Neuschwanstein: A fairy tale darling's dark Nazi past

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Re: Neuschwanstein: A fairy tale darling's dark Nazi past

Postby admin » Thu Sep 26, 2019 7:53 am

Part 6 of 8

17. The Bund Propaganda Leader: The status of the propaganda aspect of the movement, as it appears to the public, including its branches, subordinate organizations, and affiliated societies, the content and the architectural setting of all demonstrations and meetings, assemblies, and celebrations, the administration of all cultural activities, and guarantee of a unified, philosophical, national socialistic permeation and arrangement of all the manifestations (appearances) of the Fuehrer and members of the movement comprise the duties and responsibilities within the domain of the Bund Propaganda Leader.

The Bund Propaganda Leader is appointed and removed by the Bund Fuehrer. He appoints and removes, with the approval of the Bund Fuehrer, associates for:

Publicity (Advertising), Sketches, plans, designs, for notices, bulletins, placards, etc.; press and radio announcements, motion picture notices, propaganda correspondence.

Speakers: (Preparation of matter for the public-speaking courses of the organization leader. Communication with the organization administration concerning the selection and appointments of speakers).

Art: Architecture plans, designs, stage and auditorium decorations, etc. supervision of the decoration of all offices and homes.

Stage: (Supervision of rehearsals and performances of all stage presentations, public speaking, song festivals, etc., (including (services) branches), arrangements for motion picture presentations).

Music: Arrangements for musicales. Supervision of the musical offerings of all (services) branches, and of musical education. Cooperation with organization administration for the selection and engagement of bands, orchestras, shows, magicians, singers, etc.

Publications: (Book Store) Arrangements for literary readings, regulations, for the management and preparation of reviews of books, magazines and tracts.

Philosophic Supervision: Cooperation with all other departmental officers and branch administrations, especially with the offices for publicity, education, politics, and economics, in order to preserve the absolutely unified intellectual (spiritual) arrangements of all parts.

Engagements (procurement): Cooperation with organization, treasury and business administrations concerning the engagement of talent, speakers, and other similar and technical needs.

The Propaganda Leader prepares the monthly program, arranges for meetings and designates the architectural (auditorium decoration) and content (festival, speakers, music, etc.) character of the meeting, with the approval of the sovereigns. The technical execution of these plans is delegated to the Organization and Business Fuehrers, after agreement with the treasury as to finances and with the cooperation of the branches. (Services).

17a. The Bund Propaganda Leader submits a monthly report to the Bund Fuehrer. He issues departmental orders countersigned by the Bund Fuehrer which are binding as issued upon all sovereigns and propaganda offices down to the block. His departmental (functional) instructions are to be carried out in the subordinate offices in accordance with the conditions prevailing in the particular locality.

I7b. The associates and assistants of the Bund Propaganda Leader issue no orders of their own. Associates appoint their assistants with the approval of the Bund Propaganda Leader. They are removed under the same conditions.

17c. The area propaganda leaders are directly subordinate to the Bund Propaganda Leader departmentally, belong to his council, and must aid him in his official relations with subordinate officers. Of all of his regulations to them, the qualified area leader receives a copy.

See also especially "Regulations for Meetings" and "Arrangements for Festivals" in the basic instructions for precincts and administrations and Bund orders.

18. The Area Propaganda leader is disciplinarily subordinate to the area leader and is appointed and removed by him with the approval of the Bund Fuehrer. Departmentally he is subordinate to the Bund Propaganda Leader.

As required, he organizes area propaganda offices corresponding to those of the Bund propaganda administration. He appoints and removes his associates with the approval of the area leader.

He supervises and promotes the execution of the Bund propaganda orders in the area and aids in the preparation of reports by subordinate officers and their recommendations to the area leader and the Bund Propaganda Leader.

He issues area propaganda orders, with the counter-signature of the area leader, of which a copy is sent to the Bund Propaganda Leader.

The regional propaganda leaders of the area are directly subordinate to him departmentally.

Of his regulations directed to subordinate officers the appropriate qualified sovereign receives a copy.

It is his special duty to supervise the official instruction of the propaganda leaders of newly organized columns and to train the propaganda associates of subordinate sovereign jurisdictions as substitutes for area and Bund offices.

19. The Regional Propaganda Leader: The regional propaganda leader is disciplinarily subordinate to the regional leader and is appointed and removed by him with the approval of the area leader. Departmentally he is subordinate to the area propaganda leader.

As occasion requires he organizes regional offices corresponding to those of the Bund propaganda administration. He appoints and removes his associates with the approval of the regional leader.

He supervises and promotes the execution of Bund and area propaganda orders in the region and aids in the preparation of the reports and recommendations of subordinate officers to the regional leader and area propaganda leader.

He issues regional propaganda orders with the counter-signature of the regional leader, of which a copy is sent to the area propaganda leader.

The State propaganda leaders of the region are directly subordinate to him departmentally. Of his orders to subordinate propaganda officers a copy is sent to the qualified sovereign.

It is his special duty, to advise both superior and subordinate officers concerning those national, commercial, political, industrial, and agricultural characteristics of his territory which should be given propagandistic consideration.

20. The State Propaganda Leader: The State propaganda leader is subordinate disciplinarily to the State leader and is appointed and removed by him with the approval of the area leader. The regional leader is notified. Departmentally he is subordinate to the regional propaganda leader.

As occasion requires he organizes State propaganda offices corresponding to those of the Bund propaganda administration. He appoints and removes his associates with the approval of his State leader.

He supervises and promotes the execution of the orders of superior propaganda officers in the State and aids in the preparation of the reports of subordinate officers to his State leader and to the regional and area propaganda leader.

He issues State propaganda orders with the counter-signature of the State leader, of which a copy is sent to the regional propaganda leader.

The district propaganda leaders of the State are directly subordinate to him departmentally. Of his propaganda orders to subordinate officers a copy is sent to the qualified sovereign.

It is his special duty to inform the superior and subordinate propaganda officers concerning the particular legal and political party matters which should be given consideration in the propaganda activities of his State.

21. The District Propaganda Leader: The district propaganda leader is disciplinarily subordinate to the district leader and is appointed and removed by him with the approval of the area leader. The State leader is notified. Departmentally he is subordinate to the State propaganda leader.

As occasion requires he organizes district propaganda offices corresponding to those of the Bund propaganda office. He appoints and removes his associates with the approval of the district leader.

He supervises and promotes the execution of the orders of superior officers in the district and he aids in the preparation of the reports of the precinct and column propaganda officers of the district to his district leader, the State and area propaganda leaders.

He issues district propaganda orders with the counter-signature of the district leader, of which a copy is sent to the State propaganda leader.

The precinct or column propaganda officers of the province are directly subordinate to him departmentally. Of his propaganda orders issued to them, qualified precinct and column leaders receive copies.

The district propaganda leader must hold regular conferences with his precinct or column propaganda officers and not rely merely on written correspondence. He is especially the liaison officer between the area propaganda leader and the propaganda leaders of newly organized columns, who should be given special help; he is in addition that officer obliged to develop competent propaganda officers recommended for promotion.

Among his principal duties are: (1) the supervision of legal and political party matters that may require consideration in connection with propaganda in the district; and (2) cooperation in the arrangements for educational evenings within his jurisdiction.

22. The precinct or Column Propaganda Leaders; The precinct propaganda leader is disciplinarily subordinate to the precinct leader and is appointed and removed by him with the approval of the area leader. The district leader is notified. Departmentally he is subordinate to the district propaganda leader.

As occasion requires he organizes precinct propaganda offices corresponding to those of the Bund propaganda office. If necessary he must perform the duties of precinct propaganda himself. He appoints and removes his associates with the approval of his precinct leader.

He executes the propaganda orders of superior officers in the precinct and he supervises and promotes their execution in the squares and blocks.

He submits constant detailed reports concerning the propaganda status in the precinct and in its squares and blocks to his precinct leader as well as to the district, area and Bund propaganda leaders.

Before the 10th of each month he sends a short, business-like but comprehensive report to the Bund Propaganda Leader with the countersignature of the precinct leader.

He conducts regular departmental conferences with the leaders of the propaganda offices of the precinct, squares, branches, all of whom are departmentally his subordinates.

He issues departmental orders, with the countersignature of the precinct leader, to the square leaders, who execute them through their square propaganda leaders and block leaders.

For information concerning the monthly program, arrangements for meetings, etc., see "Bund Propaganda Leader" and consult "Basic instructions for Administration of Precincts under Assembly Regulations and Festivals.'"

The special duty of the precinct propaganda leader is unrelenting explanatory propaganda and, with the help of branches (Services) and squares and blocks, the propagandizing of new adherents and the winning of the friendly approval of non-member organizations.

The duties, rights and responsibilities of the column propaganda leader correspond in the column to those of the precinct propaganda leader. In columns in which there are no squares the obligations of the square propaganda chief fall, upon the column propaganda leader.

23. The Square Propaganda Chief: The square propaganda chief is disciplinarily subordinate to the square leader and is appointed and removed by the precinct or column leader. Departmentally he is subordinate to the precinct or column propaganda leader.

He executes within the jurisdiction of the square the precinct or column propaganda orders received through his square leader and supervises and promotes their execution through the block watch.

Within the jurisdiction of the square the duties of a publicity leader, educational leader and political leader also fall upon the square propaganda leader. Orders of the precinct or column departmental chief affecting these matters reach him through the precinct or column propaganda leader and the square leader.

At the end of each month he submits a comprehensive report to his square leader and to the precinct or column propaganda leader.

Square propaganda chiefs keep no personnel lists or cards; the necessary information they secure in each case from the precinct or column secretary and must so preserve it that it may not be betrayed or stolen. Only such information as affects the respective block and as may be necessary is given to the block leaders.

Regulations affecting the blocks are to be transmitted orally during the block leader conferences of the square leader; official communications in writing must be kept at a minimum in the square and are prohibited absolutely between square and block.

23a. The block watch executes the orders of the square propaganda chief transmitted to him through his block leader. See "Block Watch" following.

24. The Bund Intelligence Leader: The acquisition of information of all sorts for the use of the Bund Fuhrer and the Bund management from officials, public libraries, press and radio, concerning the laws, political, economic, and cultural matters, concerning firms, individuals and the members of the movement, as well as the preparation of a monthly news report for the general information of the precincts comprise the duties and constitute the domain of the Bund Intelligence Leader.

Statistics and other data, newspapers and newspaper clippings, pictures, cartoons, and criticisms collected by the intelligence administration of subordinate sovereign jurisdictions, etc. — all find their way to him and are filled in the statistical office of the Bund organization administration in the Bund archives or submitted directly to the appropriate qualified Bund department chief.

The Bund News Letter is prepared by the Bund Intelligence Leader from current information and in cooperation with the various Bund offices. In this "Letter" issues affecting the entire movement most essential to the precincts are to be written up in such a manner that the separate items may be utilized as short presentations in the public speaking classes and as exercises in the educational classes.

24a. The Bund Intelligence leader is a Bund executive. He is appointed and removed by the Bund Fuhrer. He appoints his associates with the approval of the Bund Fuhrer. His associates appoint and remove their assistants with the approval of the Bund Intelligence Leader. He issues Bund Intelligence orders with the countersignature of the Bund Fuhrer binding as issued upon all sovereigns and intelligence officers down to the block.

Departmentally subordinate to him, are the area intelligence leaders, who are members of his council, and who assist him in the area.

24b. The area, regional, State, district and precinct or column intelligence leaders organize as needed offices that correspond to those of the Bund intelligence office. Their official domain corresponds to that of the Bund Intelligence Leader except that they do not prepare a news letter but rather endeavor to provide for its distribution among the most earnest, discreet, and reliable officers and members.

They are appointed and removed, issue their orders, and appoint and remove their associates under the same conditions as in the case of other departmental chiefs of the several sovereign jurisdictions, and as described in the foregoing.

24c. Investigators of the precincts and columns, for the investigation of the personal declarations of applicants for membership should be the precinct or column intelligence leaders, the appropriate qualified square organization chief, and the qualified block leader.

24d. In those sovereign jurisdictions in which there is no intelligence leader, these duties fall upon the organization leader.

25. The Bund Commercial ( budget ) Leader: The union of the Germanic business world and its philosophical development, the uniting of the American-German merchant class with that business world and the supervision of the procurement and economic policies of the movement in all its sections and services and among all its members, as well as the development of commercial relations between the United States and Germany, and opposition to the boycott, comprise the activities and constitute the domain and the responsibilities of the Bund Commercial (Budget) Leader.

It must be his constant effort to devise an economically, self-sustaining and self-subsisting Bund of the American-German people through which the beginner of Germanic origin in any business is supported until there is developed not only a society of merchants and little tradesmen of German origin and kin, but in addition a society of wholesalers, factors, manufacturers (fabricators) and importers "(Importeurs)" of German origin or kin until the entire Germanism of the nation is established in its own or affiliated activity and has become invulnerable to economic persecution.

For the practical performance of this gigantic task there exists a special economic corporation. See "Organizational Structure of the German Consumers' League."

25a. The Bund Commercial (Budget) Leader is a Bund executive. He is appointed and removed by the Bund Fuhrer. He appoints his associates with the approval of the Bund Fuhrer; and they appoint and remove their assistants with the approval of the Bund Commercial (budget) Leader. He issues Bund Commercial (budget) orders with the countersignature of the Bund Fuhrer which are binding as issued upon all sovereigns and (budget) commercial administrations down to the block. Departmentally subordinate to him, belonging to his council, and assisting him in the area are the area commercial (budget) leaders.

25b. All officers of the movement with their departmental assistants wherever possible are at the disposal of the Commercial (Budget) Leader in his activities in their procurements, (acquisitions) and purchases, and in the engagement of outside talent of every kind.

25c. The area, regional, State, district, and precinct or column Commercial (budget) leaders organize offices as needed, these offices corresponding to those of the Bund Commercial (budget) administration. Their official domain corresponds to that of the Bund Commercial (Budget) Leader, except that the area Commercial (budget) leaders, are required to provide for the training of substitutes for area and Bund commercial (budget) officers and, together with the district commercial (budget) leaders, for the DKV development in new columns, while the particular duties of the regional commercial (budget) leaders comprise the study of the national, commercial, industrial, and agricultural conditions of their regions, and the State, district and precinct commercial (budget) leaders must concern themselves with the legal and political party problems within the domain of Economy; the precinct or column commercial (budget) leaders and the square organization officers are the promoters of the business units in the precincts. (DKV) All are appointed and removed, issue their orders, and appoint and remove their associates in the same manner as is provided for all other departmental chiefs in the various sovereign jurisdictions.

25d. In those sovereign jurisdictions in which there is no commercial (budget) leader these duties fall upon the organization leader.

26. The Bund Publicity Leader: The character of Bund publicity, the publication of descriptive and propaganda articles, books, volumes, etc., as well as the establishment and supervision of newspaper corporations and publications of the movement comprise the duties within the domain of the Bund Publicity Leader.

No subordinate sovereign or Service administration is authorized to issue any kind of paper or news item, etc., without the written consent of the Bund Publicity Leader countersigned by the Bund Fuhrer.

26a. He (the Publicity Leader) is appointed and removed by the Bund Fuhrer. He appoints and removes, with the approval of the Bund Fuhrer, associates for:

German Journalism: (Composition of German articles, the editing of the German section of the newspapers and periodicals of the movement, supervision of the German editing of the periodicals of the Services, subordinate organizations, and affiliated societies; editing and publishing of precinct reports, etc.)

English Journalism: The same as the foregoing in English.


Distribution (circulation).

Propaganda and Administrative Offices.

26b. Purchases (Procurements), except where made by the publication corporation, are made by the Bund organization and business administrations. All Bund officers are at the disposal of the Bund Publicity Leader. He cooperates with all Bund Executives in order that the publicity may correspond in every respect to the work of all other activities of the movement.

26c. The associates of the Bund Publicity Leader appoint and remove their assistants with his approval.

He issues Bund publicity orders, with the countersignature of the Bund Fuhrer, binding as issued upon all sovereigns and publicity officers down to the block.

Directly subordinate to him departmentally, belonging to his council, and assigned to aid him in his relations with subordinate officers are the area publicity leaders.

26d. Area, regional, State, district and precinct or column publicity leaders organize offices ( as required) that correspond to those of the Bund publicity administration. Their domain corresponds to that of the Bund Publicity Leader except that they do not issue any kind of publicity matter or newspapers, etc., other than upon his order. It is the special duty of the area publicity leaders to provide for the training of substitutes for area and Bund publicity offices; the district publicity leaders provide for the development of publicity leaders for new columns and for the distribution of the Bund press (papers). The regional publicity leaders make reports concerning the national, commercial, industrial and agricultural characteristics of their regions and furnish the news staff with corresponding data. The State, district and precinct publicity leaders report on legal and political party matters. The precinct or column publicity leaders, with the assistance of their associates and square propaganda executives solicit references, renewals, advertisements, stands (news stands?), etc. prepare reports of meetings and celebrations for publication and provide contacts for acquiring readable articles from non-members. They receive monthly instructions from the Bund publicity office concerning members and advertisers.

They all are appointed and removed, issue their orders, appoint and remove their associates in the same manner as is provided for all the other departmental chiefs of the various sovereign jurisdictions.

26e. In those sovereign jurisdictions in which there are no publicity leaders, all these duties fall upon the propaganda leader.

27. The Bund Educational Leader: The status of the Bund educational system, the development of language schools, etc., for youth of German origin, the composition of the (reports) reviews of the different departmental executives, the development of educational methods for the various Bund executive, educational and speaking courses, the preparation of Bund educational letters, and the issuance or regulations concerning the faculty and textbooks of language schools comprise the official domain of the Bund Educational Leader.

27a. The execution of the plans for the practical operation of the duties of the Bund Educational leader, the arrangement and execution of the commissions (procurements) of the Bund Educational Leader, the purchase or lease of school buildings or space and the actual appointment of faculties in accordance with the directions of the Bund Educational Leader is all accomplished by the Bund organization and Bund business administrations.

27b. All educational methods and papers of the Bund Educational Leader are prepared with a view to their philosophical (comprehensive) arrangement in cooperation with the Bund Propaganda Leader.

27c. The Bund Educational Leader is a Bund executive and is appointed and removed by the Bund Fuehrer. He appoints and removes, with the approval of the Bund Fuehrer, associates for:

Language Schools (supervision of the duties of the National Youth Educational Leader — See also Youth Service Regulations)

People's Schools:
Language and Citizenship
Schools for adults

Speakers Training:
(Conducted by Organization Administration)

Musical Training:
(Conducted by Organization Administration)

Departmental Executive and Fuehrer Training
(Conducted by Organization Administration)


Gymnastics, Range, Aviation, Women's (Services) Departments, etc. Faculty, Methods, Reviews (Reports, References).

Text Books: (In cooperation with the OD, Youth or Women's educational administration, with the Bund Propaganda Leader, and with the organization officers. Arrangements and appointments through the Bund organization and business administrations).

The aid of all Bund officers is at the disposal of the Bund Educational Leader. He cooperates with all Bund executives, in order that the educational system may coincide in every way possible with the other activities of the movement.

27d. The associates of the Bund Educational Leader appoint and remove their assistants with his approval.

He issues Bund educational orders, with the countersignature of the Bund Fuhrer, that are binding as issued upon all sovereigns and educational officers down to the block. Directly subordinate to him departmentally, belonging to his council, and assigned to assist him in his relations with subordinate officers are the area educational leaders.

27e. The area, regional, State, district, and precinct or column educational leaders organize offices, as occasion demands, that correspond to those of the Bund educational office. Their domain corresponds to that of the Bund Educational Leader, except that they do not prepare any reports (reviews) other than as they may be especially directed to do, and make no personal changes in methods, or textbooks, but are obligated primarily to execute his orders, to supervise their execution in the branches (services) and subordinate offices, and to report to superiors. The area educational leaders are required especially to provide for the development of substitutes for area and Bund educational officers; together with the district educational leaders they provide for the development of educational leaders for new columns and for the expansion of the Bund language and citizenship educational program. The regional educational leaders report on national, commercial, industrial and agricultural matters. The State, district, and precinct or column educational leaders are to be concerned about legal and political party affairs in their jurisdictions; the precinct or column educational leaders have as their principal duty the constant development of elementary language schools and singing societies and language and citizenship schools for adults.

All are appointed and removed, issue their orders, and appoint and remove their associates as provided for all the other departmental leaders of the different sovereigns jurisdictions.

27f. In sovereign jurisdictions in which there is no educational leader these duties fall upon the propaganda leader.

28. The Bund Political Leader: The political party arrangements of the movement and the concepts of all Germanism for the presentation of candidates and unanimous expression at the polls, as well as the making of contacts with political party leaders and the holders of public office for the purpose of promoting a national Aryan-American public policy, constitute the duties and comprise the domain of the Bund Political Leader.

He must educate Germanism politically, indicate its duties, rights and tremendous possibilities, teach it the practical preliminaries of political party activities from the ground up and apply them for the movement, and with the constant particular object of the Bund in view, to secure for, and assume to, American Germanism an appropriate participation and vote (expression) in the political affairs of the nation. He must explain, with the help of the departmental officers of all sovereign jurisdictions and through the educational system of the movement, the application of the entire political party apparatus of the United States to citizenship rights and duties and the detailed activities of primaries, the presentation of candidates, etc.).

His special field is the field of national politics and problems of citizenship.

28a. The practical performance of his duties, the comprehensive supervision, the purposeful education, appointments, etc., all are as prescribed in the foregoing for all other departmental chiefs.

28b. The Bund Political Leader is a Bund Executive and is appointed and removed by the Bund Fuehrer. He appoints and removes, with the approval of the Bund Fuehrer, associates for: Political Party Organization Problems: (How parties are constituted: how to participate in their activities). Citizenship Problems: (How to become a citizen: what a prospective citizen and citizen should know about rights and duties). Political history, political statistics: Cooperation with the intelligence officer, etc., for information concerning national, commercial, industrial, and agricultural problems, as well as the attitude and expressions of political leaders, candidates, etc.

28c. The associates of the Bund Political Leader appoint and remove their assistants with his approval.

He issues Bund political orders, with the counter-signature of the Bund Fuehrer, binding as issued upon all sovereigns and political officers down to the block.

Departmentally subordinate, belonging to his council, and assigned to assist him in his relations with appropriate officers are the area political leaders.

28d. The area, regional. State, district, and precinct or column political leaders organize offices corresponding to the Bund political office, as required.

The area political leaders provide especially for the training of substitutes for area and Bund political offices, together with the district political leaders they provide for the development of political leaders for newly organized columns and for the extension of the entire national, commercial, industrial, agricultural, and political party principles and unity of the movement. The regional political leaders consider the national, commercial, industrial, and agricultural political problems which should be considered in connection with a party election and report currently on these matters to superior and subordinate officers. The State political leaders follow State politics; the district political leaders are in charge of "County" politics; the precinct or column political leaders are in charge of municipal politics; and the square propaganda chiefs and block leaders are in charge of political matters in the political subdivisions of the municipality.

All are appointed and removed, issue their orders, and appoint and remove their associates in the manner provided for all departmental officers of the different sovereign jurisdictions.

28e. In sovereign jurisdictions in which there are no political leaders these duties fall upon the propaganda leader.

29. The National OD Fuehrer: The National OD Fuehrer is a Bund Executive and is appointed and removed by the Bund Fuehrer. He is also the National Sports Fuehrer to whom is assigned the supervision of all the presentations of the movement having to do with physical development, including Youth and Women's divisions (services). (Gymnastics, swimming, riding, shooting (rifle-practice) (range), boxing, flying, wrestling, motorcycle, sail and motor boat racing, setting-up exercises, foot ball and other ball games, as well as such indoor activities as chess, etc.) He is also the National "Sanitary-Service" (Health) Fuehrer, the National Transportation Leader (Power Fuehrer) and the National Employment Fuehrer, with the same rights and duties to supervise these matters in the other services.

In his domain are included also scouting and guard duty, the establishment of homes and camps, and (everything that concerns the personal, disciplinary relationship of the Individual).

29a. The same applies to all subordinate OD Fuehrers. For further information concerning the OD service of the AV see "Organizational Structure of the OD Service" and Bund orders.

29b. For information concerning the financial, administrative, organizational, educational, and propaganda services of the OD Administration in the organization of the Bund see "Duties. Rights and Responsibilities of the Sovereigns and Departmental Chiefs" (in the foregoing Departmental regulations).

30. The National Youth Fuehrer: The National Youth Fuehrer is a Bund Executive and is appointed and removed by the Bund Fuehrer.

For information concerning other regulations for the Youth (Service) Division of the AV see "Organizational Structure of the Youth (Service) Division", Bund orders, National Youth Orders, and also "Duties, Rights and Responsibilities of Sovereigns and Departmental Chiefs".

31. The Bund Women's Reporter and the National Women's Fuehrer:

The Bund Women's Reporter is a Bund administrator and is appointed and removed by the Bund Fuehrer. All organizational and administrative women officers in the Bund administration are directly subordinate to her.

31a. The National Women's Fuehrer is appointed and removed by the Bund Women's Reporter. All National Women officers for the education, training, and appointing of women in the special domain of women are directly subordinate to her.

For further information concerning the women of the AV see "Organizational Structure of the Women's Division (Service)," Bund orders, National Women's Division (Service) orders, and "Duties, Rights and Responsibilities of Sovereigns and Departmental Chiefs."

32. The Block Watch: The Block Watcher occupies with the OD Group Fuehrer, the first rank above the general membership. He is responsible to his block leader for all occurrences effecting the movement in the house group entrusted to him, except in matters that concern the official responsibilities of the woman block watcher (women's problems).

He executes the orders of the square treasury, square organization and square propaganda executives and the special orders of the block leader in his house group; all orders reach him through his block leader.

32a. The block watcher is appointed by his block leader with the approval of the square leader. He selects assistants when necessary after consultation with, and approval of, the block leader. Otherwise he must perform his duties personally and never depend on others. There must be no official correspondence in the house group, in the block, or, if possible, in the square.

32b. The block watcher receives from his block leader the names, descriptions, and other data necessary for his work in the house group in each particular case. He must so preserve them that they may not be stolen or betrayed and he must never give anybody except his block leader any information concerning them under any circumstances.

32c. The block watcher is obligated to provide means by which his block leader and his superiors in the precinct may be able to reach him either personally or by phone every day or at least every other day at a definite hour. If this rule is observed carefully from top to bottom it will enable the Bund administration to reach "every last" member within 24 or 48 hours.

32d, To have the house groups coincide with the existing political divisions of the municipality, so far as possible, will bring about as many households (dwellings) into a compass which, for the general purposes of the Bund, a block-watcher may be able to cover with an announcement (or in which he will be able to deliver a bulletin) in about five hours.

The number of member occupants in the house group do not count, and for Bund purposes, dwellings that are not affected must not be counted.

Periodical visits with members, prospective members, patrons, etc., propaganda visits to Bund newspaper readers, business people, or other persons to be visited will require more time; all of which, too, is to be omitted in determining the size of the house group.

32e. The block watcher is the surety to his block leader and, from there throughout the entire movement, for the conduct of every member in his house group. To the member he is the representative of the "Kameradschaft", (brotherhood) which has drawn us all together. To the public he represents the movement, to be judged according to his conduct and appearance. He is able to render great propaganda service to the movement; but he also can do it great honor. He must be concerned at all times, constantly striving and practising to stand as an example for all those with whom he is so constantly and so closely in contact. He must know the financial circumstances of every member family and investigate how it may be helped. He must not permit any illness or any misfortune to escape his notice or to remain unreported to the block leader. Every available, eager champion that he discovers in his house group he must report to his superior in order that such faculties may be utilized for the advantage of the movement. He must be the friend and counselor of every one of his members, neither snappy, haughty, nor "stern", nor flattering, nor too diplomatic. He ought to be so fair and square that all will respect him without being compelled to draw on their imaginations. Where there are no youth in the Youth Division (Service) it is his duty to solicit them, where the organ of the movement is not read it will constitute his first and most important duty to see that it is, where there are no stores in the commercial organization of the Bund or where members or patrons do not support affiliated stores he should take hold. Where able men think they are not needed in the OD he must change their minds and prevail upon them. Where anybody who could be of service to us is still outside because he thinks that his position, his class, his confession, or his national origin might be undervalued or ignored, he will find opportunity for explanation. Where there is complaint this or that still is missing in the Bund he can explain how easy it would be to improve the situation with the aid of the complainant. Where information concerning political activities or possibilities can be secured for the Bund in this domain it should be.

The movement must not be permitted to stand still; members must be held to discipline and to the performance (fulfilment) of their obligations and put to work in every way possible. On the outside there must be constant, ceaseless effort in order that no month may pass which does not find a new reader, a new DKV agency, or new members or patrons brought in from every block.

The block watcher performs the most important of the detailed work of the movement. His work never is finished. It is his first duty to fashion the Bund into an active, aspiring American-German Community.

32f. The Women Block watchers:

Women block watchers hold the same rank as men. They are appointed by the block leader with the approval of the square leader. They execute in the house group assigned to them the departmental orders of the qualified women's square executive and the orders of their block leader. They receive all their orders through the block leader. When necessary in the event of an accumulation of duties they select assistants with the approval of the block leader. Otherwise they must perform their duties personally and rely upon no one. There must be no official written correspondence in the house group or in the block.

32g. For further information concerning the duties of the woman block watcher see "Organizational Structure of the Women's Service", "Bund orders" and "National Women's Service Orders."

33. The Bund Member. The Member of the Prospective Citizen's League of the AV.

Eligible for full membership in the American German Bund is every reputable citizen of the United States of Aryan origin who has completed his 18th year, as well as every reputable woman citizen of the United States of Aryan origin who has completed her 21st year. The preponderance (predominance) in every precinct must be assured to German-speaking Germanism under all circumstances.

33a. Eligible for membership in the "Prospective Citizens' League" of the AV, but not eligible to hold office or to vote in the Bund, are all reputable prospective citizens of the United States who have a valid "first citizenship" paper and who otherwise fall within the foregoing description, paragraph 33. Members of the Prospective Citizens' League are admitted to AV Member Meetings upon presentation of their valid membership cards (or books).

33b. Eligible for admission to the Patrons Service of the AV, which is neither an organization nor a society, and admission to which does not qualify for membership in any "organization" is every person recommended by a qualified sovereign as a respectable, reputedly honest friend of the movement, regardless of his or her nationality. Patrons may be admitted also under "cover" names and "cover" addresses (fictitious). Concerning membership meetings see 33d.

33c. Youths who have not reached the age prescribed in the foregoing for full membership in the Bund are eligible for admission to the Youth Service of the AV regardless of their nationality or the relation of their parents or guardians to the Bund, provided they are of German origin. Those of other nationality, but only Aryans, who indicate a willingness to learn German are eligible only under special circumstances and with the written consent of the National Youth Administration (Service) Division. The Youth of Germanism must be kept nationally and linguistically German, which would be almost impossible in a division composed of mixed nationalities. (See also Youth Regulations.)

33d. Change Regulations on page 2, paragraph 6, sentence "a," of Instructions to Precinct Administrations. Since December 16, 1939, no one can be admitted immediately into AV Membership. The applicant for admission must be accepted as a patron first. When a person has decided to become a Bund member or a member of the Prospective Citizens' League of the AV he fills out the application of the AV in detail, remaining a patron until the acceptance of his application, which takes at least six months. The patron application will have been sent to the Bund Administration with the application fee and half of the propaganda contribution, and the patron will have received his patron's card.

His application for admission remains in the precinct for the period of six months, while his personal and citizenship declarations are investigated according to regulations. After six months the application for admission, with a deposit of 50 cents for the Bund insignia, is transmitted to the Bund administration by way of the area administration. Upon receipt of his membership card and his insignia in the membership assembly, the new member returns his patron's card, which is then sent back to the Bund administration for cancelation.

Patrons who do not make application to become members may secure a patron's emblem from the precinct or column leader.

See also "Membership" in the "Directions for Precinct Administration" and Bund orders. For information concerning Women Members see also, "Organizational Structure of the Women's Service" and National Women's Division Orders.

33e. Every member subscribes to the declaration and obligation in his (her) membership card (or membership book) in the presence of the qualified precinct or column leader and the block leader surety, who sign as witnesses. This declaration and obligation is not an oath of any kind. Whoever desires justly to remain and vote in the Bund as an actual champion, whoever desires honestly to reach the goal which the movement has set, which every member makes his own goal upon his admission, must study this declaration and obligation earnestly and conduct himself accordingly with all his might. Then this movement will be invincible.

33f. Member dues: The assessed monthly minimum dues for non-indigent males and independent women Bund members is 75 cents; for married women and other non-self-sustaining women family members, 30 cents. The monthly dues of indigent Bund members may be reduced temporarily to as little as 30 cents per month by the precinct or column leader. This minimum assessment, which must be forwarded to the Bund Administration, may, in extraordinary cases, be covered by the "Kanierads". Whoever has a weekly wage above the average must regard himself as obligated to make a monthly propaganda contribution in addition to the foregoing normal charge, to be acknowledged on his membership card by contribution stamps, and of which half is sent to the Bund administration.

33g. For a Bund member there is no such thing as a "right" to free admission for official attendance at assembly, nor a "right" to a refund of traveling expenses, or other expenses in connection with the official performance of his duties!

True, the Kamerad summoned to a meeting for service is, indeed, not required to pay a fixed admission charge, since he must attend whether or not he is able to pay such a charge, but he is obligated to contribute to the expense of the evening, even if he cannot pay more than 5 cents; the same applies to other duties. Those for whom expenses may become too great will be helped and without being made to feel that he is of any less value. But whoever can do so, even at a sacrifice, must pay.

In the Bund service is not to be compensated by favors or privileges. In the Bund everyone contributes his time, his strength and his money according to his ability, and the reward is the joy of service and the thanks of the movement. It is only through such a spirit of joyous self-sacrifice that we shall prevail; the Jewish spirit of materialism must not be permitted to enter the Bund or we shall be destroyed individually and collectively.

The Bund is not an organization to be joined for the purpose of expecting a definite, tangible return for every penny contributed. It represents the last possibility of American Germanism to rise from the condition of a downtrodden, war-subjugated disavowed nationality, contented with its lot to the status of a sound, great, proud nationality through which we and our descendants may live according to our own God-given way and through which we may help to fashion in every important vital matter this, our nation, not because it will be accorded us graciously but because it is our right and because we have the power to exercise that right without supplication. Then and only then will the neglect and the persecution of American Germania cease. We owe to ourselves, our ancestors, and our descendants, the right to be a free people, and not the despised spit-upon menials of inferior despots (dictators) who deserve still to be cursed by our children. The Bund member's mode of grievance is only the official way. People who may be unable to agree on the outside owe a duty to the Bund to work together in the Bund, and they can do so if they have the proper spirit of service and if each performs his duties. He who carries personal animosities into the Bund weakens the movement. Where it is not possible to resolve a difference of opinion by a frank discussion man to man the precinct or column leader will appoint an investigation and conciliation commissioner. He may grant or refuse the request (to consider). If he grants the hearing he will appoint a committee of deliberative, calm, generally respected members or officers. Even though the decision might be unfair to one of the parties (to the controversy) he is nevertheless obliged to conduct himself in accordance with it or to resign (withdraw). If the precinct or column leader refuses to appoint a committee upon request the member may appeal to a higher officer within at least a period of eight days provided it be in writing and with the knowledge of his superior (who refused). But the decision of the next higher ranking officer is final. Committees of investigation and conciliation are appointed only to consider personal controversies between members. No such committees are appointed to consider official differences of opinion. In official matters sovereigns decide. Should a member or officer, after conviction, regard the decision as unfair he may appeal to the next higher ranking departmental and disciplinary sovereigns within eight days in writing and with the knowledge of his accused superior. In the event he be dissatisfied there he may appeal again in writing to the next higher ranking officer and so on until in a given case he may reach the Bund Fuehrer. His decision is final. If the complaining member pursues the official course from beginning to end in such a matter no other member ever will be able to know anything about it — it concerns only those who are affected (or involved). Any other course of procedure will weaken the integrity of the movement and is consequently prohibited.

See also especially the OD Service regulations.

33j. The most Important principles for which every real champion will contend are:

A people that will permit themselves to be divested of their language will vanish as German descendants, he who adopts any other than German as the language of his home, even though he may endeavor to think German in a foreign tongue, will lose his national consciousness within a generation, which has been the irrefutable history of all American Germanism. German-American youth learns its English quickly, thoroughly, and unforgettably on the streets and in the public schools. Those parents who would not betray the work of the Bund at its most vulnerable point will insist strongly and without exception that only German be spoken at home, among the children as well as between children and parents and that, in addition the child learn to think in German. Only thus shall we be able to preserve our nationality during our time — and let it be not said that is impossible to do it.

A people that permits itself to be divested of its racial individuality also will perish; a people that indifferently interbreeds with another sins against the original (fundamental) laws of the Almighty and will die. If a child of German descent is reared with a national consciousness and if the parents have taken the additional pains to assure it, through our defensive movement of Germanic America, association with Kamerads and friends of German descent, then the mixed marriages that are destroying Germanic America will cease.

A people that will permit itself to be divested of its national consciousness and its own way of life surrenders to the foreigner and is lost; the German descendant who curries the favor of the foreigner and follows his opinion betrays his right to life. So, too, in the movement. Attacks upon our movement and criticism of it and of the men and women who constitute it mean nothing to us (are devoid of validity). The German nationality must learn to be proud, to criticize itself and its own kind, but to pay no attention to the criticism of outsiders, except of course the officers of the law. The German nationality must prepare to end its wretched veneration of the foreign and its cringing before foreign mockers.

All this is the service, the duty, and the obligation of a Bund member; within the limits of the law of the land the movement of the German-American Bund comes first in all things in the life of the individual fellow-countryman, in order that our whole nationality may be purified and reestablished.

Notice to the Recipient of These Regulations

Like all the rest of the valuables created by the Bund these regulations constitute the property of the Bund. Every officer must preserve them and study them thoroughly; he must not release them except in the event of retirement from office, when he must turn them over to a qualified sovereign.

But these regulations should be put to practical use in educational evening (classes) until "every last" 'Kamerad' understands his assignment and knows his duty. They must not be buried in a forgotten (desk) drawer.

They are the result of the serious study not only of the experiences of our Bund and its predecessors but also of the experiences of the old home under the leadership (Fuehrung) of the greatest German of all times.

Proposals for improvement are requested but until changes are made every sovereign must comply with them so far as humanly possible. "Free America" "Wilhelm Kunze," Deputy Bundfuhrer.  
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Re: Neuschwanstein: A fairy tale darling's dark Nazi past

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Part 7 of 8

Document #3 in German] 

[Translation of Document # 3]


Organization Structure

The supreme commander of the Uniformed Service [OD] of the Bund is the Leader [Fuhrer] of the Bund. As his representative in all uniformed service question&i lie designates a National OD Leader. The National OD Leader is in charge of all the territory of the Bund.

The National OD Leader issues orders, which, countersigned by the Bund Leader, are sent out to the officers (leaders of areas, regions, circles, districts, local groups and strong points), for execution and are binding upon such officers.

The National OD Leader appoints and removes, with the confirmation of the Bund Leader, all coworkers of the National OD Headquarters. They form the staff of the National OD Leader. They themselves do not issue any orders; their orders go through the National OD Leader.


The work of the National OD Leader is divided as follows:

Organization office: Elaboration of service regulations, plans for assembling transportation, quarters, feeding, clothing and equipment and the drafting of building plans. (The technical execution of the building plans of the National OD Leader is accomplished by the Bund organization leader, except as is otherwise provided under "OD Command of Local Groups").

Equipment office: Issue office for the whole equipment of the OD, its homes etc. (The procurement of articles of equipment is accomplished by the Bund Organization Leader, except as is otherwise provided under "OD Command of Local Groups").

Finance office: Entering and calculation of receipts and expenditures for uniforms, badges, etc., with the Bund Treasurer. (There is no crediting of special contributions of OD members. With regard to "OD Comradeship Funds", see under "OD Command of Local Groups"). Working out of plans for financing planned procurements, buildings, schooling, insurance, support, and the like. Conduct of raffles and sales of cards.

Personnel office: Keeping of the OD card file, custody of the certificates of registration, issuance of OD passes. (The latter are issued by the National OD Leader in person). Checking of appointments, removals and transfers.

Labor office: Regulations of the use of the labor service. Supervision of training in trades and advice as to callings. Securing of positions in agreement with Bund Adjutant.

Insurance office: Direction of the OD insurance. (Life insurance, sick-benefit funds, unemployment aid).

Law office: Surveillance and advice of all OD establishments with respect to legal provisions as to sanitation, feeding, construction, meetings etc. Investigation and settling of disputes in the OD.

Gymnastic office: Physical exercises, sports, training of the body.

Press office: Collection and publication of reports, articles and notices of the OD Headquarters in the Bund press.

School office: Schooling in world outlook and training of leaders in the OD, under supervision of the Bund Intelligence Service and Training Leader.

Recruiting and Cultural office: Drafting of informative and recruiting documents, decorations for halls, series of festivals, etc. for OD meetings (Bund meetings under the leadership of the OD). Supervision of the adornment of OD offices and OD homes. The work of the National OD Recruiting and Cultural Office is under the supervision of the Bund Recruiting Director.

General The right to apply discipline and the right to remit punishment with regard to any OD Leader or OD man belongs to the National OD Leader; any OD Leader can suspend the OD Leaders and OD men serving under him, as punishment. OD Leaders, from Section Leader upward, can expel OD men from the OD, with the assent of the competent Local Group or Strong Point Director.

All new acceptances, appointments, dismissals, transfers and discharges within the OD are to be reported immediately in writing by the competent officer to the National OD Leader.

No OD head of a district or other OD Leader ever gives binding declarations to the outer world, except by explicit direction of the officer competent at the time.

The Area OD Leaders, Regional OD Leaders, Circle OD Leaders and District OD Leaders establish, according to need, the same OD offices as are provided for the headquarters of the National OD. Their rights, duties and obligations correspond, for the command area within which they are in command (area, region, circle or district) to those of the National OD Leader, except as follows:

OD passes are issued only by the National OD Leader. The procurement of all articles of equipment is done only through the National OD Equipment Office and the Bund Organization Director, except where other arrangements are made under "OD Headquarters of Local Groups".

With regard to the establishment of OD offices within the territory of the local groups and strong points, see under "OD Headquarters of Local Groups".

Command of the Area OD

The Area OD Leader is head of the Area. He is appointed by the Area Leader and confirmed by the National OD Leader. The Area OD Leader appoints and removes his collaborators with the confirmation of the Area Leader.

The rights, duties and powers of the Area OD Leader correspond, for the territory of the area of which he is the head, to those of the National OD Leader, except where restrictions are made above, under "General". The Area OD Leader reports monthly to the National OD Leader; a copy of each report is received by the Area Leader.


Regulations on the command of the regional OD and the circle OD are issued separately.


The District OD Leader is head of the district. He is designated by the District Leader and confirmed by the National OD Leader. Appointments and removals of District OD Leaders are to be reported to the Area Leader immediately in writing.

The District OD Leader appoints and removes his collaborators with the confirmation of the District Leader.

The rights, duties and powers of the District OD Leader correspond, for the territory of the district at the head of which he is, to those of the Area OD Leader. The District OD Leader reports monthly to the Area OD Leader; a copy of each report is received by the District Leader.

Among the most important duties of the District OD Leader are those of supervising the work of the OD sections in the district in question by attending the OD musters and meetings, keeping the OD Area Headquarters informed of special conditions in these sections, promoting the collaboration of the sections with each other and with the young people and promoting the training of young men capable of acting as leaders. Special efforts are to be made to establish in his district at least one OD musical unit, even if the musicians do not all belong to the same section.


The OD Platoon Leader has authority within the Local Group or Strong Point. He is appointed by the Local Group or Strong Point Leader and confirmed by the National OD Leader. Appointments and removals of OD Platoon Leaders are to be reported immediately in writing to the District Leader and the Area Leader by the Local Group or Strong Point Leader.

The OD Platoon Leader appoints and removes his immediate subordinate leaders and collaborators with the confirmation of the Leader of the Local Group or Strong Point.


The work of the OD Platoon Leader is divided as follows:

Organization Office: Elaboration of plans for assembly, transportation, quarters and feeding and drafting of building plan^. (Technical execution by the Organization Leader of the Local Group or Strong Point.) Provision of homes, et cetera.

Equipment Office: Distributing office for equipment of the OD and its organizations. (All procurement through the Organization Leader of the Local Group or Strong Point, with the approval of the Bund Organization Leader).

Procurement Office: Keeping of card files. Checking of appointments, dismissals, transfers, et cetera. Sending of certificates of admission to the OD to the National OD Leader. Distribution of the OD passes issued by the National OD Leader.

Finance Office: Keeping books on receipts and expenditures for uniforms, decorations, travel, construction, insurance, maintenance, et cetera. Transfer of funds for orders from the National OD Headquarters directly to the National OD Finance Office. Keeping account of the funds which remain in the Section, with the cashiers of the Local Groups or Strong Points, except as follows: The OD Platoon has a "Comradeship Fund" for special purposes approved by the Leader of the Local Group or Strong Point, such as: aid to OD men who are in want, with regard to procurement of uniform equipment, aid in paying contributions, covering traveling expenses and any charges for admittance in connection with official trips, payment of tips, et cetera. The Comradeship Fund is maintained by donations of the OD men and their supporters. It is also subject to monthly audit by the cashier of the Local Group or Strong Point and in case of need is available to the Local Group or Strong Point, at the demand of the Leader of the Local Group or Strong Point. There is no official OD fund. The Platoon Finance Office also has the duty of working out financial plans for procurements, buildings, training, insurance, maintenance and the like that are planned, and of carrying out raffles and sale of cards of the OD.

Labor Office: Use of the labor service. Supervision of training in crafts and advice as to calling. Procurement of work in agreement with the Adjutant of the Local Group or Strong Point.

Health Office: Supervision of sanitation, medical attention and food.

Insurance Office: OD life insurance, sick benefit funds and unemployment relief.

Physical Culture Office: Exercises, sport, physical culture.

Law Office: Supervision and advice of the OD establishments with regard to provisions of law.

Press Office: Collection and sending in of OD reports, articles and notices to the National OD Press Office.

Training Office: Training in outlook on the world and training for leadership in the OD. Provision of teaching material in agreement with the Schooling Leader of the Local Group or Strong Point.

Recruiting and Cultural Office: Drafting of informatory and recruiting documents, plans for decorations of halls, services of festivals, et cetera, for OD meetings (Bund meetings under leadership of the OD. Constant enlightenment regarding the importance of the encouragement and incitation of the young people of the Bund. All work in agreement with the Recruiting Leader of the Local Group or Strong Point.

Subordinate Leaders: By means of his subordinate leaders (the squad leaders, group leaders and leaders of musicians of the Section), the OD Platoon Leader accomplishes the practical OD work of the Local Group or Strong Point. He must at every opportunity inspire his subordinate leaders and men by exemplary service and comradely preparatory work and by absolutely impersonal and just treatment build them into the firmly founded, strictly disciplined protective and recruiting unit which our movement must have. He will participate as often as possible in the musters and official trips of his comrades, demanding nothing of them which he himself would not be ready to perform and will always be the first comrade of the Platoon. He will always appear more punctually for duty than he expects of his subordinates and will be the last to leave the place of duty. He will never complain of his superiors before his comrades, but will display the absolute loyalty and correct behavior which he expects from his men. The blind obedience that will be absolutely necessary in serious situations can be provided only if the Platoon represents a true association of comrades which feels respect for and confidence in its Leader. It is possible only to call forth and to maintain this voluntary following if the Platoon Leader shows himself a comrade and a calm, self-possessed Leader to every OD man in the same way, a Leader who always thinks much more of his duties than of his rights. The OD Leader is the direct Leader of the bravest and most unselfish men in our ranks; his first thought must always be to confirm by his every act their belief in the just cause of the movement.

The holding of meetings and parades, participation in other meetings, and the use of the labor service take place only with the approval of the Leader of the Local Group or Strong Point. The Platoon Leader must keep his Local Group or Strong Point Leader informed on all the work of his Platoon and must always be at his disposal with his men. As the crop of leaders of the movement is to be taken as far as possible from the ranks of the OD, and as the OD in turn must be filled up from the ranks of the young people, there prove to be the most important duties of the Platoon Leader: in the first place the search for usable leader material and its training and encouragement, and in the second place constant solicitation for the heart and hand of our young people. In consideration of the preponderant influences among which these young people are growing up, no model behavior is to be required of the young people before the OD member declares himself ready to approach them in a comradely way, but all efforts must be made to gain the liking of the young people who have frequently been wrongly reared, even if the OD man to start with first speaks to the young men, for example, upon meeting them or may have to take as part of the bargain some discourtesy or lack of consideration.


The Section Leaders and Squad Leaders are the collaborators of the Section Leader in the disciplinary control of the subdivisions of the Platoon in question. The Section Leaders are appointed and removed by the Platoon Leader, with the confirmation of the Leader of the Local Group or Strong Point. The Squad Leaders are appointed and removed by the competent Section Leader with the confirmation of the Platoon Leader. The representative of the Platoon Leader is the Leader of the First Section of the Platoon; the representative of the Section Leader is the Leader of the First Squad of the Section. There is no special rank within the OD for such representatives. The rules of behavior for Section Leaders and Squad Leaders correspond to the above.


The cells and blocks of the Bund (subordinate units of the Local Groups and Strong Points) have no OD leaders of their own.


Active OD: The active OD comprises all OD men who are in a position because of youth and calling to be available to the movement at any time. The active OD assembles regularly every week at OD musters. As far as possible, every active OD member can be reached by telephone at any time.

OD Reserve: The OD Reserve should include all sound male members of the Bund who are not in a position to serve in the ranks of the active OD. The OD Reserve is drawn upon during specially large meetings and assembles monthly for a service muster, together with the active OD.

Both divisions are subordinate to the Platoon Commander. Uniform and insignia are the same for both divisions.


The Squad: The OD Squad consists of eight members of one branch and one OD Squad Leader. Superfluous OD members are assigned for the time being to the First Squad of the branch in question.

The Section: The Section consists of three squads. Supernumerary squads are assigned for the time being to the First Section of the organization in question.

The Platoon: The OD Platoon includes all OD Sections and OD musical organizations of the Local Group or Strong Point.


Each Platoon shall endeavor to provide a section of musicians. Where this is not possible, the Platoon shall report to the District OD Leader any OD member who is suitable for a section of musicians and shall make him available, so that the District can at least assemble a section of musicians from OD members of various Platoons.

As long as the musicians are not sufficiently drilled, they must participate regularly in the OD musters; the Platoon Leader will excuse musicians from duty when possible. The sections of musicians participate in the monthly general musters of the Platoon.


Any male member of the Bund who is physically sound and has completed his eighteenth year can become a OD man. All OD men and OD Leaders in particular are required to procure a certificate of Aryan blood.

A newly accepted OD man is considered for the first four weeks a OD probationer. His OD certificate of acceptance, signed by the Platoon Leader, goes directly to the National OD Leader. The National OD Leader issues the OD pass and sends the latter to the Platoon. The OD passes are formally handed out by the Platoon Leader to the new OD members at an OD muster. Acceptances for the OD are to be reported immediately to the Leader of the Local Group or Strong Point.

The Platoon Leader can refuse acceptance in the OD without a statement of reasons, after consultation with the Leader of the Local Group or Strong Point.

There are no OD contributions. Every OD member makes his monthly membership contribution as a member of the Bund. Contributions to the Comradeship Fund of the OD are voluntary.

Admittance to Functions: An OD man present on duty is not required to pay any given admission to functions of the Bund. He should contribute a voluntary sum for expenses, adapted to his capacity to pay.

Discharge: The right to apply the disciplinary regulations and disciplinary furlough belongs to every OD Leader in accordance with the regulations under "OD Discipline". OD Leaders, from the Platoon Leader upward, can discharge OD men from the OD with the assent of the competent Leader of the Local Group or Strong Point. Discharge from the OD does not affect membership in the Bund.

Resignation: Voluntary resignation is refusal to serve. Any person who wishes to leave the OD must direct a written application for dismissal to his Platoon Leader, with a statement of reasons and must, if possible, provide a substitute.

Certificate of Conduct and OD Certificate: In addition to his membership card in the Bund, an OD man carries with him his OD pass. If the OD member pays his membership contributions to the Bund punctually and performs his duties loyally, his OD pass will be stamped monthly by the Platoon Commander. The OD pass is sent to the Area OD Leader every six months to be checked. The OD pass, stamped according to regulations, grants the OD member admittance to all functions of the Bund and its branches. OD passes which have not been stamped up to the previous month in any case lose their validity.

Rules of Behavior for the OD Man

(A) The Uniformed Service [OD] of the American-German Bund is the protective unit of our movement. In our ranks there are no oaths of any kind to a leader, but every OD man is pledged to render absolute obedience and unbounded loyalty to his leaders, within the framework of the laws of the country.

In this connection it is to be borne in mind that the order of the leader next in rank at any given time is decisive; the loyalty of the OD man does not stop at the platoon leader, but in the last analysis concerns the Leader of the Bund above all others. Personal likes or dislikes play no part with the true OD man; the orders of his superior are carried out as long as the latter fills his office and does not act counter to the orders of his superior.

The OD man should therefore understand that beginning with that day on which he wears the dress uniform of the OD for the first time, he has, eliminating all personal opinions, become a protector of the movement and its leaders against all attempts at undermining and breaking up, from within or without. The OD man gives the assurance that our movement will, at the sacrifice of life if necessary, remain the inexorable opponent of Jewish Marxism and the uncompromising champion of (he demands of American Germans, even if this should possibly no longer please some group within the Bund.

Anyone who is not filled with this unshakable faith and courage and cannot march along as a fanatical fighter does not belong in the OD; to have embraced the National Socialist view of things means definitively breaking off all ties with liberal halfway measures.

(B) The OD is not a military organization; its training does not take place according to purely military standpoints, but according to suitable guiding ideas of politics and things in general.

Some drill is necessary, in order to make possible disciplined employment, but the main emphasis is to be placed even more on training in athletics and formation of character and mentality. The OD man who looks to the future will gladly undergo any hardship that causes him to become stronger than his foes in health, in character and in mind. The effeminate and lazy man is headed for the abyss; whoever wants to have the right to life must be a fighter, who can be hard even to himself!

Therefore let no OD man expect to be received gently into our ranks.
We are looking for men who enter our organization not in order to procure personal advantages or to be allowed to play soldier pleasantly, but who intend with their whole power to eradicate the red Jewish pestilence in America.

(C) The OD man is easily recognizable anywhere by his bearing. Therefore he must always, on and off duty, take special pains to carry himself as he himself would expect of a representative of the leadership of American Germans. As an OD man he is no longer a private individual, whose faults involve only a few in suffering with him; he actually represents the movement to the general public, and must take care that no boorish behavior on his part may give reason for a wrong opinion of the Bund.

(D) Persons attending gatherings and guests at our functions are to be treated with the greatest courtesy and civility possible. Many a prejudice that a stranger brings along can be removed by the model behavior of the OD man.

(E) Smoking and drinking while on duty is prohibited. The OD Leaders are required to enforce this rule most strictly. At the command "duty ended," cap and shoulder belts are removed.

(F) The weekly musters are the training evenings for the OD. They should be held in gymnasiums as far as possible. After the drill and the gymnastic exercises there comes half an hour of schooling and then social pleasures. The OD man should strive to become acquainted with our treasure of popular and war songs and to contribute also to this song treasury of the movement.

Unexcused absence from duty involves punishment.

(G) Heads of offices can at the same time hold rank in the OD. Their other rank has nothing to do with the OD: heads of offices are, in the OD, under the command of the competent OD Leader. Heads of offices are not required to perform the regulation OD duty; rather is this voluntary for them, as they will seldom have time for the regular OD duty, if they wish to do justice to their special tasks. However, the head of every office is required to participate in the monthly general musters. Only one designation of rank is worn at a given time; it is the one that corresponds to the duty at the time.

(H) Arming the OD is prohibited. If a weapon is found on an OD man, the latter is to be discharged from the OD immediately. The OD Leaders are responsible for the strict enforcement of this rule.

(1) The military standards of the OD, the United States flag and the Bund flag with the patch of the platoon in the union, are the sacred symbols of the movement, to which the highest respect is to be paid. The military standards are never used as decorations, but always are kept under OD guard. They are to be protected at the cost of one's life. To be a standard bearer is the highest honor of the OD man.

(J) Every OD man has the right to complain. If an OD man believes that he has reason for complaint, he is to submit it to his section leader in writing. Complaints regarding any occurrence must be submitted not less than twenty-four hours after the occurrence and not more than seven days after the occurrence. If the OD man believes that he has not been given justice by his Platoon Leader, he carries the complaint, with the knowledge of the platoon leader, up to the Leader of the Local Group or Strong Point, and in case of need, step by step through the District OD Leader, the District Leader, etc., on up to the National OD Leader and the Leader of the Bund. Complaints are considered only if the OD man keeps strictly to service channels.

An OD man true to his duty will never disseminate his dissatisfaction among his comrades and will never, among his comrades, make any criticism of a superior, but will always complain only to those above him. The collecting of signatures in order to strengthen a complaint, as well as any other stirring up of one's comrades, is considered disintegration and mutiny and involves immediate discharge.

No matter how justified the anger of an OD man may be, it remains his first duty to avoid everything that might endanger the close unity of the movement.

The Uniform

(A) The active OD and the OD reserve, the section of musicians, the medical service, the front fighters and the office administration force of the Bund (including the officers) wear the OD uniform. Special arm-bands are provided for the medical service and the front fighters, and epaulets for the musicians, in addition to the OD armbands.

(B) Probationary members of the OD are not permitted to wear the uniform.

(C) The uniform is the full dress outfit of the movement. Anyone who appears in uniform, represents the essentials of the Bund. A stranger will judge the OD and hence the Bund from the appearance of the person wearing the uniform. A uniform kept neat and in good order and a snappy bearing when on or off duty must be a matter of honor to every real OD man.

(D) Orders and decorations may be worn with the uniform at any time; they are worn on the left breast-pocket.

(E) Contribution buttons may be worn on the right breast-pocket for the duration of the meeting, festival buttons for the duration of the festival, and medals won in sports as long as they are valid.

(F) The Bund badge is worn on the cravat, an inch and a half below the knot.

(G) Insignia for rank, unit and service are worn on the shoulder straps, as far away from the collar as possible. See under "insignia for Leaders".

(H) No ornaments other than the prescribed badges may be worn with the uniform.

(I) The uniform shirt: gray poplin shirt with turndown collar, two breast pockets and shoulder straps. Also black four-in-hand tie.

(J) The uniform coat: light gray, single-breasted coat with open collar, silver buttons, two breast pockets, two side pockets, shoulder straps and upper part of collar black. Silver piping.

(K) Uniform, trousers: for duty indoors, long black trousers without cuffs. With them, black shoes and black socks. For duty outdoors, black riding breeches with black riding boots or black high shoes and leather leggins.

(L) Articles of leather: black belt and black shoulder belt with brass hooks. On duty, shoulder belt under the right shoulder strap.

(M) Uniform cap: black field cap (kepi), with silver piping. The cap is worn on one side, the left side a finger-breadth higher than the right.

(N) The armband: The OD armband has a black ground, with a white stripe at the top and bottom, near the edge, and has in the middle the black and gold insignia of the Bund and a gold O and D. It is worn on the left arm, above the elbow. The officers and other administrators, the active OD, the OD reserve and the OD musicians and bandsmen wear the OD armband. The armband is worn with the uniform, when on or off duty.

The medical service wears a white armband with a standing red cross.

The front fighters wear, on duty in the OD or OD reserve, the OD armband, and when on duty in the front fighter service, a field gray (greenish-gray) arm-band with the Bund front fighter insignia embroidered on it in gold.

(O) The epaulets: with the uniform of the OD musicians' unit there belong red and white striped epaulets, in addition to the OD armband. The epaulets of the drum major are provided with fringes.
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Re: Neuschwanstein: A fairy tale darling's dark Nazi past

Postby admin » Thu Sep 26, 2019 7:53 am

Part 8 of 8


(A) The assignment (holders of high ranks, OD Leaders, other heads of offices) is shown by the color of the patch on the left shoulder strap. (There are special insignia for young people's and women's organizations).

Rank: is shown by the stars and stripes on the left shoulder strap. (Exception: young people and women).

The location of the platoon (place of duty of the officer concerned) is shown by the color of the patch and number of the unit or other insignia on the right shoulder strap. (Exception: organizations for young people and women).

(B) Other insignia of rank worn hitherto are to be exchanged for new ones without charge at the National OD Equipment Office. Additional orders are likewise to be addressed to the National OD Equipment Office.

(C) Badges of rank and location must not be worn until after reception into the OD or appointment to an office has been confirmed in accordance with regulations.

(D) Fuhrer of the Bund: Yellow patch (Spiegel) with four stars on the left shoulder-strap; yellow patch with Bund insignia on the right shoulder-strap.

(E) National OD Leader: Black patch with three stars on the left shoulder strap; yellow patch with Bund insignia on the right shoulder strap.

(F) Area Leader: yellow patch with three stars on the left shoulder strap; patch of the area color with Bund insignia on the right shoulder strap. (The area colors are: for the eastern area red, for the middle western area white, and for the western area blue).

(G) Area SB Leader: black patch with two stars and three stripes on the left shoulder strap; patch in the area color with number of platoon of the place in which serving, on the right shoulder strap. (The platoon number is the number of the local group or strong point).

(H) From the Area SB Leader and the other administrative officers of the Area down to the individual OD man, all high officials, OD Leaders and other holders of offices, OD section leaders, heads of cells, leaders of local groups, bloc overseers and OD men, on the right shoulder strap a patch of the color for the area concerned, with the platoon number for the place in which their unit is; they wear their marks of rank on the left shoulder strap. Exceptions: organizations for young people and women.

(I) Region leader: Yellow patch with two stars and three stripes on the left shoulder strap. Right shoulder strap as under (H).

(J) Region OD leader: black patch with two stars and two stripes on the left shoulder strap. Right shoulder strap as under (H).

(K) Circle leader: Yellow patch with two stars and two stripes on the left shoulder strap. Right shoulder strap as under (H).

(L) Circle OD leader: black patch with two stars on one stripe on the left shoulder strap. Right shoulder strap as under (H).

(M) District leader: yellow patch with two stars and one stripe on the left shoulder strap. Right shoulder strap as under (H).

(N) District OD leader: black patch with two stars on the left shoulder strap. Right shoulder strap as under (H).

(O) Local group or strong point leader: yellow patch with two stars on the left shoulder strap. Right shoulder strap as under (H).

(P) OD platoon leader: black patch with one star and one stripe on the left shoulder strap. Right shoulder strap as under (H).

(Q) OD section leader: black patch with one star on the left shoulder strap. Right shoulder strap as under (H).

(R) OD squad leader: black patch with one stripe on the left shoulder strap. Right shoulder strap as under (H).

(S) OD man: no patch or insignia on the left shoulder strap. Right shoulder strap as under (H).

(T) Collaborator of the OD headquarters: Collaborators of the OD headquarters wear no special insignia as such, except on the right shoulder strap as Is provided under (H). But if they occupy one of the positions of leader at the same time, they wear the insignia corresponding to the service, whatever it may be.

(U) Cell leaders and block leaders are officers who have no OD commands of their own. OD men are placed at their disposal when needed, by the platoon leader, with the approval of the Local Group or Strong Point Leader. Cell leaders wear a yellow patch with one star and one stripe on the left shoulder strap; the right shoulder strap as under (H). Block leaders wear a yellow patch with one star on the left shoulder strap; the right shoulder strap as under (H).

(V) Other officials, cell administrators and block watchers: for insignia of leaders of young people and women, see the service regulations of those groups. A table for the explanation of the marks of rank worn on the left shoulder by the other leaders of the Bund follows. All members of the Bund who are in the first seven grades are officials.



(A) Every officer has two colors available (one American flag and one Bund flag with patch). The colors are carried everywhere that the Leader or the OD of the area of command concerned is acting officially.

(B) The colors are always carried and guarded by uniformed OD color-bearers and by them only. Colors are never lent, given away or sold. Consecrated colors are never used as flags for decoration or hung up; they are always to be carried on the pole and are to be set up only under constant watch by the OD.

(C) The colors are four feet high and six feet wide. The Bund flag has a deep red ground, with white rays from the middle to the four corners. Each of the four rays contains two black stripes. In the middle of the flag, on both sides, the insignia of the Bund, three feet high, in gold, with black shading, is sewed on. In the union (the upper, inner corner of the flag), a distinctive patch is applied. The patch is six inches high and nine inches wide and is sewn on two inches from the pole and one inch from the upper edge of the flag. The American standard is not marked in any way.

(D) For the tip of the flag-pole, an eagle is to be used, if possible, for the American color, and for the Bund color the bronze Bund insignia, which can be procured from the National OD Equipment Office.

(E) The American color always accompanies the Bund color. It is always carried or displayed in the place of honor to the right of the Bund color. (In the direction of march, on the right; on or in front of a stage, to the right as seen by the speaker).

(F) Distinctive Markings for the Bund Colors: The color of the local group or strong point (the platoon flag) bears a blue patch; the name of the local group or strong point and border in yellow.

The district color bears a light brown patch; the name of the district and the border in yellow.

The circle color bears a black patch; name of circle and border in yellow.

The regional color bears green patches; name of region and border in yellow.

The area color bears red patches; name of area and border in yellow.

The color of the headquarters of the Bund (national color) bears light yellow patches with the insignia of the Bund in gold, shaded with black, and with golden border for the patch.

(G) The colors are to be procured through the National OD Equipment Office. In ordering, the name of the command area in question is to be given in German.

Drill Regulations

(A) Drilling is for the practicing regularly of the forms indispensable for the organization and maintenance of a unit.

Drill is not an end in itself, but is used only to make possible a highly necessary, disciplined and effective action, unattainable in other ways, and the highest possible degree of true spirit of comradeship.

Drill demands full physical and mental subordination to will. The success of a systematic drill becomes an indicator of the inner worth of the unit, for discipline, confidence, the feeling of belonging together, self-control and readiness to act receive compact expression through it. The OD man who is well drilled shows by his bearing the strength of his will and his feeling. He must, for his own pleasure, be recognizable anywhere, and deservedly, as OD man from his glance and bearing and must be able to gain respect as a model.

(B) The execution of the drill must be strict and severe. Even the slightest errors and deficiencies in the execution of the commands are to be corrected as soon as they occur, for it is very difficult to make up later for faulty basic training.

(C) Drill should always be performed only for a short time.

(D) The use of drill as a punishment is forbidden.

(E) Saluting:

(1) For the national hymn of the United States: ("The Star Spangled Banner"), and for the song ''America" ("My Country 'tis of Thee"), the right hand is brought to the cap above the right temple (the hand horizontal, with fingers and thumbs touching and slightly bent). When this is done, the left hand is kept on the seam of the trousers, as for "attention".

(2) For all other occasions (assembly of colors, honors, official greetings, etc.), the OD employs only the Bund salute. (This is true also for the front fighters, the officials, the young people and all other branches of the Bund).

In the Bund salute, the right arm is brought forward by the shortest course and is stretched somewhat to the right, with the hand on a level with the forehead, the arm parallel with the right foot in the basic position, the fingers stretched and the thumb touching. At the same time, uniformed men place the left hand on the belt, the hand somewhat to the left of the collar, the fingers extended over the belt and the thumb behind the belt. Men not in uniform hold the left hand at the side during the Bund salute, as for "attention". The salute is concluded by the right hand first being brought before the left chest with the hand horizontal and then both hands being dropped to the sides simultaneously in the basic position.

The perfunctory salute with hand raised high is permissible only when not on duty.

(3) The official spoken salutation of the Bund is: "Free America!"


(4). All members of the Bund and in particular all uniformed members of the Bund, including the young people, are obliged to salute each other and among each other. The junior or lower in rank is required to salute first, but comradeship requires everyone to salute voluntarily upon recognition, without waiting for formalities.

(F). Command:

(1). The command brings about exactly determined movements of the individual OD men or of the unit.

The command consists as a rule of a preparatory command and an executive command. Between the two parts of the command a brief pause in speech is to be inserted (indicated in writing by a horizontal line: " — "). The preparatory command is drawn out and the executive command is given briefly and sharply. No command is to be called out more loudly than necessary.

As the command is, so is the execution. Calmness, certainty and precision in commanding are the prerequisites for perfect execution. Before giving the command, the commanding officer assumes the basic position and stands in such a position, depending on the front and depth of the organization, that he can oversee the unit and can be heard by every OD man.

(2). Wrong commands are revoked by "Command withdrawn."

(3). Reporting: If an officer of higher rank appears at a muster or function, report thereof must be made immediately by the senior on duty at the time.

As the first command at the appearance of an officer of higher rank the command "Attention" is given. Execution: The OD men who are in formation, as well as those who are not in formation, assume the basic position, eyes toward the superior officer.

Commands in connection with the reporting: "Attention", "Eyes — right" or "Eyes — left." The senior officer reports the strength of the men in formation and then gives the Bund salute.

Wording of the report: "OD (designation of unit) with (number of) men on duty." Further commands according to the order of the superior officer.

(G). Drills (1). Basic position. Command: "Attention".

Execution: The OD man assumes the basic position. The right foot remains stationary. The OD man stands still with his heels together. The toes are at the same time turned outward so far that the feet do not quite form a right angle. The weight is distributed equally over the heels and the balls of the feet. The knees are slightly bent. The shoulders are of even height and held back. The arms are held lightly, the elbows slightly pressed forward, a bare hand's width away from the body. The palms of the hands and the tips of the fingers are on the upper parts of the thigh. The fingers are closed, the thumb extended along the inner surface of the index finger, and the little finger is on the seam of the trousers. The head is held high, the chin slightly drawn in toward the neck, the eyes directed straight ahead and no moving in the head, and the muscles of the face slightly and uniformly tensed. Chest is out, the muscles of the body slightly tensed and the diaphragm raised. The backbone is not to be stiffened.

If a preparatory command is given, the call of a leader or the command "Ready", not preceded by "Attention", the SB man stands still.

(2) At ease Command: "Stand at ease!"

Execution: The left foot is moved forward and to the side. The body is relaxed. The movement is executed just as rapidly and correctly as any other command. The uniform is adjusted by slight twitches; there is no talking or unnecessary movement. The arms are not crossed over the breast.

(3). Turning without moving forward or backward:

Command: "Right — face!" Execution: Raise the foot a very little from the ground, throw the right foot slightly to the right and at the same time turn the body on the left heel ninety degrees to the right. Bring the right foot sidewise to the stationary foot at the conclusion of the turn.

Command: "Left — face!" Execution: The turn to the left is made on the left heel. After the execution of the turn the right foot is brought up from behind to the stationary foot.

Command: "Whole detachment — turn!" Execution: Just as in the case of "Left — face", only with a turn of one hundred eighty degrees. After the turn the command "At ease" is to be given, so that the bearing can be improved.

(4). Changes of gaze:

Commands: "Eyes — right!" "Eyes — left!" Execution: Turn the head with a jerk to the right or left until the gaze is directed freely in the direction ordered. Attitude of the body remains unchanged.

Command: "Eyes — front!" Execution: The head is returned with a jerk to the original position. The return movement of the head and the eyes is accomplished simultaneously.

(5). Stepping off:

Command: (Examples) "To the left— step off!" "To the right— step off!" "Forward— step off!" "To the rear— step off!" "Into the field— step out!" The command may be given with additions as desired. Execution: The turn required by the order and three quick steps in the direction commanded.

(H). Types op Marching and Marching Movements

In the Bund there are three types of marching.

(a) Broken step;

(b) In step;

(c) Strictly in step (not parade step).

The march is broken step is used in fields, on bad roads, on bridges and during marches of some length. Carriage and forward movement are not affected.

Marching in step is the commonest type for marching through towns and during drills.

Marching in strict step is used in marching past, when displaying honors, and for training during drills over short "distances.

(1) March commands:

Command: "In step — march" Execution: The movement is started with the left foot, without emphasizing the first step. Pace 80 cm. (32 inches). 114 steps to a minute. The body upright and stiff. Eyes directly front. The arms are swung easily, with the fingers bent somewhat. The gait is free and easy.

Command: "Broken step — march!" Execution: Begin with the left foot, without emphasis on the first step. The length of step and the kind of step are adapted to the nature of the ground and the physical qualities of the marching man.

Command: "Detachment — march!" (The command for marching in strict step). Execution: The left leg is brought forward with the knee rather stiff and with the point of the foot directed somewhat outward and downward and is placed firmly on the ground without too much noise; the toes touch the ground first. When the left foot has been put down the right heel leaves the ground, the right leg is moved, slightly bent, and as before the left leg is brought forward. The upper portion of the body remains quiet and stiffly erect, bent slightly forward. Vertical motion of the upper portion of the body is to be avoided, as the weight of the body always remains on the foot that is on the ground until the other foot is firmly on the ground. The arms are swung somewhat more stiffly than in the movement in step: the hands are swung slightly inward, but not above the height of the belt. Pace 80 cm. 114 steps per minute.

Marching in strict step should by all means first be practiced with very slow pace (about 60 steps per minute). During practice the hands are at first kept behind the back.

Command: "Double time — march!" Is used for accelerated movement of closed units over short distances. Execution: At the command "Double time" the lower arms are slightly bent and the elbows crooked, 160 steps to the minute at the double.

Command: "In — step!" Transition from the double to marching in broken step. Execution: After the command, three more quick steps are taken and then the men continue to march in broken step. The arms are relaxed.

Command: "Quick — march!" Execution: The OD man runs as fast as possible without deviating from the direction of march. If the objective has not been designated in detail, the running is continued until the next order is given.

Command: "Mark— time!" Execution: Without forward movement, the time and step are maintained. The feet are hardly to be raised from the ground.

Command: "Free — march!" Execution: At the word "Free" half steps are taken; at the word "march", which is uttered when the left foot is set down, the right foot takes one more half step, and then the march is continued freely.

Command: "Detachment — halt!" Execution: The command is issued when marching in step, when the right foot is set down. The left foot is moved one step further forward and the right foot then drawn up quickly. The OD man stands in the basic position.

Commands: "Marching in step — attention!", "Attention!", "Eyes — right!" or "Eyes — left!" "At — ease!" These commands are given in the above sequence only during a marching past. If the march is being performed in broken step, the command "In step" is first given, then "Attention", whereupon the strict march in step is taken up and the left hand grasps the belt. The hand rests one hand's width to the left of the belt buckle, with the fingers close together, extending diagonally upward in front of the belt, with the thumb behind it. At the command "Eyes — right!" or "Eyes — left!" the leader is looked at in whose honor the march past is held. During a march past only the detachment commander raises his arm in salute. At the command "At ease — march!" the hands are quickly lowered and the heads and eyes directed straight ahead at the same moment. The march is continued in step.

(2) Turn when marching.

Command: "Right — face!" Execution: When marching in step, the command "face" is given as the right foot is set down, the next step is taken straight ahead; the turn is executed on the ball of the left foot.

Command: "Left — face!" Execution: When marching in step, the command "face" is given as the left foot is set down. The next step is taken straight ahead; the turn is executed on the ball of the right foot.

(3) Changes of formation and order of march:

Command: "Form in one line!" or "Form in two lines!'" Execution: The man on the right wing of the first rank takes position three paces in front of the commanding officer; the OD men place themselves side by side in a line to the left of the wing man, dressing and keeping elbow touch in the line. The distance between ranks in 80 cm. from the back of the man in the front rank to the breast of the one nearest him. (The length of an outstretched arm).

Command: "Form in two lines!" Execution: The man on the right wing takes position three paces in front of the commanding officer. The OD men line up in two lines one behind the other at the proper distance and direction from the leading man.

OD men standing in line beside each other touch very lightly the bent elbows of their neighbors (elbow touch). The distance from the man in front to the nearest man in rank and file amounts to 80 cm. from back to breast.

"Fall in" includes the command "Press" and therefore signifies: adjusting position with relation to the man on the right wing and to any man who may be in advance, and standing at attention until a further command is given.

Command: "In single rank left (or right)- — form!" (For changing from a file to a rank). (Command with or without "double quick"). Execution: The foremost OD man marches straight ahead, but takes short steps, until the men behind him have run up to the left (or right) of him to form a line and have taken direction.

Command: "Count off by threes!" Execution: the right file leader begins the counting. He takes the basic position, calls out his number with a short movement of the head to the left and stands at ease.

Command: "By squads right (left) wheel— march!" Execution: at the command "by squads right wheel — march", the right tile leader (No. 1) makes a turn on the spot in three steps. No. 2 and No. 3 at the same time march up to the left of No. 1 in three steps and half. At the command "by squads left wheel — march", No. 3 makes the turn on the spot in three steps; No. 2 and No. 1 march up to the right of No. 3 in three steps.

Command: "detachment — march!" Execution: The right file leader is responsible for the direction of march; he has to march exactly behind the front rank man. Distance between squads amounts to three paces.

Command: "Right wheel (or left wheel) — march!" Execution: The right (or left) file leader turns until the command "straight — ahead" is given. The following file leaders on the inner side turn exactly at the same spot where the first file leader executed the turn.

Command: "Placed in ranks — right (or left) face!" This is the command for reforming a column of squads into a double rank. Execution: At the command "placed in ranks — right face", the right file leader (No. 1) of the first, third and other ranks with odd numbers goes straight ahead at the word "face", while No. 2 and No. 3 of those ranks execute a right-face and then, marching one behind the other, swing in behind No. 1. The right file leader (No. 1) of the second, fourth and the other even-number ranks makes a turn half to the right and moves to the right of the man ahead of him, while No. 2 and No. 3 of those ranks first make a right turn and then march after him, one behind the other.

At the command "placed in ranks — left face", the procedure corresponds to the above, except that the left file leader (No. 3) goes straight ahead and No. 2 and No. 1 make a turn to the left.

Command: "In column of squads — right (or left) form!" This is the command for changing a double rank into a column of squads. Execution: The above procedure reversed. At the command "in column of squads — right form", at the word "form", the right file of the first, fourth, and every third rank goes straight ahead, the man beside him moves behind him, and the others form to the right beside them. At the command "in column of squads — left form", the corresponding movements are made toward the left side.

(4) Assembly with colors:

(a) Commands for entry with the colors: "Detachment — halt!" "Color squad— front!" "Flags— down!" "At— ease!" Execution: The OD halts ten paces in advance of the stage and marks time until the color squad has marked to its post. Where conditions will permit, the color squad marches straight ahead of the stage, crosses the center of the stage, and crosses lines at the rear end of the stage. The crossing is necessary because the American flags, facing toward the assemblage, are to stand on the left, as seen by the public. In crossing lines, the bearer of the American flag moves first, the bearers of the American flags march to the left, and the bearers of the Bund flags to right, until they reach their posts. All flag bearers mark time until the command "Halt!" is given.

(b) Commands for marching off with colors: "OD — Attention!", "(Colors — over!", "Color squad left and right — face", the bearers of the American flags face to the right and the bearers of the Bund flags to the left (away from the center of the stage). At the command "detachment — march", the flag bearers make a counter-march, until they again reach the rear center of the stage, cross, but not as in entering, but wheel beside each other and march down from the stage as they have come. The color squad marches toward the middle OD column, makes a turn to the left in front of it for a counter-march, and then marks time until a further command is given. At the command "march", the colors are taken on the right shoulder. When marching in, marching out, and marching past, the colors are borne in the "present" position. At the command "colors — over", the flag is snapped into the "present" position. Execution: The flag is standing beside the right foot, and is held with the right hand. In so doing, the arm is extended downward. At the command "over", the flag is raised quickly with the right hand; the arm remains somewhat extended. At the same instant the left hand grasps the flag-pole; the left arm, at a right angle, horizontally is raised to the level of the shoulder with the hand extended flat and the flag-pole clasped between the thumb and the index finger.

The command "colors — over" applies likewise to the squads of musicians and the band.

In all entries, etc., strict attention is to be paid to having the American flags always carried and always stood at the right or in front, in the direction of march or the direction in which the assembled color squads are looking.

Let it also be impressed upon every color-bearer that the American flag is not to be dipped during any honors.


(5) (a) stage and hall guard: OD men on duty stand firmly with legs spread apart and hands folded behind them.

(b) Color guard: Men on duty stand firmly with legs spread apart, the flag-pole held with the right hand, which extends downward in a natural position; the left hand is at the side or on the belt.

(6) Relief of the guard: Relief of any guards takes place only during fixed intermissions or between speeches.

(a) Relief of hall and stage guards: Every man on duty assumes the basic position as soon as he sees the relief marching in. The relieving men march up directly in front of those on duty. All those relieving at the same time face right or left in the direction of those on guard. At the same moment every man on guard takes a side step to the right. The man relieving him takes a step forward and faces about; at the same time the man being relieved likewise takes one pace forward and turns to the right or the left, in the direction from which the relief has come. The men relieved march off in close order; those who have just come on guard remain in the basic position until those relieved have marched away.

(b) Relief of color guard: At the moment at which the relief stands in front of the man on duty and turned toward the latter, and before the man on duty who is to be relieved takes the prescribed step to the right, the latter presents the color and hands it over with a snappy movement to the person relieving him. Otherwise the relief takes place as explained above. No saluting is done during the relieving.  

(I) Protection of Hall

(1) (a) — Color guard, stage guard, hall guard. OD men detailed for guard duty never leave their posts until they have been relieved in the regulation manner, except when they are ordered away by the Group Leader on duty. Even in case of disturbances in a meeting these men must remain at their posts. Specially strong protection is to be placed before flags and before stages.

(b) Roving details: At every meeting, in addition to the above guards, a roving detail is to be established. It is the duty of the roving detail to eject disturbers of order.

(c) Employment: Except at specially large meetings, different OD groups are to be used in alternation for guard duty or duty on roving details, in order not to call on the whole section for duty at every meeting.

(2) (a) — Whistle signals for announcement of orders: In order to be able to assemble quickly in the open air or in large halls OD men not on duty, one blast two seconds long and two short blasts: "__ . .". Every OD man not on duty stands up immediately and takes the basic position with his eyes turned toward the commanding officer. Immediately after this signal there is given either a command, a proclamation, the signal for attack or a repetition of the above signal, which means running toward the commander and falling in before him.

(b) Assault signal: Three long blasts: "__ __ __ ". OD men not on duty and the roving detachments attack opponents.

(c) Rally signal: Repeated short blasts: ".........". Break off attack and form up.

Patrol Service

Regulations for patrol service and for policing of buildings and camps are issued separately.  
Site Admin
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Re: Neuschwanstein: A fairy tale darling's dark Nazi past

Postby admin » Thu Sep 26, 2019 7:53 am

The dark history of ‘America First’
by Jonathan P. Baird
Concord Monitor
Published: 2/22/2017 12:15:06 AM



In his inaugural address, President Donald Trump made a big point of describing his foreign policy approach as “America First.”

“We assembled here today are issuing a new decree to be heard in every city, in every foreign capital, and in every hall of power, from this day forward, a new vision will govern our land, from this day forward, it’s going to be only America first. America first.”

The problem I have with the phrase is that Trump and his supporters are tone-deaf to its history. “America First” was the slogan used by Nazi-friendly Americans in the 1930s.

Before Pearl Harbor, the movement resisted America’s entry into World War II. It advocated neutrality toward the Germans, arguing that they were unlikely to invade the United States. Harshly critical of President Franklin Roosevelt, America First was blatantly anti-Semitic and promoted appeasing Hitler.

When asked about his use of the phrase by the New York Times’s David Sanger, Trump brushed off any historical parallel. He said: “To me, America First is a brand-new, modern term. I never related it to the past.”

It is unclear how much Trump knows about the history of the phrase, although he told the Times he was familiar with it. The Anti-Defamation League has asked Trump to refrain from using the slogan.

Donald Trump appears to take aspects of his German background seriously. John Walter works for the Trump Organization, and when he visits Donald in his office, Ivana told a friend, he clicks his heels and says, "Heil Hitler," possibly as a family joke.

Last April, perhaps in a surge of Czech nationalism, Ivana Trump told her lawyer Michael Kennedy that from time to time her husband reads a book of Hitler's collected speeches, My New Order, which he keeps in a cabinet by his bed. Kennedy now guards a copy of My New Order in a closet at his office, as if it were a grenade. Hitler's speeches, from his earliest days up through the Phony War of 1939, reveal his extraordinary ability as a master propagandist.

"Did your cousin John give you the Hitler speeches?" I asked Trump.

Trump hesitated. "Who told you that?"

"I don't remember," I said.

"Actually, it was my friend Marty Davis from Paramount who gave me a copy of Mein Kampf, and he's a Jew." ("I did give him a book about Hitler," Marty Davis said. "But it was My New Order, Hitler's speeches, not Mein Kampf. I thought he would find it interesting. I am his friend, but I'm not Jewish.")

Later, Trump returned to this subject. "If I had these speeches, and I am not saying that I do, I would never read them."

Is Ivana trying to convince her friends and lawyer that Trump is a crypto-Nazi? Trump is no reader or history buff. Perhaps his possession of Hitler's speeches merely indicates an interest in Hitler's genius at propaganda. The Führer often described his defeats at Stalingrad and in North Africa as great victories.

-- After the Gold Rush, by Marie Brenner

If Americans were more aware of the history of America First, I believe they would urge Trump to reject it. Superficially this slogan sounds good, but the history is toxic. That is true not just for Jewish Americans but for all Americans who are opposed to fascism, racism and authoritarianism.

America First blamed Jews for conspiring to pressure the government to join World War II against the interests of America. Knowing what we know now about the Holocaust, the actions of America First can be seen as what they were: appalling collaboration with the German fascists.

Back story

The history deserves review. Starting in the early 1930s, media kingpin William Randolph Hearst began using the slogan “America First.” Hearst hated President Roosevelt’s New Deal and saw it as “un-American to the core.” He hailed the Nazis as winning great victories for “liberty-loving people” everywhere.

In America, before World War II, there was a surprising amount of support and good will toward the Nazis. In part, that reflected popular acceptance of anti-Semitism in American life.

At its peak, the America First Committee had 800,000 members across the country, including a number of famous people. Future President Gerald Ford, future Supreme Court Justice Potter Stewart and industrialist Henry Ford were all part of the America First Committee.

Aviator Charles Lindbergh was perhaps the most famous member and became the committee’s principal spokesman.

In 1938, Lindbergh received the Grand Service Cross of the Supreme Order of the German Eagle, Germany’s highest honor, from Hermann Goering. The award was given “in the name of the Fuhrer.” The only other American to receive the award was Ford.

Ford, who sat on the executive committee of America First, was a vicious anti-Semite who financially supported the publication of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion, an infamous anti-Semitic tract. In the early 1920s he wrote a four-volume set of pamphlets titled “The International Jew.” Every week for 91 issues he exposed what he saw as some Jewish-inspired evil. He later wrote a regular newspaper column obsessively focused on attacking Jews called “The International Jew: The World’s Problem.” Ford is the only American mentioned, and mentioned positively, in Hitler’s Mein Kampf.

Avery Brundage, another member of the executive committee and a former chairman of the U.S. Olympic Committee, opposed a boycott of Germany in 1936 because he believed there was a Jewish-Communist conspiracy to keep the United States out of the Berlin Games. When the Games were held, Brundage prevented the only two Jews on the Olympic team from competing in the 400-meter relay. He did not want to offend the Nazis.

While other leaders of America First denied they were anti-Semitic, Lindbergh laid his cards on the table. In a speech he gave in Des Moines, Iowa, on Sept. 11, 1941, he warned that Jews were a dangerous enemy. He pointed to Jews’ “large ownership and influence in our motion pictures, our press, our radio and our government.”

Nazi supporters like Lindbergh argued that Jews in the United States spread falsehoods about Germany to push America into a war of revenge from which they would benefit financially.

America First folded only after the attack on Pearl Harbor and America’s engagement against the Axis powers.

A slogan returns

If he had an awareness of history, Trump would understand that use of the slogan “America First” is offensive. America First has a history laced with anti-Semitism.

For someone who always reminds us what a great mind he has, Trump has not demonstrated an appreciation of history. Many made fun of his lack of awareness that Frederick Douglass is no longer with us but the deeper tragedy is that he is profoundly ignorant of American history. People can argue about it but Frederick Douglass is one of the most outstanding Americans ever. It is beyond sad that we have a president who is clueless about such an important figure in our own history.

I do not see the fact that Trump has a Jewish son-in-law as inoculation against anti-Semitism and bigotry. Considering his own racism and his support from white supremacists, Trump’s insensitivity to anti-Semitism is not surprising.

Still, he should not be using the slogan “America First.” The historical echo is very bad karma.

(Jonathan P. Baird of Wilmot works at the Social Security Administration. His column reflects his own views and not those of his employer.)
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Re: Neuschwanstein: A fairy tale darling's dark Nazi past

Postby admin » Thu Sep 26, 2019 7:53 am

Individual Isolationists: Henry Ford
by Historical Boys' Clothing
Accessed: 9/26/19



One of the most important American industrialists was Henry Ford. He became noted for paying workers a decent wage, but hated labor unions. He was also a pacifist and against war as well as a virulent anti-Semite. [Baldwin] He sponsored a peace expedition to Europe during World War I (1915). The Europeans of course did not take him seriously and the mission was a complete failure. Once America entered the War, his company became a leading producer of ambulances, airplanes, munitions, tanks, and submarine chasers. Ford had said he would not profit from the War. In fact he profited greatly. He ran as a Democrat for the Senate, but was defeated (1918). Ford took a paternalistic attitude toward his employees and tried to control their lives. [Wik] He hired thugs who attacked trade unionists and Ford was the last major U.S. corporation to accept collective bargaining. Ford joined the isolationists as Europe moved toward War. Ford had a range of reasons for joining the isolationists. He did oppose war in general as he had shown during World war I. He did not see Hitler as a great threat and his anti-Semitism helped excuse NAZI barbarities. Ford in fact received a medal from the Führer. Another reason was his hatred of Franklin Roosevelt which began early. (Roosevelt as Assistant Secretary of the Navy in the Wilson Administration has opposed Ford's peace expedition.) Ford developed a relationship with Charles Lindbergh. Both passionately believed that the United States should stay not get involved in the European war and even aid Britain. Ford joined the America First National Committee (1940). Not all American Firsters were pleased about this as Ford was such a controversial figure. The AFC was concerned about being labeled anti-Semitic. Ford's anti-union reputation was also not helpful to the movement. The AFC thus voted to cancel his membership. We know that Ford and Lindbergh discussed the Jews in their private conversations. [Collier and Horowitz, p. 205.] Some believed that Lindbergh's speech for the America Firsters in Des Moines, Iowa during which he identified the Jews as one of the groups trying to drag America into the War. After Pearl Harbor and the dissolution of the American First Committee, Ford offered Lindbergh, who had lost much of his popularity, a job with his company. Lindbergh accepted the offer. Again after Pearl Harbor, Ford Motors played an important role in the American war effort. Ford retired after the War (1945).

American Industrialist

One of the most important American industrialists was Henry Ford. He became noted for paying workers a decent wage, but hated labor unions. He was also a pacifist and against war as well as a virulent anti-Semite. [Baldwin]

World War I

Ford sponsored a peace expedition to Europe during World War I (1915). The Europeans of course did not take him seriously and the mission was a complete failure. Once America entered the War, his company became a leading producer of ambulances, airplanes, munitions, tanks, and submarine chasers. Ford had said he would not profit from the War. In fact he profited greatly.

Senate Run

Ford ran as a Democrat for the Senate, but was defeated (1918).

Soviet Operations

Henry Ford is best known for the Model "T" Ford and the mass production of automobiles. He also produced the Fordson tractor which provided low-cost utility vehicles to American farmers. Ford negotiated a major contract for these tractors with the Soviet Union immediately after World War I (1919). The Soviets became Ford's most important foreign client. The Soviets purchased over 24,000 Fordson tractors (1921-27). Ford help the Soviets open the Leningrad plant "Red Putilovite" (Красный Путиловец) (1924). The plant produced Fordson-Putilovets (Фордзон-путиловец) tractors. Like their American versions, these tractors were both inexpensive and rugged. They became widely used throughout the Soviet Union. They were used on the new collective farms. The Soviets used images of the tractors in their propaganda (posters , paintings, postage stamps, etc.) to show how the Communists were modernizing Russia. The Ford Motor Company received a contract to provide technical assistance for the giant tractor plant in Stalingrad--The Traktorostroi. In effect, the United States was helping to build Soviet industry.

German Involvement

He was well thought of in both the Soviet Union and NAZI Germany. The Germans liked him because of his anti-Semitism, even publishing anti-Semitic tracts. He was an early financial backer of the NAZIs. [New York Times, December 20, 1922.] Testimony at Hitler's 1924 trial after the Beer Hall Putch revealed, "Herr Hitler openly boasts of Mr. Ford's support and praises Mr. Ford as a great individualist and a great anti-Semite. A photograph of Mr. Ford hangs in Herr Hitler's quarters, which is the center of monarchist movement." [U.S. State Department] The NAZIs awarded Ford the Grand Cross of the German Eagle-- a NAZI medal given to distinguished foreigners (August 1938). [New York Times, August l, 1938.] He was the first American to receive the honor. The occasion was Ford's 75th birthday. Ford was shaken by the storm of criticism and met with a Detroit Rabbi to say he was sympathetic toward the suffering of German Jews and to deny he supported the NAZIS. [New York Times, December 1, 1938.] Secretary of Interior Harold Ickes. Ickes criticized both Ford and fellow isolationist Charles A. Lindbergh for accepting NAZI awards. [New York Times , December 19, 1938.] Congress after World war II investigating charges of American support for the NAZI war effort. They found that the NAZIs obtained considerable U.S. technical and financial assistance. One of the areas of support were provided by Ford-Werke A.G. The company assisted the NAZIs in obtaining rubber and other critical war materials during 1938 and 1939. [Congressional subcommittee.] Ford-Werke when war broke out placed itself at the disposal of the Wehrmacht for arms contracts. One report suggested that Ford officials in Germany quarreled over who would control Ford operations in England after the NAZI invasion.

Labor Management Relations

Ford took a paternalistic attitude toward his employees and tried to control their lives. [Wik] He hired thugs who attacked trade unionists and Ford was the last major U.S. corporation to accept collective bargaining.

Business and War

Ford was a vicious anti-Semite. He despised Jews, bankers, and unions. And wrote hate-filled pamphlets linking all three. He seemed to have associated Jews and bankers, This association seems to come wholly from his stereotypical image. Jews in America did not have a major role in banking. He also seems to have picked up the idea that American business was involved in getting America into World War I and profiteered during the War. Many companies did profit from the War--few more tn Ford Motors. Ford told a New York Times reporter, " There is a constructive and a destructive Wall Street." and "... if these financiers had their way we'd be in a war now. They want war because they make money out of such conflict — out of the human misery that wars bring." [New York Times, June 4, 1938.] Only Ford did not explain how much Ford Motors had benefited from World War I and how Ford was involved in projects in America, France, Germany, and the Soviet Union--posed to benefit no mater how the war turned out in Europe.


Ford joined the isolationists as Europe moved toward War. Ford had a range of reasons for joining the isolationists. He did oppose war in general as he had shown during World War I. He did not see Hitler as a great threat and his anti-Semitism helped excuse NAZI barbarities. Ford in fact received a medal from the Führer. Another reason was his hatred of Franklin Roosevelt which began early. (Roosevelt as Assistant Secretary of the Navy in the Wilson Administration has opposed Ford's peace expedition.) Ford developed a relationship with Charles Lindbergh. Both passionately believed that the United States should stay not get involved in the European war and even aid Britain. Ford joined the America First National Committee (1940). Not all American Firsters were pleased about this as Ford was such a controversial figure. The AFC was concerned about being labeled anti-Semitic. Ford's anti- union reputation was also not helpful to the movement. The AFC thus voted to cancel his membership. We know that Ford and Lindbergh discussed the Jews in their private conversations. [Collier and Horowitz, p. 205.] Some believed that Lindbergh's speech for the America Firsters in Des Moines, Iowa during which he identified the Jews as one of the groups trying to drag America into the War.

World War II

After Pearl Harbor and the dissolution of the American First Committee, Ford offered Lindbergh, who had lost much of his popularity, a job with his company. Lindbergh accepted the offer. Again after Pearl Harbor, Ford Motors played an important role in the American war effort. Ford retired after the War (1945).


Baldwin, N. Henry Ford and the Jews (2001).

Collier, Peter and David Horowitz. The Fords: An American Dynasty (New York: Summit Books, 1987).

Congressional subcommittee. Elimination of German Resources, p. 656-58.

Roman, Meredith. "Racism in a “Raceless” Society: The Soviet Press and Representations of American Racial Violence at Stalingrad in 1930," International Labor and Working-Class History (Cambridge University Press) Vol. 71 (March 2007), pp. 185-203.

U.S. State Department Decimal File, National Archives Microcopy M 336, Roll 80, Document 862.00S/6, "Money sources of Hitler," a report from the U.S. Embassy in Berlin.

Wik, R. M. Henry Ford and Grass-Roots America (1970). ]

New York Times (December 20, 1922).

New York Times, (June 4, 1938).

New York Times (August l, 1938).

New York Times (December 1, 1938).

New York Times (December 19, 1938).
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Re: Neuschwanstein: A fairy tale darling's dark Nazi past

Postby admin » Thu Sep 26, 2019 8:07 am

Willow Run
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 9/26/19



B-24s under construction at Willow Run.

Willow Run, also known as Air Force Plant 31, was a manufacturing complex in Michigan, located between Ypsilanti Township and Belleville, constructed by the Ford Motor Company for the mass production of aircraft, especially the B-24 Liberator heavy bomber.[1] Construction of the Willow Run Bomber Plant began in 1940[2] and was completed in 1942.

Defense plant

Turning out parts for bomber planes at Willow Run, 1942

The plant began production in summer 1941; the dedication plaque is dated June 16. The plant initially built components; Douglas Aircraft and the plane's designer Consolidated Aircraft assembled the finished aircraft. Remote assembly proved problematic, and by October 1941 Ford received permission to produce complete Liberators.[3][4] Willow Run's Liberator assembly line ran through May 1945, building almost half of all the Liberators produced.


Willow Run Airport was built as part of the bomber plant. The airfield passed into civilian hands after the war and is now controlled by Wayne County Airport Authority. Part of the airport complex operated at various times as a research facility affiliated with the University of Michigan, and as a secondary United States Air Force Installation. Willow Run Airport remains active as a cargo and general aviation airfield; since 1992 it has been home to the Yankee Air Museum.


Ford built the factory and sold it to the government, then leased it back for the duration of the war. When Ford declined to purchase the facility after the war, Kaiser-Frazer Corporation gained ownership, and in 1953 Ford's rival General Motors took ownership and operated the factory as Willow Run Transmission until 2010. Willow Run Assembly operated from 1959 to 1992 on a parcel to the south of the airport. The Fisher Body division also operated at Willow Run Assembly until its operations were assumed by the GM Assembly Division in the 1970s. In 2009 General Motors announced that it would shut down all operations at the GM Powertrain plant and engineering center in the coming year.[5]

Since the 2010 closure of Willow Run Transmission, the factory complex has been managed by the RACER Trust, which controls the properties of the former General Motors. In 2011 A.E. Equities Group Holdings offered to buy the former Powertrain plant from the RACER Trust.[5] In April 2013 a redevelopment manager for the RACER Trust confirmed that, whether or not the Yankee Air Museum relocates to the original bomber plant at a future date, unused portions of the powertrain plant would likely be razed as a step toward redeveloping the property.[6]

The Willow Run complex has given its name to a community on the east side of Ypsilanti, defined roughly by the boundaries of the Willow Run Community School District.

Inspection of the landing gear of a transport plane at Willow Run


Willow Run takes its name from a small tributary of the Huron River that meandered through pastureland and woods along the Wayne-Washtenaw county line until the late 1930s. By the mid-1920s a local family operating as Quirk Farms had bought the land in Van Buren Township that became the airport. Quirk Farms was purchased by automobile pioneer Henry Ford in 1931.[7] Ford, a keen exponent of the virtues of country living, used it as farmland for a “social engineering” experiment that brought inner-city boys to the Willow Run farms to learn about farming, nature, and the rural way of life. The residents of the Willow Run farm planted, tended, and harvested field crops and collected maple syrup, selling their products at the farm market on the property. In the process, the boys were to learn self-discipline and the values of hard work, and benefit from the fresh air of the country.[8]

From farm to flight line

Like virtually all of the United States' industrial concerns, Ford Motor Company, by this time under the direction of Henry Ford's only son Edsel, directed its manufacturing output during World War II to Allied war production.

In early 1941 the Federal government established the Liberator Production Pool Program to meet the projected demand for the B-24, and the Ford company, joined the program shortly thereafter. Ford Motor would not only build the bombers, it would supply the airfield as well; the farm at Willow Run was an ideal location for the airfield's runways, being under the personal ownership of Henry Ford (thus solving any land acquisition problem) and sited between the main roads and rail lines connecting Detroit with Ann Arbor and points to the west. Easements were acquired from landowners across the county line in Ypsilanti Township where the Liberator plant (and eventually the airport terminal) would be built.

Although officially retired, Henry Ford still had a say in the company's affairs and refused government financing for Willow Run, preferring to have his company build the factory and sell it to the government, which would lease it back to the company for the duration of the war.[9] Ford Motor was to have first option on the plant after war production ended, an option it ultimately chose not to exercise, although a rumor in Drew Pearson's syndicated column had Ford planning a postwar use as a tractor factory,[10] but that never came to pass. Ford would eventually sell its land to the Reconstruction Finance Corporation's Defense Plant Corporation in July 1944, shortly after the Ford farms were transferred to the company's ownership.[11]

Architect Albert Kahn designed the main structure of the Willow Run bomber plant, which had 3,500,000 square feet (330,000 m2) of factory space, and an aircraft assembly line over a mile (1600 m) long. It was thought to be the largest factory under one roof anywhere in the world.[8] The Willow Run plant featured a large turntable two-thirds of the way along the assembly line, allowing the B-24 production line to make a 90° turn before continuing to final assembly. According to legend, this arrangement allowed the company to pay taxes on the entire plant (and its equipment) to Washtenaw County, and avoid the higher taxes of Wayne County where the airfield is located; overhead views suggest that avoiding encroachment on the airfield's taxiways was also a motivation.[12]

Liberator production

Despite intensive design efforts led by Ford production executive Charles E. Sorensen,[13] the opening of the plant still saw some mismanagement and bungling, and quality was uneven for some time. Although the Ford Trimotor had been a success in the 1920s, the company had since shied away from aviation, and initially, Ford was assigned to provide B-24 components with final assembly performed by Consolidated at its Fort Worth plant, or by fellow licensee Douglas Aircraft at its Tulsa, Oklahoma plant. However, in October 1941 Ford received permission from Consolidated and the Army to assemble complete Liberators on its own at its new Willow Run facility.[3][4] Even then it would take nearly a year before finished Liberators left the factory.

According to Max Wallace, Air Corps Chief General "Hap" Arnold told Charles Lindbergh, then a consultant at the plant, that "combat squadrons greatly preferred the B-17 bomber to the B-24 because 'when we send the 17’s out on a mission, most of them return. But when we send the 24’s out, most of them don’t.'”[14]

A 1943 committee authorized by Congress to examine problems at the plant issued a highly critical report; the Ford Motor Company had created a production line that too closely resembled an automobile assembly line "despite the warning of many experienced aircraftmen."[15]

Although the jumping of an automotive company into aircraft production posed these quality problems, it also brought remarkable production rates. The plant held the distinction of being the world's largest enclosed "room." The first Ford-built Liberator rolled off the Willow Run line in September 1942; the first series of Willow Run Liberators was the B-24E.

The Willow Run Plant had many initial startup problems, due primarily to the fact that Ford employees were used to automobile mass production and found it difficult to adapt these techniques to aircraft production. The plant at Willow Run was also beset with labor difficulties, high absentee rates, and rapid employee turnover. The factory was nearly an hour's drive from Detroit, and the imposition of wartime gasoline and tire rationing had made the daily commute difficult. In only one month, Ford had hired 2,900 workers but had lost 3,100.[3][4]

Also, Henry Ford was cantankerous and rigid in his ways. He was violently anti-union and there were serious labor difficulties, including a massive strike. In addition, Henry Ford refused on principle to hire women. However, he finally relented and did employ "Rosie the Riveters" on his assembly lines, probably more because so many of his potential male workers had been drafted into the military than due to any sudden change of principle on his part.[3][4]

By autumn 1943, the top leadership role at Willow Run had passed from Charles Sorensen to Mead L. Bricker.[16]

At the request of the government, Ford began to decentralize operations and many parts were assembled at other Ford plants as well as by the company's sub-contractors, with the Willow Run plant concentrating on final aircraft assembly. The bugs were eventually worked out of the manufacturing processes, and by 1944, Ford was rolling a Liberator off the Willow Run production line every 63 minutes, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.

At its peak, Willow Run produced 650 B-24s per month with highest production listed as 100 completed Bombers flying away from Willow Run Between April 24 and April 26, 1944. By 1945, Ford produced 70% of the B-24s in two 9-hour shifts. Ford built 6,972 of the 18,482 total B-24s and produced kits for 1,893 more to be assembled by the other manufacturers.[17] The B-24 holds the distinction of being the most produced heavy bomber in history.[1][18]

Army Air Forces support and post-production activities

After their manufacture, the next step in the process was the delivery of the aircraft to the operational squadrons. This was done at Willow Run by 1st Concentration Command (1st CC). The 1st CC was responsible for completing the organization and equipment of tactical and combat bombardment squadrons prior to their deployment to the overseas combat theaters. It also provided a final inspection of the aircraft and make any appropriate final changes; i.e., install long-range fuel tanks, remove unnecessary equipment, and give it a final flight safety test.[19][20]

While the planes were being serviced and made ready for overseas movement, personnel for these planes were also being processed. Pilots, co-pilots, navigators and crew chiefs were assigned as a crew for each aircraft, sleeping on 1,300 cots as they waited for the B-24s to roll off the assembly line. Paperwork was handled, necessary specific B-24 life support equipment was issued and some technical training for supporting the aircraft accomplished.[19][21]

Once production began, it became difficult to introduce changes dictated by field experience in the various overseas theaters onto the production line in a timely fashion. Consequently, newly constructed Liberators needed modifications for the specific geographic areas they were to be flown in combat. For this reason, a series of Air Technical Service Command modification centers were established for the incorporation of these required theater changes into new Liberators following their manufacture and assignments. There were seven known modification centers: the Birmingham Air Depot in Alabama; Consolidated's Fort Worth plant, the Oklahoma City Air Materiel Center at Tinker Field, the Tucson Modification Center at Tucson International Airport;[22] the Northwest Airlines Depot in Minneapolis; the, Martin-Omaha manufacturing plant, and the Hawaiian Air Depot at Hickam Field.[3][4] The Birmingham Air Depot's primary mission was modifying Liberators from Willow Run.[23]

Liberator variants produced at Willow Run

See also: B-24_Liberator § Variants_and_conversions

The B-24E was the first variant of the B-24 that underwent primary manufacture by Ford at Willow Run. Not only did Ford build 490 complete planes, but it also supplied components of B-24Es as kits that could be trucked for final assembly at the factories of Consolidated in Fort Worth and Douglas in Tulsa, 144 and 167 kits.[3]

B-24Es built and fully assembled at Ford were designated B-24E-FO; those assembled at Tulsa and Fort Worth out of parts supplied by Ford were designated B-24E-DT and B-24E-CF respectively. Because of production delays encountered at Willow Run as a result of the inevitable difficulties and snags involved in the adaptation of automobile manufacturing techniques to aircraft, the B-24Es produced at Willow Run were, generally, obsolete by the time that it began to roll off the production lines, and most were relegated to training roles in the United States and hence few ever saw combat.[3][24]

The B-24H was the first variant produced by Ford at Willow Run in large numbers that went into combat. The B-24H differed from earlier B-24s by having a second turret placed in the nose of the aircraft to increase defensive firepower. Because of the many structural changes required to accommodate the nose turret, the first B-24Hs were delivered slightly behind schedule, with the first machines rolling off the production lines at Ford in late June 1943. Production for the B-24H at Willow Run was 1,780.[3]

Upon the introduction of the B-24J, all three of the Liberator manufacturing plants converted to the production of this version. The B-24J incorporated a hydraulically driven tail turret and other defensive armament modifications in the nose of the aircraft. The bomber plant produced its first B-24J in April 1944; 1587 were built at Willow Run.[3][24]

During June 1944, the Army determined that the San Diego and Willow Run plants would be capable of meeting all future requirements for Liberator production. The Boeing B-29 Superfortress was taking over the long-range bombing role in the Pacific Theater and no new B-24 units were programmed for deployment in the other combat theaters of Europe, the Mediterranean or in the CBI.[24]

The B-24L was the first product of the new, downsized Liberator production pool. It was an attempt to reverse the trend toward ever-increasing weight of the Liberator as more and more armament, equipment, and armor had been added, with no corresponding increase in engine power. With the weight reduction and more powerful engines, it also had a much longer range than earlier models. 1250 B-24L aircraft were built at Willow Run.[3][24]

The B-24M was the last large-scale production variant of the Liberator. Apart from a new tail turret, the B-24M differed little from the B-24L. The first B-24Ms were delivered in October 1944, and by the end of its production in 1945, Willow Run had built 1677; 124 Ford-built B-24Ms were cancelled before delivery.[3][24]

Ford had switched over to the single-tailed B-24N in May 1945, but the end of the war in Europe in the same month brought a rapid end to Liberator production; the contract with Ford was officially terminated on 31 May 1945 and orders for 5168 unbuilt B-24N-FO bombers were cancelled as well. The delivery of seven YB-24Ns by Ford in June 1945 marked the end of Liberator production at Willow Run.[3][25]

Post-war conversion

Although Ford had an option to purchase the plant once it was no longer needed for war production, the company declined to exercise it, and ended its association with Willow Run. Eventually, the plant fell into the hands of the company's archrival, General Motors.

Kaiser takes control

After war production ended, the plant was sold to the Kaiser-Frazer Corporation, a partnership of construction and shipbuilding magnate Henry J. Kaiser and Graham-Paige executive Joseph W. Frazer. The plant produced both Kaiser and Frazer (automobile) models, including the compact Henry J, which with minor differences was also sold through Sears-Roebuck as the Allstate.

Willow Run produced 739,000 cars as part of Kaiser-Frazer and Kaiser Motors, from 1947 through 1953, when after years of losses, the company (now called Kaiser Motors after Frazer's exit from the partnership) purchased Willys-Overland and began moving its production at Willow Run to the Willys plant in Toledo, Ohio; Kaiser Motors would give up on the passenger car business in 1955. (Kaiser Motors became Kaiser Jeep in 1962, and would be purchased in 1970 by American Motors, which in turn became part of Chrysler Corporation in 1987, as the Jeep-Eagle division.)

Although Willow Run is synonymous with the Liberator bomber, B-24s were not the only planes manufactured at Willow Run. As the U.S. Air Force struggled to expand its airlift capacity during the Korean War, Kaiser-Frazer built C-119 Flying Boxcar cargo planes at Willow Run under license from Fairchild Aircraft, producing an estimated 88 C-119s between 1951 and 1953. Kaiser also built two C-123 Provider airframes at Willow Run, which were scrapped before delivery, as a procurement scandal involving the company put an end to any chance for future Air Force contracts.[8]

General Motors operations

Later in 1953, after a fire on August 12 destroyed General Motors' Detroit Transmission factory in Livonia, Michigan, the Willow Run complex was first leased to GM, and eventually sold to it, with the salvaged Hydramatic transmission tooling and machinery relocated to Willow Run, and put back into production just nine weeks after the fire.[26]

Over the years, GM expanded the bomber plant by roughly half, into a nearly 5,000,000 square feet (460,000 m2) GM Powertrain factory and engineering center; a parcel of land to the south of Powertrain was set aside for assembly operations that began in 1959, including a Fisher Body plant that built bodies for the Chevrolet models assembled there, including the Corvair and Nova. In 1968, General Motors began reorganizing its body and assembly operations into the GM Assembly Division (GMAD). GMAD required 16 years to completely absorb Fisher Body's operations, and Fisher would manufacture bodies at Willow Run Assembly until the 1970s; vehicles would roll off the line there until 1992.

In addition to making automatic transmissions, Willow Run Transmission also produced the M16A1 rifle and the M39A1 20mm autocannon for the U.S. military during the Vietnam War.[27]

By the time General Motors entered bankruptcy in 2009, manufacturing and assembly operations at Willow Run had dwindled to almost nothing; the GM Powertrain plant closed in December 2010 and the complex passed into the control of the RACER Trust, which is charged with cleaning up, positioning for redevelopment and ultimately, selling properties of the former General Motors.[6]

MARC and Willow Run Laboratories

On the other side of the airport from the assembly plant were a group of World War II hangars, which were sold to the University of Michigan in 1946. The university operated the Michigan Aeronautical Research Center (MARC), later known as Willow Run Laboratories (WRL), from 1946 to 1972 at Willow Run. MARC and WRL produced many innovations, including the first ruby laser and operation of the ruby maser, as well as early research into antiballistic missile defense and advanced remote sensing. In 1972, the University spun off WRL into the Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, which eventually left Willow Run for offices in Ann Arbor.

Willow Run as a community and in sociology

The Willow Run manufacturing complex, was constructed in the early years of World War II for the mass production of war munitions. Even with people driving 100 miles or renting every spare room between Ann Arbor and Grosse Pointe, the sheer size of Willow Run led inevitably to a housing shortage. Because of the crying need for shelter, the Federal Public Housing Administration went to work. Eventually, a compromise was reached; the Federal Public Housing Administration would build temporary housing, dormitories for single people and dwellings for family groups. This housing could be built on the land north of Michigan Avenue and south of Geddes Road, with the eastern boundary along Ridge Road and the western following Prospect Road to Clark, then along Clark to Harris Road. This covered 90 parcels of land totaling 2,641 acres (1,069 ha).[28]

In February 1943, the first dormitory was opened; Willow Lodge consisted of fifteen buildings containing 1,900 rooms, some single- and others double-occupancy, with room for 3,000 people. Meanwhile, trucks, carpenters, plumbers and electricians worked until there were temporary "flat-top" buildings that would provide homes for 2,500 families. Some of these were ready for tenants in June 1943 and the project was finished later that year. This part of Willow Run was known as "the Village." The flat-tops contained four, six, or eight apartments with one, two, or three bedrooms.[28]

The "West Court" buildings had peaked rooftops and its units were built for couples, or three adults. Of the 1,000 apartments in West Court, some had no bedrooms and were called "zero bedroom" apartments, and the rest had one bedroom. The first of these apartments was ready for occupancy in August 1943. Another large dormitory project, containing 1,960 rooms and known as West Lodge, was also ready for tenants at that time.[28]

By the end of 1943 there were six different temporary projects in the vicinity of Willow Run: two dormitory projects, two trailer projects (one renting trailers, and another for privately owned trailers; each with community laundry, shower, and toilet facilities), and two projects with apartments for couples or families, West Court and the Village. Between them, there was shelter for more than 15,000 people, or roughly, the number of people living in Ypsilanti at the time. [28]

Sociologist and professor Lowell Juilliard Carr of the University of Michigan studied the sociological conditions at Willow Run arising from the wartime surge in the worker population in his landmark book of 1952.[29]

Redevelopment efforts and the Yankee Air Museum

The airfield, owned by the Wayne County Airport Authority since 2004, continues to operate as the Willow Run Airport and is primarily used for cargo and general aviation flights. The Yankee Air Museum resides on the airport grounds, occupying as of April 2013 a 47,000 square feet (4,400 m2) hangar and other properties.[6]

The former Willow Run Assembly has become a giant warehouse, about a quarter of which is leased by GM as a facility for parts distribution.[30]

In April 2013, the Detroit Free Press confirmed that the facility's current owner, RACER Trust, was negotiating with the Yankee Air Museum to preserve a small portion of the original bomber plant as a new home for the museum. Yankee was originally granted until August 2013 (deadline was later extended) to raise the funds needed to purchase and separate a portion of the approximately 5,000,000 sq. ft. building, which later became the GM Powertrain facility. The museum would consolidate operations scattered on various parcels at Willow Run, and the Trust expects to clear the remainder of the plant for redevelopment.[6] The 175,000 sq. ft. portion of the original bomber plant that Yankee seeks to preserve is less than 5% of the massive facility, comprises the end of the former B-24 assembly line at the far eastern edge of the property, and contains the two iconic bay doors from which the finished Consolidated B-24 Liberator bombers exited the plant during World War II.

The campaign to save a portion of Willow Run for the Yankee Air Museum is called, and is centered on a fundraising website by the same name.[31] The campaign has attracted national, and even international, attention from media outlets that include many major news dailies in the U.S. as well as National Public Radio, The History Channel magazine, National Geographic TV, The Guardian (UK), and the (UK) Daily Mail.[32]

Building owner RACER Trust extended the original fundraising deadline (August 1, 2013) a total of three times since the Yankee Air Museum launched its campaign. The first two extensions were to October 1, 2013, and then to November 1, 2013.[33] On October 26, 2013 RACER Trust and the Yankee Air Museum again reached a third, and final, deadline extension agreement that gave Yankee until May 1, 2014 to raise the $8 million estimated as necessary to secure, enclose and preserve a portion of the original Willow Run plant for the Yankee Air Museum.[34] The majority of the $8 million goal reflects separation costs to make the preserved portion of the plant viable as a standalone structure. RACER Trust has been supportive of the campaign, even reconfiguring engineering and demolition plans to save cost for the museum.[33]

At the time of the May 1, 2014 deadline, the Yankee Air Museum had raised over $7 million of its original $8 million fundraising goal, which was enough to enable the building's owners to move forward with signing a Purchase Agreement with Yankee, with the actual purchase expected to be finalized in late summer or fall of 2014.[35]

Meantime, the remaining portion of the Willow Run property, which includes over 95% of the historic original bomber plant building, was optioned to Walbridge, Inc. for redevelopment as a connected car research and test facility. The option to Walbridge has since lapsed and the property remains available for purchase and redevelopment.[36]

Demolition of the majority of the Willow Run facility began in December 2013, with much of the plant already gone, with the exception of the portion that the Yankee Air Museum hopes to purchase.

Chapel of Martha and Mary

Henry and Clara Ford dedicated a series of churches, the chapels of Martha and Mary as a perpetual tribute to their mothers, Mary Ford and Martha Bryant. The Fords built seven of these: The first at Greenfield Village, Michigan, was completed in 1929. The others, completed in the 1930s, were located in Dearborn, Michigan (site of the Fords' Fair Lane estate); Sudbury, Massachusetts; two in Richmond Hill, Georgia (the Fords' winter home); Macon, Michigan; and Willow Run.[37]

The Willow Run chapel was the one originally built for Camp Willow Run, and became the place of worship for the Belleville Presbyterian Church in 1979 after a series of handoffs. After the war, Ford sold the chapel to Kaiser-Frazer, who in turn sold it to General Motors as part of the purchase of the Willow Run bomber plant. GM used the building to store files until an undetermined time, where it was sold to the Cherry Hill Baptist Church. When Cherry Hill outgrew the little chapel and decided to build a new church, it sold the chapel to the Belleville Presbyterian Church for one dollar in July 1978.[37]

The Willow Run chapel of Martha and Mary now stands a few miles from where it was originally constructed and on property that used to be owned by Henry Ford's Quirk Farms. Of the seven chapels, this is the only one currently in use as a regular place of worship. It still has the original pews and other furnishings; the only other set in active use belongs to the Greenfield Village chapel.[37]

See also

• B-24 Liberator
• Willow Run Airport
• Willow Run Assembly
• Willow Run Transmission
• World War II aircraft production
• Yankee Air Museum
• Ypsilanti Automotive Heritage Collection


1. Nolan, Jenny (January 28, 1997). "Willow Run and the Arsenal of Democracy". The Detroit News. Archived from the original on December 4, 2012. Retrieved December 24, 2017.
2. "Willow Run Bomber Plant, Beginning Construction, 1940". The Ann Arbor News. Retrieved July 29, 2017.
3. Lloyd, Alwyn T. (1993), Liberator: America's Global Bomber, Pictorial Histories Publishing Co, Inc, ISBN 0-929521-82-X
4. O'Leary, Michael, (2003), Consolidated B-24 Liberator (Osprey Production Line to Frontline 4), Osprey Publishing, ISBN 1-84176-023-4
5. Bomey, Nathan (July 16, 2011). "DETROIT FREE PRESS: Former GM Willow Run plant attracts $9 million offer from redevelopers". Retrieved April 23, 2013.
6. Bomey, Nathan (April 23, 2013). "Former GM Willow Run plant may be demolished". Detroit Free Press. Retrieved April 23, 2013.
7. Bryan, Ford Richardson (1997). Beyond the Model T: The Other Ventures of Henry Ford. Detroit: Wayne State University Press. p. 116, note 8. ISBN 081432682X.
8. "History of Willow Run Airport". Michigan Aerospace Foundation. 2014. Archived from the original on February 21, 2014.
9. Hess, Jerry N. (January 10, 1968). "Oral History Interview with John W. Snyder". Harry S. Truman Library and Museum. Retrieved May 19, 2013.
10. Pearson, Drew (September 16, 1944). "Ford May Convert Willow Run Into Huge Tractor Plant". St. Peterburg Times. Retrieved May 19, 2013.
11. Bryan, Ford Richardson (1997). Beyond the Model T: The Other Ventures of Henry Ford. Detroit: Wayne State University Press. p. 116. ISBN 081432682X.
12. Weber, Austin. "A Historical Perspective." Assembly Magazine, 2001. B-24 Production
13. Sorensen 1956, pp. 273–300.
14. Wallace, Max. (2003). The American axis: Henry Ford, Charles Lindbergh, and the rise of the Third Reich. New York: St. Martin’s Press. page 311
15. Wallace, page 312
16. Sorensen 1956, p. 329.
17. "28 June 1945". This Day in Aviation. June 28, 2017. Retrieved June 29, 2017.
18. Lewis, David L. (September 1993). "They may save our honor, our hopes—and our necks". Michigan History. Archived from the original on January 14, 2008.
19. Thole, Lou. "Preparing C-47s for War (Baer Field)". Museum of the Soldier. Archived from the original on October 5, 2011.
20. AFHRA Document 00155775 1 Concentration Command History
21. AFHRA Document 00150138 AAFTC Technical Training Command
22. Ring, Bob (June 20, 2013). "Tucson International Airport's Historic Hangars" (PDF). Ring Brothers History. Retrieved October 24, 2016.
23. Holley, Irving Brinton (1964). United States Army in World War 2, Buying Aircraft: Material Procurement for Army Air Forces. Government Printing Office. p. 531.
24. Davis, Larry, (1987), B-24 Liberator in Action - Aircraft No. 80, Squadron/Signal Publications Inc. ISBN 0-89747-190-3
25. Johnson, Fredrick A (1996) Consolidated B-24 Liberator - Warbird Tech Vol. 1, Specialty Press. ISBN 0-933424-64-7
26. Kidder, Warren Benjamin, Willow Run, Colossus of American IndustryMichigan:KFT,1995
27. Lane, Kirk and Reyes, Jon. "History of the Willow Run Plant, Part 3" (PDF). The Liberator (a newsletter of UAW Local 735). Archived from the original (PDF) on February 28, 2018. Retrieved April 24, 2013.
28. Wilson, Marion F. (1956). The Story of Willow Run. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. p. 138. ASIN B0007DKQ4K. Lay summary.
29. * Carr, Lowell J., and Stermer, James Edison, Willow Run (Work, Its Rewards and Discontents): a Study of industrialization and Cultural Inadequacy, New York: Harper & Brothers, 1952. (ISBN 978-0405101588)
30. "InSite Signs 568,000 SF Lease". press release. InSite Real Estate. Retrieved April 24, 2013.
31. Save The Bomber Plant – Information and fundraising site for Yankee Air Museum's effort to save a portion of the Willow Run Bomber Plant
32. "Save The Bomber Plant Website". Retrieved September 27, 2013.
33. "Preservation group gets extension to raise money for historic Willow Run factory". The Detroit News. Archived from the original on October 4, 2013. Retrieved September 27, 2013.
34. "Willow Run bomber plant preservationists get more time to reach goal". The Detroit Free Press. Retrieved October 26, 2013.
35. "Yankee Air Museum signs deal for part of Willow Run Bomber Plant".
36. "YPSILANTI TOWNSHIP: RACER Trust reaches demolition, development agreements for Willow Run plant". The Ypsilanti Courier. Retrieved September 7, 2013.
37. "The History of our Chapel". Belleville Presbyterian Church. Archived from the original on April 18, 2016. Retrieved July 10, 2017.


• Baime, A.J. The Arsenal of Democracy: FDR, Detroit, and an Epic Quest to Arm an America at War (2014) excerpt and text search
• Sorensen, Charles E.; with Williamson, Samuel T. (1956), My Forty Years with Ford, New York, New York, USA: Norton, LCCN 56010854. Various republications, including ISBN 9780814332795.
• Peterson, Sarah Jo (2013). Planning the Home Front: Building Bombers and Communities at Willow Run. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-02542-X. LCCN 2012043150.

External links

• Save The Bomber Plant Information and fundraising site for Yankee Air Museum's effort to save a portion of the Willow Run Bomber Plant
• A Bomber An Hour
• "The Story of Willow Run (1945)" on YouTube
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Dearborn, Michigan
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 9/26/19



Dearborn, Michigan
City of Dearborn
Ford Motor Company World Headquarters
Motto(s): "Home Town of Henry Ford"[1]
Country United States
State Michigan
County Wayne
Settled 1786
Incorporated 1893 (village)
1927 (city)
• Type Strong mayor–council
• Mayor John B. O'Reilly Jr.
• City 24.52 sq mi (63.50 km2)
• Land 24.23 sq mi (62.77 km2)
• Water 0.28 sq mi (0.73 km2)
Elevation 591 ft (180 m)
Population (2010)[3]
• City 98,153
• Estimate (2018)[4] 94,333
• Density 3,899.11/sq mi (1,505.44/km2)
• Metro 4,285,832 (Metro Detroit)
Time zone UTC−5 (EST)
• Summer (DST) UTC−4 (EDT)
ZIP code(s)
48120, 48121, 48123, 48124, 48126, 48128
Area code(s) 313
FIPS code 26-21000
GNIS feature ID 0624432[5]
Website Official website

Dearborn is a city in the State of Michigan. It is located in Wayne County and is part of the Detroit metropolitan area. Dearborn is the eighth largest city in the State of Michigan. As of the 2010 census, it had a population of 98,153 and is home to the largest Muslim population in the United States.[6] First settled in the late 18th century by ethnic French farmers in a series of ribbon farms along the Rouge River and the Sauk Trail, the community grew in the 19th century with the establishment of the Detroit Arsenal on the Chicago Road linking Detroit and Chicago. In the 20th century, it developed as a major manufacturing hub for the automotive industry.

Henry Ford was born on a farm here and later established an estate in Dearborn, as well as his River Rouge Complex, the largest factory of his Ford empire. He developed mass production of automobiles, and based the world headquarters of the Ford Motor Company here. The city has a campus of the University of Michigan as well as Henry Ford College. The Henry Ford, the United States' largest indoor-outdoor historic museum complex and Metro Detroit's leading tourist attraction, is located here.[7][8]

Dearborn residents are Americans primarily of European or Middle Eastern ancestry, many descendants of 19th and 20th-century immigrants. Because of new waves of immigration from the Middle East in the late 20th century, the largest ethnic grouping is now composed of descendants of various nationalities of that area: Christians from Lebanon and Palestine, as well as Muslim immigrants from Syria, Iraq, and Yemen. The primary European ethnicities, as identified by respondents to the census, are German, Polish, Irish, and Italian.


Before European encounter, the area had been inhabited for thousands of years by successive indigenous peoples. Historical tribes belonged mostly to the Algonquian-language family, especially the Council of Three Fires, the Potawatomi and related peoples. In contrast, the Huron (Wyandot) were Iroquoian speaking. French colonists had a trading post at Fort Detroit and a settlement developed there in the colonial period. Another developed on the south side of the Detroit River in what is now southwestern Ontario, near a Huron mission village. French and French-Canadian colonists also established farms at Dearborn in this period. France ceded all of its territory east of the Mississippi River in North America to Great Britain in 1763 after losing to the English in the Seven Years' War.

Beginning in 1786, after the United States gained independence in the American Revolutionary War, more European Americans entered this region, settling in Detroit and the Dearborn area.[9] With population growth, Dearborn Township was formed in 1833 and the village of Dearbornville in 1836, each named after patriot Henry Dearborn, a general in the American Revolution who later served as Secretary of War under President Thomas Jefferson. The Town of Dearborn was incorporated in 1893. Through much of the 19th century, the area was largely rural and dependent on agriculture.

Stimulated by industrial development in Detroit and within its own limits, in 1927 Dearborn was established as a city. Its current borders result from a 1928 consolidation vote that merged Dearborn and neighboring Fordson (previously known as Springwells), which feared being absorbed into expanding Detroit.

According to historian James W. Loewen, in his book Sundown Towns (2005), Dearborn discouraged African Americans from settling in the city. In the early 20th century, both whites and Afrian Americans migrated to Detroit for industrial jobs. Over time, some city residents relocated in the suburbs. Many of Dearborn's residents "took pride in the saying, 'The sun never set on a Negro in Dearborn'". According to Orville Hubbard, the segregationist mayor of Dearborn from 1942 to 1978, "as far as he was concerned, it was against the law for a Negro to live in his suburb."[10]

The area between Dearborn and Fordson was undeveloped, and still remains so in part. Once farm land, much of this property was bought by Henry Ford for his estate, Fair Lane, and for the Ford Motor Company World Headquarters. Later developments in this corridor were the Ford airport (later converted to the Dearborn Proving Grounds), and other Ford administrative and development facilities.

More recent additions are The Henry Ford (a reconstructed historic village and museum), the Henry Ford Centennial Library, the super-regional shopping mall Fairlane Town Center, and the Ford Performing Arts Center. The open land is planted with sunflowers and often with Ford's favorite crop of soybeans. The crops are never harvested.

With the growth and achievements of the Arab-American community, they developed and in 2005 opened the Arab American National Museum (AANM), the first museum in the world devoted to Arab-American history and culture. Arab Americans in Dearborn include descendants of Lebanese Christians who immigrated in the early twentieth century to work in the auto industry, as well as more recent Arab immigrants and their descendants from other, primarily Muslim nations.[11]

In January 2019, Dearborn Mayor John "Jack" O'Reilly, Jr., terminated the contract of Bill McGraw, new editor of the Dearborn Historian, a city publication. He refused to allow distribution of the Autumn 2018 issue to subscribers. That issue, on the 100th anniversary of Henry Ford's acquisition of the Dearborn Independent newspaper, discussed the influence that Ford exerted in expressing his anti-Semitism. The mayor's suppression of the issue received national publicity.[12][13] The Dearborn Historical Commission held an emergency meeting and passed a resolution calling for the mayor to reverse these actions.[14] The suppressed article was published in DeadlineDetroit and may be read here.


Parklane Towers

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 24.5 square miles (63 km2), of which 24.4 square miles (63 km2) is land and 0.1 square miles (0.26 km2) (0.37%) is water. The city developed on both sides of the Rouge River. An artificial waterfall/low head dam was constructed by Henry Ford on his estate to power its powerhouse. The Upper, Middle, and Lower Branches of the river come together in Dearborn. The river is widened and channeled near the Rouge Plant to allow lake freighter access.

Fordson Island (42°17′38″N 83°08′52″W) is an 8.4 acres (3.4 hectares) island about three miles (5 km) upriver on the River Rouge from its confluence with the Detroit River. Fordson Island is the only major island in a tributary to the Detroit River. The island was created in 1922 when engineers dug a secondary trench to reroute the River Rouge to increase navigability for shipping purposes; businesses needed it to be navigable by the large lake freighters. The island is privately owned, and public access is prohibited. The island is part of the city of Dearborn, which has no frontage along the Detroit River.[15][16]

Dearborn is among a small number of municipalities that own property in other cities. It owns the 626-acre (2.53 km2) Camp Dearborn in Milford, Michigan, which is located 35 miles (56 km) from Dearborn.[17] Dearborn was among an even smaller number of cities that hold property in another state: for a time the city owned the "Dearborn Towers" apartment complex in Clearwater, Florida, but this has been sold. Camp Dearborn is considered part of the city of Dearborn. Revenues generated by camp admissions are incorporated into the city's budget.


As of the 2010 census, the population of Dearborn was 98,153. The racial and ethnic composition was 89.1% Whites, 4.0% black or African-American, 0.2% Native American, 1.7% Asian, 0.2% Non-Hispanics of some other race, 4.0% reporting two or more races and 3.4% Hispanic or Latino.[22] 41.7% were of Arab ancestry (categorized as "White" in Census collection data).[23]

Dearborn has a large community of descendants of ethnic Europeans who arrived as immigrants from the mid-19th into the 20th centuries. Their ancestors generally first settled in Detroit: Irish, German, Italians, and Polish. It is also a center of Maltese American settlement, from the Mediterranean island of Malta. Also attracted to jobs in the auto industry, some were among immigrant Maltese who first settled in Corktown.[24]

The city has a small African American population, many of whose ancestors came to the area from the rural South during the Great Migration of the early twentieth century.[25]

In Census 2000, 61.9% spoke only English, while 29.3% spoke Arabic, 1.9% Spanish, and 1.5% Polish as first languages. There were 36,770 households out of which 31.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.0% were married couples living together, 9.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 35.1% were non-families. 30.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.65 and the average family size was 3.42.

In the city, the population was spread out with 27.8% under the age of 18, 8.3% from 18 to 24, 29.2% from 25 to 44, 19.1% from 45 to 64, and 15.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.5 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $44,560, and the median income for a family was $53,060. Males had a median income of $45,114 versus $33,872 for females. The per capita income for the city was $21,488. About 12.2% of families and 16.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.4% of those under age 18 and 7.6% of those age 65 and over.

As of the 2012 estimate, Dearborn's population was thought to have fallen to 96,474, a decrease of 1.7% since 2010. Over the same period, though, SEMCOG, the local statistics agency of Metro Detroit Council of Governments, has estimated the city to have grown to 99,001, or an increase of 1.2% since 2000. SEMCOG's July 2014 estimate listed Dearborn with a population of 102,566.[26]

Arab Americans

The Arab American National Museum in Dearborn

Main article: History of the Middle Eastern people in Metro Detroit

The city's population includes 40,000 Arab Americans. Since the late 20th century, there has been growth in immigration from new areas of the Middle East, such as Syria.[27] Arab Americans own many shops and businesses, offering services in both English and Arabic.[28]

Per the 2000 census, Arab Americans totaled 29,181 or 29.85% of Dearborn's population; many are descendants of families who have been in the city since the early 20th century. The city has the largest proportion of Arab Americans in the United States.[29] As of 2006 Dearborn has the largest Lebanese American population in the United States.[30]

The first Arab immigrants came in the early-to-mid-20th century to work in the automotive industry and were chiefly Lebanese Christians (Maronites). Other immigrants from the Mideast (Assyrians/Chaldeans/Syriacs) have also immigrated to the area. Since then, Arab immigrants from Yemen, Iraq and Palestine, most of whom are Muslim, have joined them. Lebanese Americans comprise the largest group of ethnic Arabs.[31][32] The Arab Muslim community has built the Islamic Center of America, the largest mosque in North America,[33] and the Dearborn Mosque. More Iraqi refugees have come, fleeing the continued war in their country since 2003.

Warren Avenue has become the commercial center of the Arab-American community. The Arab American National Museum is located in Dearborn.[34] The museum was opened in January 2005 to celebrate the Arab American community's history, culture and contributions to the United States.


Further information: Economy of metropolitan Detroit

Dearborn skyline with Ford River Rouge Complex in background, 1973

Edward Hotel and conference center

Ford Motor Company has its world headquarters in Dearborn.[35] In addition its Dearborn campus contains many research, testing, finance, and some production facilities. Ford Land controls the numerous properties owned by Ford, including sales and leasing to unrelated businesses, such as the Fairlane Town Center shopping mall. DFCU Financial, the largest credit union in Michigan, was created for Ford and related companies' employees.

One of the largest employers in Dearborn is Oakwood Healthcare System. Other major employers include auto suppliers like Visteon, education facilities such as Henry Ford Community College, and museums such as The Henry Ford. Other businesses headquartered in Dearborn include Carhartt (clothing), Eppinger (fishing lures), AAA Michigan (insurance), and the Society of Manufacturing Engineers.

Largest employers

According to the City's 2015 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report,[36] the largest employers in the city are:

# / Employer / # of employees

1 / Ford / 44,000
2 / ADP / 10,000
3 / Automotive Components Holdings (Ford/Visteon) / 7,000
4 / Oakwood Health System / 6,167
5 / Severstal (now AK Steel) / 4,900
6 / Percepta / 4,450
7 / Dearborn Board of Education / 3,339
8 / Auto Club of Michigan / 1,752
9 / EP Management Corporation / 1,400
10 / United Technologies Auto (Lear) / 1,200


Colleges and universities

University of Michigan–Dearborn

University of Michigan–Dearborn and Henry Ford College are located in Dearborn on Evergreen Road and are adjacent to each other. Concordia University Dearborn Center, and Central Michigan University both offer classes in Dearborn.[37][38] Career training schools include Kaplan Career Institute, ITT Tech, and Sanford Brown College.

Primary and secondary schools

Dearborn residents, along with a small portion of Dearborn Heights residents, attend Dearborn Public Schools.[39] The system operates 34 schools including three major high schools: Fordson High School, Dearborn High School and Edsel Ford High School. The public schools serve more than 18,000 students in the fourth-largest district in the state.

Divine Child High School and Elementary School are in Dearborn as well; the high-school is the largest private coed high school in the area. Henry Ford Academy is a charter high school inside Greenfield Village and the Henry Ford Museum. Another charter secondary school is Advanced Technology Academy. Dearborn Schools operated the Clara B. Ford High School inside Vista Maria, a non-profit residential treatment agency for girls in Dearborn Heights. Clara B. Ford High School became a charter school in the 2007–08 school year.

A small portion of the city limits is within the Westwood Community School District.[40] The sections of Dearborn within the district are zoned for industrial and commercial uses.[41]

The Islamic Center of America operates the Muslim American Youth Academy (MAYA), an Islamic elementary and middle school.[42]

The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Detroit operates Sacred Heart Elementary School. It previously operated the St. Alphonsus School in Dearborn. In 2003 the archdiocese closed the high school of St. Alphonsus;[43] and in 2005 closed the St. Alphonsus elementary school.[44]

Global Educational Excellence operates multiple charter schools in Dearborn: Riverside Academy Early Childhood Center, Riverside Academy East Campus (K-5), and Riverside Academy West Campus (6–12).[45]

Public libraries

Henry Ford Centennial Library

Dearborn Public Library includes the Henry Ford Centennial Library, which is the main library; and the Bryant and Esper branches.[46]

Dearborn's first public library opened in 1924 at the building now known as the Bryant Branch. This served as the main library until the Ford library opened in 1969. In 1970 what became known as the Mason building was classified as a branch library. The library was renamed in 1977 after Katharine Wright Bryant, who developed a plan for the library and campaigned for it.[47]

Around April 1963 the Ford Motor Company granted the City of Dearborn $3,000,000 to build a library as a memorial to Henry Ford. Ford Motor Company deeded 15.3 acres (6.2 ha) of vacant land for the public library to the city on July 30, 1963, the centennial or 100th anniversary of Henry Ford's birth. The Ford Foundation later granted the library an additional $500,000 for supplies and equipment. On November 25, 1969 the library was dedicated. Library employees have occupied the building since its opening; originally only the library had offices in the building. In 1979 the library staff gave up the western side's meeting rooms, and the City of Dearborn Health Department occupied those rooms.[48]

The Esper Branch, the smallest branch, is located in what is known as the Arab residential quarter of the city. The library has about 35,000 books, entertainment and educational videocassettes, music CDs, children's music cassettes, audio books, and magazines. Newspapers are also available. It features many Arabic-language books, newspapers, and videocassettes for Arabic-speaking residents. This library was dedicated on October 12, 1953. Originally named the Warren Branch, this structure had replaced the Northeast Branch, which opened in a storefront in 1944. In October 1961 it was named after city councilman Anthony M. Esper.[49]

Post office

During the years 1934 to 1943, during and after the Great Depression, murals were commissioned for federal public buildings in the United States through the Section of Painting and Sculpture, later called the Section of Fine Arts, of the Treasury Department. They often featured representation of local history. In 1938 artist Rainey Bennett painted an oil-on-canvas mural for the federal post offices in Dearborn titled, Ten Eyck's Tavern on Chicago Road.


Sports facilities

Sports facilities include the Dearborn Ice Skating Center.


Further information: Transportation in metropolitan Detroit and Dearborn (Amtrak station)
Amtrak, the national passenger rail system, provides service to Dearborn, operating its Wolverine three times daily in each direction between [[Chicago, Illinois and Pontiac, Michigan, via Detroit. Baggage cannot be checked at this location; however, up to two suitcases, in addition to any "personal items" such as briefcases, purses, laptop bags, and infant equipment, are allowed on board as carry-ons. There are two rail stops in Dearborn: the regular Amtrak station and a rarely used station at Greenfield Village. Amtrak operates on Norfolk Southern's (NS) "Michigan Line". This track runs from Dearborn to Kalamazoo, Michigan. Most of the freight traffic on these rails is related to the automotive industry. Norfolk Southern's Dearborn Division offices are also located in Dearborn.

Dearborn is served by buses of both the Detroit Department of Transportation (DDOT) and the Suburban Mobility Authority for Regional Transportation (SMART) systems.

From 1924 to 1947, Dearborn was the site of Ford Airport. It featured the world's first concrete runway and the first scheduled U.S. passenger service.[citation needed]


Dearborn has a mayor-council form of government. As of 2019, the Mayor of the City of Dearborn is John B. "Jack" O'Reilly, Jr.[50] The City Council President is Susan Dabaja.[51]


The metropolitan-area newspapers are The Detroit News and the Detroit Free Press.

The Dearborn & Dearborn Heights Press and Guide publishes local news for Dearborn and the neighboring Dearborn Heights.[52] The Arab American News is published in Dearborn.[53]

Notable people

Henry Ford's Fair Lane estate in Dearborn

River Rouge from Henry Ford's estate

• Frankie Andreu - professional cyclist, rode Tour De France multiple years
• Bazzi - singer
• Dave Brandon – CEO of Toys "R" Us, chairman of Domino's Pizza
• David Burtka – chef and actor, married to Neil Patrick Harris
• Brian Calley – 63rd Lieutenant Governor of Michigan
• Garrett Clayton – actor
• Jim Cummins – NHL player
• John Dingell – former dean of the U.S. House of Representatives, longest-serving Congressman
• Agnes Dobronski – Michigan educator and legislator
• Ronnie Duman - auto racer
• Chad Everett – actor, Medical Center, The Last Challenge, Made in Paris, Airplane II: The Sequel
• Rima Fakih – Miss Michigan USA 2010, Miss USA 2010,[54]
• Henry Ford – iconic automaker, founder of Ford Motor Company
• Edsel Ford – Henry Ford's son, second president of Ford Motor and co-namesake of Fordson
• Dan Gheesling – winner of Big Brother 10 (U.S.) and runner-up on Big Brother 14 (U.S.)
• Russ Gibb - concert promoter and media figure
• George Z. Hart – Michigan state senator
• Ahmad Harajly – rugby player (USA Rugby)
• Orville L. Hubbard – Mayor of Dearborn from 1942 to 1978
• Al Iafrate – NHL defenseman
• Art James – TV quiz-show host
• John C. Kornblum – diplomat, former Ambassador to Germany
• Derek Lowe – Major League Baseball pitcher, 2004 World Series champion with Boston Red Sox
• Don Matheson – actor, Land of the Giants
• Nancy Milford – author and biographer
• Alan Mulally – CEO of Ford Motor Company
• Dorothy Naum - baseball player
• Johnny Pacar – actor, Flight 29 Down, Make It or Break It, Now You See It...
• Eugenia Paul – actress and dancer
• George Peppard – film actor, known for Breakfast at Tiffany's, How the West Was Won, and more
• Tom Price - United States Secretary of Health and Human Services
• Brian Rafalski – NHL defenseman (New Jersey Devils, Detroit Red Wings)
• Doug Ross – college ice hockey coach
• Soony Saad – soccer player
• Scott Sanderson – All-Star Major League Baseball pitcher in 19 Major League seasons for seven teams
• Norbert Schemansky – four-time Olympic medalist in weightlifting
• Suzanne Sena – host of Independent Film Channel program Onion News Network and former Fox News anchor
• Serena Shim – Lebanese-American journalist
• Jim Snyder - Major League Baseball player and manager
• Edward Stinson – aviation pioneer
• Windy & Carl – musicians

Target of Christian missionaries and politicians

In the 21st century, the Arab-American community in Dearborn has sometimes been subject to public prosyletizing by Protestant Christian missionaries and inflammatory statements by political candidates. In 2010, Nabeel Qureshi, David Wood, and two other people acting as Christian missionaries, were arrested at the Dearborn International Arab Festival. They had been handing out Christian literature aimed at Muslim believers. The four were prosecuted for breach of the peace. Police ordered them to stop filming the incident, to provide identification, and to move at least five blocks from the border of the fair.[55]

After reviewing the video evidence, the jury acquitted the defendants.[56] The four defendants filed a separate civil suit against the city. Dearborn was found to have violated their constitutional rights related to freedom of speech. The city settled the lawsuit and issued a formal apology to the individuals.[57]

Sharron Angle, a Republican senatorial candidate in Nevada, said in an October 2010 political speech that the Arab Americans in Dearborn contributed to a "militant terrorist situation,"[58][59] and that the city government was enforcing Islamic sharia law.[58] Mayor Jack O'Reilly strongly criticized Angle for her deliberate misrepresentation of the city and its residents, and he called her comments "shameful."[58] He said her claim was based on distorted Tea Party accounts of the arrest of members of an anti-Islam group at an Arab festival.[58]

Preacher Terry Jones of Gainesville, Florida, known for burning a Quran, the sacred book of Islam, planned a protest in 2011 outside the Islamic Center of America. Local authorities required him either to post a $45,000 "peace bond" to cover Dearborn's cost if Jones incited violence, or to go to trial. Jones contested that requirement, and he and his co-pastor Wayne Sapp refused to post the bond. They were held briefly in jail, while claiming violation of First Amendment rights. That night Jones was released by the court.[60] The ACLU had filed an amicus brief in support of Jones's protest plans.[61] A week later, on April 29, Jones led a rally at the Dearborn City Hall, in a designated free speech zone. Riot police were called out to control counter protesters.[62][63][64] Jones also planned to speak at the annual Arab Festival on June 18, 2011, but his route was blocked by protesters, six of whom were arrested. Police said they did not have enough officers present to maintain safety.[65] Christian missionaries accompanied Jones with their own protest signs. Both festivalgoers and counter protesters said the missionaries had yelled insults at Arabs, Muslims, and Catholics.[66]

On November 11, 2011, Wayne County Circuit Court Judge Robert Ziolkowski vacated the "breach of peace" ruling against Jones and Sapp on the grounds that they were denied due process.[67] On April 7, 2012 Jones led another protest in front of the Islamic Center of America, where he spoke about Islam and free speech. The mosque officials had locked it down to prevent damage. The city used thirty police cars to block traffic from the area in an effort to prevent a counter protest.[68]

Historical timeline

European exploration and colonization

• 1603 – French lay claim to unidentified territory in this region, naming it New France.
• July 24, 1701 – Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac and his soldiers first land at what is now Detroit.
• November 29, 1760 – The British take control of the area from France.
• 1780 – Pierre Dumais clears farm near what is today's Morningside Street in Dearborn's South End.

Early U.S. history

• 1783 – By terms of the Treaty of Paris ending the American Revolutionary War, Great Britain cedes territory south of the Great Lakes to the United States, although the British retain practical control of the Detroit area and several other settlements until 1797.
• 1786 – Agreed year of first permanent settler in present-day Dearborn.
• 1787 – Territory of the US north and west of the Ohio River is officially proclaimed the Northwest Territory.
• December 26, 1791 – Detroit environs become part of Kent County, Ontario.
• 1795 – James Cissne becomes first settler in what is now west Dearborn.
• 1796 – Wayne County is formed by proclamation of the acting governor of the Northwest Territory. Its original area is 2,000,000 square miles (5,200,000 km2), stretching from Cleveland, Ohio, to Chicago, Illinois, and northwest to Canada.
• May 7, 1800 – Indiana Territory, created out of part of Northwest Territory, although the eastern half of Michigan including the Dearborn area, was not attached to Indiana Territory until Ohio was admitted as a state in 1803.
• January 11, 1805 – Michigan Territory officially created out of a part of the Indiana Territory.
• June 11, 1805 – Fire destroys most of Detroit.
• November 15, 1815 – Current boundaries of Wayne County drawn, county split into 18 townships.
• January 5, 1818 – Springwells Township established by Gov. Lewis Cass.
• October 23, 1824 – Bucklin Township created by Gov. Lewis Cass. The area ran from Greenfield to approximately Haggerty and from Van Born to Eight Mile.
• 1826 – Conrad Ten Eyck builds Ten Eyck Tavern at Michigan Avenue and Rouge River.
• 1827 – Wayne County's boundaries changed to its current 615 square miles (1,593 km2).
• April 12, 1827 – Springwells and Bucklin townships formally organized and laid out by gubernatorial act.
• October 29, 1829 – Bucklin Township split along what is today Inkster Road into Nankin (west half) and Pekin (east half) townships.
• March 21, 1833 – Pekin Township renamed Redford Township.
• March 31, 1833 – Greenfield Township created from north and west sections of Springwells Township, including what is now today east Dearborn.
• April 1, 1833 – Dearborn Township created from southern half of Redford Township south of Bonaparte Avenue (Joy Road).
• 1833 – Detroit Arsenal built.
• October 23, 1834 – Dearborn Township renamed Bucklin Township.
• March 26, 1836 – Bucklin Township renamed Dearborn Township.
• January 26, 1837 – Michigan admitted to the Union as the 26th state. Stevens T. Mason is first governor.
• 1837 – Michigan Central Railroad extended through Springwells Township. Hamlet of Springwells rises along railroad.
• April 5, 1838 – Village of Dearbornville incorporates. Village later unincorporated on May 11, 1846.
• 1849 Detroit annexes Springwells Township east of Brooklyn Street.
• April 2, 1850 – Greenfield Township annexes another section of Springwells Township.
• February 12, 1857 – Detroit annexes Springwells Township east of Grand Boulevard.
• March 25, 1873 – Springwells Township annexes back section of Greenfield Township south of Tireman
• May 28, 1875 – Postmaster general changes name of Dearbornville post office to Dearborn post office, hence changing the city's name.
• 1875 – Detroit Arsenal closed.
• 1875 – Detroit annexes another section of Springwells Township.
• 1876 – William A. Nowlin writes The Bark Covered House in honor of country's 100th birthday.
• June 20, 1884 – Detroit annexes Springwells Township east of Livernois.
• 1889 – First telephone installed in Dearborn at St. Joseph's retreat.

Incorporation as village

• March 24, 1893 – Village of Dearborn incorporates.
• 1906 – Detroit annexes another section of Springwells Township.
• 1916 - Henry, Clara, and Edsel Ford move to Dearborn.
• 1916 – Detroit annexes more of Springwells Township, forming Dearborn's eastern boundary.
• 1917 – Rouge "Eagle" Plant opens.
• November 1, 1919 – The first house numbering ordinance in Dearborn starts. Residents required to place standard plate number on right side of the main house entrance five feet up.
• December 9, 1919 – Springwells Township incorporates as village of Springwells.
• October 16, 1922 – Springwells Township annexes small section of Dearborn Township east of present-day Greenfield Road.
• December 27, 1923 – Voters approve incorporation of Springwells as a city. It officially became a city April 7, 1924.
• September 9, 1924 – Village of Warrendale incorporates.
• November 1924 – Ford Airport opens.
• April 6, 1925 – Warrendale voters and residents of remaining Greenfield Township approve annexation by Detroit.
• May 26, 1925 – Village of Dearborn annexes large portion of Dearborn Township.
• December 23, 1925 – Springwells changes name to city of Fordson.
• February 15, 1926 – First U.S. airmail delivery made, going from Ford Airport in Dearborn to Cleveland.
• September 14, 1926 – Election approves incorporation of village of Inkster. Unincorporated part of Dearborn Township split into two unconnected sections.
• October 11, 1926 – Only dirigible to ever moor in Dearborn docks at Ford Airport.

Reincorporation as city

• February 14, 1927 – Village of Dearborn residents approve vote to become a city.
• June 12, 1928 – Voters in Dearborn, Fordson and part of Dearborn Township vote to consolidate into one city.
• January 9, 1929 – Clyde Ford elected as first mayor of Dearborn.
• 1929 – Henry Ford Museum and Greenfield Village opens.
• July 1, 1931 – Dearborn Inn opens as one of the first airport hotels in world.
• March 7, 1932 – Ford Hunger March crosses Dearborn city limits. Four marchers are shot to death by police and Ford service men.
• 1936 – John Carey becomes mayor of Dearborn.
• June 19, 1936 – Montgomery Ward opens in Dearborn.
• May 26, 1937 – Harry Bennett's Ford "service" men beat United Auto Workers (UAW) official Richard Frankensteen in the Battle of the Overpass
• June 21, 1941 – Ford Motor Company signs its first union contract.
• 1939 – The Historic Springwells Park Neighborhood is established by Edsel B. Ford to provide company executives and auto workers with upscale housing accommodations.
• January 6, 1942 – Orville L. Hubbard takes office as mayor of Dearborn for first time.
• April 7, 1947 – Henry Ford dies.
• October 20, 1947 – Dearborn City Council approves purchase of land near Milford, Michigan for what would become Camp Dearborn. First section of camp opens following year.
• October 21, 1947 – Ford Airport officially closes.
• 1950 – First Pleasant Hours senior citizen group formed.
• 1950 – Dearborn Historical Museum formally established.
• January 1953 – Oakwood Hospital formally opened and dedicated.
• April 22, 1958 – Election held to annex part of South Dearborn Township to Dearborn. Proposal fails.
• 1959 – University of Michigan (Dearborn Campus) opens.
• April 6, 1959 – Election held to annex part of North Dearborn Township to Dearborn. Proposal fails.
• 1962 – St. Joseph's retreat closed and razed
• 1962 – New Henry Ford Community College campus dedicated.
• November 9, 1962 – Ford Rotunda burns down
• 1967 – Dearborn Towers in Clearwater, Florida opens.
• March 2, 1976 – Fairlane Town Center opens.
• 1978 – John B. O' Reilly, Sr. becomes mayor of Dearborn
• November 6, 1981 – Cable Television reaches first home in Dearborn, on Abbot Street.
• December 16, 1982 – Orville Hubbard dies.
• 1986 – Michael Guido becomes mayor of Dearborn.
• 1993 – Michael Guido is the first mayor to run unopposed.
• 2006 – Michael Guido dies at the age of 52 during his 6th term, the only mayor to die in office.
• 2006 – John B. O'Reilly, Jr. is to become temporary Mayor. O'Reilly's father was the mayor who had preceded Mayor Guido.
• 2007 – John B. O'Reilly, Jr. is elected mayor of Dearborn winning 93.97% of the vote.
• 2008 – John B. O'Reilly, Sr. dies at the age of 89; he was Mayor of Dearborn (1978–1985) and also served as Chief of Police for 11 years.

See also

• History of the Middle Eastern people in Metro Detroit


1. "City of Dearborn, Michigan". City of Dearborn, Michigan. Retrieved August 25, 2012.
2. "2017 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved Jan 3, 2019.
3. "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2013-01-02.
4. Jump up to:a b "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved July 16, 2019.
5. "Dearborn". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey.
6. Population of Michigan Cities, Villages, Townships, and Remainders of Townships.
7. America's Story, Explore the States: Michigan (2006). Henry Ford Museum and Greenfield VillageArchived 2009-10-14 at the Wayback Machine Library of Congress Retrieved on May 2, 2007.
8. State of Michigan: MI Kids (2006).Henry Ford Museum and Greenfield Village Archived 2010-12-07 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved on May 2, 2007.
9. "History" Archived 2007-07-21 at the Wayback Machine, Dearborn Area Living, accessed 15 May 2010
10. Loewen, James W. (2005). Sundown Towns. The New Press. pp. 110–112. ISBN 156584887X.
11. "Arab American National Museum of Arab American History, Culture & Art". Retrieved 2009-04-09.
12. Woeste, Victoria Saker (February 9, 2019). "Why Ford needs to grapple with its founder's anti-Semitism". Washington Post.
13. Eisenstein, Paul A. (February 4, 2019). "Mayor's attempt to censor local article about Henry Ford's anti-Semitism draws national attention". CNBC.
14. Stanton, Jonathon (February 4, 2019). "Dearborn Historical Commission urges mayor to release article on Henry Ford and the Dearborn Independent". Press and Guide.
15. Buttle and Tuttle Ltd (2000–2008). "Wayne County island place names". Archived from the original on May 27, 2009. Retrieved June 10, 2009.
16. Heritage Newspapers (2009). "Dearborn Area Living: rivers, creeks, ditches". Archived from the original on June 29, 2009. Retrieved June 10, 2009.
17. Camp Dearborn Archived 2009-08-06 at the Wayback Machine, Dearborn city website
18. "NowData – NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved July 29, 2016.
19. "MI Dearborn". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved July 29, 2016.
20. "U.S. Decennial Census". Archived from the original on April 26, 2015. Retrieved June 6, 2013.
21. "Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 2014-05-22. Retrieved 2014-08-14.
22. "Dearborn (city) QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau". Archived from the originalon 2014-01-04.
23. Data Access and Dissemination Systems (DADS). "American FactFinder – Results".
24. Maltese In Detroit, Diane Gale Andreassi, Larry Zahra, Arcadia Publishing, Feb 28, 2011, p. 47
25. Rev. Horace L. Sheffield, III, Denounces 'Residents Only' Policy at New Dearborn Civic Center as Racist Attempt to Limit Access by African-Americans, PR Newswire, HighBeam Research[dead link]
26. Population and Household Estimates for Southeast Michigan July 2014, SEMCOG, July 2014
27. "Dearborn, Michigan: America's Muslim Capital". Planetizen: The Urban Planning, Design, and Development Network.
28. of Citizenship, University of Michigan[dead link]
29. The Arab Population: Census Bureau, 2000, pp. 7–8, accessed 15 Apr 2008
30. Raz, Guy. "Lebanese-Americans Are Angry and Anxious", National Public Radio. August 8, 2006. Retrieved on March 27, 2013.
31. Michigan statistics – Arab Institute of America Archived 2010-06-01 at the Wayback Machine
32. Pierre M. Atlas. "Living together peacefully in heart of Arab America". Archived from the original on 2010-10-13. Retrieved 2009-11-06.
33. "Islamic Center of America - Dearborn, Michigan - Mosques on".
34. Karoub, Jeff. "Oasis of Arab culture sits comfortably in Dearborn, Michigan." Chicago Sun-Times. August 6, 2011. Retrieved on November 20, 2012.
35. "Contact Ford Archived 2009-10-07 at the Wayback Machine." Ford Motor Company. Retrieved on November 7, 2009.
36. "City of Dearborn 2015 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report" (PDF). p. 186.
37. Locations: Detroit (Dearborn) Archived 2012-10-17 at the Wayback Machine, Spring Arbor University, accessed November 8, 2012
38. CMU in Dearborn, Michigan, CMU Global Campus, Central Michigan University, accessed November 8, 2012
39. "Dearborn Public Schools". Dearborn Public Schools. Retrieved August 25, 2012.
40. "Westwood Community Schools." Michigan Department of Information Technology Center for Geographic Information. Retrieved on May 4, 2017.
41. "Zoning Map Archived 2016-12-25 at the Wayback Machine." City of Dearborn. Retrieved on May 4, 2017.
42. "Home." Muslim American Youth Academy. Retrieved on November 1, 2015. The address is "19500 Ford Road, Dearborn, MI 48128, United States"
43. "School History – St. Alphonsus Schools Alumni Dearborn, MI". Archived from the original on 2016-01-02. Retrieved 2016-03-13.
44. Pratt, Chastity, Patricia Montemurri, and Lori Higgins. "PARENTS, KIDS SCRAMBLE AS EDUCATION OPTIONS NARROW." Detroit Free Press. March 17, 2005. A1 News. Retrieved on April 30, 2011. "School closings announced Wednesday by the Archdiocese of Detroit doomed eight high schools in Detroit and neighboring suburbs and will shutter 10 elementary schools, including historic landmarks such as St. Alphonsus Elementary in Dearborn and St. Florian Elementary in Hamtramck."
45. "GEE Academies." Global Educational Excellence. Retrieved on September 1, 2015.
46. "Hours/About Us." (Archive) Dearborn Public Library. Retrieved on November 15, 2013.
47. "A LOOK AT THE Bryant Branch." (Archive) Dearborn Public Library. Retrieved on November 15, 2013.
48. "A LOOK AT THE Henry Ford Centennial Library." (Archive) Dearborn Public Library. Retrieved on November 15, 2013.
49. "A LOOK AT THE Esper Branch." (Archive) Dearborn Public Library. Retrieved on November 15, 2013.
50. "City of Dearborn".
51. "City of Dearborn Council President".
52. Guide, Press and. " - Serving Dearborn and Dearborn Heights since 1918". Press and Guide.
53. "About Us Archived 2013-05-20 at the Wayback Machine." The Arab American News. Retrieved on September 22, 2013.
54. "Michigan's Rima Fakih Wins Miss USA Pageant". CBS News. May 16, 2010.
55. Brayton, Ed (2010-07-22). "Dearborn police accused of violating First Amendment". The Michigan Messenger. Archived from the original on 25 November 2010. Retrieved 23 April 2011.
56. Light, Jonathan (September 25, 2010). "Acts-17 Group Acquitted of Inciting Crowd". Dearborn Free Press. DEARBORN, Michigan. Retrieved 23 April 2011.
57. "Dearborn ordered to apologize for arrests of Christian missionaries at Arab Fest".
58. Jill Lawrence, "Sharron Angle on Sharia Religious Law: It's Already Supplanting the Constitution", Politics Daily, 7 October 2010
59. "Sharron Angle Claims Dearborn, Michigan Ruled by Sharia Law", The Atlantic
60. "Jones Released from Jail After Paying 'Peace Bond'". WJBK. Dearborn. 2011-04-22. Archived from the original on 2 July 2013. Retrieved 3 November 2012.
61. "Terry Jones Amicus Brief", ACLU Michigan Website, accessed 1 September 2011
62. WDIV. "Crowds Bust Barricades At Pastor's Speech In Dearborn". ClickOnDetroit.
63. "Riot Police Respond as Counter-Protesters Storm Terry Jones' Demonstration". Dearborn, Michigan Patch.
64. "Riot police were called in Friday evening after Gainesville pastor Terry Jones taunted protesters here, prompting the protesters to rush past a police barricade and begin throwing water bottles and shoes". 2011-04-29. Retrieved 2016-03-13.
65. "6 Arrested as Mob Rushes Terry Jones on Way to Arab Festival in Dearborn". Dearborn, Michigan Patch.
66. WARIKOO, Niraj (Jun 19, 2011). "Christian missionaries take on Muslims, Catholics at Arab International Festival". Detroit Free Press. Retrieved 20 June 2011.
67. Wattrick, Jeff (November 11, 2011). "Judge vacates 'breach of peace' judgement against Terry Jones". Retrieved November 3, 2012.
68. Warikoo, Niraj (April 7, 2012). "Fla. pastor Terry Jones: Islam's goal is 'world domination'". USA Today.

Further reading

• Barrow, Heather B. (2015). Henry Ford's Plan for the American Suburb: Dearborn and Detroit. DeKalb, IL: Northern Illinois University Press.
• Cantor, George (2005). Detroit: An Insiders Guide to Michigan. University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-03092-2.
• Fisher, Dale (2003). Building Michigan: A Tribute to Michigan's Construction Industry. Grass Lake, MI: Eyry of the Eagle Publishing. ISBN 1-891143-24-7.
• Fisher, Dale (2005). Southeast Michigan: Horizons of Growth. Grass Lake, MI: Eyry of the Eagle Publishing. ISBN 1-891143-25-5.
• Hill, Eric J. and John Gallagher (2002). AIA Detroit: The American Institute of Architects Guide to Detroit Architecture. Wayne State University Press. ISBN 0-8143-3120-3.
• Rignall, Karen (graduate student). "Building an Arab-American Community in Dearborn." University of Michigan. Volume 5, Issue 1, Fall 1997.

External links

• City of Dearborn
• Dearborn Chamber of Commerce
• Dearborn, Michigan at Curlie
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Re: Neuschwanstein: A fairy tale darling's dark Nazi past

Postby admin » Fri Sep 27, 2019 7:16 am

Hubertus Strughold
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 9/27/19



Hubertus Strughold
Born June 15, 1898
Westtünnen-im-Hamm, Westphalia, Germany
Died September 25, 1986 (aged 88)
San Antonio, Texas, United States
Citizenship German and American (1956)
Alma mater Georg August University of Göttingen; University of Würzburg
Known for Space medicine, Nazi human experimentation
Scientific career
Fields Aviation medicine, space medicine, physiology

Hubertus Strughold (June 15, 1898 – September 25, 1986) was a German-born physiologist and prominent medical researcher. Beginning in 1935 he served as chief of aeromedical research for the Luftwaffe, holding this position throughout World War II. In 1947 he was brought to the United States as part of Operation Paperclip and held a series of high-ranking medical positions with both the US Air Force and NASA.

For his role in pioneering the study of the physical and psychological effects of manned spaceflight he became known as "The Father of Space Medicine".[1] Following his death, Strughold's activities in Germany during World War II came under greater scrutiny and allegations surrounding his involvement in Nazi-era human experimentation greatly diminished his reputation.


Early life and career

Strughold was born in the town of Westtünnen-im-Hamm in the Prussian province of Westphalia on 15 June 1898. As a young man he studied medicine and the natural sciences at the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich and the Georg August University of Göttingen, where he received his doctorate (Dr. med. et phil.) in 1922. He later went on to obtain his medical degree (Dr. med.) from the University of Münster and completed his habilitation (Dr. habil.) at the Julius Maximilian University of Würzburg in 1927. Strughold also worked as a research assistant to the renowned German-Austrian physiologist Dr. Maximilian von Frey. He remained at Würzburg and pursued a career as a professor of physiology.

During this time Strughold's attention was increasingly drawn to the emerging science of aviation medicine and he collaborated with the famed World War I pilot Robert Ritter von Greim to study the effects of high-altitude flight on human biology. In 1928 Strughold traveled to the United States on a year-long research fellowship from the Rockefeller Foundation. He conducted specialized studies into aviation medicine and human physiology at the University of Chicago and Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio. He would also visit the medical laboratories at Harvard, Columbia and the Mayo Clinic. Strughold returned to Germany the following year and accepted a teaching position at the Würzburg Physiological Institute, eventually becoming an adjunct professor there in 1933. He would later serve as a professor of physiology at Friedrich Wilhelm University in Berlin.

Work for Nazi Germany

Through his association with von Greim (Adolf Hitler's personal pilot), Strughold became acquainted socially with various high-ranking members of the Nazi regime and in April 1935, he was appointed Director of the Berlin-based Research Institute for Aviation Medicine, a medical think tank that operated under the auspices of Hermann Göring's Ministry of Aviation. Under Strughold's leadership, the Institute grew to become Germany's foremost aeromedical research establishment, pioneering the study of the medical effects of high-altitude and supersonic speed flight, along with establishing the altitude chamber concept of "time of useful consciousness".


Though Strughold was ostensibly a civilian researcher, the majority of the studies and projects his Institute undertook were commissioned and financed by the German armed forces (principally the Luftwaffe) as part of the ongoing German re-armament. With the outbreak of World War II in 1939, Strughold's organization was absorbed into the Luftwaffe itself and was attached its medical service. It was renamed the Air Force Institute for Aviation Medicine, and placed under the command of Luftwaffe Surgeon-General (Generaloberstabsarzt) Erich Hippke. Strughold himself was also commissioned as an officer in the German air force, eventually rising to the rank of Colonel (Oberst).

Human experimentation

In October 1942, Strughold and Hippke attended a medical conference in Nuremberg at which SS physician Sigmund Rascher delivered a presentation outlining various medical experiments he had conducted, in conjunction with the Luftwaffe, in which prisoners from the Dachau concentration camp were used as human test subjects. These experiments included physiological tests during which camp inmates were immersed in freezing water, placed in air pressure chambers and made to endure invasive surgical procedures without anesthetic. Many of the inmates forced to participate died as a result.[2] Various Luftwaffe physicians had participated in the experiments and several of them had close ties to Strughold, both through the Institute for Aviation Medicine and the Luftwaffe Medical Corps.

Following the German defeat in May 1945, Strughold claimed to Allied authorities that, despite his influential position within the Luftwaffe Medical Service and his attendance at the October 1942 medical conference, he had no knowledge of the atrocities committed at Dachau. He was never subsequently charged with any wrongdoing by the Allies. However, a 1946 memorandum produced by the staff of the Nuremberg Trials listed Strughold as one of thirteen "persons, firms or individuals implicated" in the war crimes committed at Dachau. Also, several of the former Luftwaffe physicians associated with Strughold and the Institute for Aviation Medicine (among them Strughold's former research assistant Hermann Becker-Freyseng) were convicted of crimes against humanity in connection with the Dachau experiments at the 1947 Nuremberg Doctor's Trial. During these proceedings, Strughold contributed several affidavits for the defense on behalf of his accused colleagues.

Work for the United States

In October, 1945 Strughold returned to academia, becoming director of the Physiological Institute at Heidelberg University. He also began working on behalf of the US Army Air Force, becoming Chief Scientist of its Aeromedical Center, located on the campus of the former Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Medical Research. In this capacity Strughold edited German Aviation Medicine in World War II, a book-length summary of the knowledge gained by German aviation researchers during the war.

In 1947 Strughold was brought to the United States, along with many other highly valuable German scientists, as part of Operation Paperclip. With another former Luftwaffe physician, Richard Lindenberg, Strughold was assigned to the US Air Force School of Aviation Medicine at Randolph Field near San Antonio, Texas.[3] It was while at Randolph Field that Strughold began conducting some of the first research into the potential medical challenges posed by space travel, in conjunction with fellow "Paperclip Scientist" Dr. Heinz Haber.[4][5]

"Aero Medical Problems of Space Travel", Journal of Aviation Medicine, December 1949, authored by Henry G. Armstrong, Heinz Haber, and Hubertus Strughold.

Strughold coined the terms "space medicine" and "astrobiology" to describe this area of study in 1948. The following year he was appointed as the first and only Professor of Space Medicine at the US Air Force's newly established School of Aviation Medicine (SAM), one of the first institutions dedicated to conducting research on "astrobiology" and the so-called "human factors" associated with manned spaceflight.

Under Strughold, the School of Aviation Medicine conducted pioneering studies on issues such as atmospheric control, the physical effects of weightlessness and the disruption of normal time cycles.[4][5] In 1951 Strughold revolutionized existing notions concerning spaceflight when he co-authored the influential research paper Where Does Space Begin? in which he proposed that space was present in small gradations that grew as altitude levels increased, rather than existing in remote regions of the atmosphere. Between 1952 and 1954 he would oversee the building of the space cabin simulator, a sealed chamber in which human test subjects were placed for extended periods of time in order to view the potential physical, astrobiological, and psychological effects of extra-atmospheric flight.

Strughold obtained US citizenship in 1956 and was appointed Chief Scientist of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Aerospace Medical Division in 1962. While at NASA, Strughold played a central role in designing the pressure suit and onboard life support systems used by both the Gemini and Apollo astronauts. He also directed the specialized training of the flight surgeons and medical staff of the Apollo program in advance of the planned mission to the Moon. Strughold retired from his position at NASA in 1968.

Evidence of experimentation on Dachau inmates and epileptic children

During his work on behalf of the Air Force and NASA, Strughold was the subject of three separate US government investigations into his suspected involvement in war crimes committed under the Nazis. A 1958 investigation by the Justice Department fully exonerated Strughold, while a second inquiry launched by the Immigration and Naturalization Service in 1974 was later abandoned due to lack of evidence. In 1983 the Justice Department's Office of Special Investigations reopened his case but withdrew from the effort when Strughold died in September 1986.

Following his death, Strughold's alleged connection to the Dachau experiments became more widely known following the release of US Army Intelligence documents from 1945 that listed him among those being sought as war criminals by US authorities.
These revelations did significant damage to Strughold's reputation and resulted in the revocation of various honors that had been bestowed upon him over the course of his career. In 1993, at the request of the World Jewish Congress, his portrait was removed from a mural of prominent physicians displayed at Ohio State University. Following similar protests by the Anti-Defamation League (ADL), the Air Force decided in 1995 to rename the Hubertus Strughold Aeromedical Library at Brooks Air Force Base, which had been named in Strughold's honor in 1977. His portrait, however, still hangs there. Further action by the ADL also led to Strughold's removal from the International Space Hall of Fame in Alamogordo, New Mexico in May 2006.



Further questions about Strughold's activities during World War II emerged in 2004 following an investigation conducted by the Historical Committee of the German Society of Air and Space Medicine. The inquiry uncovered evidence of oxygen deprivation experiments carried out by Strughold's Institute for Aviation Medicine in 1943. According to these findings six epileptic children, between the ages of 11 and 13, were taken from the Nazi's Brandenburg Euthanasia Centre to Strughold's Berlin laboratory where they were placed in vacuum chambers to induce epileptic seizures in an effort to simulate the effects of high-altitude sicknesses, such as hypoxia. While, unlike the Dachau experiments, all the test subjects survived the research process, this revelation led the Society of Air and Space Medicine to abolish a major award bearing Strughold's name. A similar campaign by American scholars prompted the US branch of the Aerospace Medical Association to announce in 2012 that it would also consider rechristening a similar award, also named in Strughold's honor, which it had been bestowing since 1963. The move was met with opposition from defenders of Strughold, citing his massive contributions to the American space program and the lack of any formal proof of his direct involvement in war crimes.[6]

Awards and honors

Known as The Father of Space Medicine[7]

• Theodore C. Lyster Award, Aerospace Medical Association, 1958
• Louis H. Bauer Founders Award, Aerospace Medical Association, 1965

Hubertus Strughold Award

The Hubertus Strughold Award was established by the Space Medicine Branch, known today as the Space Medicine Association, a member organization of the Aerospace Medical Association. In 1962 the Award was established in honor of Dr. Hubertus Strughold, also known as "The Father of Space Medicine".[8] The award was presented every year from 1963 through 2012 to a Space Medicine Branch member for outstanding contributions in applications and research in the field of space-related medical research.



• 1963 Cpt. Ashton Graybiel, Cpt. M.D., USN
• 1964 Maj. Gen. Otis O. Benson, Jr., USAF, M.C.
• 1965 Hans-Georg Clamann, M.D.
• 1966 Hermann J. Schaefer, Ph.D.
• 1967 Charles Alden Berry, M.D.
• 1968 David G. Simons, M.D.
• 1969 Col. Stanley C. White, M.D., USAF, M.C.


• 1970 RearAdm Frank Burkhart Voris, MC, USN
• 1971 Dr. Donald Davis Flickinger, M.D.
• 1972 Col. Paul A. Campbell, USAF (Ret.)
• 1973 Andres Ingver Karstens, M.D.
• 1974 Cdr. Joseph P. Kerwin, MC, USN
• 1975 Lawrence F. Dietlein, M.D.
• 1976 Harald J. von Beckh
• 1977 William Kennedy Douglas
• 1978 Walton L. Jones, Jr., M.D.
• 1979 Col. John E. Pickering, USAF (Ret.)


• 1980 Rufus R. Hessberg, M.D.
• 1981 Maj. Gen. Heinz S. Fuchs, GAF, MC (Ret.)
• 1982 Sidney D. Leverett, Jr., Ph.D.
• 1983 Sherman Vonograd P., M.D.
• 1984 Arnauld E. Nicogossian, M.D.
• 1985 Philip C. Johnson, Jr., M.D.
• 1986 Carolyn Leach Huntoon, Ph.D.
• 1987 Karl E. Klein, M.D.
• 1988 Anatoly Ivanovich Grigoriev, M.D.
• 1989 Brig. Gen. Eduard C. Burchard, GAF, MC


• 1990 Joan Vernikos-Danellis, M.D.
• 1991 Stanley R. Mohler, M.D.
• 1992 Roberta Lynn Bondar, M.D.
• 1993 George Wyckliffe Hoffler, M.D.
• 1994 Emmett B. Ferguson, M.D.
• 1995 Mary Anne Bassett Frey, Ph.D.
• 1996 Norman E. Thagard, M.D.
• 1997 Shannon Matilda Wells Lucid, Ph.D.
• 1998 Valeri V. Polyakov, M.D.
• 1999 Sam Lee Pool, M.D.


• 2000 Franklin Story Musgrave, M.D.
• 2001 John B. Charles, Ph.D.
• 2002 Earl Howard Wood, M.D., Ph.D.
• 2003 Jonathan Clark (for STS 107 crew)
• 2004 No award
• 2005 William S. Augerson, M.D.
• 2006 Jeffrey R. Davis, M.D.
• 2007 Clarence A. Jernigan, M.D.
• 2008 Richard Jennings, M.D.
• 2009 Jim Vanderploeg, M.D.


• 2010 Irene Duhart Long, M.D.
• 2011 Michael Barratt, M.D.
• 2012 Smith L. Johnston III, M.D.
• 2013 Award retired by the Space Medicine Association

See also

• Aerospace Medical Association
• Human factors and ergonomics
• Nazi human experimentation
• Sigmund Rascher


1. Walker, Andrew (November 21, 2005). "Project Paperclip: Dark side of the Moon". BBC News.
2. Campbell, Mark R.; Mohler, Stanley R.; Harsch, Viktor A.; Baisden, Denise (2007-07-01). "Hubertus Strughold: the "Father of Space Medicine"" (PDF). Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine. 78 (7): 716–719, discussion 719. ISSN 0095-6562. PMID 17679572. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2018-12-03.
4. Jump up to:a b Strughold, Hubertus. (1954). Atmospheric space equivalence. Journal of Aviation Medicine. 25(4): 420-424.
5. Jump up to:a b Strughold, H. (1956). The US Air Force experimental sealed cabin. Journal of Aviation Medicine. (27): 50-52.
6. A Scientist's Nazi-Era Past Haunts Prestigious Space Prize, By LUCETTE LAGNADO, Wall Street Journal, December 1, 2012
7. Campbell, M., and Harsch, V. (2013) Hubertus Strughold: Life and Work in the Fields of Space Medicine. Rethra Verlag: Norderstedt, Germany, 235.
8. Campbell, Mark R., et al. (July 2007), "Hubertus Strughold: The 'Father of Space Medicine'", Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine; Vol. 78, No. 7; pp 716–9.


• Musgrave, S (2000). "Hubertus Strughold Award". Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine. 71 (8) (published Aug 2000). p. 874. PMID 10954370
• "Hubertus Strughold Award. Earl H. Wood, M.D., Ph.D". Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine. 73 (9) (published Sep 2002). 2002. pp. 948–9. PMID 12234052

External links

• Additional references and photograph at [1] and [2]
• February 22, 1982, March 8, 1982, March 15, 1982, April 19, 1982, April 27, 1982, Interview with Hubertus Strughold, May 23, 1982, University of Texas at San Antonio: Institute of Texan Cultures: Oral History Collection, UA 15.01, University of Texas at San Antonio Libraries Special Collections.
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Re: Neuschwanstein: A fairy tale darling's dark Nazi past

Postby admin » Fri Sep 27, 2019 8:01 am

Disney's Atomic Fleet
by Mark Langer
Animation World Magazine
April, 1998



Walt Disney with the Richard Nixon family at the 1959 opening of the atomic submarine ride at Disneyland. Photo courtesy of Mark Langer.

In 1959, the largest "atomic" submarine fleet in the world was owned by Walt Disney. While I'm not proposing that a bad day in the Magic Kingdom might have resulted in nuclear Armageddon, the Disney fleet is an historical fact that stems from the cooperation among Disney's business empire, major American arms manufacturers and the U.S. government.

Disney had long established relationships with the federal government dating back to the early 1940s. In a sense, Walt Disney went to war before America did, producing war shorts on contract for the National Film Board of Canada and military production films for Lockheed Aircraft. Days after the Japanese bombing of Pearl Harbor, Walt Disney was in Washington meeting with top government officials. The result of these meetings was The New Spirit(1942), an animated film made to encourage citizens to pay "taxes to smash the Axis." This began a close relationship between Disney and the U.S. government in the production of films for propaganda, training, and educational purposes. These films not only served the needs of the government in wartime, they added over two and a half million dollars to the Disney studio's coffers in the first year of the war alone.

Getting Through the Slump

In 1941, Disney was asked to go on a goodwill tour of Latin and South America by the Office of the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs. The U.S. government was concerned about Axis influence in this part of the world, while Disney and the motion picture industry were interested in developing new markets for their product since the war had cut off traditional export areas in Europe and Asia. Patriotism and good business were intermeshed by the complimentary interests of government and the film industry.

With the end of the war, came a slump in the animation industry. Rising costs of production made animated film, always a marginal enterprise, even more so. Disney sought to strengthen his company's financial position through diversification. Walt Disney Productions already had developed reciprocal ventures with other companies that dated back to the early 1930s, when Disney licensed his characters to corporations like the Lionel Train Company and the Ingersoll Watch Company (now Timex) to produce Mickey Mouse handcars and watches. Mickey Mouse comic strips and a lucrative contract with the Western Printing and Lithographing Company (publishers of the Little Golden Books) were other major sources of income.

Building on this, Disney first moved into live-action films which were more cheaply produced than their animated counterparts. On Christmas Day of 1950, the first Disney television program was aired -- One Hour In Wonderland -- which was a promotion for the upcoming animated theatrical feature Alice In Wonderland (1951). The special reached twenty million viewers, which was a phenomenal number for early television. This not only pleased the sponsor, Coca-Cola, but made a deep impression on Disney executives. At the time, Walt's brother Roy Disney remarked that One Hour In Wonderland "leads us to believe that television can be a most powerful selling aid for us, as well as a source of revenue. It will probably be on this premise that we enter television when we do."

When Disney did enter television, it was part of a move that further diversified Disney's business interests. Disney agreed to produce the "Disneyland" television series for ABC, if the network's parent company would join Disney and Western Publishing as the major investors in the new Disneyland theme park. The television show, amusement park, publishing interests, and movies would all promote each other in a synergistic relationship. By establishing interlocking business relationships with allied companies, Disney was able to create interlocking systems of promotion among different media.

Our Friend The Atom was produced by Disney in cooperation with the U.S. Navy and General Dynamics, builders of the nuclear submarine USS Nautilus. Photo courtesy of Mark Langer.

Atoms for Peace!

The Disneyland amusement park and the "Disneyland" television program were enormously successful, catapulting Disney out of financial difficulty and turning the company into a media giant. This success was noticed by the government in a critical time for American public relations, both internally and internationally. After WWII, the use of atomic energy for defense figured large in the United States government's plans. However, these plans faced growing opposition both from the scientific community and the public in the wake of the American experience in the Korean war and a series of mishaps related to atomic testing.

In order to counter opposition to the military use of atomic weaponry, the Eisenhower administration began a public relations effort called "Atoms for Peace," in which positive propaganda would be developed to promote the use of atomic energy. In a letter to President Eisenhower on December 20, 1955, Acting Director of the United States Information Agency Abbott Washburn reported on his bureau's efforts. Wrote Washburn, "We have also had favorable preliminary conferences with Walt Disney (whose overseas audience surpasses all others) on an `Atoms for Peace' cartoon." (Disney would go on to animate television commercials for Eisenhower's 1957 re-election campaign.)

Our Friend The Atom

Disney was the ideal venue for the government's propaganda effort. Not only did Disney have a long-standing track record of creating government propaganda, but, as Time magazine reported in 1954, almost one billion people worldwide had seen at least one Disney film. After all, Disney was a leader not only in the film industry, but in publishing, television and the amusement park business.

Our Friend The Atom (January 23, 1957), the "Atoms for Peace" cartoon to which Washburn referred, was produced by Disney in cooperation with the U.S. Navy and General Dynamics, builders of the nuclear submarine USS Nautilus. As a "Tomorrowland" segment of the Disneyland television show, Our Friend The Atom relates the history of atomic energy, beginning with a clip from the earlier film 20,000 Leagues Under The Sea, which erroneously maintains that author Jules Verne predicted the use of atomic energy. The film then progresses to an animated fairy tale of a fisherman who finds a bronze bottle in his net. Opening the flask, the fisherman is confronted by a genie, who explains that after centuries of confinement, he has resolved to kill whomever opens the bottle. The fisherman feigns surprise that so large a being could fit into the bottle. The genie returns to the vessel to prove that it can be done, and the wily fisherman corks the bottle up. Finally, the genie relents and promises to grant the fisherman his wishes if the bottle is uncorked. Says the narrator, "The story of the atom is like this fable, come true through science. For centuries we have been casting our nets into the sea of the great unknown in search of knowledge. Finally, we found a vessel and, like the one in the fable, it contains the genie."

In a combination of live-action and animation, Our Friend The Atom moves from this fairy tale premise to an international history of atomic energy that culminates in American control of the technology. To soothe public apprehension, atomic energy is explained in terms of common household items. An atomic reactor, the viewer is told, is just like a big furnace. An atomic chain reaction is likened to what happens when a stray ping-pong ball is thrown at a mass of mousetraps with ping-pong balls set on each one. The narrator relates that an atomic explosion might be like the angry genie, but with the nuclear reactor and the magic power to transmute ordinary materials into radioactive tools in science and medicine, "Here lies our chance to make the atomic genie our friend." The film ends with the prediction that "clean" nuclear reactors will replace grimy coal and oil power plants. Radiation will be used to produce better crops and livestock. People will zoom from place to place in atomic cars, trains, boats and planes. "Then, the atom will become truly our friend."

Heinz Haber, narrator of Our Friend the Atom, with the mousetraps that illustrate nuclear fission. Photo courtesy of Mark Langer.

One Step Further

Our Friend The Atom, both as a telefilm and a companion book printed in several languages by Western Publishing, was an enormous success. This was followed by the further cooperation of General Dynamics, the U.S. government, and Disney in the development of a new US $2,500,000 ride at Disneyland, composed of eight air-conditioned "atomic" submarines. The "Tomorrowland" section of Disney's Magic Kingdom now had the largest fleet of "atomic" submarines in the world. On June 14, 1959, in front of millions of ABC television viewers, Vice-President Richard Nixon and family joined Rear Admiral Charles C. Kirkpatrick of the U.S. Navy and Walt Disney in the maiden voyage of the Disney submarine fleet. A highlight of the ride was a cruise past a graveyard of sunken ships.

One indication of how successfully this ride propagandized the American atomic arms program came from a reporter for the Christian Science Monitor, who enthused that "all these things were turned, by Disney magic and with Disney color, to sheer fun, as though the real purpose of technological achievement, after all, was human happiness." Although Our Friend The Atom and the "atomic" submarine ride at Disneyland were not to be the only examples of cold-war propaganda carried out by Disney, they were in many ways representative of an ongoing network of connections between sections of Disney's Magic Kingdom, the broadcasting networks, the publishing industry, defense contractors, and the state.

Mark Langer teaches film at Carleton University in Ottawa, Canada. He is a frequent contributor to scholarly journals and a programmer of animation retrospectives.
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Re: Neuschwanstein: A fairy tale darling's dark Nazi past

Postby admin » Fri Sep 27, 2019 9:17 am

A Scientist's Nazi-Era Past Haunts Prestigious Space Prize
by Lucette Lagnado
Wall Street Journal
Updated Dec. 1, 2012 2:46 pm ET



Every year since 1963, the Space Medicine Association has given out the Hubertus Strughold Award to a top scientist or clinician for outstanding work in aviation medicine.

Dr. Hubertus Strughold, dubbed the 'Father of Space Medicine,' in an early chamber designed to simulate the conditions in space. Some scientists want his name removed from a medical prize. LUIS MARDEN/NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC STOCK

The prestigious 50-year-old prize is named in honor of the man known as the "Father of Space Medicine," revered for his contributions to America's early space program. The German émigré, who made Texas his home after World War II, is credited with work that helped American astronauts walk on the moon.

But it is what he allegedly did during the war that has fueled a bitter controversy.

Nearly 70 years after the end of World War II, the scientific community is still fractured over the legacy of Nazi science—a conflict underscored by the clash over the Strughold prize.

Dr. Strughold, a former scientist for the Third Reich, was listed as one of 13 "persons, firms or organizations implicated" in some notorious Dachau concentration camp experiments, according to a 1946 memo by the staff of the Nuremberg Trials. The document referenced the infamous hypothermia, or "cold experiments," in which inmates were used, and typically died, as subjects exposed to freezing conditions.

For years, former colleagues and disciples have defended him, saying there was no evidence to conclude he engaged in atrocities. Other space scientists have argued that his involvement in Hitler's war machine should prevent any honors, including the eponymous prize, from being named for him.

He was never tried at Nuremberg. In America, the U.S. Justice Department investigated him at several junctures but never found sufficient grounds for prosecution.

Dr. Strughold headed a major aviation research lab in Nazi Germany before coming to the U.S. where he helped shape the space program. NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE/PHOTO RESEARCHERS, INC

During in his lifetime, Dr. Strughold himself repeatedly denied any involvement in the Dachau experiments or other atrocities. He told a Nuremberg investigator that he knew about the cold experiments but disapproved of such tests on nonvolunteers.

"I have always forbidden even the thought of such experiments in my Institute, firstly on moral grounds and secondly on grounds of medical ethics," he is quoted as saying in this Nuremberg report. His immediate family members are deceased.

Dr. Strughold, who died in 1986, became a revered figure in American science. He built an impressive career, helping to develop the first pressurized space craft cabin that made manned space flights possible. Doctors and scientists in the emerging field of space medicine looked to him as a mentor and some affectionately called him by his nickname, "Struggie." They have remained loyal, despite allegations about his past.

To his defenders, Dr. Strughold was a "pure scientist." His legacy, they say, was to ultimately help America beat the Soviets to the moon.

"I certainly didn't have the feeling that he was a great deceiver," says Dr. Charles Berry, 89, a veteran of the U.S. space program who received the Strughold award in 1967. He strenuously backs Dr. Strughold, whom he came to know in the early days of the space program. "He would sit and talk to you and tell you about any of the subjects you were concerned about," says Dr. Berry.

But as more evidence surfaced in recent years about Dr. Strughold's wartime activities—including the disclosure by German scholars that his institute in Berlin had conducted experiments on young children from a psychiatric asylum—the doctors, scientists and astronauts who inhabit the rarefied world of space and aviation medicine have become embroiled in an anguished debate.

At Dachau, an inmate being subjected to high-altitude conditions. MUSEUM OF JEWISH HERITAGE

"He was not a war criminal," says Dr. Mark Campbell, a former president of the Space Medicine Association. "We would not have been where we are in space medicine without Strughold," he adds.

Dr. Strughold's critics argue that a scientific organization like SMA has no business awarding a prize that honors a man who held a senior position in the Third Reich and was possibly complicit in some of its crimes.

"I never thought that you could prosecute Strughold, but that doesn't mean you have an award in his name," says Professor Robert Proctor of Stanford University, an authority on Nazi-era medicine.

Dr. Russell Rayman, a former Executive Director of the Aerospace Medical Association—an umbrella group that includes the SMA—has lobbied over the years to have the award stripped of the name. He offers a more stark appraisal. Dr. Strughold, he says, "was part of a big killing machine."

The ravages of World War II left the world trying to grapple with the enormity of the crimes that were committed, and pondering how to punish their perpetrators. The Nuremberg Trials, which took place after the war, were intended to bring to justice the worst offenders, including doctors. Major corporations tried to come clean about their business relationships with Hitler's regime.

While the U.S. Justice Department has shrunk its Nazi-hunting arm in recent years, and prosecutions dwindled as suspected war criminals aged and died, roughly a half-dozen cases remain active. Meanwhile, historians and scholars, including many in Germany, continue to probe relentlessly into the country's dark scientific past.

Prof. Proctor believes that the dispute over the Strughold prize is analogous to a larger debate over what researchers call "eponyms"—conditions named after their discoverers. Several disorders and diseases were first identified by German scientists who worked for the Reich and yet still bear their names.

"What do we do with the legacy of Nazi knowledge? How do you honor or dishonor Nazi achievements and Nazi crimes?" asks Professor Proctor.

He cites the example of Dr. Josef Mengele, the notorious Auschwitz physician known as the Angel of Death. Prior to the war, Dr. Mengele had been an avid researcher. "Is it legitimate to say, 'for more on cleft palates, see Mengele, J., 1937'? " he asks.

The Dachau "cold" immersion experiments—whose brutality stood out even in the context of Nazi crimes—have long been a subject of discord in scientific circles. Some have argued the experiments were of no value, so flawed as to be useless. Others have said that despite the horrific means used to obtain the data, the information could still be useful.

Nazi doctors submerged prisoners in freezing water to gauge ways to help downed pilots survive. Dr. Strughold's knowledge of, and possible involvement in, this type of experiment is the subject of intense debate. YAD VASHEM

There is no question, says Professor Robert Pozos, a hypothermia expert at San Diego State University, that the Dachau data seeped into scientific circles after the War, and was referenced in multiple scientific journals.

The conflict over Dr. Strughold began with a single, cryptic remark he made at a conference during the war—a statement that has been studied, analyzed, parsed and dissected by scientists, historians and Nazi hunters for years.

During the war, Dr. Strughold was director of the Aeromedical Research Institute in Berlin, a prominent research facility under the Luftwaffe, the German air force. In that capacity, he attended a 1942 medical conference in Germany. The highlight of the top secret meeting was a presentation on hypothermia or "cold" experiments that were performed on human beings; they were prisoners of the Dachau concentration camp.

The subject was of intense interest to Hitler's war effort. Germany was losing pilots who were shot down in the frigid seas of Northern Europe. Could they be rescued? What would it take to save them?

At Dachau, doctors submerged inmates, some in full pilot gear, in icy water tanks or else forced them to remain naked in frigid temperatures for hours. Their vital signs were monitored and they were observed for how long it took them to die. Some were exposed to scalding temperatures to see if they could be "rewarmed" back to life. Most suffered agonizing pain, and an unknown number perished. The Dachau "cold" experiments became an emblem of the cruelty of Nazi medicine.

In minutes from the "Cold" conference, Dr. Strughold was recorded as saying:

"With regard to the experimental scientific research, but also for the orientation of the Sea Distress service, it is of interest to know what temperatures are to be counted on in the oceans concerned during the various seasons."

Critics of Dr. Strughold and his award argue that his participation at the conference shows, at a minimum, that he was aware of some of the most perverse activities of the Third Reich.

Eli Rosenbaum, a senior human rights prosecutor at the Justice Department who heads its Nazi-hunting program, believes that "Hubertus Strughold encouraged the perpetrators of the now-infamous Dachau concentration camp freezing experiments" or at least signaled "the possible necessity of such repetition," he says. Mr. Rosenbaum is a 30-year veteran of the agency's Nazi-hunting arm.

David Marwell, a former Justice Department historian, recalls investigating Dr. Strughold back in the 1980s for the Nazi-hunting arm and being struck by the significance of his comment at the "Cold" conference.

"We know that he was present when results of the experiments were reported and that he made suggestions that could be interpreted as intended to make the experiments more useful and precise. He didn't stand up and leave or say this is outrageous," says Mr. Marwell, now director of the Museum of Jewish Heritage in Lower Manhattan.

After the War, the "Cold" conference minutes were featured prominently in the Nuremberg Trials. General Telford Taylor, the chief prosecutor, cited them in his opening statement, calling the Dachau experiments "sickening crimes."

Dr. Viktor Harsch, a German physician and author of a friendly biography of Dr. Strughold, says that while the scientist may have known about the Dachau experiments, the comment he made at the conference was very "general" and he doesn't believe it was necessarily related to human experiments.

There were a number of topics discussed, he says, and the remark could have been about "meteorological," or weather, conditions. Dr. Strughold never joined the Nazi party, he points out, and "it was not in his nature" to support human experiments.

Other German authorities on Nazi medicine emphatically disagree. "He was sitting in the Luftwaffe ministry, he was the director of the Medical Research Institute—he knew exactly what was going on at Dachau," says Dr. Wolfgang Eckart, a professor at the University of Heidelberg and the author of a new book on Nazi-era medicine.

"A lot of people were not in the Nazi party," Dr. Eckart contends. "What is most important is what they did—what was their work for the Nazis?"

Adds Dr. Yehezkel Caine, a member of the aerospace medical group who wants the award eliminated, declares: "there is no way on this planet that anyone of Strughold's stature could have been where he was without being complicit."

Within the last decade, German scholars found that at least one set of human experiments—involving children—took place inside Dr. Strughold's own institute. The experiments were also confirmed by his biographer.

In 1943, half a dozen children 11 to 13 years old were taken from a nearby psychiatric facility known as Brandenburg-Goerden and brought over to the Institute. Once there, the children, most of whom had epilepsy, were subjected to "hypoxia," or oxygen deprivation experiments. They were placed in an altitude chamber and administered lower levels of oxygen to see if the conditions would trigger seizures.

In a book on Nazi medical practices between 1927-1945, author Hans-Walter Schmuhl, a German scholar, recounted in detail those experiments, explaining how the tests had initially begun on rabbits. He described how Dr. Strughold had several "vacuum chambers" and the children were subjected to experiments that simulated altitudes of nearly 20,000 feet. The children survived the research, which didn't end up triggering seizures—so the undertaking was deemed a scientific failure.

Even so, Dr. Schmuhl wrote that the scientists "knew from the animal experiments that young epileptic rabbits reacted…with violent, often fatal convulsions" and they "expected (and hoped) that the children would react like the rabbits."

Dr. Harsch says it is unclear whether Dr. Strughold authorized the experiments. But he was in charge, he acknowledges, and therefore bore responsibility for what happened. Brandenburg-Goerden was a center for euthanizing mentally ill patients and other so-called undesirables, including children. Their bodies were disposed of in a nearby crematorium.

Dr. Harsch, who heads the history committee at the German Society for Air and Space Medicine, says he informed his colleagues in 2004 about the experiments on children—a revelation that prompted them to eliminate the Strughold award they had given out since the 1970s.

Back in America, one by one, honors that had been heaped upon Dr. Strughold for his contributions to the space program have been discontinued as a cloud descended over his name. Brooks Air Force Base had named a library for him in 1977, but decided to remove Dr. Strughold's name in 1995 after Jewish groups raised objections. At Ohio State University, his image, part of a glass mural of medical luminaries like Marie Curie, was removed.

But the SMA remained loyal. It has continued to hand out the Strughold Award at a special luncheon held every spring.

Responding to pressure from some of its own members over the award, the association launched an investigation into the matter in 2006, says Dr. Campbell, a former president. He and some colleagues examined the allegations against Dr. Strughold and pored through U.S. and German government records.

"Our response was, he was not a Nazi, he was not a war criminal, and no, we're not going to take his name off the award," Dr. Campbell says. That remains the association's position, he says, unless new evidence links him to atrocities.

Professor Eckart vehemently disagrees, saying the experiments on children were evidence of the kind of work performed at Dr. Strughold's institute. The children were "institutionalized patients," says Dr. Eckart, with no way to give consent. "These experiments were clearly criminal—the risk to the children was recklessly disregarded."

Following The Wall Street Journal's inquiries, both the Space Medicine Association and its umbrella organization, the Aerospace Medical Association, say they are now rethinking the Strughold award. The larger group, which is affiliated with the American Medical Association, stresses that the Space Medicine branch operates independently.

"Why defend him?" says Dr. Stephen Véronneau, a member of both groups. "I can't find another example in the world of honoring Dr. Strughold except my own association."

During a meeting on Nov. 14, Dr. Campbell made an appeal to uphold the award; Dr. Rayman countered that Dr. Strughold's known activities on behalf of Hitler's war machine made him unworthy.

The children's experiments were not mentioned. When contacted by the Journal, Jeff Sventek, the aerospace association's executive director, said the information was new to him.

Dr. Campbell, who was aware of the experiments, says that while wrong and inappropriate, they were "fairly benign."

"I don't defend these experiments," he says. "The question is did Strughold know" about the research. "Just because it was in the chamber in his institute doesn't mean he knew about it," he says.

Dr. Campbell is considering one solution: changing the award's name—but only if there is an agreement stating categorically that Dr. Strughold wasn't a Nazi or a war criminal.

That isn't likely to satisfy critics like Professor Proctor. "You can't whitewash history," he says.

Write to Lucette Lagnado at
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