is appointed and removed by the area leader with the approval of the Bund Fuehrer.

It is his particular duty to assist the area leader in all routine matters affecting subordinate officers. As the Commissioner (deputy) of the area leader he is the superior of all executives and members in the area. He must keep constantly informed of all matters, decisions, and conferences and, as occasion demands, promote transactions (activities) or supervise their execution or development. In the absence of the area leader he assumes all the rights and duties of the area leader and retains them until the latter's return or until the Bund Fuehrer decrees otherwise.

4. The Regional leader: The extent and the manifold diversities of the States included in the area necessitate the establishment of the Region. The designation and the establishment of the boundaries of the region are in accordance with the directions of the Bund Fuhrer and are fixed by the Bund organization leader.

The regional leader is an executive of the area and is directly subordinate to the area leader. He is appointed and removed by the area leader with the approval of the Bund Fuehrer.

He is peculiarly (especially) responsible to the area leader for the political and commercial policies and the industrial and agricultural conditions of the movement in the sovereign jurisdiction entrusted to him.

He appoints and removes his regional departmental executives. His appoints and removals, as well as his regional orders, require the approval of the area leader for Bund validity.

Except for his limited power of appointment and removal, the regional leader is the disciplinary superior of all executives and members of his region. The State leaders of his region are appointed and removed upon his recommendation by the area leader with the approval of the Fuehrer.

All appointments and removals of the regional departmental executives, as well as their orders and the orders of State leaders require the approval of the regional leader.

The regional leader must keep informed constantly of all matters, decisions, and conferences in his region; he must be concerned at all times with the united activities of all subordinate officers and the maintenance, and promotion of an active, comprehensive unity between the area management and the States, districts, and precincts of the region. He must arrange for periodical conferences with his regional departmental executives and State managements and keep the area and Bund management informed by short monthly reports and inspirational suggestions of the peculiar economic and political conditions in his region.

The functional orders of the Bund and area executives are binding upon him as issued; their impersonal (service) directions are to be followed according to (in conformity with) conditions existing in the region.

5. The State Leader: Inasmuch as the nation consists of 48 separate States which in many respects have fundamentally different laws and in which many diverse political conditions are to be taken into consideration, the arrangement of States is necessary. The designation of the States and the establishment of their boundaries are made in accordance with the directions of the Bund Fuehrer and by the Bund organization leader. The State leader is a regional executive and is directly subordinate to the regional leader. He is appointed and removed by the area leader upon the recommendation of the regional leader and with the approval of the Bund Fuehrer.

He is responsible to the regional leader especially for the national, legal and political party conditions of the movement in the sovereign jurisdiction entrusted to him.

He appoints and removes his State departmental executives with the approval of the area leader. His State orders require the approval of the regional leader. He reports his appointments, removals, orders, etc. immediately to his regional and area leader.

Except for his limited power of appointment and removal, the State leader is the disciplinary superior of all executives and members in his State. The district leaders of the State are appointed and removed upon his recommendation by the area leader with the approval of the Bund Fuehrer.

All appointments and removals of the State departmental executives as well as their orders and the orders of district leaders require the approval of the State leader for Bund validity.

The State leader must keep informed constantly of all matters, decisions, and conferences, especially concerned with the unified activity of all the sections and branches of his State, and strive to promote an active, comprehensive connection (cooperation) between the management of the region and subordinate officers. He is required especially to instruct, by means of periodical State and district executive conferences, the districts, the precincts and the auxiliary associations (services) of his State in all matters relating to laws and political party activities in the respective States and to render a monthly report concerning these matters to the regional area, and Bund managements. The departmental orders of the Bund and the qualified area and regional departmental chiefs are binding upon the State leaders as issued; their (service) functional directions are executed in accordance with conditions prevailing in the State.

5a. Where the boundaries of Bund States (circuits) do not coincide with the political (geographical) boundaries of the States, as in Pennsylvania, which is divided into two States (circuits), the jurisdiction of that State (circuit) leader in whose State (circuit) the capital of the State is located extends to the entire State in matters affecting the entire State, such as, official or political party affairs. In all other matters the jurisdiction of such a State (circuit) leader is restricted to his Bund State (circuit).

6. The District or County Leader: A "county" or a group of "counties" constitutes a district. The district bears the name and the number of the precinct or the column in which district headquarters are located. The designation of the district is made in accordance with the instructions of the Bund Fuehrer through the Bund organization leader. The boundaries are established according to the instructions of the area leader through the area organization leader. The Bund organization leader is immediately notified.

The district leader is a State executive and is directly subordinate to the State leader. He is appointed and removed by the area leader upon recommendation of the State leader with the approval of the Fuehrer.

He is responsible to the State leader for the philosophical (comprehensive) (weltanschaulich), political, cultural, and economic status of the movement in the sovereign jurisdiction entrusted to him.

He appoints and removes his district departmental executives with the approval of the area leader. His district orders require the approval of the State leader. The district leader immediately reports all his appointments, removals, orders, etc., to the State and area leader.

Should the Bund State (circuit), in which a district is located, constitute only a section of a State, as in the case of Pennsylvania, the district leader is subordinate in all matters of an official and political party nature which affect the entire State to that State (circuit) leader in whose State (circuit) the capital is located.

Except for his restricted powers of appointment and removal, the district leader is the disciplinary superior of all executives and members in his district. The precinct and column leaders of his district are appointed and removed upon his recommendation by the area leader with the approval of the Bund Fuehrer.

All appointments, removals and orders of the district executives as well as the orders of the precinct and column leaders require the approval of the district leader.

The district leader must keep constantly informed, through frequent, personal visits and periodical executive conferences with his precinct or column administrations, concerning all essential matters, decisions and conferences; be concerned constantly about the unified activities of all sections and branches (services) of his sovereign jurisdiction, and promote an active, comprehensive, (cooperation) communication (connection) between the State management and subordinate officers. He must be active in sending constant instructions to his precincts and columns concerning the laws and the party polities of the "counties" in his district and he must be interested in the thoroughgoing (philosophical) (comprehensive) (weltanschaulich) and organizational education of the precinct and column administrations. He must be cautious to observe that the precincts do not undertake loosely too large, or enter carelessly into, assignments, lease or purchase obligations, and that they do not develop too one-sided organizationally; they must devote themselves with equal interest and consideration to such matters as: politics, the Bund Press, economics (DKV), Bund Welfare, (Women's Services), Youth and its rearing (Youth education), OD education, both in the physical and spiritual realm, as well as Kultur (science, singing, gymnastics, acting, etc.).

The district leader is that liaison officer who should primarily be helpful to the area leader in the selection of useful executive and fuehrer talent and in the preparation of (arrangements for) propaganda meetings for the founding of new columns.

He must report to the State, area, district, and Bund management monthly. The departmental orders of all superior officers (Bund, area, regional territorial, and State) are binding upon the district leader as issued. In the event of conflict in orders, those of the superior officer prevail. Functional (service) directions of these officers are executed in accordance with (consideration of) the circumstances prevailing in his district.

7. The Precinct Leader: The precinct develops out of the column or is created by the separation of a row of squares from an overgrown precinct. The precinct comprises generally a township (village, etc.); cities may be divided into several precincts. Boundaries should not cut across basic community boundaries.

The precinct comprises a minimum of 20 members; when there are more than 200 members it should be divided into two precincts as soon as possible. This is done upon the recommendation of the district leader to the area leader; the area leader effects the division with the approval of the Bund Fuehrer through the area organization leader, as well, also, as the establishment or change of the boundaries. The Bund organization leader is notified at once. The designation of all precincts is made according to instructions of the Bund Fuehrer through the Bund organization leader.

A division of overgrown precincts should be effected because the precinct leader should know all his members personally and continue in the position of being accessible to every member of the precinct and be able to devote his attention to them.

Where the number of precincts in a small jurisdiction is making perceptible growth, the districts should be reduced until finally they constitute only a single "county" and the best qualified precinct leader in this "county" is promoted to a district leader.

7a. The precinct leader is a district executive and is directly subordinate to the district leader. He is appointed and removed upon the recommendation of the district leader by the area leader with the approval of the Bund Fuehrer.

He is responsible to the district leader for the philosophical, (comprehensive) political (weltanschaulich), economic and cultural status of the movement in the sovereign jurisdiction entrusted to him.

7b. The precinct leader is the disciplinary superior of all officers and members in his sovereign jurisdiction. Together with the column leader he is the lowest ranking sovereign to have jurisdiction over the power of exclusion within the limits of the personnel regulations of the Bund.

7c. He appoints and removes his precinct departmental heads and square leaders with the approval of the area leader, and his block leaders upon recommendation of the qualified square leaders with the approval of the area leader. His precinct orders require the approval of the district leader.

7d. All appointments, removals, and orders of the precinct departmental executives and square leaders require the approval of the precinct leader. He keeps the district, area, and Bund management currently informed concerning all the appointments and essential orders in his sovereign jurisdiction.

7e. Departmental orders of all superior officers (Bund and qualified area, regional, State, and district officers) are binding upon the precinct leaders as issued. In the case of conflicting orders of the different officers those of superiors prevail. Functional directions of these officers are executed in accordance with particular circumstances prevalent in the sovereign jurisdiction.

7f. The precinct leader inducts newly-appointed precinct executives, square and block leaders, ceremonially into office. The induction takes place during a membership "appel" (assembly).

7g. In addition it is also the duty of the precinct leader to deliver passes to unchallenged members (new members of the OD or of the Women's Division (service) ceremonially during an OD or Women's Division (service) assembly.

7h. On National Youth Day (about the middle of March of each year) the precinct leader, accompanied by his OD Division fuehrer, accepts the 18-year old members of the Youth Division (service) during an ("appel") assembly of the youth ceremonially into Bund membership and into OD: he accepts also at the time of this assembly, the 21-year old girls of the Maiden's Division, (service) ceremonially into full Bund membership.

7i. All applications for admission into the Youth Division (service), the Promotion Division (service) and into Bund membership or, within the AV, into the OD or the Women's Division (service) requires the countersignature of the precinct leader for Bund validity. He has the power to deny acceptance into the Youth Division (service) or Promotion Division (service) without cause.

7j. He must inform the area and Bund management monthly concerning all exclusions or cancelations with notations as to whether the canceled or excluded members have returned their cards, books, insignia, etc., to the precinct, in order that such persons may not be admitted to some other precinct without the approval of the excluding precinct leader. Precincts are notified currently by the Bund management concerning exclusions. In his reports to the area and Bund administrations the precinct leader must list all cancelations due to loss of interest or exclusions due to failure to pay dues. Members excluded by precinct leaders have eight days in which to appeal in writing and with their knowledge to the next highest ranking officer (the district administration). From there the appeal can continue on up step by step.

7k. Official differences of opinion between the precinct leader and his executives or members are not submitted to an investigation and adjustment commission but are decided by him personally in the first "instance." The complainant may appeal, if dissatisfied, to the district leader and from there on up, within a period of 8 days, provided his appeal is in writing and is made with the knowledge of the precinct leader. Even in cases of exclusion in official matters there is no investigation or adjustment commission, but the decision rests entirely with the sovereigns only who issue regulations, orders, and rules, and who review the official relations between officials and members.

71. Investigation and adjustment commissions are appointed only in matters involving personal differences and unofficial disputes between Bund members. Members of the Commission are appointed by the precinct leader in each case from among non-participating, impartial, judicious, and business-like members of the Bund. (See also Part III "Membership Regulations.")

7m. The precinct leader has the authority at the beginning of an investigation to accept or reject applications for its continuance.

7n. Bund membership cards and books are delivered as they are received by the precinct leader to Bund members ceremonially during a membership assembly. Promotion cards are delivered during a promotion assembly or by mail or messenger. The first OD passes. Youth membership cards, and Women's passes are delivered ceremonially by the precinct leader in the presence of the qualified fuehrer during an assembly of the respective branch (service).

For information concerning membership, audit, assembly rules, festivals, and other regulations for the precinct leader see "Basic Rules for Precinct Administration" and Bund orders.

7c. The precinct leader must inform all superior officers concerning all essential matters in his sovereign jurisdiction, acknowledge all official communications by return mail and without exception, and submit before the 10th of each month his official report to the Bund management in addition to an exact treasury report and an exact account of all dues according to printed forms. The essential details (of his report) are to be communicated to the area leader. The production ability and the solvency of the movement depend upon his scrupulous, regular, and punctual transfer of funds. His obligations to the Bund management are the primary obligations of the precinct.

Even the monthly, minute control of the "household treasuries" of the branches is to be conducted strictly and unindulgently. All sections and the fuehrers of all sections of the precinct exist primarily for the Bund or else they have no justification for existence.

7p. The precinct leader must be at the constant disposal of individual members and all of his department chiefs, square leaders, block leaders, and branch fuehrers for advice, help and sympathetic understanding. Every branch and every minute detail of precinct work is important and should be promoted in real (Kamerad) comradeship; but no section of the precinct may regard itself as self-sufficing or as independent. The precinct leader must be particularly concerned in constant quest for qualified talent for fuehrer and other executive positions, create opportunity for that talent to serve, and urge it to look ahead for promotion. He must not be indolent and indifferent and let his associates proceed uncontrolled (unrestrained) in a spirit of indulgent leniency; but he must be on his guard to resist the inclination to do everything himself; rather he should encourage every associate who really is eager to perform the duties of his office. Efficient substitutes should be developed for every office in the entire Bund and this duty falls especially upon the precinct leader.

7q. Meetings and assemblies of the squares, blocks and branches are to be called only with the consent of the precinct leader. He must visit them frequently himself, but he never must place himself (assume) in the position of a subordinate fuehrer. When the precinct leader participates in an OD parade he parades alongside the OD Division (service) fuehrer.

7r. Official participation in the celebrations and activities of other organizations, as well as the entry upon any binding engagement externally in the name of a section of the movement within the jurisdiction of the precinct is permitted to the squares, blocks, branches, and individual members only within the limits of existing Bund orders or regulations and only with the express approval of the precinct leader.

7s. Statements to the press or other public statements are made in the precinct only by the precinct leader and then only with the approval of the district leader and in conformity with the provisions of Bund orders.

8. The Column leader: Generally the column, like the precinct, constitutes a township (community), and is distinguished from the latter by a smaller membership. New organizations in communities in which no precinct exists are established as columns; such columns are at first placed under a neighboring precinct by the district leader upon instructions from the area leader.

In communities in which precincts exist, columns are developed from squares, whenever they are designated as columns by the district leader with the approval of the area leader. Columns which in the judgment of the district leader have attained the status of self-sufficing activity are relieved by him, with the approval of the area leader, from the status of wardship.

Independent (self-sufficing) active columns, having more than 20 members are designated as precincts by the district leader with the approval of the area leader.

State, regional and Bund organization managements are to be advised immediately of every step of the foregoing development.

8a. So long as a column remains under the supervision of a previously established precinct, its leader is subordinate to the respective precinct leader, and the official correspondence of the column is conducted through the previously established precinct management.

8b. In all other respects the rank, rights and duties of the column leader are the same as those of the precinct leader.

8c. Where small columns have no squares to supervise, the duties described under "squares" are performed by the column leader. In such cases the block leaders of the column are directly responsible to the column leaders.

8d. The official relationship between the column and superior offices is exactly the same as in the precinct.

9. The Square Leader: The Square consists of from 2 to 5 blocks. Its boundaries are to be considered as fixed by streets; they should not extend beyond political boundaries and should coincide with the political divisions of the community so far as possible. The square bears the number of the precinct or column to which it belongs with an added square number. For local purposes it may be designated by the name of the precinct combined with the name of the precinct section. The establishment or alternation of the designation and the boundaries is made according to the instructions of the district leader by the district organization leader. The Bund organization leader is to be instructed about the square divisions.

9a. The square leader is a precinct executive and is directly subordinate to the precinct or column leader. He is appointed and removed by the column or precinct leader with the approval of the area leader. He is responsible to the precinct or column leader for the philosophical (weltanschaulich), political, economic, and cultural status of the movement in his sovereign jurisdiction.

9b. Disciplinarily subordinate to the square leader are all the square executives, block leaders, block watchers, and members of his square, except in the matter of exclusion. He appoints and removes his square executives with the approval of his precinct or column leaders. The block leaders of his staff are appointed and removed upon his recommendation by the precinct or column leader with the approval of the area leader. His square orders require the approval of the precinct or column leader.

9c. The square leader ceremonially inducts newly appointed square executives into office during a square membership meeting after they have served unchallenged for three months and have received their commissions (certificates of appointment).

9d. The appointments, removals and orders of the square executives and block leaders require the approval of the square leader. Concerning all essential official conduct of these offices he reports to his precinct or column leader.

9e. The square leader has no peculiar OD or Youth administration. OD and Youth units are places at his disposal with the concurrence of the OD or Youth (service) Division fuehrer.

9f. The square leader supervises the activities of the block leaders and square block, and is primarily responsible for the frictionless cooperation of the executives in order to assure an active, continuous, development of the square executives and block leaders and with the precinct or column departmental executives. He must be concerned especially with the securing of a thorough philosophical (weltanschaulich) and organization education for his associates, in order to assure at the least a strict, unified arrangement of every minute section of his jurisdiction in a full conformity with the principles and regulations of the movement.

9g. Aside from the periodic square executive conferences, he calls at least once a month a conference of block leaders. The disciplinary and departmental orders to the block administration are to be communicated during these conferences, since in the square and blocks all official (written) correspondence must be eliminated so far as possible.

9h. The square leader participates in the conferences of the precinct or column leaders. With their approval, he must conduct public speaking classes (evenings), educational evenings, and membership assemblies after he has qualified for these activities. In order to distinguish these meetings from similar precinct or column meetings, they should be held in the square primarily as educational and public-speaking meetings (evenings) at which excerpts from the documents of the movement are read and questions put by the participants are answered in accordance with the precepts of the educational, intelligence, and propaganda administrations. Questions are to be answered only with full knowledge of the facts. Where doubt or uncertainty prevails answers must be deferred until the next meeting.

In the squares of larger precincts new applications and dues ought to be received at assemblies. The square leader should attend block meetings and conferences as often as possible and he should be readily accessible at all times to the members and fellow-countrymen of his square. Differences of opinion are to be adjusted through conferences man to man; if necessary, the difference may be submitted to the precinct or column leader for adjustment.

9i. Personnel (information) cards of Bund and Youth members must not be maintained in the squares and blocks, although (information) cards about non-members who are to be solicited may be kept. Concerning members the square leader consults the precinct or column administrator.

9j. The square must not make statements to the press or for publicity under any circumstances.

9k. Where there are no squares (in small columns) the column leader assumes the rights, duties, and responsibilities of the square leader. One square leader may be in charge of several squares.

10. The Block leader: Blocks should be organized in even the smallest columns. The block consists of as many as five house groups. Every house group is in charge of a block watcher, and of a woman block watcher, also, in connection with matters in which women are interested. The house group should not contain more households than can be visited personally by a block watcher within five hours for purposes of making an announcement.

The block bears the designation of the square or the column in which it is located, with a letter of the alphabet added; for example: 80-3-A (Block A, Square 3, precinct 80). For ordinary local daily purposes the block may be designated by the name of the neighborhood.

The size of the house groups, blocks, and squares is not determined by the number of Bund members who occupy them, but should coincide whenever possible, with the political jurisdiction of the community. Boundaries of house groups, blocks, and squares should be determined by streets; they should not extend beyond political boundaries.

The establishment and the changes in the designation and the boundaries are made in accordance with directions of the district leader by the district organization leader. The Bund organization leader is to be notified of the block division.

10a. The block leader belongs to the staff of the qualified square or column leader; he is the lowest ranking sovereign and, with the OD platoon leader and square executive the lowest ranking executive of the AV.

He is appointed and removed upon recommendation of the square leader by the precinct leader or directly by the column leader with the approval of the area leader.

He is responsible to the qualified square or column leader for all matters affecting the movement in the block entrusted to him.

10b. Disciplinarily subordinate to the block leader are all the block watchers, (men and women) and members in his block, except in respect of the power of exclusion.

He appoints and removes his block watch (men and women) with the approval of his square or column leader.

The block watchers (men and women) enlist their helpers from the house groups only after consultation with the block leader and with his consent.

10c. The block leader is authorized in emergency to take over several blocks temporarily, or aid in directing the work of absent block watchers, but it is his duty to find substitutes and to place them in charge as soon as possible.

10d. The block leader inducts newly-appointed block watchers (men and women) into office ceremonially during a membership assembly after they have served unchallenged for a period of three months.

10e. The block leader participates in the block leader conferences of his square leader and reports upon the work of his associates. He conducts as occasion requires, but at least once a month a block watch conference at which he receives reports concerning the work among the house groups and at which directions are given to the block watchers (men and women) for further activities.

10f. He must find ways and means to be accessible to his square leader surely and easily at a definite time every day or at least every other day. In the same way his block watchers must arrange to be accessible to him at a definite time every day. Telephone numbers and other means by which block watchers may be reached must be kept current at the headquarters of the square and precinct leader.

10g. There must be no official written communications in the block. The block must not maintain personnel cards. For information concerning members and non-members, the block leader consults the square leader. Names and descriptions of those available for work in the block, the block leader commits to memory, but he is bound upon his honor not to betray any member's name or description to the public.

10h. With the approval of the square leaders, block assemblies may be called; with the approval of the square leader, the block leader may call for contributions, etc., in his block; these he must transmit to the square treasurer or to the column treasury leader.

10i. The block does not have special assistants for treasury, propaganda, etc.; all the orders of superior officers converge upon the block leader and are carried out in the house groups by the block watchers.

10j. The block leader is the fuehrer and counsellor of all Bund members and Youth members of his sovereign jurisdiction. He must at all times help in every way by explanation and advice and portray the spirit of the movement in his work. He must discover the bearers of evil rumors and report them to the square leader. He must impress the Bund members constantly and spur them on to active cooperation; he must be alert constantly for available co-champions (patrons) and bring them to the attention of superiors. He may answer questions only upon absolute knowledge, in consideration of the welfare of the movement, and in conformity with the prescriptions of his superiors. He must never give any statement to the press or the public.

10k. All new applications from the domain of the block are transmitted through the block leader. He is in every case the responsible leader of the qualified investigation committee for determining the truth of personal and citizenship declarations of applicants for membership resident in his block. He is the second subscribing witness to the declarations and obligations on the membership cards of these applicants, after they have been accepted. He and his qualified block watch constitute the sureties for the conduct of his members in all matters affecting the movement.

10l. Above all else, the block leader must practice absolute secrecy in all official matters and have the unqualified confidence of his superiors and subordinates. He represents the movement in his sovereign jurisdiction to the public. He is able to render the Bund valuable service in this close, daily contact with the public, but he can also do it great harm. It is his constant duty by statement and precept to carry again and again just one thought in to every household: The German-American Bund Is The Only and First Defensive and Offensive Community of American Germanism, in whose ranks only the rights and the respect of our nationality can be defended effectively.
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Re: Neuschwanstein: A fairy tale darling's dark Nazi past

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Part 5 of 8

Part III: DEPARTMENTAL CHIEFS. DEPARTMENTAL DIVISIONS. MEMBERS

1. At Offices: The offices of the movement are to be arranged and conducted according to the following suggestions: The impression which the arrangement and conduct of the offices of even the smallest section of the Bund makes upon a visitor requires the presentation of the leading and the most exemplary of the best in American Germanism. No activity should be more orderly, calm or efficient than the conduct of an AV office. At the same time, it may be observed that attractiveness is not in conflict with the challenge of the movement, although "fuss and feathers" ought to be avoided.

National and Bund standards may be used as decorative standards. (The National or "Sturm"' flag must never be used for decorative purposes and must never be unfurled except under OD guard.)

In addition a picture of our national leader, George Washington, and one of our (Weltanschaulichen) philosophical leader, Adolf Hitler, belongs in every office.

Internal matters should never be discussed in the presence of non-members; the intrusion of any official upon the domain of another is to be avoided strictly; unofficial discussions should not be carried on during business hours and by no means in offices, where loud talk and argumentation is prohibited. Regular office hours must be maintained, visitors must be served promptly but always warmly and sympathetically — that quick comprehension which we constantly declare to be necessary and whose lack among all less disciplined and less fanatic adherents and friends we deplore is to be converted into action in the office. That which the leadership fails to exemplify cannot appropriately be required of followers.


Every sovereign jurisdiction should endeavor to have an office where every executive and associate can perform his duties in undisturbed and orderly manner; efficient work is possibly only when conditions are favorable.

1a. Official dress (Uniform):

Every executive and assistant executive of the AV is an OD man even though his official duties prevent him from performing the general OD duties. In order to maintain and promote that soldierly spirit, which is not entirely "un-American", and to which, in connection with its fuehrer principles, the movement owes its unified strength, the uniform ought always to be worn while on duty, if conditions permit, except as otherwise provided under "celebrations" (festfolgestaltungen). Where the uniform would be worn ordinarily but where for legal reasons this rule may not be followed, the grey shirt with the black four-in-hand and Bund insignia should be worn under a black or dark civilian coat.

The same applies to the Youth (Service) Division. While on duty women should wear their insignia but should not wear uniforms except on special occasions, when they should wear "Dirndel" dresses, uniform aprons, or sports attire, etc. See also regulations for (Services) branches and Bund orders.

1b. Official greeting (salute):

The official greeting (salute) is given (made) by raising the right hand and exclaiming "Free America." It should always be used while on duty upon arriving and leaving, and also if possible, when not on duty. The informal greeting given with raised hand is permissible only when not on duty or unofficially.

DUTIES, RIGHTS AND QUALIFICATIONS (RESPONSIBILITIES) OF DEPARTMENTAL CHIEFS, ASSOCIATES AND ASSISTANTS OF DEPARTMENTS

2. The Bund Treasurer: All financial and legal affairs of the AV and the supervision of all the proprietary interests of the movement, including all branches, subordinate organizations, and affiliated associations constitute the domain and the duties of the Bund Treasurer.

2a. He is appointed and removed by the Bund Fuehrer. He appoints and removes, with the approval of the Bund Fuehrer, associates for:

Means: (Lotteries, contributions, loans, celebrations)

Budget: (For all offices of the movement)

Treasury: Control: (Control of audits of subordinate offices in cooperation with the Bund Business Fuehrer. Monthly receipts to contributing offices and instructions to district leaders.

Legal: Studies and instructions for the movement concerning laws affecting the entire nation and of special significance to the movement.

2b. Commissions (procurement orders) are not issued from the Bund Treasury but from the Bund business office, with the approval of the Bund Fuehrer.

Payment of accounts due or other monetary disbursements are made for the AV only upon the responsibility of the Bund Fuehrer or upon his authorization by the Bund Fuehrer's representative with the countersignature of the Bund Treasurer (or in his absence by the Bund Business Manager as witness.)

Receipts are acknowledged by the Bund Treasurer and the Bund Business Manager or by the Bund Treasurer and Bund Fuehrer. Every payment into the Bund treasury must be accompanied by a regular deposit slip (audit, treasury report, contributor's list etc., with an abstract containing the number, the certificate of authorizations, etc.). These documents, together with a copy of the outgoing receipts are filed in the Bund treasury.

2c. The Bund treasurer renders a monthly report on the financial status of the movement to the Bund Fuehrer.

2d. The Bund Treasurer is authorized and required to audit at least once a year "every last" treasury of the movement, including all branches, subordinate organizations, and affiliations. Acting as his commissioners, (deputies) his associates have the same authority.

2e. The associates, or assistants of the Bund Treasurer are countersigned by the Bund Fuehrer and are binding as issued upon sovereigns and upon all treasury executives, down to the block.

2f. The associates of the Bund Treasurer appoint and remove their assistants with the approval of the Bund Treasurer.

2g. The area treasury leaders are directly subordinate departmentally to the Bund Treasurer, belong to his department council, and must assist him in his official relations with subordinate officers. Of all of his regulations issued to them, the area leader receives a copy.

2l. No subordinate sovereign administration may acquire any substantial accession or enter upon any rental, lease, or sales agreement (except the rental of a hall for an evening, or a part for a day) without previously submitting all details to the Bund Treasurer and receiving his written approval. In cases in which the movement must participate in (contribute towards) the obligations of a section, it must be accorded determination over the management and the right of disposal over the entire amount involved.

3. The Area Treasurer: The area treasurer is disciplinarily subordinate to the area leader and is appointed and removed by him with the approval of the Bund Treasurer.

As necessity requires, he establishes area treasury offices corresponding to those of the Bund treasury. He appoints and removes his associates with the approval of the area leader.

He supervises and promotes the execution of the Bund treasury orders and aids subordinate officers in the preparation of their reports, with respect to anticipated or planned new equipment, rental, lease, or sales contracts, as well as in legal matters affecting the movement, to the area leader and Bund Treasurer.

He issues area treasury orders with the countersignature of the area leader, a copy of which is sent to the Bund Treasurer.

The regional treasury leaders are directly subordinate to him departmentally. Of his directions to subordinate treasury administrations the qualified sovereign receives a copy.

By the Bund Treasury, he is informed monthly through his area leader concerning the treasury reports and audits of the precincts of the area.

It is his special duty to instruct the treasury leaders of newly established columns in their duties and to train treasury associates of the subordinate sovereign jurisdictions as substitutes for area and Bund treasury officers.

4. The Regional Treasury Leader: The regional treasury leader is the disciplinary subordinate of the regional leader. He is appointed and removed by the regional leader with the approval of the area leader. Departmentally, he is the subordinate of the area treasury leader.

As necessity requires, he establishes regional treasury offices that correspond to those of the Bund Treasury. He appoints and removes his associates with the approval of the regional leader.

He supervises and promotes the execution of Bund treasury and area treasury orders within the region and aids in the preparation of reports by subordinate officers in details affecting new accessions, rental, lease, or sales contracts, as well as in matters of law affecting the movement, for regional leaders and area treasury leaders.

He issues regional treasury orders with the countersignature of the regional leader, of which a copy is sent to the area treasury leader.

State treasury leaders are directly subordinate to him departmentally. Of his orders to subordinate treasury administrations the State leaders, etc., receive a copy.

It is his special duty to report currently to superiors and subordinates concerning matters of finance and law which especially affect the commercial, industrial, and agricultural activities of the movement.

5. The State Treasury Leader: The State treasury leader is disciplinarily subordinate to the State leader and is appointed and removed by him with the approval of the area leader, concerning which the regional leader is to be informed. Departmentally, he is subordinate to the regional treasury leader.

As necessity requires, he establishes State treasury offices corresponding to those of the Bund treasury. He appoints and removes his associates with the approval of his State leader.

He supervises and promotes the execution of the orders of superior treasury officers in the State and aids in the preparation of the reports of districts and precincts concerning new accessions, rental, lease, or sales contracts as well as in legal matters affecting the State to his State leader, regional treasury leader, and area treasury leader.

He issues State treasury orders with the countersignature of the State leaders, of which a copy is sent to the regional treasury leader.

The district treasury leaders are departmentally subordinate to him. Of his State treasury orders to the districts and precincts the district and precinct leaders receive a copy.

It is his special duty to familiarize himself with State laws likely to affect the movement and to report to his superior and subordinate officers concerning them.

6. The District Treasury Leader: The district treasury leader is disciplinarily subordinate to the district leader and is appointed and removed by him with the approval of the area leader. The State leader is informed correspondingly. Departmentally, he is subordinate to the State treasury leader.

As necessity requires, he establishes district treasury offices corresponding to those of the Bund treasury. He appoints and removes his associates with the approval of the district leader. He supervises and promotes the execution of the orders of superior treasury officials in the province and aids in the preparation of reports of the precincts or columns concerning new accessions, rental, lease, or sales contracts, as well as in laws affecting the district, to his district leader, State treasury and area treasury leader.

He issues district treasury orders with the countersignature of the district leader, a copy of which is sent to the State treasury leader.

Precinct and column treasury leaders are departmentally subordinate to him. Of his district treasury orders, a copy is sent to the precinct or column leader.

It is his special duty to familiarize himself with the laws of the "counties" in his district, especially, in matters affecting real property, the administration of homes and camps, taxes and mortgages, building and health regulations, laws of Incorporation, etc. In addition, he is the liaison officer between the area treasury leader and the treasury leaders of newly established columns who need help in their work, as well as the offices interested in the training of treasury department associates to be recommended for promotion.

7. The Precinct or Column Treasury Leaders.

The precinct treasury leader is disciplinarily subordinate to the precinct leader and is appointed and removed by him with the approval of the area leader. The district leader is notified of such appointments and removals. Departmentally, he is subordinate to the district treasury leader.

As occasion requires, he establishes precinct treasury offices corresponding to those of the Bund treasury. If necessary he must perform the duties of precinct treasurer himself. He appoints and removes his immediate associates with the approval of his precinct leader. He executes in the precinct the orders of superior treasury officers and supervises and promotes their execution in the squares and blocks. He submits current detailed reports concerning existing or planned accessions, rental, lease or sales contracts, to the district treasury leader, the area treasury leader, and the Bund Treasurer, and keeps these officers constantly informed concerning legal ordinances of the particular municipality (township) that require consideration.

He submits before the 10th of each month, with the countersignature of the precinct leader, a detailed report on the financial condition of the precinct to the Bund Treasurer, and in accordance with a printed treasury report form. This treasury report must show also the exact status of the so-called household treasury of the branches (OD, Women's, Youth, etc.). The precinct treasury leader is authorized and required to audit and super- vise monthly "every last" treasury of the sections, branches, subordinate organizations, and affiliated associations in the jurisdiction of the precinct. All monies and all property of every section of the movement are the property of the Bund and are at its disposal in emergency. In addition he submits with his treasury report to the Bund Treasurer a monthly audit bearing the countersignature of the precinct leader, such report and audit to be in accordance with the form prescribed herein. This report must show also the exact number of persons who may be considered as patrons (Forders)...

In addition to scheming to overthrow the Soviet Union in league with National Socialists, Aufbau played a pivotal role in coordinating Hitler's preparations for a putsch against the Weimar Republic. Aufbau helped the National Socialist Party to build a substantial war chest for its intended coup by contributing funds from Aufbau members or allies such as Kirill as well as by channeling funds from Henry Ford, the wealthy American industrialist and politician....

The primary American connection to the German far right was most likely the anti-Semitic industrialist and politician Henry Ford.


-- The Russian Roots of Nazism: White Emigres and the Making of National Socialism, 1917-1945, by Michael Kellogg


... or members of the Bund or of the "Prospective Citizens' League" of the AV. The monthly account of 30 cents per member or patron is not determined by the punctuality of individual payments but by the foregoing count. Where the precinct treasury leader is unable to collect his dues he is nevertheless required to make a return to the Bund management until the delinquents have been canceled as patrons or members. But before cancelation the precinct treasury leader is required to make every effort either alone or with the assistance of the square and block administrations to collect the dues that are in arrears and retain the delinquent persons for the movement.

As a part of the orderly (regular) work of the Bund the precinct treasury leader should regard the transfer of dues to the Bund administration, the obligation of the precinct, as the first duty of the precinct. Just exactly as taxes must be paid and tax payments may not be used for any other purpose so it is with respect to the monthly settlement of the precinct with the Bund administration.

In cases in which the money simply cannot be transmitted a report must be submitted nevertheless with a full explanation of the (failure) indebtedness.

7a. The patrons' application fees and half of the voluntary propaganda contributions that accompany patrons' applications are sent to the Bund Treasurer with the application blank. Patrons' pins are to be ordered from the Bund Business Fuehrer as needed; orders must be accompanied by a deposit. The same applies to member replacement pins.

7b. With the acceptance proposal a deposit of 50 cents must be sent to the Bund Treasury through the area administration, for insignia for the applicant, which is then sent to the precinct with the first membership card. In case of rejection of the application, the insignia deposit is returned to the precinct.

7c. The precinct treasury leader keeps the treasury books of the precinct in accordance with the prescriptions of the Bund treasury. He, or a possible business fuehrer of the precinct, orders all printed matter for the needs of his office from the Bund Business Fuehrer.

The precinct treasury books must be audited quarterly by an audit committee consisting of respected, competent, discreet members or executives of the precinct appointed by the precinct leader. Statements concerning the financial status or the numerical strength or weakness of the precinct must not be made in a membership meeting nor given out publicly. No membership meeting is an absolutely "closed" meeting from which nothing might leak out, and the strength or weakness of the movement or of a section is not a public matter. This applies also to the membership count. There is no law that requires the officers of an unincorporated, voluntary organization to publish these matters.

The treasury audit is made in order that the examiners may be able to testify to the membership that the financial administration of the precinct is honest.

The precinct treasury administration must be ready at all times to submit to an examination by any representative of the Bund Treasurer, or area treasury leader.

A rejection of the evidence is permitted after an orderly examination with the express authorization of the precinct leader. Current Bund orders must be observed. The square treasury executives of the precinct are departmentally subordinate to the precinct treasury leader. He issues precinct treasury orders with the countersignature of the precinct leader. These orders pass through the square leader.

The duties, rights and responsibilities of the column treasury leader correspond in the column to those of the precinct treasury leader. In columns when there are no squares the duties of the square treasury leader fall upon the treasury leader.

8. The Square Treasury Chief: The square treasury chief is disciplinarily subordinate to the square leader and is appointed and removed by him with the approval of the precinct or column leader. Departmentally he is subordinate to the precinct or column treasury leader.

He executes the departmental orders of the precinct or column leader in the jurisdiction of the square and supervises and promotes the activities of the block watch in these matters.

Where large squares conduct their own member assemblies with the approval of the precinct or column leader he collects dues in accordance with the list furnished him by the precinct treasury leader and transfers them to the precinct treasury leader. The distribution of collection lists among the block leaders is his duty. The block leaders deliver collected dues with his counter-signature to the precinct or column treasury leader. The same procedure is followed in contributions, advance-sales cards, lottery books, etc.

He submits a comprehensive report at the end of each month to his square leader and to the precinct or column treasury leader.

Square treasury executives keep no personnel lists or cards; the necessary information is to be secured from time to time from the precinct or column secretary-fuehrer and is to be guarded against betrayal or theft. Only information relating to the respective block is to be given to the block leader. Instructions to the blocks are to be given orally at the meetings of the block leaders of the square leader; official written communications must be eliminated so far as possible in the square and absolutely in the blocks.

8a. The block watch executes the orders of the square treasury executive in his house groups. They are transmitted to him by his block leader.

9. The Secretary Fuehrer -- The Business Fuehrer.

The Bund Business Fuehrer: The entire business administration, the business correspondence, the execution of commissions, (procurement), countersignature of receipts, and communications to the comptroller of the Bund treasury, the preparation of membership and promotion cards and books, the transmittal of Bund orders, orders of Bund officers, cards, books, certificates of application, acceptance resolutions, and other administrative needs of the precincts, etc., the transmittal of the Bund news and the conduct of the Bund Chancery, comprise the duties and the domain of the Bund Business Fuehrer. It is his special duty, however, to reconcile the official determinations of the Bund Departmental Chief and the Bund Fuehrer.

The business management conducts a constant control and regular inventory of the entire property of the movement in all its sovereign jurisdictions and their branch units, subordinate organizations, and affiliated societies, as well as the preservation of securities, office needs, seals, decorative standards, etc., which absolutely are necessary for Bund administration. The Bund Business Fuehrer is appointed and removed by the Bund Fuehrer. He appoints and removes, with the approval of the Bund Fuehrer, associates for:

Business administration: Designation of all printed matter with form numbers and letters, execution of commissions, (procurement), with the approval of the Bund Fuehrer and notice to the Bund Treasurer, distribution of materials, control, and inventory.

Distribution: (Reproduction (mimeographing) composition, packing, and distribution of Bund orders, news service, cards, books, pins, and other office needs) (Conduct of detailed distribution control).

Secretarial: (Chancery secretary (both man and woman) for official correspondence, copies of orders, etc., keeping of minutes, protocol, etc.). Together with the dues (contributions) control office of the Bund Treasury, the secretarial office submits a joint monthly report to the Bund Fuehrer and the area leader in which those officers are informed concerning the receipt of orders, printed matter, membership cards, etc., by the precinct administrations as well as concerning their dues and contributions, the filing of reports, member acceptance and member resignations or withdrawals.

9a. The Bund Business Fuehrer submits a comprehensive report to the Bund Fuehrer monthly.

9b. The Bund Business Fuehrer is authorized and directed to call in at least once a year, or as occasion may require, a detailed inventory of all the property of the movement in all its branches and to check it. His commissioners (deputies) have the same authority.

9c. The associates of the Bund Business Fuehrer appoint and remove their assistants with the approval of the Bund Business Fuehrer.

9d. These associates and assistants issue no orders of their own. The departmental orders of the Bund Business Fuehrer are countersigned by the Bund Fuehrer and are binding as issued upon all sovereigns and all officers affected, down to the block. (See "Secretary leader" and Organization leader" following).

9d. The area business fuehrers or, in the event of vacancies, as provided in the following, the area secretary fuehrers and the area organization leaders, are directly subordinate, departmentally, to the Bund Business Fuehrer, belong to his departmental council, and must assist him in his official transactions with subordinate officers to the extent of their ability. Of all Bund business office orders the qualified area leader receives a copy.

9f. The Secretary Fuehrer. Where sovereign jurisdictions have a full-time appointed business fuehrer his official rights and duties correspond to those of other departmental executives of equal rank, and his authority extends to the combined departments described in the foregoing under "Bund Business Fuehrer." Every business fuehrer, including the business fuehrers of precincts and columns, establishes offices in accordance with his needs corresponding to those of the Bund business administration. Appointment and removal of business fuehrers are the same as for other offices. But where sovereign jurisdictions have only an honorary, or part-time secretary fuehrer, the latter is not an executive as such. In such cases the organization leader is responsible for the activities described in the foregoing under "Business Administration," while he or the treasury leader, propaganda leader, or otherwise qualified departmental chief, is responsible for the activities described in the foregoing under "Distribution" and "Correspondence" in a collateral capacity as secretary leader. The organization leaders are responsible to the Bund Business Fuehrer only in respect to the duties described in the foregoing under "Business Administration." In all other matters they are departmentally subordinate to their superior organization leaders, while the executive who supervises the work of a secretary fuehrer is departmentally subordinate to the Bund Business fuehrer only in connection with the duties defined under "Distribution" and "Correspondence." In all other matters they are departmentally subordinate only to the departmental superior concerned with their principal duties. The sovereign designates the secretary.

That executive who functions as the Secretary fuehrer of every sovereign jurisdiction from the precinct and column up is responsible for the acknowledgment of the receipt (to the Bund Business Fuehrer) of all office business correspondence, orders, printed matter, office equipment, member and patrons' cards of books, etc., by return mail, and according to regulations, or in the event of the failure of receipt of ordered material, for notice accordingly.

Concerning minutes (protocols) it must be understood that they are to be kept merely for the purpose of information for the disciplinary superiors, for his reports to superior officers, or for future reference. Minutes must never be read at any meeting or any assembly.

10. The Bund Organization Leader: The supervision of the entire organizational structure of the movement, the development of the technical plans of all departments, the arrangement of all necessary equipment, as well as especially the organizational training of all assistants, associates, departmental executives, branch fuehrers (men and women) and sovereigns comprise the activities and responsibilities of the Bund Organization Leader.

The Bund Organization Leader is appointed and removed by the Bund Fuehrer. He appoints and removes with the approval of the Bund Fuehrer associates for:

Organizational Adjustment (Adjustment of possible conflicts between various rules, orders, or directions. The adjustment of responsibilities in cases in which one official domain tends to encroach upon another. Equitable division of official loads according to individual burdens and capacities, alternations in the existing organizational divisions or official regulations of offices and branches when necessary.)

Organizational Training: (Practical execution of the departmental training of all executives. The educational material of the several courses is developed from the reports (reviews) of the various Bund departmental chiefs and the Bund Fuehrer, the arrangements and programs are developed by the Organization Leader.)

Statistical: (Pictorial presentations, organizational snaps (charts), office, organization, and building plans, flag, uniform and insignia sketches, administrative statistics, OD-Women and Youth Statistics, etc., etc.,).

Technical: Execution of protection, promotion, information, welfare, and refuge plans of the Organization Leader. Execution of plans of the Propaganda Leader for celebrations and for decoration. Execution of Treasurer's fund-raising plans through the OD, employment service, medical or health service, AV bands, Women's and Youth's (Service) divisional activities or from non-member business men or firms, commissions (procurement orders, requisitions) (instructions concerning the ordering of all material, acquisition of real property, buildings, furniture, printed matter, advertisements, talent (faculties) speakers, singers, choirs, bands (orchestras) etc., after consultation and agreement with the office of technique, the affected departmental executives, or branch fuehrers (men and women) and with the Bund Treasurer. Commissions (procurement) of the Bund administration are executed by the Bund Business Fuehrer with the approval of the Bund Fuehrer.

10a. No Bund executive issues any orders which might affect or alter the organizational structure of the movement or its branches in the slightest without the concurrence and endorsement of the Bund Organization Leader.

Subordinate departmental and branch officers issue no orders that would indicate or effect any alteration in the organizational structure, except in connection with the determination or alteration of the designation and the boundaries of squares and blocks (see part II (Two) 9, p. 13, as well as part II, 10, p. 14.)

10b. Training and education are promoted with the help of the Bund Educational Leader and other Bund executives according to their respective departmental duties. The Bund Educational Leader selects the faculty; the Bund executives determine the content of the courses. Arrangements for appointment of the faculty, for class-rooms, for schedules, and for he acquisition of the necessary materials — all fall within the domain of the Organization Leader after the financial plans have been worked out with the Treasurer.

Where there is no business fuehrer the organization leader executes commissions (procurement) also. The approval of a sovereign is required.

10c. The management of the Bund archives except in the matter of securities, etc., which are preserved by the Bund Business Fuehrer or the Bund Fuehrer himself, falls within the domain of the statistical office of the Bund organization management. The various departmental and branch officers deliver to this office their "Kartei" cards (personal), lists, pictures, news clippings, maps, etc.

10d. The execution of plans for the practical conduct of the programs of the Bund Propaganda Leader, Bund Educational Leader, and other Bund executives, within the limits of financial possibilities as fixed by the Bund Treasurer in full conformity with the demands upon the Bund Budget Leader (commercial Leader) (DKV) falls within the domain of the technical office of the Bund organization management.

10e. The cooperation of OD units, the employment service, the medical service (sanitation). Women's, Youth's, song, gymnastic, and musical groups, etc., or the employment of outside talent, as may be necessary, is affected with the help of the office of commissions (procurement). The performance of the necessary duties is delegated to the branch fuehrer (man or woman) or, in the case of outside talent, as prescribed in the foregoing under "Commissions" (Procurement).

10f. The associates of the Bund Organization Leader appoint and remove their assistants with the approval of the Bund Organization Leader.

10g. The associates or assistants issue no order^s of their own. The departmental orders of the Bund Organization Leader, countersigned by the Bund Fuehrer are binding upon all sovereigns and organization officers as issued, down to the block.

10h. The area organization leaders are directly subordinate to the Bund Organization Leader departmentally, belong to his council, and must aid him in his official relations with subordinate officers to the extent of their ability. Of all of his directions to them, the qualified area leader receives a copy.

10i. The Bund Organization Leader submits a comprehensive report monthly to the Bund Fuehrer. It is his special duty to maintain the frictionless, competent, and "comradely" cooperation of all executives and members, to correct even the most minute mistakes immediately upon notice, in order that they may not become habitual and be accepted complacently as necessary evils, to prevent "over-organization," but also to be alert lest, as a result of complacency, organization break down, and to inspire the development of constantly new and wider activities of American-German life. (See also the regulations for branches.) (Service.)

11. The Area Organization Leader: The area organization leader is disciplinarily subordinate to the area leader and is appointed and removed by him with the approval of the Bund Fuehrer. Departmentally he is subordinate to the Bund Organization Leader.

As necessity requires he sets up offices in the area administration that correspond to those of the Bund organization administration. He appoints and removes his associates with the approval of his area leader.

He supervises and promotes the execution of Bund organization orders in the area and aids in the preparation of reports by subordinate officers concerning planned new accessions, purchases, education, etc., as well as in their suggestions concerning organizational extensions, to the area leader and Bund Organization Leader.

He issues area organization orders with the approval of his area leader, of which a copy is sent to the Bund Organization Leader.

The regional organization leaders are directly subordinate to him departmentally. Of his instructions to subordinate officers the appropriate qualified sovereign receives a copy.

His other duties constitute the instruction of organization leaders of newly established columns in their duties and the training of organization assistants of subordinate sovereign jurisdictions as substitutes in area and Bund offices.

He is in full charge of the departmental development of the movement in the area. He must acquaint himself in detail concerning the possibilities of dividing over-developed (over-numerous) districts or precincts. The determination or alteration of the designation of districts and precincts is made in accordance with the instructions of the Bund Fuehrer by the Bund Organization Leader; the possible division of districts or precincts is made in accordance with the instructions of the area leader by the area organization leader with the approval of the Bund Fuehrer; the determination or the alteration of the boundaries of the districts or precincts is made in accordance with the instructions of the area leader by the area organization leader. In the last two cases the Bund Organization Leader is to be notified immediately.

Where an area administration has no business fuehrer a considerable part of the duties assigned to him is turned over to the area organization leader. See Part III, 9, pp. 21 and 22.

12. The Regional Organization Leader:

The regional organization leader is disciplinarily subordinate to the regional leader and is appointed and removed by him with the approval of the area leader. Departmentally he is subordinate to the area organization leader.

As occasion demands he establishes regional organization offices which correspond to those of the Bund organization administration. He appoints and removes his associates with the approval of his regional leader. He supervises and promotes the execution of Bund and area organization orders in the region and aids in the preparation of the reports of subordinate officers concerning planned new accessions, purchases, education, etc., to the regional and area organization leader.

He issues regional organization orders with the countersignature of the regional leader, or which a copy is sent to the area organization leader.

The State organization leaders of the region are directly subordinate to him departmentally. Of his orders to subordinate organization officers the appropriate qualified State, district and precinct or column leader receives a copy.

It is his special duty to report currently to superiors and subordinates concerning the political, commercial, industrial and agricultural matters in his region which require consideration in connection with organizational measures, and the training of officers. See also Part III, 9, pp. 21 and 22.

13. The State Organization Leader: The State organization leader is disciplinarily subordinate to the State leader and is appointed and removed by him with the approval of the area leader. The regional leader is notified. Departmentally he is subordinate to the regional organization leader.

As occasion requires lie establishes State organization offices which correspond to those of the Bund organization administration. He appoints and removes his associates with the approval of his State leader. He supervises and promotes the execution of the orders of superior organization officers in the State and aids in the preparation of the reports of the districts and precincts in matters affecting newly planned accessions, purchases, education, etc., to his State leader, regional organization leader and area organization leader.

He issues State organization orders with the countersignature of the State leader, of which a copy is sent to the regional organization leader.

The district organization leaders of the State are directly subordinate to him departmentally. Of his district organization orders the district and precinct or column leaders of the State receive a copy as do also the qualified organization officers.

It is his special duty to familiarize himself with all the legal aspects of the organizational structure of the movement in the State, and to become familiar with all the organized political party affairs of the State, and to report upon all these matters to superiors and subordinates. (See also Part III, 9, pp. 21 and 22).

14. The District Organization Leader: The district organization leader is disciplinarily subordinate to the district leader and is appointed and removed by him with the approval of the area leader. The State leader is informed. Departmentally he is subordinate to the State organization leader.

As necessity requires he establishes district organization offices that correspond to those of the Bund organization administration. He appoints and removes his associates with the approval of his district leader.

He supervises and promotes the execution of the organization orders of superior officers in the district and aids in the preparation of the reports of precincts or columns in matters affecting newly planned accessions, purchases, education, etc., to his district leader. State organization leader and area organization leader.

He issues district organization orders with the countersignature of the district leader, of which a copy is sent to the State organization leader.

The precinct or column organization leaders are directly subordinate to him departmentally. Of the organization orders directed to them the precinct or column leaders receive copies.

The district organization leader must hold regular departmental conferences with his precinct or column organization leaders, and not rely merely upon written correspondence. He is especially the liaison officer between the area organization leader and the organization leaders of newly organized columns, who should be accorded help; he is in addition that officer to whom the training of competent organization executives recommended for promotions is entrusted.

It is his special duty to study the arrangements of the organized political parties of the "counties" in his provinces and to report concerning these matters to superior and subordinate officers and to conduct the educational meetings for the training of all executives, associates, assistants, and OD men of the district regularly and according to instructions.

See also Part III, 9, pp. 21 and 22 and also "Official Administration" following.

15. The Precinct or Column Organization Leader:

The precinct organization leader is disciplinarily subordinate to the precinct leader and is appointed and removed by him with the approval of the area leader. The district leader is notified. Departmentally he is subordinate to the district organization leader.

As occasion requires he establishes organization offices to correspond to those of the Bund organization administration. When necessary, he must perform the precinct organization duties himself. He appoints and removes his associates with the approval of his precinct leaders.

He executes the organization orders of superior officers in the precinct and promotes their execution in the squares and blocks.

He submits current detailed reports concerning newly planned accessions, purchases, education, executive and OD educational meetings, and the organizational status in the precinct, squares and blocks to his precinct leader as well also to his district, area and Bund organization leaders. He must keep these officers informed concerning the possibility and the advisability of the division of the precincts or squares, or the establishment of new columns.

He submits on or before the 10th of each month with the countersignature of the precinct leader a short, formal, but comprehensive report to the Bund Organization Leader.

He conducts regular departmental conferences with the leaders of all the organization offices of the precinct, their squares and branches. These are departmentally subordinate to him.

The principal duty of the organization leader is the equitable division of the work load and the calm, frictionless functioning of the entire administrative apparatus of the precinct.

Where there are no business fuehrers in the precinct the organization leader takes over the important work of business administration. The business administrator is authorized and required to maintain a detailed account of all the property of the movement, including that of the branches, subordinate organizations, and affiliated societies.

The precinct organization leader issues departmental orders countersigned by the precinct leader which pass through the square leaders to the squares and blocks.

See also Part III Paragraph 9, pp 21 and 22 and also "Official Administration" and "Basic instructions for Precinct and Column Administration." The duties, rights, and responsibilities of the column organization leader correspond in the column to those of the precinct organization leader. In columns in which there are no squares the obligations of the square organization executives fall upon the column organization leader.

16. The Square Organization Executive: The square organization executive is disciplinarily subordinate to the square leader and is appointed and removed by him with the approval of the precinct or column leader. Departmentally he is subordinate to the precinct or column organization leader. He executes the orders of the precinct or column organization leader in the jurisdiction of the square and supervises and promotes the work of the block watch in these matters.

For the jurisdiction of the square the duties of the business fuehrer or secretary fuehrer fall upon the square organization executives, the news service leader and the commercial leader. The official instructions affecting the precinct and column leaders in these matters pass through the precinct or column organization leaders and the square leader to the square organization executives. He (the Square Organization Chief) submits a comprehensive report at the end of each month to his square leader and to the precinct or column organization leader.

Square organization executives do not keep personnel lists or cards; the necessary information is to be secured in each case from the precinct or column secretary fuehrer and to be preserved so that it may not be betrayed or stolen. Information for the block leader must be only that which affects a specific block.

Directions for the blocks are to be communicated orally at the block leader meetings of the square leader; written official communications must be reduced to a minimum in the square and excluded entirely between squares and blocks.

16a. The block watch executes in his house groups the orders communicated to him by the square organization executive through his block leader.
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Re: Neuschwanstein: A fairy tale darling's dark Nazi past

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Part 6 of 8

17. The Bund Propaganda Leader: The status of the propaganda aspect of the movement, as it appears to the public, including its branches, subordinate organizations, and affiliated societies, the content and the architectural setting of all demonstrations and meetings, assemblies, and celebrations, the administration of all cultural activities, and guarantee of a unified, philosophical, national socialistic permeation and arrangement of all the manifestations (appearances) of the Fuehrer and members of the movement comprise the duties and responsibilities within the domain of the Bund Propaganda Leader.

The Bund Propaganda Leader is appointed and removed by the Bund Fuehrer. He appoints and removes, with the approval of the Bund Fuehrer, associates for:

Publicity (Advertising), Sketches, plans, designs, for notices, bulletins, placards, etc.; press and radio announcements, motion picture notices, propaganda correspondence.

Speakers: (Preparation of matter for the public-speaking courses of the organization leader. Communication with the organization administration concerning the selection and appointments of speakers).

Art: Architecture plans, designs, stage and auditorium decorations, etc. supervision of the decoration of all offices and homes.

Stage: (Supervision of rehearsals and performances of all stage presentations, public speaking, song festivals, etc., (including (services) branches), arrangements for motion picture presentations).

Music: Arrangements for musicales. Supervision of the musical offerings of all (services) branches, and of musical education. Cooperation with organization administration for the selection and engagement of bands, orchestras, shows, magicians, singers, etc.

Publications: (Book Store) Arrangements for literary readings, regulations, for the management and preparation of reviews of books, magazines and tracts.

Philosophic Supervision: Cooperation with all other departmental officers and branch administrations, especially with the offices for publicity, education, politics, and economics, in order to preserve the absolutely unified intellectual (spiritual) arrangements of all parts.

Engagements (procurement): Cooperation with organization, treasury and business administrations concerning the engagement of talent, speakers, and other similar and technical needs.

The Propaganda Leader prepares the monthly program, arranges for meetings and designates the architectural (auditorium decoration) and content (festival, speakers, music, etc.) character of the meeting, with the approval of the sovereigns. The technical execution of these plans is delegated to the Organization and Business Fuehrers, after agreement with the treasury as to finances and with the cooperation of the branches. (Services).

17a. The Bund Propaganda Leader submits a monthly report to the Bund Fuehrer. He issues departmental orders countersigned by the Bund Fuehrer which are binding as issued upon all sovereigns and propaganda offices down to the block. His departmental (functional) instructions are to be carried out in the subordinate offices in accordance with the conditions prevailing in the particular locality.

I7b. The associates and assistants of the Bund Propaganda Leader issue no orders of their own. Associates appoint their assistants with the approval of the Bund Propaganda Leader. They are removed under the same conditions.

17c. The area propaganda leaders are directly subordinate to the Bund Propaganda Leader departmentally, belong to his council, and must aid him in his official relations with subordinate officers. Of all of his regulations to them, the qualified area leader receives a copy.

See also especially "Regulations for Meetings" and "Arrangements for Festivals" in the basic instructions for precincts and administrations and Bund orders.

18. The Area Propaganda leader is disciplinarily subordinate to the area leader and is appointed and removed by him with the approval of the Bund Fuehrer. Departmentally he is subordinate to the Bund Propaganda Leader.

As required, he organizes area propaganda offices corresponding to those of the Bund propaganda administration. He appoints and removes his associates with the approval of the area leader.

He supervises and promotes the execution of the Bund propaganda orders in the area and aids in the preparation of reports by subordinate officers and their recommendations to the area leader and the Bund Propaganda Leader.

He issues area propaganda orders, with the counter-signature of the area leader, of which a copy is sent to the Bund Propaganda Leader.

The regional propaganda leaders of the area are directly subordinate to him departmentally.

Of his regulations directed to subordinate officers the appropriate qualified sovereign receives a copy.

It is his special duty to supervise the official instruction of the propaganda leaders of newly organized columns and to train the propaganda associates of subordinate sovereign jurisdictions as substitutes for area and Bund offices.

19. The Regional Propaganda Leader: The regional propaganda leader is disciplinarily subordinate to the regional leader and is appointed and removed by him with the approval of the area leader. Departmentally he is subordinate to the area propaganda leader.

As occasion requires he organizes regional offices corresponding to those of the Bund propaganda administration. He appoints and removes his associates with the approval of the regional leader.

He supervises and promotes the execution of Bund and area propaganda orders in the region and aids in the preparation of the reports and recommendations of subordinate officers to the regional leader and area propaganda leader.

He issues regional propaganda orders with the counter-signature of the regional leader, of which a copy is sent to the area propaganda leader.

The State propaganda leaders of the region are directly subordinate to him departmentally. Of his orders to subordinate propaganda officers a copy is sent to the qualified sovereign.

It is his special duty, to advise both superior and subordinate officers concerning those national, commercial, political, industrial, and agricultural characteristics of his territory which should be given propagandistic consideration.

20. The State Propaganda Leader: The State propaganda leader is subordinate disciplinarily to the State leader and is appointed and removed by him with the approval of the area leader. The regional leader is notified. Departmentally he is subordinate to the regional propaganda leader.

As occasion requires he organizes State propaganda offices corresponding to those of the Bund propaganda administration. He appoints and removes his associates with the approval of his State leader.

He supervises and promotes the execution of the orders of superior propaganda officers in the State and aids in the preparation of the reports of subordinate officers to his State leader and to the regional and area propaganda leader.

He issues State propaganda orders with the counter-signature of the State leader, of which a copy is sent to the regional propaganda leader.

The district propaganda leaders of the State are directly subordinate to him departmentally. Of his propaganda orders to subordinate officers a copy is sent to the qualified sovereign.

It is his special duty to inform the superior and subordinate propaganda officers concerning the particular legal and political party matters which should be given consideration in the propaganda activities of his State.

21. The District Propaganda Leader: The district propaganda leader is disciplinarily subordinate to the district leader and is appointed and removed by him with the approval of the area leader. The State leader is notified. Departmentally he is subordinate to the State propaganda leader.

As occasion requires he organizes district propaganda offices corresponding to those of the Bund propaganda office. He appoints and removes his associates with the approval of the district leader.

He supervises and promotes the execution of the orders of superior officers in the district and he aids in the preparation of the reports of the precinct and column propaganda officers of the district to his district leader, the State and area propaganda leaders.

He issues district propaganda orders with the counter-signature of the district leader, of which a copy is sent to the State propaganda leader.

The precinct or column propaganda officers of the province are directly subordinate to him departmentally. Of his propaganda orders issued to them, qualified precinct and column leaders receive copies.

The district propaganda leader must hold regular conferences with his precinct or column propaganda officers and not rely merely on written correspondence. He is especially the liaison officer between the area propaganda leader and the propaganda leaders of newly organized columns, who should be given special help; he is in addition that officer obliged to develop competent propaganda officers recommended for promotion.

Among his principal duties are: (1) the supervision of legal and political party matters that may require consideration in connection with propaganda in the district; and (2) cooperation in the arrangements for educational evenings within his jurisdiction.

22. The precinct or Column Propaganda Leaders; The precinct propaganda leader is disciplinarily subordinate to the precinct leader and is appointed and removed by him with the approval of the area leader. The district leader is notified. Departmentally he is subordinate to the district propaganda leader.

As occasion requires he organizes precinct propaganda offices corresponding to those of the Bund propaganda office. If necessary he must perform the duties of precinct propaganda himself. He appoints and removes his associates with the approval of his precinct leader.

He executes the propaganda orders of superior officers in the precinct and he supervises and promotes their execution in the squares and blocks.

He submits constant detailed reports concerning the propaganda status in the precinct and in its squares and blocks to his precinct leader as well as to the district, area and Bund propaganda leaders.

Before the 10th of each month he sends a short, business-like but comprehensive report to the Bund Propaganda Leader with the countersignature of the precinct leader.

He conducts regular departmental conferences with the leaders of the propaganda offices of the precinct, squares, branches, all of whom are departmentally his subordinates.

He issues departmental orders, with the countersignature of the precinct leader, to the square leaders, who execute them through their square propaganda leaders and block leaders.

For information concerning the monthly program, arrangements for meetings, etc., see "Bund Propaganda Leader" and consult "Basic instructions for Administration of Precincts under Assembly Regulations and Festivals.'"

The special duty of the precinct propaganda leader is unrelenting explanatory propaganda and, with the help of branches (Services) and squares and blocks, the propagandizing of new adherents and the winning of the friendly approval of non-member organizations.

The duties, rights and responsibilities of the column propaganda leader correspond in the column to those of the precinct propaganda leader. In columns in which there are no squares the obligations of the square propaganda chief fall, upon the column propaganda leader.

23. The Square Propaganda Chief: The square propaganda chief is disciplinarily subordinate to the square leader and is appointed and removed by the precinct or column leader. Departmentally he is subordinate to the precinct or column propaganda leader.

He executes within the jurisdiction of the square the precinct or column propaganda orders received through his square leader and supervises and promotes their execution through the block watch.

Within the jurisdiction of the square the duties of a publicity leader, educational leader and political leader also fall upon the square propaganda leader. Orders of the precinct or column departmental chief affecting these matters reach him through the precinct or column propaganda leader and the square leader.

At the end of each month he submits a comprehensive report to his square leader and to the precinct or column propaganda leader.

Square propaganda chiefs keep no personnel lists or cards; the necessary information they secure in each case from the precinct or column secretary and must so preserve it that it may not be betrayed or stolen. Only such information as affects the respective block and as may be necessary is given to the block leaders.

Regulations affecting the blocks are to be transmitted orally during the block leader conferences of the square leader; official communications in writing must be kept at a minimum in the square and are prohibited absolutely between square and block.

23a. The block watch executes the orders of the square propaganda chief transmitted to him through his block leader. See "Block Watch" following.

24. The Bund Intelligence Leader: The acquisition of information of all sorts for the use of the Bund Fuhrer and the Bund management from officials, public libraries, press and radio, concerning the laws, political, economic, and cultural matters, concerning firms, individuals and the members of the movement, as well as the preparation of a monthly news report for the general information of the precincts comprise the duties and constitute the domain of the Bund Intelligence Leader.

Statistics and other data, newspapers and newspaper clippings, pictures, cartoons, and criticisms collected by the intelligence administration of subordinate sovereign jurisdictions, etc. — all find their way to him and are filled in the statistical office of the Bund organization administration in the Bund archives or submitted directly to the appropriate qualified Bund department chief.

The Bund News Letter is prepared by the Bund Intelligence Leader from current information and in cooperation with the various Bund offices. In this "Letter" issues affecting the entire movement most essential to the precincts are to be written up in such a manner that the separate items may be utilized as short presentations in the public speaking classes and as exercises in the educational classes.

24a. The Bund Intelligence leader is a Bund executive. He is appointed and removed by the Bund Fuhrer. He appoints his associates with the approval of the Bund Fuhrer. His associates appoint and remove their assistants with the approval of the Bund Intelligence Leader. He issues Bund Intelligence orders with the countersignature of the Bund Fuhrer binding as issued upon all sovereigns and intelligence officers down to the block.

Departmentally subordinate to him, are the area intelligence leaders, who are members of his council, and who assist him in the area.

24b. The area, regional, State, district and precinct or column intelligence leaders organize as needed offices that correspond to those of the Bund intelligence office. Their official domain corresponds to that of the Bund Intelligence Leader except that they do not prepare a news letter but rather endeavor to provide for its distribution among the most earnest, discreet, and reliable officers and members.

They are appointed and removed, issue their orders, and appoint and remove their associates under the same conditions as in the case of other departmental chiefs of the several sovereign jurisdictions, and as described in the foregoing.

24c. Investigators of the precincts and columns, for the investigation of the personal declarations of applicants for membership should be the precinct or column intelligence leaders, the appropriate qualified square organization chief, and the qualified block leader.

24d. In those sovereign jurisdictions in which there is no intelligence leader, these duties fall upon the organization leader.

25. The Bund Commercial ( budget ) Leader: The union of the Germanic business world and its philosophical development, the uniting of the American-German merchant class with that business world and the supervision of the procurement and economic policies of the movement in all its sections and services and among all its members, as well as the development of commercial relations between the United States and Germany, and opposition to the boycott, comprise the activities and constitute the domain and the responsibilities of the Bund Commercial (Budget) Leader.

It must be his constant effort to devise an economically, self-sustaining and self-subsisting Bund of the American-German people through which the beginner of Germanic origin in any business is supported until there is developed not only a society of merchants and little tradesmen of German origin and kin, but in addition a society of wholesalers, factors, manufacturers (fabricators) and importers "(Importeurs)" of German origin or kin until the entire Germanism of the nation is established in its own or affiliated activity and has become invulnerable to economic persecution.

For the practical performance of this gigantic task there exists a special economic corporation. See "Organizational Structure of the German Consumers' League."

25a. The Bund Commercial (Budget) Leader is a Bund executive. He is appointed and removed by the Bund Fuhrer. He appoints his associates with the approval of the Bund Fuhrer; and they appoint and remove their assistants with the approval of the Bund Commercial (budget) Leader. He issues Bund Commercial (budget) orders with the countersignature of the Bund Fuhrer which are binding as issued upon all sovereigns and (budget) commercial administrations down to the block. Departmentally subordinate to him, belonging to his council, and assisting him in the area are the area commercial (budget) leaders.

25b. All officers of the movement with their departmental assistants wherever possible are at the disposal of the Commercial (Budget) Leader in his activities in their procurements, (acquisitions) and purchases, and in the engagement of outside talent of every kind.

25c. The area, regional, State, district, and precinct or column Commercial (budget) leaders organize offices as needed, these offices corresponding to those of the Bund Commercial (budget) administration. Their official domain corresponds to that of the Bund Commercial (Budget) Leader, except that the area Commercial (budget) leaders, are required to provide for the training of substitutes for area and Bund commercial (budget) officers and, together with the district commercial (budget) leaders, for the DKV development in new columns, while the particular duties of the regional commercial (budget) leaders comprise the study of the national, commercial, industrial, and agricultural conditions of their regions, and the State, district and precinct commercial (budget) leaders must concern themselves with the legal and political party problems within the domain of Economy; the precinct or column commercial (budget) leaders and the square organization officers are the promoters of the business units in the precincts. (DKV) All are appointed and removed, issue their orders, and appoint and remove their associates in the same manner as is provided for all other departmental chiefs in the various sovereign jurisdictions.

25d. In those sovereign jurisdictions in which there is no commercial (budget) leader these duties fall upon the organization leader.

26. The Bund Publicity Leader: The character of Bund publicity, the publication of descriptive and propaganda articles, books, volumes, etc., as well as the establishment and supervision of newspaper corporations and publications of the movement comprise the duties within the domain of the Bund Publicity Leader.

No subordinate sovereign or Service administration is authorized to issue any kind of paper or news item, etc., without the written consent of the Bund Publicity Leader countersigned by the Bund Fuhrer.

26a. He (the Publicity Leader) is appointed and removed by the Bund Fuhrer. He appoints and removes, with the approval of the Bund Fuhrer, associates for:

German Journalism: (Composition of German articles, the editing of the German section of the newspapers and periodicals of the movement, supervision of the German editing of the periodicals of the Services, subordinate organizations, and affiliated societies; editing and publishing of precinct reports, etc.)

English Journalism: The same as the foregoing in English.

Advertising.

Distribution (circulation).

Propaganda and Administrative Offices.

26b. Purchases (Procurements), except where made by the publication corporation, are made by the Bund organization and business administrations. All Bund officers are at the disposal of the Bund Publicity Leader. He cooperates with all Bund Executives in order that the publicity may correspond in every respect to the work of all other activities of the movement.

26c. The associates of the Bund Publicity Leader appoint and remove their assistants with his approval.

He issues Bund publicity orders, with the countersignature of the Bund Fuhrer, binding as issued upon all sovereigns and publicity officers down to the block.

Directly subordinate to him departmentally, belonging to his council, and assigned to aid him in his relations with subordinate officers are the area publicity leaders.

26d. Area, regional, State, district and precinct or column publicity leaders organize offices ( as required) that correspond to those of the Bund publicity administration. Their domain corresponds to that of the Bund Publicity Leader except that they do not issue any kind of publicity matter or newspapers, etc., other than upon his order. It is the special duty of the area publicity leaders to provide for the training of substitutes for area and Bund publicity offices; the district publicity leaders provide for the development of publicity leaders for new columns and for the distribution of the Bund press (papers). The regional publicity leaders make reports concerning the national, commercial, industrial and agricultural characteristics of their regions and furnish the news staff with corresponding data. The State, district and precinct publicity leaders report on legal and political party matters. The precinct or column publicity leaders, with the assistance of their associates and square propaganda executives solicit references, renewals, advertisements, stands (news stands?), etc. prepare reports of meetings and celebrations for publication and provide contacts for acquiring readable articles from non-members. They receive monthly instructions from the Bund publicity office concerning members and advertisers.

They all are appointed and removed, issue their orders, appoint and remove their associates in the same manner as is provided for all the other departmental chiefs of the various sovereign jurisdictions.

26e. In those sovereign jurisdictions in which there are no publicity leaders, all these duties fall upon the propaganda leader.

27. The Bund Educational Leader: The status of the Bund educational system, the development of language schools, etc., for youth of German origin, the composition of the (reports) reviews of the different departmental executives, the development of educational methods for the various Bund executive, educational and speaking courses, the preparation of Bund educational letters, and the issuance or regulations concerning the faculty and textbooks of language schools comprise the official domain of the Bund Educational Leader.

27a. The execution of the plans for the practical operation of the duties of the Bund Educational leader, the arrangement and execution of the commissions (procurements) of the Bund Educational Leader, the purchase or lease of school buildings or space and the actual appointment of faculties in accordance with the directions of the Bund Educational Leader is all accomplished by the Bund organization and Bund business administrations.

27b. All educational methods and papers of the Bund Educational Leader are prepared with a view to their philosophical (comprehensive) arrangement in cooperation with the Bund Propaganda Leader.

27c. The Bund Educational Leader is a Bund executive and is appointed and removed by the Bund Fuehrer. He appoints and removes, with the approval of the Bund Fuehrer, associates for:

Language Schools (supervision of the duties of the National Youth Educational Leader — See also Youth Service Regulations)

People's Schools:
Language and Citizenship
Schools for adults

Speakers Training:
(Conducted by Organization Administration)

Musical Training:
(Conducted by Organization Administration)

Departmental Executive and Fuehrer Training
(Conducted by Organization Administration)

also

Gymnastics, Range, Aviation, Women's (Services) Departments, etc. Faculty, Methods, Reviews (Reports, References).

Text Books: (In cooperation with the OD, Youth or Women's educational administration, with the Bund Propaganda Leader, and with the organization officers. Arrangements and appointments through the Bund organization and business administrations).

The aid of all Bund officers is at the disposal of the Bund Educational Leader. He cooperates with all Bund executives, in order that the educational system may coincide in every way possible with the other activities of the movement.

27d. The associates of the Bund Educational Leader appoint and remove their assistants with his approval.

He issues Bund educational orders, with the countersignature of the Bund Fuhrer, that are binding as issued upon all sovereigns and educational officers down to the block. Directly subordinate to him departmentally, belonging to his council, and assigned to assist him in his relations with subordinate officers are the area educational leaders.

27e. The area, regional, State, district, and precinct or column educational leaders organize offices, as occasion demands, that correspond to those of the Bund educational office. Their domain corresponds to that of the Bund Educational Leader, except that they do not prepare any reports (reviews) other than as they may be especially directed to do, and make no personal changes in methods, or textbooks, but are obligated primarily to execute his orders, to supervise their execution in the branches (services) and subordinate offices, and to report to superiors. The area educational leaders are required especially to provide for the development of substitutes for area and Bund educational officers; together with the district educational leaders they provide for the development of educational leaders for new columns and for the expansion of the Bund language and citizenship educational program. The regional educational leaders report on national, commercial, industrial and agricultural matters. The State, district, and precinct or column educational leaders are to be concerned about legal and political party affairs in their jurisdictions; the precinct or column educational leaders have as their principal duty the constant development of elementary language schools and singing societies and language and citizenship schools for adults.

All are appointed and removed, issue their orders, and appoint and remove their associates as provided for all the other departmental leaders of the different sovereigns jurisdictions.

27f. In sovereign jurisdictions in which there is no educational leader these duties fall upon the propaganda leader.

28. The Bund Political Leader: The political party arrangements of the movement and the concepts of all Germanism for the presentation of candidates and unanimous expression at the polls, as well as the making of contacts with political party leaders and the holders of public office for the purpose of promoting a national Aryan-American public policy, constitute the duties and comprise the domain of the Bund Political Leader.

He must educate Germanism politically, indicate its duties, rights and tremendous possibilities, teach it the practical preliminaries of political party activities from the ground up and apply them for the movement, and with the constant particular object of the Bund in view, to secure for, and assume to, American Germanism an appropriate participation and vote (expression) in the political affairs of the nation. He must explain, with the help of the departmental officers of all sovereign jurisdictions and through the educational system of the movement, the application of the entire political party apparatus of the United States to citizenship rights and duties and the detailed activities of primaries, the presentation of candidates, etc.).


His special field is the field of national politics and problems of citizenship.

28a. The practical performance of his duties, the comprehensive supervision, the purposeful education, appointments, etc., all are as prescribed in the foregoing for all other departmental chiefs.

28b. The Bund Political Leader is a Bund Executive and is appointed and removed by the Bund Fuehrer. He appoints and removes, with the approval of the Bund Fuehrer, associates for: Political Party Organization Problems: (How parties are constituted: how to participate in their activities). Citizenship Problems: (How to become a citizen: what a prospective citizen and citizen should know about rights and duties). Political history, political statistics: Cooperation with the intelligence officer, etc., for information concerning national, commercial, industrial, and agricultural problems, as well as the attitude and expressions of political leaders, candidates, etc.

28c. The associates of the Bund Political Leader appoint and remove their assistants with his approval.

He issues Bund political orders, with the counter-signature of the Bund Fuehrer, binding as issued upon all sovereigns and political officers down to the block.

Departmentally subordinate, belonging to his council, and assigned to assist him in his relations with appropriate officers are the area political leaders.

28d. The area, regional. State, district, and precinct or column political leaders organize offices corresponding to the Bund political office, as required.

The area political leaders provide especially for the training of substitutes for area and Bund political offices, together with the district political leaders they provide for the development of political leaders for newly organized columns and for the extension of the entire national, commercial, industrial, agricultural, and political party principles and unity of the movement. The regional political leaders consider the national, commercial, industrial, and agricultural political problems which should be considered in connection with a party election and report currently on these matters to superior and subordinate officers. The State political leaders follow State politics; the district political leaders are in charge of "County" politics; the precinct or column political leaders are in charge of municipal politics; and the square propaganda chiefs and block leaders are in charge of political matters in the political subdivisions of the municipality.

All are appointed and removed, issue their orders, and appoint and remove their associates in the manner provided for all departmental officers of the different sovereign jurisdictions.

28e. In sovereign jurisdictions in which there are no political leaders these duties fall upon the propaganda leader.

29. The National OD Fuehrer: The National OD Fuehrer is a Bund Executive and is appointed and removed by the Bund Fuehrer. He is also the National Sports Fuehrer to whom is assigned the supervision of all the presentations of the movement having to do with physical development, including Youth and Women's divisions (services). (Gymnastics, swimming, riding, shooting (rifle-practice) (range), boxing, flying, wrestling, motorcycle, sail and motor boat racing, setting-up exercises, foot ball and other ball games, as well as such indoor activities as chess, etc.) He is also the National "Sanitary-Service" (Health) Fuehrer, the National Transportation Leader (Power Fuehrer) and the National Employment Fuehrer, with the same rights and duties to supervise these matters in the other services.

In his domain are included also scouting and guard duty, the establishment of homes and camps, and (everything that concerns the personal, disciplinary relationship of the Individual).


29a. The same applies to all subordinate OD Fuehrers. For further information concerning the OD service of the AV see "Organizational Structure of the OD Service" and Bund orders.

29b. For information concerning the financial, administrative, organizational, educational, and propaganda services of the OD Administration in the organization of the Bund see "Duties. Rights and Responsibilities of the Sovereigns and Departmental Chiefs" (in the foregoing Departmental regulations).

30. The National Youth Fuehrer: The National Youth Fuehrer is a Bund Executive and is appointed and removed by the Bund Fuehrer.

For information concerning other regulations for the Youth (Service) Division of the AV see "Organizational Structure of the Youth (Service) Division", Bund orders, National Youth Orders, and also "Duties, Rights and Responsibilities of Sovereigns and Departmental Chiefs".

31. The Bund Women's Reporter and the National Women's Fuehrer:

The Bund Women's Reporter is a Bund administrator and is appointed and removed by the Bund Fuehrer. All organizational and administrative women officers in the Bund administration are directly subordinate to her.

31a. The National Women's Fuehrer is appointed and removed by the Bund Women's Reporter. All National Women officers for the education, training, and appointing of women in the special domain of women are directly subordinate to her.

For further information concerning the women of the AV see "Organizational Structure of the Women's Division (Service)," Bund orders, National Women's Division (Service) orders, and "Duties, Rights and Responsibilities of Sovereigns and Departmental Chiefs."

32. The Block Watch: The Block Watcher occupies with the OD Group Fuehrer, the first rank above the general membership. He is responsible to his block leader for all occurrences effecting the movement in the house group entrusted to him, except in matters that concern the official responsibilities of the woman block watcher (women's problems).

He executes the orders of the square treasury, square organization and square propaganda executives and the special orders of the block leader in his house group; all orders reach him through his block leader.

32a. The block watcher is appointed by his block leader with the approval of the square leader. He selects assistants when necessary after consultation with, and approval of, the block leader. Otherwise he must perform his duties personally and never depend on others. There must be no official correspondence in the house group, in the block, or, if possible, in the square.

32b. The block watcher receives from his block leader the names, descriptions, and other data necessary for his work in the house group in each particular case. He must so preserve them that they may not be stolen or betrayed and he must never give anybody except his block leader any information concerning them under any circumstances.

32c. The block watcher is obligated to provide means by which his block leader and his superiors in the precinct may be able to reach him either personally or by phone every day or at least every other day at a definite hour. If this rule is observed carefully from top to bottom it will enable the Bund administration to reach "every last" member within 24 or 48 hours.

32d, To have the house groups coincide with the existing political divisions of the municipality, so far as possible, will bring about as many households (dwellings) into a compass which, for the general purposes of the Bund, a block-watcher may be able to cover with an announcement (or in which he will be able to deliver a bulletin) in about five hours.

The number of member occupants in the house group do not count, and for Bund purposes, dwellings that are not affected must not be counted.

Periodical visits with members, prospective members, patrons, etc., propaganda visits to Bund newspaper readers, business people, or other persons to be visited will require more time; all of which, too, is to be omitted in determining the size of the house group.

32e. The block watcher is the surety to his block leader and, from there throughout the entire movement, for the conduct of every member in his house group. To the member he is the representative of the "Kameradschaft", (brotherhood) which has drawn us all together. To the public he represents the movement, to be judged according to his conduct and appearance. He is able to render great propaganda service to the movement; but he also can do it great honor. He must be concerned at all times, constantly striving and practising to stand as an example for all those with whom he is so constantly and so closely in contact. He must know the financial circumstances of every member family and investigate how it may be helped. He must not permit any illness or any misfortune to escape his notice or to remain unreported to the block leader. Every available, eager champion that he discovers in his house group he must report to his superior in order that such faculties may be utilized for the advantage of the movement. He must be the friend and counselor of every one of his members, neither snappy, haughty, nor "stern", nor flattering, nor too diplomatic. He ought to be so fair and square that all will respect him without being compelled to draw on their imaginations. Where there are no youth in the Youth Division (Service) it is his duty to solicit them, where the organ of the movement is not read it will constitute his first and most important duty to see that it is, where there are no stores in the commercial organization of the Bund or where members or patrons do not support affiliated stores he should take hold. Where able men think they are not needed in the OD he must change their minds and prevail upon them. Where anybody who could be of service to us is still outside because he thinks that his position, his class, his confession, or his national origin might be undervalued or ignored, he will find opportunity for explanation. Where there is complaint this or that still is missing in the Bund he can explain how easy it would be to improve the situation with the aid of the complainant. Where information concerning political activities or possibilities can be secured for the Bund in this domain it should be.

The movement must not be permitted to stand still; members must be held to discipline and to the performance (fulfilment) of their obligations and put to work in every way possible. On the outside there must be constant, ceaseless effort in order that no month may pass which does not find a new reader, a new DKV agency, or new members or patrons brought in from every block.


The block watcher performs the most important of the detailed work of the movement. His work never is finished. It is his first duty to fashion the Bund into an active, aspiring American-German Community.

32f. The Women Block watchers:

Women block watchers hold the same rank as men. They are appointed by the block leader with the approval of the square leader. They execute in the house group assigned to them the departmental orders of the qualified women's square executive and the orders of their block leader. They receive all their orders through the block leader. When necessary in the event of an accumulation of duties they select assistants with the approval of the block leader. Otherwise they must perform their duties personally and rely upon no one. There must be no official written correspondence in the house group or in the block.

32g. For further information concerning the duties of the woman block watcher see "Organizational Structure of the Women's Service", "Bund orders" and "National Women's Service Orders."

33. The Bund Member. The Member of the Prospective Citizen's League of the AV.

Eligible for full membership in the American German Bund is every reputable citizen of the United States of Aryan origin who has completed his 18th year, as well as every reputable woman citizen of the United States of Aryan origin who has completed her 21st year. The preponderance (predominance) in every precinct must be assured to German-speaking Germanism under all circumstances.

33a. Eligible for membership in the "Prospective Citizens' League" of the AV, but not eligible to hold office or to vote in the Bund, are all reputable prospective citizens of the United States who have a valid "first citizenship" paper and who otherwise fall within the foregoing description, paragraph 33. Members of the Prospective Citizens' League are admitted to AV Member Meetings upon presentation of their valid membership cards (or books).

33b. Eligible for admission to the Patrons Service of the AV, which is neither an organization nor a society, and admission to which does not qualify for membership in any "organization" is every person recommended by a qualified sovereign as a respectable, reputedly honest friend of the movement, regardless of his or her nationality. Patrons may be admitted also under "cover" names and "cover" addresses (fictitious). Concerning membership meetings see 33d.

33c. Youths who have not reached the age prescribed in the foregoing for full membership in the Bund are eligible for admission to the Youth Service of the AV regardless of their nationality or the relation of their parents or guardians to the Bund, provided they are of German origin. Those of other nationality, but only Aryans, who indicate a willingness to learn German are eligible only under special circumstances and with the written consent of the National Youth Administration (Service) Division. The Youth of Germanism must be kept nationally and linguistically German, which would be almost impossible in a division composed of mixed nationalities. (See also Youth Regulations.)

33d. Change Regulations on page 2, paragraph 6, sentence "a," of Instructions to Precinct Administrations. Since December 16, 1939, no one can be admitted immediately into AV Membership. The applicant for admission must be accepted as a patron first. When a person has decided to become a Bund member or a member of the Prospective Citizens' League of the AV he fills out the application of the AV in detail, remaining a patron until the acceptance of his application, which takes at least six months. The patron application will have been sent to the Bund Administration with the application fee and half of the propaganda contribution, and the patron will have received his patron's card.

His application for admission remains in the precinct for the period of six months, while his personal and citizenship declarations are investigated according to regulations. After six months the application for admission, with a deposit of 50 cents for the Bund insignia, is transmitted to the Bund administration by way of the area administration. Upon receipt of his membership card and his insignia in the membership assembly, the new member returns his patron's card, which is then sent back to the Bund administration for cancelation.

Patrons who do not make application to become members may secure a patron's emblem from the precinct or column leader.

See also "Membership" in the "Directions for Precinct Administration" and Bund orders. For information concerning Women Members see also, "Organizational Structure of the Women's Service" and National Women's Division Orders.

33e. Every member subscribes to the declaration and obligation in his (her) membership card (or membership book) in the presence of the qualified precinct or column leader and the block leader surety, who sign as witnesses. This declaration and obligation is not an oath of any kind. Whoever desires justly to remain and vote in the Bund as an actual champion, whoever desires honestly to reach the goal which the movement has set, which every member makes his own goal upon his admission, must study this declaration and obligation earnestly and conduct himself accordingly with all his might. Then this movement will be invincible.

33f. Member dues: The assessed monthly minimum dues for non-indigent males and independent women Bund members is 75 cents; for married women and other non-self-sustaining women family members, 30 cents. The monthly dues of indigent Bund members may be reduced temporarily to as little as 30 cents per month by the precinct or column leader. This minimum assessment, which must be forwarded to the Bund Administration, may, in extraordinary cases, be covered by the "Kanierads". Whoever has a weekly wage above the average must regard himself as obligated to make a monthly propaganda contribution in addition to the foregoing normal charge, to be acknowledged on his membership card by contribution stamps, and of which half is sent to the Bund administration.

33g. For a Bund member there is no such thing as a "right" to free admission for official attendance at assembly, nor a "right" to a refund of traveling expenses, or other expenses in connection with the official performance of his duties!

True, the Kamerad summoned to a meeting for service is, indeed, not required to pay a fixed admission charge, since he must attend whether or not he is able to pay such a charge, but he is obligated to contribute to the expense of the evening, even if he cannot pay more than 5 cents; the same applies to other duties. Those for whom expenses may become too great will be helped and without being made to feel that he is of any less value. But whoever can do so, even at a sacrifice, must pay.

In the Bund service is not to be compensated by favors or privileges. In the Bund everyone contributes his time, his strength and his money according to his ability, and the reward is the joy of service and the thanks of the movement. It is only through such a spirit of joyous self-sacrifice that we shall prevail; the Jewish spirit of materialism must not be permitted to enter the Bund or we shall be destroyed individually and collectively.


The Bund is not an organization to be joined for the purpose of expecting a definite, tangible return for every penny contributed. It represents the last possibility of American Germanism to rise from the condition of a downtrodden, war-subjugated disavowed nationality, contented with its lot to the status of a sound, great, proud nationality through which we and our descendants may live according to our own God-given way and through which we may help to fashion in every important vital matter this, our nation, not because it will be accorded us graciously but because it is our right and because we have the power to exercise that right without supplication. Then and only then will the neglect and the persecution of American Germania cease. We owe to ourselves, our ancestors, and our descendants, the right to be a free people, and not the despised spit-upon menials of inferior despots (dictators) who deserve still to be cursed by our children. The Bund member's mode of grievance is only the official way. People who may be unable to agree on the outside owe a duty to the Bund to work together in the Bund, and they can do so if they have the proper spirit of service and if each performs his duties. He who carries personal animosities into the Bund weakens the movement. Where it is not possible to resolve a difference of opinion by a frank discussion man to man the precinct or column leader will appoint an investigation and conciliation commissioner. He may grant or refuse the request (to consider). If he grants the hearing he will appoint a committee of deliberative, calm, generally respected members or officers. Even though the decision might be unfair to one of the parties (to the controversy) he is nevertheless obliged to conduct himself in accordance with it or to resign (withdraw). If the precinct or column leader refuses to appoint a committee upon request the member may appeal to a higher officer within at least a period of eight days provided it be in writing and with the knowledge of his superior (who refused). But the decision of the next higher ranking officer is final. Committees of investigation and conciliation are appointed only to consider personal controversies between members. No such committees are appointed to consider official differences of opinion. In official matters sovereigns decide. Should a member or officer, after conviction, regard the decision as unfair he may appeal to the next higher ranking departmental and disciplinary sovereigns within eight days in writing and with the knowledge of his accused superior. In the event he be dissatisfied there he may appeal again in writing to the next higher ranking officer and so on until in a given case he may reach the Bund Fuehrer. His decision is final. If the complaining member pursues the official course from beginning to end in such a matter no other member ever will be able to know anything about it — it concerns only those who are affected (or involved). Any other course of procedure will weaken the integrity of the movement and is consequently prohibited.

See also especially the OD Service regulations.

33j. The most Important principles for which every real champion will contend are:

A people that will permit themselves to be divested of their language will vanish as German descendants, he who adopts any other than German as the language of his home, even though he may endeavor to think German in a foreign tongue, will lose his national consciousness within a generation, which has been the irrefutable history of all American Germanism. German-American youth learns its English quickly, thoroughly, and unforgettably on the streets and in the public schools. Those parents who would not betray the work of the Bund at its most vulnerable point will insist strongly and without exception that only German be spoken at home, among the children as well as between children and parents and that, in addition the child learn to think in German. Only thus shall we be able to preserve our nationality during our time — and let it be not said that is impossible to do it.

A people that permits itself to be divested of its racial individuality also will perish; a people that indifferently interbreeds with another sins against the original (fundamental) laws of the Almighty and will die. If a child of German descent is reared with a national consciousness and if the parents have taken the additional pains to assure it, through our defensive movement of Germanic America, association with Kamerads and friends of German descent, then the mixed marriages that are destroying Germanic America will cease.

A people that will permit itself to be divested of its national consciousness and its own way of life surrenders to the foreigner and is lost; the German descendant who curries the favor of the foreigner and follows his opinion betrays his right to life. So, too, in the movement. Attacks upon our movement and criticism of it and of the men and women who constitute it mean nothing to us (are devoid of validity). The German nationality must learn to be proud, to criticize itself and its own kind, but to pay no attention to the criticism of outsiders, except of course the officers of the law. The German nationality must prepare to end its wretched veneration of the foreign and its cringing before foreign mockers.

All this is the service, the duty, and the obligation of a Bund member; within the limits of the law of the land the movement of the German-American Bund comes first in all things in the life of the individual fellow-countryman, in order that our whole nationality may be purified and reestablished.

Notice to the Recipient of These Regulations

Like all the rest of the valuables created by the Bund these regulations constitute the property of the Bund. Every officer must preserve them and study them thoroughly; he must not release them except in the event of retirement from office, when he must turn them over to a qualified sovereign.

But these regulations should be put to practical use in educational evening (classes) until "every last" 'Kamerad' understands his assignment and knows his duty. They must not be buried in a forgotten (desk) drawer.

They are the result of the serious study not only of the experiences of our Bund and its predecessors but also of the experiences of the old home under the leadership (Fuehrung) of the greatest German of all times.

Proposals for improvement are requested but until changes are made every sovereign must comply with them so far as humanly possible. "Free America" "Wilhelm Kunze," Deputy Bundfuhrer.  
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Re: Neuschwanstein: A fairy tale darling's dark Nazi past

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Part 7 of 8

Document #3 in German] 

[Translation of Document # 3]

THE UNIFORMED SERVICE OF THE AMERICA-GERMAN BUND

Organization Structure


The supreme commander of the Uniformed Service [OD] of the Bund is the Leader [Fuhrer] of the Bund. As his representative in all uniformed service question&i lie designates a National OD Leader. The National OD Leader is in charge of all the territory of the Bund.

The National OD Leader issues orders, which, countersigned by the Bund Leader, are sent out to the officers (leaders of areas, regions, circles, districts, local groups and strong points), for execution and are binding upon such officers.

The National OD Leader appoints and removes, with the confirmation of the Bund Leader, all coworkers of the National OD Headquarters. They form the staff of the National OD Leader. They themselves do not issue any orders; their orders go through the National OD Leader.

SPHERE OF OPERATIONS OF THE NATIONAL OD LEADER

The work of the National OD Leader is divided as follows:

Organization office: Elaboration of service regulations, plans for assembling transportation, quarters, feeding, clothing and equipment and the drafting of building plans. (The technical execution of the building plans of the National OD Leader is accomplished by the Bund organization leader, except as is otherwise provided under "OD Command of Local Groups").

Equipment office: Issue office for the whole equipment of the OD, its homes etc. (The procurement of articles of equipment is accomplished by the Bund Organization Leader, except as is otherwise provided under "OD Command of Local Groups").

Finance office: Entering and calculation of receipts and expenditures for uniforms, badges, etc., with the Bund Treasurer. (There is no crediting of special contributions of OD members. With regard to "OD Comradeship Funds", see under "OD Command of Local Groups"). Working out of plans for financing planned procurements, buildings, schooling, insurance, support, and the like. Conduct of raffles and sales of cards.

Personnel office: Keeping of the OD card file, custody of the certificates of registration, issuance of OD passes. (The latter are issued by the National OD Leader in person). Checking of appointments, removals and transfers.

Labor office: Regulations of the use of the labor service. Supervision of training in trades and advice as to callings. Securing of positions in agreement with Bund Adjutant.

Insurance office: Direction of the OD insurance. (Life insurance, sick-benefit funds, unemployment aid).

Law office: Surveillance and advice of all OD establishments with respect to legal provisions as to sanitation, feeding, construction, meetings etc. Investigation and settling of disputes in the OD.

Gymnastic office: Physical exercises, sports, training of the body.

Press office: Collection and publication of reports, articles and notices of the OD Headquarters in the Bund press.

School office: Schooling in world outlook and training of leaders in the OD, under supervision of the Bund Intelligence Service and Training Leader.

Recruiting and Cultural office: Drafting of informative and recruiting documents, decorations for halls, series of festivals, etc. for OD meetings (Bund meetings under the leadership of the OD). Supervision of the adornment of OD offices and OD homes. The work of the National OD Recruiting and Cultural Office is under the supervision of the Bund Recruiting Director.

General The right to apply discipline and the right to remit punishment with regard to any OD Leader or OD man belongs to the National OD Leader; any OD Leader can suspend the OD Leaders and OD men serving under him, as punishment. OD Leaders, from Section Leader upward, can expel OD men from the OD, with the assent of the competent Local Group or Strong Point Director.

All new acceptances, appointments, dismissals, transfers and discharges within the OD are to be reported immediately in writing by the competent officer to the National OD Leader.

No OD head of a district or other OD Leader ever gives binding declarations to the outer world, except by explicit direction of the officer competent at the time.

The Area OD Leaders, Regional OD Leaders, Circle OD Leaders and District OD Leaders establish, according to need, the same OD offices as are provided for the headquarters of the National OD. Their rights, duties and obligations correspond, for the command area within which they are in command (area, region, circle or district) to those of the National OD Leader, except as follows:

OD passes are issued only by the National OD Leader. The procurement of all articles of equipment is done only through the National OD Equipment Office and the Bund Organization Director, except where other arrangements are made under "OD Headquarters of Local Groups".

With regard to the establishment of OD offices within the territory of the local groups and strong points, see under "OD Headquarters of Local Groups".

Command of the Area OD

The Area OD Leader is head of the Area. He is appointed by the Area Leader and confirmed by the National OD Leader. The Area OD Leader appoints and removes his collaborators with the confirmation of the Area Leader.

The rights, duties and powers of the Area OD Leader correspond, for the territory of the area of which he is the head, to those of the National OD Leader, except where restrictions are made above, under "General". The Area OD Leader reports monthly to the National OD Leader; a copy of each report is received by the Area Leader.

COMMAND OF THE REGIONAL OD COMMAND OF THE CIRCLE OD

Regulations on the command of the regional OD and the circle OD are issued separately.

COMMAND OF THE DISTRICT OD

The District OD Leader is head of the district. He is designated by the District Leader and confirmed by the National OD Leader. Appointments and removals of District OD Leaders are to be reported to the Area Leader immediately in writing.

The District OD Leader appoints and removes his collaborators with the confirmation of the District Leader.

The rights, duties and powers of the District OD Leader correspond, for the territory of the district at the head of which he is, to those of the Area OD Leader. The District OD Leader reports monthly to the Area OD Leader; a copy of each report is received by the District Leader.

Among the most important duties of the District OD Leader are those of supervising the work of the OD sections in the district in question by attending the OD musters and meetings, keeping the OD Area Headquarters informed of special conditions in these sections, promoting the collaboration of the sections with each other and with the young people and promoting the training of young men capable of acting as leaders. Special efforts are to be made to establish in his district at least one OD musical unit, even if the musicians do not all belong to the same section.

THE OD COMMAND OF LOCAL GROUPS AND STRONG POINTS

The OD Platoon Leader has authority within the Local Group or Strong Point. He is appointed by the Local Group or Strong Point Leader and confirmed by the National OD Leader. Appointments and removals of OD Platoon Leaders are to be reported immediately in writing to the District Leader and the Area Leader by the Local Group or Strong Point Leader.

The OD Platoon Leader appoints and removes his immediate subordinate leaders and collaborators with the confirmation of the Leader of the Local Group or Strong Point.

SPHERE OF ACTION OF THE OD PLATOON LEADER

The work of the OD Platoon Leader is divided as follows:

Organization Office: Elaboration of plans for assembly, transportation, quarters and feeding and drafting of building plan^. (Technical execution by the Organization Leader of the Local Group or Strong Point.) Provision of homes, et cetera.

Equipment Office: Distributing office for equipment of the OD and its organizations. (All procurement through the Organization Leader of the Local Group or Strong Point, with the approval of the Bund Organization Leader).

Procurement Office: Keeping of card files. Checking of appointments, dismissals, transfers, et cetera. Sending of certificates of admission to the OD to the National OD Leader. Distribution of the OD passes issued by the National OD Leader.

Finance Office: Keeping books on receipts and expenditures for uniforms, decorations, travel, construction, insurance, maintenance, et cetera. Transfer of funds for orders from the National OD Headquarters directly to the National OD Finance Office. Keeping account of the funds which remain in the Section, with the cashiers of the Local Groups or Strong Points, except as follows: The OD Platoon has a "Comradeship Fund" for special purposes approved by the Leader of the Local Group or Strong Point, such as: aid to OD men who are in want, with regard to procurement of uniform equipment, aid in paying contributions, covering traveling expenses and any charges for admittance in connection with official trips, payment of tips, et cetera. The Comradeship Fund is maintained by donations of the OD men and their supporters. It is also subject to monthly audit by the cashier of the Local Group or Strong Point and in case of need is available to the Local Group or Strong Point, at the demand of the Leader of the Local Group or Strong Point. There is no official OD fund. The Platoon Finance Office also has the duty of working out financial plans for procurements, buildings, training, insurance, maintenance and the like that are planned, and of carrying out raffles and sale of cards of the OD.

Labor Office: Use of the labor service. Supervision of training in crafts and advice as to calling. Procurement of work in agreement with the Adjutant of the Local Group or Strong Point.

Health Office: Supervision of sanitation, medical attention and food.

Insurance Office: OD life insurance, sick benefit funds and unemployment relief.

Physical Culture Office: Exercises, sport, physical culture.

Law Office: Supervision and advice of the OD establishments with regard to provisions of law.

Press Office: Collection and sending in of OD reports, articles and notices to the National OD Press Office.

Training Office: Training in outlook on the world and training for leadership in the OD. Provision of teaching material in agreement with the Schooling Leader of the Local Group or Strong Point.

Recruiting and Cultural Office: Drafting of informatory and recruiting documents, plans for decorations of halls, services of festivals, et cetera, for OD meetings (Bund meetings under leadership of the OD. Constant enlightenment regarding the importance of the encouragement and incitation of the young people of the Bund. All work in agreement with the Recruiting Leader of the Local Group or Strong Point.

Subordinate Leaders: By means of his subordinate leaders (the squad leaders, group leaders and leaders of musicians of the Section), the OD Platoon Leader accomplishes the practical OD work of the Local Group or Strong Point. He must at every opportunity inspire his subordinate leaders and men by exemplary service and comradely preparatory work and by absolutely impersonal and just treatment build them into the firmly founded, strictly disciplined protective and recruiting unit which our movement must have. He will participate as often as possible in the musters and official trips of his comrades, demanding nothing of them which he himself would not be ready to perform and will always be the first comrade of the Platoon. He will always appear more punctually for duty than he expects of his subordinates and will be the last to leave the place of duty. He will never complain of his superiors before his comrades, but will display the absolute loyalty and correct behavior which he expects from his men. The blind obedience that will be absolutely necessary in serious situations can be provided only if the Platoon represents a true association of comrades which feels respect for and confidence in its Leader. It is possible only to call forth and to maintain this voluntary following if the Platoon Leader shows himself a comrade and a calm, self-possessed Leader to every OD man in the same way, a Leader who always thinks much more of his duties than of his rights. The OD Leader is the direct Leader of the bravest and most unselfish men in our ranks; his first thought must always be to confirm by his every act their belief in the just cause of the movement.

The holding of meetings and parades, participation in other meetings, and the use of the labor service take place only with the approval of the Leader of the Local Group or Strong Point. The Platoon Leader must keep his Local Group or Strong Point Leader informed on all the work of his Platoon and must always be at his disposal with his men. As the crop of leaders of the movement is to be taken as far as possible from the ranks of the OD, and as the OD in turn must be filled up from the ranks of the young people, there prove to be the most important duties of the Platoon Leader: in the first place the search for usable leader material and its training and encouragement, and in the second place constant solicitation for the heart and hand of our young people. In consideration of the preponderant influences among which these young people are growing up, no model behavior is to be required of the young people before the OD member declares himself ready to approach them in a comradely way, but all efforts must be made to gain the liking of the young people who have frequently been wrongly reared, even if the OD man to start with first speaks to the young men, for example, upon meeting them or may have to take as part of the bargain some discourtesy or lack of consideration.

THE OD SECTION LEADER — THE OD SQUAD LEADER

The Section Leaders and Squad Leaders are the collaborators of the Section Leader in the disciplinary control of the subdivisions of the Platoon in question. The Section Leaders are appointed and removed by the Platoon Leader, with the confirmation of the Leader of the Local Group or Strong Point. The Squad Leaders are appointed and removed by the competent Section Leader with the confirmation of the Platoon Leader. The representative of the Platoon Leader is the Leader of the First Section of the Platoon; the representative of the Section Leader is the Leader of the First Squad of the Section. There is no special rank within the OD for such representatives. The rules of behavior for Section Leaders and Squad Leaders correspond to the above.

CELLS AND BLOCKS

The cells and blocks of the Bund (subordinate units of the Local Groups and Strong Points) have no OD leaders of their own.

DIVISIONS OF THE OD

Active OD: The active OD comprises all OD men who are in a position because of youth and calling to be available to the movement at any time. The active OD assembles regularly every week at OD musters. As far as possible, every active OD member can be reached by telephone at any time.

OD Reserve: The OD Reserve should include all sound male members of the Bund who are not in a position to serve in the ranks of the active OD. The OD Reserve is drawn upon during specially large meetings and assembles monthly for a service muster, together with the active OD.

Both divisions are subordinate to the Platoon Commander. Uniform and insignia are the same for both divisions.

SUBDIVISIONS OF THE BRANCHES

The Squad: The OD Squad consists of eight members of one branch and one OD Squad Leader. Superfluous OD members are assigned for the time being to the First Squad of the branch in question.

The Section: The Section consists of three squads. Supernumerary squads are assigned for the time being to the First Section of the organization in question.

The Platoon: The OD Platoon includes all OD Sections and OD musical organizations of the Local Group or Strong Point.

SECTION OF MUSICIANS

Each Platoon shall endeavor to provide a section of musicians. Where this is not possible, the Platoon shall report to the District OD Leader any OD member who is suitable for a section of musicians and shall make him available, so that the District can at least assemble a section of musicians from OD members of various Platoons.

As long as the musicians are not sufficiently drilled, they must participate regularly in the OD musters; the Platoon Leader will excuse musicians from duty when possible. The sections of musicians participate in the monthly general musters of the Platoon.

MEMBERS

Any male member of the Bund who is physically sound and has completed his eighteenth year can become a OD man. All OD men and OD Leaders in particular are required to procure a certificate of Aryan blood.

A newly accepted OD man is considered for the first four weeks a OD probationer. His OD certificate of acceptance, signed by the Platoon Leader, goes directly to the National OD Leader. The National OD Leader issues the OD pass and sends the latter to the Platoon. The OD passes are formally handed out by the Platoon Leader to the new OD members at an OD muster. Acceptances for the OD are to be reported immediately to the Leader of the Local Group or Strong Point.

The Platoon Leader can refuse acceptance in the OD without a statement of reasons, after consultation with the Leader of the Local Group or Strong Point.

There are no OD contributions. Every OD member makes his monthly membership contribution as a member of the Bund. Contributions to the Comradeship Fund of the OD are voluntary.

Admittance to Functions: An OD man present on duty is not required to pay any given admission to functions of the Bund. He should contribute a voluntary sum for expenses, adapted to his capacity to pay.

Discharge: The right to apply the disciplinary regulations and disciplinary furlough belongs to every OD Leader in accordance with the regulations under "OD Discipline". OD Leaders, from the Platoon Leader upward, can discharge OD men from the OD with the assent of the competent Leader of the Local Group or Strong Point. Discharge from the OD does not affect membership in the Bund.

Resignation: Voluntary resignation is refusal to serve. Any person who wishes to leave the OD must direct a written application for dismissal to his Platoon Leader, with a statement of reasons and must, if possible, provide a substitute.

Certificate of Conduct and OD Certificate: In addition to his membership card in the Bund, an OD man carries with him his OD pass. If the OD member pays his membership contributions to the Bund punctually and performs his duties loyally, his OD pass will be stamped monthly by the Platoon Commander. The OD pass is sent to the Area OD Leader every six months to be checked. The OD pass, stamped according to regulations, grants the OD member admittance to all functions of the Bund and its branches. OD passes which have not been stamped up to the previous month in any case lose their validity.

Rules of Behavior for the OD Man

(A) The Uniformed Service [OD] of the American-German Bund is the protective unit of our movement. In our ranks there are no oaths of any kind to a leader, but every OD man is pledged to render absolute obedience and unbounded loyalty to his leaders, within the framework of the laws of the country.

In this connection it is to be borne in mind that the order of the leader next in rank at any given time is decisive; the loyalty of the OD man does not stop at the platoon leader, but in the last analysis concerns the Leader of the Bund above all others. Personal likes or dislikes play no part with the true OD man; the orders of his superior are carried out as long as the latter fills his office and does not act counter to the orders of his superior.

The OD man should therefore understand that beginning with that day on which he wears the dress uniform of the OD for the first time, he has, eliminating all personal opinions, become a protector of the movement and its leaders against all attempts at undermining and breaking up, from within or without. The OD man gives the assurance that our movement will, at the sacrifice of life if necessary, remain the inexorable opponent of Jewish Marxism and the uncompromising champion of (he demands of American Germans, even if this should possibly no longer please some group within the Bund.

Anyone who is not filled with this unshakable faith and courage and cannot march along as a fanatical fighter does not belong in the OD; to have embraced the National Socialist view of things means definitively breaking off all ties with liberal halfway measures.

(B) The OD is not a military organization; its training does not take place according to purely military standpoints, but according to suitable guiding ideas of politics and things in general.

Some drill is necessary, in order to make possible disciplined employment, but the main emphasis is to be placed even more on training in athletics and formation of character and mentality. The OD man who looks to the future will gladly undergo any hardship that causes him to become stronger than his foes in health, in character and in mind. The effeminate and lazy man is headed for the abyss; whoever wants to have the right to life must be a fighter, who can be hard even to himself!

Therefore let no OD man expect to be received gently into our ranks.
We are looking for men who enter our organization not in order to procure personal advantages or to be allowed to play soldier pleasantly, but who intend with their whole power to eradicate the red Jewish pestilence in America.

(C) The OD man is easily recognizable anywhere by his bearing. Therefore he must always, on and off duty, take special pains to carry himself as he himself would expect of a representative of the leadership of American Germans. As an OD man he is no longer a private individual, whose faults involve only a few in suffering with him; he actually represents the movement to the general public, and must take care that no boorish behavior on his part may give reason for a wrong opinion of the Bund.

(D) Persons attending gatherings and guests at our functions are to be treated with the greatest courtesy and civility possible. Many a prejudice that a stranger brings along can be removed by the model behavior of the OD man.

(E) Smoking and drinking while on duty is prohibited. The OD Leaders are required to enforce this rule most strictly. At the command "duty ended," cap and shoulder belts are removed.

(F) The weekly musters are the training evenings for the OD. They should be held in gymnasiums as far as possible. After the drill and the gymnastic exercises there comes half an hour of schooling and then social pleasures. The OD man should strive to become acquainted with our treasure of popular and war songs and to contribute also to this song treasury of the movement.

Unexcused absence from duty involves punishment.

(G) Heads of offices can at the same time hold rank in the OD. Their other rank has nothing to do with the OD: heads of offices are, in the OD, under the command of the competent OD Leader. Heads of offices are not required to perform the regulation OD duty; rather is this voluntary for them, as they will seldom have time for the regular OD duty, if they wish to do justice to their special tasks. However, the head of every office is required to participate in the monthly general musters. Only one designation of rank is worn at a given time; it is the one that corresponds to the duty at the time.

(H) Arming the OD is prohibited. If a weapon is found on an OD man, the latter is to be discharged from the OD immediately. The OD Leaders are responsible for the strict enforcement of this rule.

(1) The military standards of the OD, the United States flag and the Bund flag with the patch of the platoon in the union, are the sacred symbols of the movement, to which the highest respect is to be paid. The military standards are never used as decorations, but always are kept under OD guard. They are to be protected at the cost of one's life. To be a standard bearer is the highest honor of the OD man.

(J) Every OD man has the right to complain. If an OD man believes that he has reason for complaint, he is to submit it to his section leader in writing. Complaints regarding any occurrence must be submitted not less than twenty-four hours after the occurrence and not more than seven days after the occurrence. If the OD man believes that he has not been given justice by his Platoon Leader, he carries the complaint, with the knowledge of the platoon leader, up to the Leader of the Local Group or Strong Point, and in case of need, step by step through the District OD Leader, the District Leader, etc., on up to the National OD Leader and the Leader of the Bund. Complaints are considered only if the OD man keeps strictly to service channels.

An OD man true to his duty will never disseminate his dissatisfaction among his comrades and will never, among his comrades, make any criticism of a superior, but will always complain only to those above him. The collecting of signatures in order to strengthen a complaint, as well as any other stirring up of one's comrades, is considered disintegration and mutiny and involves immediate discharge.

No matter how justified the anger of an OD man may be, it remains his first duty to avoid everything that might endanger the close unity of the movement.

The Uniform

(A) The active OD and the OD reserve, the section of musicians, the medical service, the front fighters and the office administration force of the Bund (including the officers) wear the OD uniform. Special arm-bands are provided for the medical service and the front fighters, and epaulets for the musicians, in addition to the OD armbands.

(B) Probationary members of the OD are not permitted to wear the uniform.

(C) The uniform is the full dress outfit of the movement. Anyone who appears in uniform, represents the essentials of the Bund. A stranger will judge the OD and hence the Bund from the appearance of the person wearing the uniform. A uniform kept neat and in good order and a snappy bearing when on or off duty must be a matter of honor to every real OD man.

(D) Orders and decorations may be worn with the uniform at any time; they are worn on the left breast-pocket.

(E) Contribution buttons may be worn on the right breast-pocket for the duration of the meeting, festival buttons for the duration of the festival, and medals won in sports as long as they are valid.

(F) The Bund badge is worn on the cravat, an inch and a half below the knot.

(G) Insignia for rank, unit and service are worn on the shoulder straps, as far away from the collar as possible. See under "insignia for Leaders".

(H) No ornaments other than the prescribed badges may be worn with the uniform.

(I) The uniform shirt: gray poplin shirt with turndown collar, two breast pockets and shoulder straps. Also black four-in-hand tie.

(J) The uniform coat: light gray, single-breasted coat with open collar, silver buttons, two breast pockets, two side pockets, shoulder straps and upper part of collar black. Silver piping.

(K) Uniform, trousers: for duty indoors, long black trousers without cuffs. With them, black shoes and black socks. For duty outdoors, black riding breeches with black riding boots or black high shoes and leather leggins.

(L) Articles of leather: black belt and black shoulder belt with brass hooks. On duty, shoulder belt under the right shoulder strap.

(M) Uniform cap: black field cap (kepi), with silver piping. The cap is worn on one side, the left side a finger-breadth higher than the right.

(N) The armband: The OD armband has a black ground, with a white stripe at the top and bottom, near the edge, and has in the middle the black and gold insignia of the Bund and a gold O and D. It is worn on the left arm, above the elbow. The officers and other administrators, the active OD, the OD reserve and the OD musicians and bandsmen wear the OD armband. The armband is worn with the uniform, when on or off duty.

The medical service wears a white armband with a standing red cross.

The front fighters wear, on duty in the OD or OD reserve, the OD armband, and when on duty in the front fighter service, a field gray (greenish-gray) arm-band with the Bund front fighter insignia embroidered on it in gold.

(O) The epaulets: with the uniform of the OD musicians' unit there belong red and white striped epaulets, in addition to the OD armband. The epaulets of the drum major are provided with fringes.
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Re: Neuschwanstein: A fairy tale darling's dark Nazi past

Postby admin » Thu Sep 26, 2019 7:53 am

Part 8 of 8

OFFICERS' INSIGNIA (INSIGNIA OF RANK, UNIT AND PLACE)

(A) The assignment (holders of high ranks, OD Leaders, other heads of offices) is shown by the color of the patch on the left shoulder strap. (There are special insignia for young people's and women's organizations).

Rank: is shown by the stars and stripes on the left shoulder strap. (Exception: young people and women).

The location of the platoon (place of duty of the officer concerned) is shown by the color of the patch and number of the unit or other insignia on the right shoulder strap. (Exception: organizations for young people and women).

(B) Other insignia of rank worn hitherto are to be exchanged for new ones without charge at the National OD Equipment Office. Additional orders are likewise to be addressed to the National OD Equipment Office.

(C) Badges of rank and location must not be worn until after reception into the OD or appointment to an office has been confirmed in accordance with regulations.

(D) Fuhrer of the Bund: Yellow patch (Spiegel) with four stars on the left shoulder-strap; yellow patch with Bund insignia on the right shoulder-strap.

(E) National OD Leader: Black patch with three stars on the left shoulder strap; yellow patch with Bund insignia on the right shoulder strap.

(F) Area Leader: yellow patch with three stars on the left shoulder strap; patch of the area color with Bund insignia on the right shoulder strap. (The area colors are: for the eastern area red, for the middle western area white, and for the western area blue).

(G) Area SB Leader: black patch with two stars and three stripes on the left shoulder strap; patch in the area color with number of platoon of the place in which serving, on the right shoulder strap. (The platoon number is the number of the local group or strong point).

(H) From the Area SB Leader and the other administrative officers of the Area down to the individual OD man, all high officials, OD Leaders and other holders of offices, OD section leaders, heads of cells, leaders of local groups, bloc overseers and OD men, on the right shoulder strap a patch of the color for the area concerned, with the platoon number for the place in which their unit is; they wear their marks of rank on the left shoulder strap. Exceptions: organizations for young people and women.

(I) Region leader: Yellow patch with two stars and three stripes on the left shoulder strap. Right shoulder strap as under (H).

(J) Region OD leader: black patch with two stars and two stripes on the left shoulder strap. Right shoulder strap as under (H).

(K) Circle leader: Yellow patch with two stars and two stripes on the left shoulder strap. Right shoulder strap as under (H).

(L) Circle OD leader: black patch with two stars on one stripe on the left shoulder strap. Right shoulder strap as under (H).

(M) District leader: yellow patch with two stars and one stripe on the left shoulder strap. Right shoulder strap as under (H).

(N) District OD leader: black patch with two stars on the left shoulder strap. Right shoulder strap as under (H).

(O) Local group or strong point leader: yellow patch with two stars on the left shoulder strap. Right shoulder strap as under (H).

(P) OD platoon leader: black patch with one star and one stripe on the left shoulder strap. Right shoulder strap as under (H).

(Q) OD section leader: black patch with one star on the left shoulder strap. Right shoulder strap as under (H).

(R) OD squad leader: black patch with one stripe on the left shoulder strap. Right shoulder strap as under (H).

(S) OD man: no patch or insignia on the left shoulder strap. Right shoulder strap as under (H).

(T) Collaborator of the OD headquarters: Collaborators of the OD headquarters wear no special insignia as such, except on the right shoulder strap as Is provided under (H). But if they occupy one of the positions of leader at the same time, they wear the insignia corresponding to the service, whatever it may be.

(U) Cell leaders and block leaders are officers who have no OD commands of their own. OD men are placed at their disposal when needed, by the platoon leader, with the approval of the Local Group or Strong Point Leader. Cell leaders wear a yellow patch with one star and one stripe on the left shoulder strap; the right shoulder strap as under (H). Block leaders wear a yellow patch with one star on the left shoulder strap; the right shoulder strap as under (H).

(V) Other officials, cell administrators and block watchers: for insignia of leaders of young people and women, see the service regulations of those groups. A table for the explanation of the marks of rank worn on the left shoulder by the other leaders of the Bund follows. All members of the Bund who are in the first seven grades are officials.

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Colors

(A) Every officer has two colors available (one American flag and one Bund flag with patch). The colors are carried everywhere that the Leader or the OD of the area of command concerned is acting officially.

(B) The colors are always carried and guarded by uniformed OD color-bearers and by them only. Colors are never lent, given away or sold. Consecrated colors are never used as flags for decoration or hung up; they are always to be carried on the pole and are to be set up only under constant watch by the OD.

(C) The colors are four feet high and six feet wide. The Bund flag has a deep red ground, with white rays from the middle to the four corners. Each of the four rays contains two black stripes. In the middle of the flag, on both sides, the insignia of the Bund, three feet high, in gold, with black shading, is sewed on. In the union (the upper, inner corner of the flag), a distinctive patch is applied. The patch is six inches high and nine inches wide and is sewn on two inches from the pole and one inch from the upper edge of the flag. The American standard is not marked in any way.

(D) For the tip of the flag-pole, an eagle is to be used, if possible, for the American color, and for the Bund color the bronze Bund insignia, which can be procured from the National OD Equipment Office.

(E) The American color always accompanies the Bund color. It is always carried or displayed in the place of honor to the right of the Bund color. (In the direction of march, on the right; on or in front of a stage, to the right as seen by the speaker).

(F) Distinctive Markings for the Bund Colors: The color of the local group or strong point (the platoon flag) bears a blue patch; the name of the local group or strong point and border in yellow.

The district color bears a light brown patch; the name of the district and the border in yellow.

The circle color bears a black patch; name of circle and border in yellow.

The regional color bears green patches; name of region and border in yellow.

The area color bears red patches; name of area and border in yellow.

The color of the headquarters of the Bund (national color) bears light yellow patches with the insignia of the Bund in gold, shaded with black, and with golden border for the patch.

(G) The colors are to be procured through the National OD Equipment Office. In ordering, the name of the command area in question is to be given in German.

Drill Regulations

(A) Drilling is for the practicing regularly of the forms indispensable for the organization and maintenance of a unit.

Drill is not an end in itself, but is used only to make possible a highly necessary, disciplined and effective action, unattainable in other ways, and the highest possible degree of true spirit of comradeship.

Drill demands full physical and mental subordination to will. The success of a systematic drill becomes an indicator of the inner worth of the unit, for discipline, confidence, the feeling of belonging together, self-control and readiness to act receive compact expression through it. The OD man who is well drilled shows by his bearing the strength of his will and his feeling. He must, for his own pleasure, be recognizable anywhere, and deservedly, as OD man from his glance and bearing and must be able to gain respect as a model.

(B) The execution of the drill must be strict and severe. Even the slightest errors and deficiencies in the execution of the commands are to be corrected as soon as they occur, for it is very difficult to make up later for faulty basic training.

(C) Drill should always be performed only for a short time.

(D) The use of drill as a punishment is forbidden.

(E) Saluting:

(1) For the national hymn of the United States: ("The Star Spangled Banner"), and for the song ''America" ("My Country 'tis of Thee"), the right hand is brought to the cap above the right temple (the hand horizontal, with fingers and thumbs touching and slightly bent). When this is done, the left hand is kept on the seam of the trousers, as for "attention".

(2) For all other occasions (assembly of colors, honors, official greetings, etc.), the OD employs only the Bund salute. (This is true also for the front fighters, the officials, the young people and all other branches of the Bund).

In the Bund salute, the right arm is brought forward by the shortest course and is stretched somewhat to the right, with the hand on a level with the forehead, the arm parallel with the right foot in the basic position, the fingers stretched and the thumb touching. At the same time, uniformed men place the left hand on the belt, the hand somewhat to the left of the collar, the fingers extended over the belt and the thumb behind the belt. Men not in uniform hold the left hand at the side during the Bund salute, as for "attention". The salute is concluded by the right hand first being brought before the left chest with the hand horizontal and then both hands being dropped to the sides simultaneously in the basic position.

The perfunctory salute with hand raised high is permissible only when not on duty.

(3) The official spoken salutation of the Bund is: "Free America!"

Draft

(4). All members of the Bund and in particular all uniformed members of the Bund, including the young people, are obliged to salute each other and among each other. The junior or lower in rank is required to salute first, but comradeship requires everyone to salute voluntarily upon recognition, without waiting for formalities.

(F). Command:

(1). The command brings about exactly determined movements of the individual OD men or of the unit.

The command consists as a rule of a preparatory command and an executive command. Between the two parts of the command a brief pause in speech is to be inserted (indicated in writing by a horizontal line: " — "). The preparatory command is drawn out and the executive command is given briefly and sharply. No command is to be called out more loudly than necessary.

As the command is, so is the execution. Calmness, certainty and precision in commanding are the prerequisites for perfect execution. Before giving the command, the commanding officer assumes the basic position and stands in such a position, depending on the front and depth of the organization, that he can oversee the unit and can be heard by every OD man.

(2). Wrong commands are revoked by "Command withdrawn."

(3). Reporting: If an officer of higher rank appears at a muster or function, report thereof must be made immediately by the senior on duty at the time.

As the first command at the appearance of an officer of higher rank the command "Attention" is given. Execution: The OD men who are in formation, as well as those who are not in formation, assume the basic position, eyes toward the superior officer.

Commands in connection with the reporting: "Attention", "Eyes — right" or "Eyes — left." The senior officer reports the strength of the men in formation and then gives the Bund salute.

Wording of the report: "OD (designation of unit) with (number of) men on duty." Further commands according to the order of the superior officer.

(G). Drills (1). Basic position. Command: "Attention".

Execution: The OD man assumes the basic position. The right foot remains stationary. The OD man stands still with his heels together. The toes are at the same time turned outward so far that the feet do not quite form a right angle. The weight is distributed equally over the heels and the balls of the feet. The knees are slightly bent. The shoulders are of even height and held back. The arms are held lightly, the elbows slightly pressed forward, a bare hand's width away from the body. The palms of the hands and the tips of the fingers are on the upper parts of the thigh. The fingers are closed, the thumb extended along the inner surface of the index finger, and the little finger is on the seam of the trousers. The head is held high, the chin slightly drawn in toward the neck, the eyes directed straight ahead and no moving in the head, and the muscles of the face slightly and uniformly tensed. Chest is out, the muscles of the body slightly tensed and the diaphragm raised. The backbone is not to be stiffened.

If a preparatory command is given, the call of a leader or the command "Ready", not preceded by "Attention", the SB man stands still.

(2) At ease Command: "Stand at ease!"

Execution: The left foot is moved forward and to the side. The body is relaxed. The movement is executed just as rapidly and correctly as any other command. The uniform is adjusted by slight twitches; there is no talking or unnecessary movement. The arms are not crossed over the breast.

(3). Turning without moving forward or backward:

Command: "Right — face!" Execution: Raise the foot a very little from the ground, throw the right foot slightly to the right and at the same time turn the body on the left heel ninety degrees to the right. Bring the right foot sidewise to the stationary foot at the conclusion of the turn.

Command: "Left — face!" Execution: The turn to the left is made on the left heel. After the execution of the turn the right foot is brought up from behind to the stationary foot.

Command: "Whole detachment — turn!" Execution: Just as in the case of "Left — face", only with a turn of one hundred eighty degrees. After the turn the command "At ease" is to be given, so that the bearing can be improved.

(4). Changes of gaze:

Commands: "Eyes — right!" "Eyes — left!" Execution: Turn the head with a jerk to the right or left until the gaze is directed freely in the direction ordered. Attitude of the body remains unchanged.

Command: "Eyes — front!" Execution: The head is returned with a jerk to the original position. The return movement of the head and the eyes is accomplished simultaneously.

(5). Stepping off:

Command: (Examples) "To the left— step off!" "To the right— step off!" "Forward— step off!" "To the rear— step off!" "Into the field— step out!" The command may be given with additions as desired. Execution: The turn required by the order and three quick steps in the direction commanded.

(H). Types op Marching and Marching Movements

In the Bund there are three types of marching.

(a) Broken step;

(b) In step;

(c) Strictly in step (not parade step).

The march is broken step is used in fields, on bad roads, on bridges and during marches of some length. Carriage and forward movement are not affected.

Marching in step is the commonest type for marching through towns and during drills.

Marching in strict step is used in marching past, when displaying honors, and for training during drills over short "distances.

(1) March commands:

Command: "In step — march" Execution: The movement is started with the left foot, without emphasizing the first step. Pace 80 cm. (32 inches). 114 steps to a minute. The body upright and stiff. Eyes directly front. The arms are swung easily, with the fingers bent somewhat. The gait is free and easy.

Command: "Broken step — march!" Execution: Begin with the left foot, without emphasis on the first step. The length of step and the kind of step are adapted to the nature of the ground and the physical qualities of the marching man.

Command: "Detachment — march!" (The command for marching in strict step). Execution: The left leg is brought forward with the knee rather stiff and with the point of the foot directed somewhat outward and downward and is placed firmly on the ground without too much noise; the toes touch the ground first. When the left foot has been put down the right heel leaves the ground, the right leg is moved, slightly bent, and as before the left leg is brought forward. The upper portion of the body remains quiet and stiffly erect, bent slightly forward. Vertical motion of the upper portion of the body is to be avoided, as the weight of the body always remains on the foot that is on the ground until the other foot is firmly on the ground. The arms are swung somewhat more stiffly than in the movement in step: the hands are swung slightly inward, but not above the height of the belt. Pace 80 cm. 114 steps per minute.

Marching in strict step should by all means first be practiced with very slow pace (about 60 steps per minute). During practice the hands are at first kept behind the back.

Command: "Double time — march!" Is used for accelerated movement of closed units over short distances. Execution: At the command "Double time" the lower arms are slightly bent and the elbows crooked, 160 steps to the minute at the double.

Command: "In — step!" Transition from the double to marching in broken step. Execution: After the command, three more quick steps are taken and then the men continue to march in broken step. The arms are relaxed.

Command: "Quick — march!" Execution: The OD man runs as fast as possible without deviating from the direction of march. If the objective has not been designated in detail, the running is continued until the next order is given.

Command: "Mark— time!" Execution: Without forward movement, the time and step are maintained. The feet are hardly to be raised from the ground.

Command: "Free — march!" Execution: At the word "Free" half steps are taken; at the word "march", which is uttered when the left foot is set down, the right foot takes one more half step, and then the march is continued freely.

Command: "Detachment — halt!" Execution: The command is issued when marching in step, when the right foot is set down. The left foot is moved one step further forward and the right foot then drawn up quickly. The OD man stands in the basic position.

Commands: "Marching in step — attention!", "Attention!", "Eyes — right!" or "Eyes — left!" "At — ease!" These commands are given in the above sequence only during a marching past. If the march is being performed in broken step, the command "In step" is first given, then "Attention", whereupon the strict march in step is taken up and the left hand grasps the belt. The hand rests one hand's width to the left of the belt buckle, with the fingers close together, extending diagonally upward in front of the belt, with the thumb behind it. At the command "Eyes — right!" or "Eyes — left!" the leader is looked at in whose honor the march past is held. During a march past only the detachment commander raises his arm in salute. At the command "At ease — march!" the hands are quickly lowered and the heads and eyes directed straight ahead at the same moment. The march is continued in step.

(2) Turn when marching.

Command: "Right — face!" Execution: When marching in step, the command "face" is given as the right foot is set down, the next step is taken straight ahead; the turn is executed on the ball of the left foot.

Command: "Left — face!" Execution: When marching in step, the command "face" is given as the left foot is set down. The next step is taken straight ahead; the turn is executed on the ball of the right foot.

(3) Changes of formation and order of march:

Command: "Form in one line!" or "Form in two lines!'" Execution: The man on the right wing of the first rank takes position three paces in front of the commanding officer; the OD men place themselves side by side in a line to the left of the wing man, dressing and keeping elbow touch in the line. The distance between ranks in 80 cm. from the back of the man in the front rank to the breast of the one nearest him. (The length of an outstretched arm).

Command: "Form in two lines!" Execution: The man on the right wing takes position three paces in front of the commanding officer. The OD men line up in two lines one behind the other at the proper distance and direction from the leading man.

OD men standing in line beside each other touch very lightly the bent elbows of their neighbors (elbow touch). The distance from the man in front to the nearest man in rank and file amounts to 80 cm. from back to breast.

"Fall in" includes the command "Press" and therefore signifies: adjusting position with relation to the man on the right wing and to any man who may be in advance, and standing at attention until a further command is given.

Command: "In single rank left (or right)- — form!" (For changing from a file to a rank). (Command with or without "double quick"). Execution: The foremost OD man marches straight ahead, but takes short steps, until the men behind him have run up to the left (or right) of him to form a line and have taken direction.

Command: "Count off by threes!" Execution: the right file leader begins the counting. He takes the basic position, calls out his number with a short movement of the head to the left and stands at ease.

Command: "By squads right (left) wheel— march!" Execution: at the command "by squads right wheel — march", the right tile leader (No. 1) makes a turn on the spot in three steps. No. 2 and No. 3 at the same time march up to the left of No. 1 in three steps and half. At the command "by squads left wheel — march", No. 3 makes the turn on the spot in three steps; No. 2 and No. 1 march up to the right of No. 3 in three steps.

Command: "detachment — march!" Execution: The right file leader is responsible for the direction of march; he has to march exactly behind the front rank man. Distance between squads amounts to three paces.

Command: "Right wheel (or left wheel) — march!" Execution: The right (or left) file leader turns until the command "straight — ahead" is given. The following file leaders on the inner side turn exactly at the same spot where the first file leader executed the turn.

Command: "Placed in ranks — right (or left) face!" This is the command for reforming a column of squads into a double rank. Execution: At the command "placed in ranks — right face", the right file leader (No. 1) of the first, third and other ranks with odd numbers goes straight ahead at the word "face", while No. 2 and No. 3 of those ranks execute a right-face and then, marching one behind the other, swing in behind No. 1. The right file leader (No. 1) of the second, fourth and the other even-number ranks makes a turn half to the right and moves to the right of the man ahead of him, while No. 2 and No. 3 of those ranks first make a right turn and then march after him, one behind the other.

At the command "placed in ranks — left face", the procedure corresponds to the above, except that the left file leader (No. 3) goes straight ahead and No. 2 and No. 1 make a turn to the left.

Command: "In column of squads — right (or left) form!" This is the command for changing a double rank into a column of squads. Execution: The above procedure reversed. At the command "in column of squads — right form", at the word "form", the right file of the first, fourth, and every third rank goes straight ahead, the man beside him moves behind him, and the others form to the right beside them. At the command "in column of squads — left form", the corresponding movements are made toward the left side.

(4) Assembly with colors:

(a) Commands for entry with the colors: "Detachment — halt!" "Color squad— front!" "Flags— down!" "At— ease!" Execution: The OD halts ten paces in advance of the stage and marks time until the color squad has marked to its post. Where conditions will permit, the color squad marches straight ahead of the stage, crosses the center of the stage, and crosses lines at the rear end of the stage. The crossing is necessary because the American flags, facing toward the assemblage, are to stand on the left, as seen by the public. In crossing lines, the bearer of the American flag moves first, the bearers of the American flags march to the left, and the bearers of the Bund flags to right, until they reach their posts. All flag bearers mark time until the command "Halt!" is given.

(b) Commands for marching off with colors: "OD — Attention!", "(Colors — over!", "Color squad left and right — face", the bearers of the American flags face to the right and the bearers of the Bund flags to the left (away from the center of the stage). At the command "detachment — march", the flag bearers make a counter-march, until they again reach the rear center of the stage, cross, but not as in entering, but wheel beside each other and march down from the stage as they have come. The color squad marches toward the middle OD column, makes a turn to the left in front of it for a counter-march, and then marks time until a further command is given. At the command "march", the colors are taken on the right shoulder. When marching in, marching out, and marching past, the colors are borne in the "present" position. At the command "colors — over", the flag is snapped into the "present" position. Execution: The flag is standing beside the right foot, and is held with the right hand. In so doing, the arm is extended downward. At the command "over", the flag is raised quickly with the right hand; the arm remains somewhat extended. At the same instant the left hand grasps the flag-pole; the left arm, at a right angle, horizontally is raised to the level of the shoulder with the hand extended flat and the flag-pole clasped between the thumb and the index finger.

The command "colors — over" applies likewise to the squads of musicians and the band.

In all entries, etc., strict attention is to be paid to having the American flags always carried and always stood at the right or in front, in the direction of march or the direction in which the assembled color squads are looking.

Let it also be impressed upon every color-bearer that the American flag is not to be dipped during any honors.

COLOR GUARD, HALL AND STAGE GUARD

(5) (a) stage and hall guard: OD men on duty stand firmly with legs spread apart and hands folded behind them.

(b) Color guard: Men on duty stand firmly with legs spread apart, the flag-pole held with the right hand, which extends downward in a natural position; the left hand is at the side or on the belt.

(6) Relief of the guard: Relief of any guards takes place only during fixed intermissions or between speeches.

(a) Relief of hall and stage guards: Every man on duty assumes the basic position as soon as he sees the relief marching in. The relieving men march up directly in front of those on duty. All those relieving at the same time face right or left in the direction of those on guard. At the same moment every man on guard takes a side step to the right. The man relieving him takes a step forward and faces about; at the same time the man being relieved likewise takes one pace forward and turns to the right or the left, in the direction from which the relief has come. The men relieved march off in close order; those who have just come on guard remain in the basic position until those relieved have marched away.

(b) Relief of color guard: At the moment at which the relief stands in front of the man on duty and turned toward the latter, and before the man on duty who is to be relieved takes the prescribed step to the right, the latter presents the color and hands it over with a snappy movement to the person relieving him. Otherwise the relief takes place as explained above. No saluting is done during the relieving.  

(I) Protection of Hall

(1) (a) — Color guard, stage guard, hall guard. OD men detailed for guard duty never leave their posts until they have been relieved in the regulation manner, except when they are ordered away by the Group Leader on duty. Even in case of disturbances in a meeting these men must remain at their posts. Specially strong protection is to be placed before flags and before stages.

(b) Roving details: At every meeting, in addition to the above guards, a roving detail is to be established. It is the duty of the roving detail to eject disturbers of order.

(c) Employment: Except at specially large meetings, different OD groups are to be used in alternation for guard duty or duty on roving details, in order not to call on the whole section for duty at every meeting.

(2) (a) — Whistle signals for announcement of orders: In order to be able to assemble quickly in the open air or in large halls OD men not on duty, one blast two seconds long and two short blasts: "__ . .". Every OD man not on duty stands up immediately and takes the basic position with his eyes turned toward the commanding officer. Immediately after this signal there is given either a command, a proclamation, the signal for attack or a repetition of the above signal, which means running toward the commander and falling in before him.

(b) Assault signal: Three long blasts: "__ __ __ ". OD men not on duty and the roving detachments attack opponents.

(c) Rally signal: Repeated short blasts: ".........". Break off attack and form up.

Patrol Service

Regulations for patrol service and for policing of buildings and camps are issued separately.  
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Re: Neuschwanstein: A fairy tale darling's dark Nazi past

Postby admin » Thu Sep 26, 2019 7:53 am

The dark history of ‘America First’
by Jonathan P. Baird
Concord Monitor
Published: 2/22/2017 12:15:06 AM

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In his inaugural address, President Donald Trump made a big point of describing his foreign policy approach as “America First.”

“We assembled here today are issuing a new decree to be heard in every city, in every foreign capital, and in every hall of power, from this day forward, a new vision will govern our land, from this day forward, it’s going to be only America first. America first.”

The problem I have with the phrase is that Trump and his supporters are tone-deaf to its history. “America First” was the slogan used by Nazi-friendly Americans in the 1930s.

Before Pearl Harbor, the movement resisted America’s entry into World War II. It advocated neutrality toward the Germans, arguing that they were unlikely to invade the United States. Harshly critical of President Franklin Roosevelt, America First was blatantly anti-Semitic and promoted appeasing Hitler.

When asked about his use of the phrase by the New York Times’s David Sanger, Trump brushed off any historical parallel. He said: “To me, America First is a brand-new, modern term. I never related it to the past.”

It is unclear how much Trump knows about the history of the phrase, although he told the Times he was familiar with it. The Anti-Defamation League has asked Trump to refrain from using the slogan.

If Americans were more aware of the history of America First, I believe they would urge Trump to reject it. Superficially this slogan sounds good, but the history is toxic. That is true not just for Jewish Americans but for all Americans who are opposed to fascism, racism and authoritarianism.

America First blamed Jews for conspiring to pressure the government to join World War II against the interests of America. Knowing what we know now about the Holocaust, the actions of America First can be seen as what they were: appalling collaboration with the German fascists.

Back story

The history deserves review. Starting in the early 1930s, media kingpin William Randolph Hearst began using the slogan “America First.” Hearst hated President Roosevelt’s New Deal and saw it as “un-American to the core.” He hailed the Nazis as winning great victories for “liberty-loving people” everywhere.

In America, before World War II, there was a surprising amount of support and good will toward the Nazis. In part, that reflected popular acceptance of anti-Semitism in American life.

At its peak, the America First Committee had 800,000 members across the country, including a number of famous people. Future President Gerald Ford, future Supreme Court Justice Potter Stewart and industrialist Henry Ford were all part of the America First Committee.

Aviator Charles Lindbergh was perhaps the most famous member and became the committee’s principal spokesman.

In 1938, Lindbergh received the Grand Service Cross of the Supreme Order of the German Eagle, Germany’s highest honor, from Hermann Goering. The award was given “in the name of the Fuhrer.” The only other American to receive the award was Ford.

Ford, who sat on the executive committee of America First, was a vicious anti-Semite who financially supported the publication of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion, an infamous anti-Semitic tract. In the early 1920s he wrote a four-volume set of pamphlets titled “The International Jew.” Every week for 91 issues he exposed what he saw as some Jewish-inspired evil. He later wrote a regular newspaper column obsessively focused on attacking Jews called “The International Jew: The World’s Problem.” Ford is the only American mentioned, and mentioned positively, in Hitler’s Mein Kampf.


Avery Brundage, another member of the executive committee and a former chairman of the U.S. Olympic Committee, opposed a boycott of Germany in 1936 because he believed there was a Jewish-Communist conspiracy to keep the United States out of the Berlin Games. When the Games were held, Brundage prevented the only two Jews on the Olympic team from competing in the 400-meter relay. He did not want to offend the Nazis.

While other leaders of America First denied they were anti-Semitic, Lindbergh laid his cards on the table. In a speech he gave in Des Moines, Iowa, on Sept. 11, 1941, he warned that Jews were a dangerous enemy. He pointed to Jews’ “large ownership and influence in our motion pictures, our press, our radio and our government.”

Nazi supporters like Lindbergh argued that Jews in the United States spread falsehoods about Germany to push America into a war of revenge from which they would benefit financially.

America First folded only after the attack on Pearl Harbor and America’s engagement against the Axis powers.

A slogan returns

If he had an awareness of history, Trump would understand that use of the slogan “America First” is offensive. America First has a history laced with anti-Semitism.

For someone who always reminds us what a great mind he has, Trump has not demonstrated an appreciation of history. Many made fun of his lack of awareness that Frederick Douglass is no longer with us but the deeper tragedy is that he is profoundly ignorant of American history. People can argue about it but Frederick Douglass is one of the most outstanding Americans ever. It is beyond sad that we have a president who is clueless about such an important figure in our own history.

I do not see the fact that Trump has a Jewish son-in-law as inoculation against anti-Semitism and bigotry. Considering his own racism and his support from white supremacists, Trump’s insensitivity to anti-Semitism is not surprising.

Still, he should not be using the slogan “America First.” The historical echo is very bad karma.

(Jonathan P. Baird of Wilmot works at the Social Security Administration. His column reflects his own views and not those of his employer.)
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