The Word of the Buddha, by Nyanatiloka Mahathera

That's French for "the ancient system," as in the ancient system of feudal privileges and the exercise of autocratic power over the peasants. The ancien regime never goes away, like vampires and dinosaur bones they are always hidden in the earth, exercising a mysterious influence. It is not paranoia to believe that the elites scheme against the common man. Inform yourself about their schemes here.

Re: The Word of the Buddha, by Nyanatiloka Mahathera

Postby admin » Tue Jan 14, 2020 10:04 am

SECOND STEP. RIGHT MINDEDNESS (Samma-sankappa).

What now is Right Mindedness?

1. The thought free from lust.

2. The thought free from ill-will.

3. The thought free from cruelty.

This is called right mindedness.

Now, right mindedness, let me tell you, is of two kinds:

1. The thoughts free from lust, from ill-will, and from cruelty -.— this is called the “Mundane Right Mindedness" (lokiya-samma-sankappa), which yields worldly fruits and brings good results.

2. But, whatsoever there is of thinking, considering, reasoning, thought, ratiocination, application — the mind being holy, being turned away from the world and conjoined with the path, the holy path being pursued: — these “Verbal Operations’* of the mind (vaci-sankadra) are called the “Ultramundane Right Mindedness” (lokutttara-samma-sankappa), which is not of the world, but is ultramundane and conjoined with the paths.

Now, in understanding wrong-mindedness as wrong and right-mindedness as right, one practises "Right Understanding" (1. step); and in making efforts to overcome evil mindedness, and to arouse right mindedness, one practises "Right Effort” (6. step); and in overcoming evil- mindedness with attentive mind, and dwelling with attentive mind in possession of right mindedness, one practises “Right Attentiveness” (7. step). Hence, there are three things that accompany and follow upon right mindedness, namely: right understanding, right effort, and right attentiveness.
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Re: The Word of the Buddha, by Nyanatiloka Mahathera

Postby admin » Tue Jan 14, 2020 10:05 am

THIRD STEP. RIGHT SPEECH (Samma-vaca).

What now is Right Speech?

1. There, someone avoids lying, and abstains from it. He speaks the truth, is devoted to the truth, reliable, worthy of confidence, is not a deceiver of men. Being at a meeting, or amongst people, or in the midst of his relatives, or in a society, or in the king’s court, and called upon and asked as witness, to tell what he knows, he answers, if he knows nothing: "I know nothing”, and if he knows, he answers: "I know"; if he has seen nothing, he answers: “I have seen nothing”, and if he has seen, he answers: "I have seen”. Thus, he never knowingly speaks a lie, neither for the sake of his own advantage, nor for the sake of another person’s advantage, nor for the sake of any advantage whatsoever.

2. He avoids tale-bearing, and abstains from it. What he has heard here, he does not repeat there, so as to cause dissension there; and what he has heard there, he does not repeat here, so as to cause dissension here. Thus he unites those that are divided, and those that are united he encourages. Concord gladdens him, he delights and rejoices in concord; and it is concord that he spreads by his words,

3. He avoids harsh language, and abstains from it. He speaks such words as are gentle, soothing to the ear, loving, going to the heart, courteous and dear, and agreeable to many.

In Majjhima-Nikaya, No 21, the Buddha says: "Even, O monks, should robbers and murderers saw through your limbs and joints, whoso gave way to anger thereat, would not be following my advice. For thus ought you to train yourselves:

'Undisturbed shall our mind remain, no evil words shall escape our lips; friendly and full of sympathy shall we remain, with heart full of love, and free from any hidden malice; and that person shall we penetrate with loving thoughts, wide, deep, boundless, freed from anger and hatred.’"


4. He avoids vain talk, and abstains from it. He speaks at the right time, in accordance with facts, speaks what is useful, speaks about the law and the discipline; his speech is like a treasure, at the right moment accompanied by arguments, moderate and full of sense.

This is called right speech.

Now, right speech, let me tell you, is of two kinds:

1. Abstaining from lying, from tale-bearing, from harsh language, and from vain talk: this is called the “Mundane Right Speech" (lokiya-samma-vaca), which yields worldly fruits and brings good results.

2. But the abhorrence of the practise of this four-fold wrong speech, the abstaining, withholding, refraining therefrom, the mind being holy, being turned away from the world and conjoined with the path, the holy path being pursued: — this is called the “Ultramundane Right Speech" (lokuttara-samma-vaca), which is not of the world, but is ultramundane and conjoined with the paths.

Now, in understanding wrong speech as wrong, and right speech as right, one practices "Right Understanding" (1. step); and in making efforts to overcome evil speech, and to arouse right speech, one practises "Right Effort" (6. step); and in overcoming wrong speech with attentive mind, and dwelling with attentive mind in possession of right speech, one practises "Right Attentiveness" (7. step). Hence, there are three things that accompany and follow upon right speech, namely: right understanding, right effort, and right attentiveness.
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Re: The Word of the Buddha, by Nyanatiloka Mahathera

Postby admin » Tue Jan 14, 2020 10:05 am

FOURTH STEP. RIGHT ACTION (Samma-kammanta).

What now is Right Action?

1. There someone avoids the killing of living beings, and abstains from it. Without stick or sword, conscientious, full of sympathy, he is anxious for the welfare of all living beings.

2. He avoids stealing, and abstains from it; what another person possesses of goods and chattels in the village or in the wood, that he does not take away with thievish intent.

3. He avoids unlawful sexual intercourse, and abstains from it. He has no intercourse with such persons as are still under the protection of father, mother, brother, sister or relatives, nor with married women, nor female convicts, nor even with flower-decked (engaged) girls.

This is called right action.

Now, right action, let me tell you, is of two kinds:

1. Abstaining from killing, from stealing, and from unlawful sexual intercourse: — this is called the “Mundane Right Action" (lokiya-samma-kammanta), which yields worldly fruits and brings good results.

2. But the abhorrence of the practice of this three, fold wrong action, the abstaining, withholding, refraining therefrom — the mind being holy, being turned away from the world and conjoined will the path, the holy path being pursued: — this is called the “Ultramundane Right Action “(lokuttara-samma-kammanta), which is not of the world, but is altramundane and conjoined with the paths.

Now, in understanding wrong action as wrong, and right action as right, one practises “Right Understanding" (1. step); and in making efforts to overcome wrong action, and to arouse right action, one practises “Right Effort"(6. step); and in overcoming wrong action with attentive mind, and dwelling with attentive mind in possession of right action, one practises "Right Attentiveness" (7. step). Hence, there are three things that accompany and follow upon right action, namely: right understanding, right effort, and right attentiveness.
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Re: The Word of the Buddha, by Nyanatiloka Mahathera

Postby admin » Tue Jan 14, 2020 10:06 am

FIFTH STEP. RIGHT LIVING (Samma-ajiva).

What now is Right Living?

When the noble disciple, avoiding a wrong living, gets his livelihood by a right way of living, this is called right living.

In the Majjhima-Nikaya, No 117, it is said: “To practise deceit, treachery, soothsaying, trickery, usury: this is wrong living".

And in the Anguttara-Nikaya, V. 177, it is said: “Five trades should be avoided by a disciple: trading in arms, in living beings, in flesh, in intoxicating drinks, and in poison.”


Now, right living, let me tell you, is of two kinds:

1. When the noble disciple, avoiding wrong living, gets his livelihood by a right way of living: — this is called the “Mundane Right Living" (lokiya-samma-ajiva), which yields worldly fruits and brings good results.

2 But the abhorrence of wrong living, the abstaining, withholding, refraining therefrom — the mind being holy, being turned away from the world and conjoined with the path, the holy path being pursued this is called the “Ultramundane Right Living” (lokuttara-samma-ajiva), which is not of the world, but is ultra-mundane and conjoined with the paths.

Now, in understanding wrong living as wrong, and right living as right, one practises “Right Understanding" (1. step); and in making efforts to overcome wrong living, to arouse right living, one practises "Right Effort (6. step); and in overcoming wrong living with attentive mind, and dwelling with attentive mind in possession of right living, one practises “Right Attentiveness” (7. step). Hence, there are three things that accompany and follow upon right living, namely: right understanding, right effort, and right attentiveness.
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Re: The Word of the Buddha, by Nyanatiloka Mahathera

Postby admin » Tue Jan 14, 2020 10:06 am

SIXTH STEP. RIGHT EFFORT (Samma-vayama)

What now is Right Effort?

There are Four Great Efforts: the effort to avoid, the effort to overcome, the effort to develop, and the effort to maintain.

1. What now is the effort to avoid? There the disciple incites his mind to avoid the arising of evil, demeritorious things, that have not yet arisen; and he strives, puts forth his energy, strains his mind and struggles.

Thus, when he perceives a form with the eye, a sound with the ear, an odour with the nose, a taste with the tongue, a contact with the body, or an object with the mind, he neither adheres to the whole, nor to its parts. And he strives to ward off that, through which evil and demeritorious things, greed and sorrow, would arise, if he remained with unguarded senses; and he watches over his senses, restrains his senses.

Possessed of this noble “Control over the Senses”, he experiences inwardly a feeling of joy, into which no evil thing can enter.

This is called the effort to avoid.

2. What now is the effort to overcome? There the disciple incites his mind to overcome the evil and demeritorious things, that have already arisen; and he strives, puts forth his energy, strains his mind and struggles.

He does not retain any thought of sensual lust, ill-will or grief, or any other evil and demeritorious states, that may have arisen; he abandons them, dispells them, destroys them, causes them to disappear.

If, whilst regarding a certain object, there arise, on account of it, in the disciple evil and demeritorious thoughts connected with greed, anger and delusion, then the disciple (1) should, by means of this object, gain another and wholesome object. (2) Or, he should reflect on the misery of these thoughts: ‘‘Unwholesome truly are these thoughts! Blameable are these thoughts! Of painful result ate these thoughts!" (3) Or, he should pay no attention to these thoughts. (4) Or, he should consider the compounded nature of these thoughts. (5) Or, with teeth clenched and tongue pressed against the gums, he should with his mind restrain, suppress and root out these thoughts; and in doing so, these evil and demeritorious thoughts of greed, anger and delusion will dissolve and disappear, and the mind will inwardly become settled and calm, composed and concentrated.

This is called the effort to overcome.

3. What now is the effort to develop? There the disciple incites his will to arouse meritorious conditions, that have not yet arisen; and he strives, puts forth his energy, strains his mind and struggles.

Thus he develops the “Elements of Enlightenment” (bojjhanga), bent on solitude, on detachment, on extinction, and ending in deliverance, namely: “Attentiveness” (sati) “Investigation of the Law” (dhamma-vicaya), “Energy” (viriya) “Rapture” (piti), “Tranquillity” (passaddhi), “Concentration” (samadhl), and “Equanimity” (upekkha).

This is called the effort to develop.

4. What now is the effort to maintain? There the disciple incites his will to maintain the meritorious conditions that have already arisen, and not to let them disappear, but to bring them to growth, to maturity and to the full perfection of development (bhavana); and he strives, puts forth his energy, strains his mind and struggles.

Thus, for example, he keeps firmly in his mind a favourable object of concentration that has arisen, as the mental image of a skeleton, of a corpse infested by worms, of a corpse blue-black in colour, of a festering corpse, of a corpse riddled with holes, of a corpse swollen up.

This is called the effort to maintain.

Truly the disciple, who is possessed of faith and has penetrated the Teaching of the master, is filled with the thought; “May rather skin, sinews and bones wither away, may the flesh and blood of my body dry up: I shall not give up my efforts so long as I have not attained whatever is attainable by manly perseverance, energy and endeavour!" This is called right effort.

“The effort of avoiding, overcoming,
Of developing and maintaining:
Such four great efforts have been shown
By him, the scion of the sun.
And he who firmly clings to them
May put an end to all the pain.”
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Re: The Word of the Buddha, by Nyanatiloka Mahathera

Postby admin » Tue Jan 14, 2020 10:08 am

SEVENTH STEP. RIGHT ATTENTIVENESS (Samma-sati).

What now is Right Attentiveness?

The only way that leads to the attainment of purity, to the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, to the end of pain and grief, to the entering upon the right path and the realisation of Nibbana, is the "Four Fundamentals of Attentiveness,” And which are these four?

There the disciple lives in contemplation of the Body, in contemplation of Feeling, in contemplation of the Mind, in contemplation of the Phenomena, ardent, clearly conscious and attentive, after putting away worldly greed and grief.

1. Contemplation of the Body (kayanupassana).

But how does the disciple dwell in the contemplation of the body? There the disciple retires to the forest, to the foot of a tree, or to a solitary place, sits himself down, with legs crossed, body erect, and with attentiveness fixed before him.

With attentive mind be breathes in, with attentive mind he breathes out. When making a long inhalation, he knows: "I make a long inhalation"; when making a long exhalation, he knows: "I make a long exhalation”. When making a short inhalation, he knows: "I make a short inhalation"; when making a short exhalation, he knows: "I make a short exhalation”. "Clearly perceiving the entire [breath-] body, I will breathe in": thus he trains himself; “clearly perceiving the entire [breath-] body, I will breathe out": thus he trains himself. "Calming this bodily function, (kaya-sankhara), I will breathe in”: thus he trains himself; "calming this bodily function, I will breathe out": thus he trains himself.

Thus he dwells in contemplation of the body, either with regard to his own person, or to other persons, or to both. He beholds, how the body arises; beholds how it passes away; beholds the arising and passing away of the body. "A body is there" —

"A body is there, but no living being, no individual, no woman, no man, no self, and nothing that belongs to a self; neither a person, nor anything belonging to a person" (Comm)


: this clear consciousness is present in him, because of his knowledge and mindfulness, and he lives independent, unattached to anything in the world. Thus does the disciple dwell in contemplation of the body.

And further, whilst going, standing, sitting or lying down, the disciple understands [according to reality the expressions]: "I go"; “I stand"; “I sit"; “I lie down"; he understands any position of the body.

"The disciple understands, that there is no living being, no real Ego, that goes, stands etc., but that it is by a mere figure of speech, that one says; 'I go' ‘I stand ’ and so forth" (Comm).


And further, the disciple is clearly conscious in his going and coming; clearly conscious in looking forward and backward; clearly conscious in bending and stretching [any part of his body]; clearly conscious in eating, drinking, chewing and tasting; clearly conscious in discharging excrement and urine; clearly conscious in walking, standing, sitting, falling asleep and awakening; dearly conscious in speaking and in keeping silent.

''In all that the disciple is doing he is clearly conscious: 1. of his intention, 2. of his advantage, 3. of his duty, 4. of the reality.” (Comm.’)


And further, the disciple contemplates this body from the sole of the foot upward, and from the top of the hair downward, with a skin stretched over it, and filled with manifold impurities: "This body consists of hairs, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, sinews, bones, marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, diaphragm, spleen, lungs, intestines, bowels, stomach, and excrement; of bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweet, lymph, tears, serum, spittle, nasal mucus, oil of the joints, and urine."

Just as if there were a sack, with openings at both ends, filled with all kinds of grain, — with paddy, beans, sesamum and husked rice — and a man not blind opened it and examined its contents, thus: "That is paddy, these are beans, this is sesamum, this is husked rice"; even so does the disciple investigate this body.

And further, the disciple contemplates this body with regard to the elements: "This body consists of the solid element, the liquid element, the heating element, and the vibrating element. Just as a skilled butcher or butcher’s apprentice, who has slaughtered a cow and divided it into separate portions, should sit down at the junction of four highroads; just so does the disciple contemplate this body with regard to the elements.

1. And further, just as if the disciple would see a corpse thrown into the burial-ground. one, two, or three days dead, swollen up, blue-black in colour, full of corruption, — he draws the conclusion as to his own body: “This my body also has this nature, has this destiny, and cannot escape it."

2. And further, just as if the disciple would see a corpse thrown into the burial-ground, eaten by crows, hawks or vultures, by dogs or jackals, or gnawed by all kinds of worms, — he draws the conclusion as to his own body: "This my body also has this nature, has this destiny, and cannot escape it".

3. And further, just as if the disciple would see a corpse thrown into the burial-ground, a frame-work of bones, flesh hanging from it, bespattered with blood, held together by the sinews;

4 — A framework of bones, stripped of flesh, bespattered with blood, held together by the sinews;

5 — A framework of bones, without flesh and blood, but still held together by the sinews;

6. — Bones, disconnected and scattered in all directions, here a bone of the hand, there a bone of the foot, there a shin bone, there a thigh bone, there the pelvis, there the spine, there the skull, — he draws the conclusion as to his own body: “This my body also has this nature, has this destiny, and cannot escape it".

7. And further, just as if the disciple would see bones lying in the burial ground, bleached and resembling shells;

8 — Bones heaped together after the lapse of years;

9 — Bones, weathered away and crumbled to dust; — he draws the conclusion as to his own body; "This my body also has this nature, has this destiny, and cannot escape it".

Thus he dwells in contemplation of the body, either with regard to his own person, or to other persons, or to both. He beholds, how the body arises; beholds how it passes away; beholds the arising and passing away of the body. “A body is there”: this clear consciousness is present in him, because of his knowledge and mindfulness, and he lives independent, unattached to anything in the world. Thus does the disciple dwell in contemplation of the body.

Once the contemplation of the body is practised, developed, often repeated, has become one’s habit, one’s foundation, is firmly established, strengthened and well perfected, one may expect ten blessings:

Over Delight and Discontent one has mastery; one does not allow one’s self to be overcome by discontents one subdues it as soon as it arises.

One conquers Fear and Anxiety; one does not allow one’s self to be overcome by fear and anxiety; one subdues them as soon as they arise.

One endures cold and heat, hunger and thirst, wind and sun, attacks by gadflies, mosquitoes and reptiles; patiently one endures wicked and malicious speech, as well as bodily pains, that befall one, though they be piercing, sharp, bitter, unpleasant, disagreeable and dangerous to life.

The four "Trances” (jhana), the mind-purifying, bestowing happiness even here: these one may enjoy at will, without difficulty, without effort.

(1) One may enjoy the different “Magical Powers” (iddhi-vidha).

(2) With the “HeavenIy Ear” (dibba-sota), the purified, the super-human, one may hear both kinds of sounds, the heavenly and the earthly, the distant and the near.

(3) With the mind one may obtain "Insight into the Hearts of Other Beings” (parassa ceto-parinna-nana), of other persons.

(4) One may obtain “Remembrance of many Previous Births" (pubbenivas' anussati-nana).

(5) With the “Heavenly Eye” (dibba-cakkhu), the purified, the super-human, one may see beings vanish and reappear, the base and the noble, the beautiful and the ugly, the happy and the unfortunate; one may perceive how beings are reborn according to their deeds.

(6) One may, through the “Cessation of Passions” (asavahkhaya), come to know for oneself, even in this life, the stainless deliverance of mind, the deliverance through wisdom.

The first 5 of these "Psychical Powers" (abhinna), as such, are mundane (lokiya) conditions and may therefore be attained even by a so-called “worldling” (puthujjana), whilst the 6th Abhinna is "ultramundane" (lokuttara) and exclusively the characteristic of the Arahat or Holy One. — It is only after the attainment of all the four Jhana's that one may fully succeed in reaching the 5 worldly Abhinnas. — There are 4 "Iddhi-padas” or “Bases for obtaining Magical Powers,” namely: concentration of Will, concentration of Energy, concentration of Mind, and concentration of Investigation.


2. Contemplation of the Feelings (vedananupassana).

But how does the disciple dwell in the contemplation of the feelings?

In experiencing feelings, the disciple knows: “I have an agreeable feeling", or: “I have a disagreeable feeling", or: "I have an indifferent feeling”; or: "I have a worldly agreeable feeling”, or: ‘‘I have an unworldly agreeable feeling”; or: “I have a worldly disagreeable feeling”, or: ‘‘I have an unworldly disagreeable feeling”; or: “I have a worldly indifferent feeling”, or; “I have an unworldly indifferent feeling”.

Only the mental and bodily feelings may be either agreeable or disagreeable. The feelings, bound up with the act of seeing, hearing, smelling and tasting, however, are as such always indifferent.


Thus he dwells in contemplation of the feelings either with regard to his own person, or to other persons, or to both. He beholds how the feelings arise; beholds how they piss away; beholds the arising and passing away of the feelings. "Feelings are there": this clear consciousness is present in him, because of his knowledge and mindfulness, and he lives independent, unattached to anything in the world. Thus does the disciple dwell in contemplation of the feelings.

The disciple understands that the expression 'I feel’ has no validity except as an expression of common speech; he understands that, in the absolute sense (piramattha), there are only feelings, and that there is no Ego, no person, no experiencer of the feelings.


3. Contemplation of the Mind (cittanupassana).

But how does the disciple dwell in contemplation of the mind?

There the disciple knows the greedy mind as greedy, and the not-greedy mind as not-greedy; knows the angry mind as angry, and the not-angry mind as not-angry; knows the deluded mind as deluded, and the undeluded mind as undeluded. He knows the composed mind as composed, and the scattered mind as scattered; knows the developed mind as developed, and the undeveloped mind as undeveloped; knows the surpassable mind as surpassable, and the unsurpassable mind as unsurpassable; knows the concentrated mind as concentrated, and the unconcentrated mind as unconcentrated; knows the freed mind as freed, and the unfreed mind as unfreed.

Citta [mind) is hero used as a collective for the cittas or moments of consciousness. Citta, being identical with vinnana or consciousness, should not be translated by ‘thought’. 'Thought' and 'thinking’ correspond rather to the so-called 'verbal actions of the mind’: vitakka and vicara, which belong to the Sankhara-kkhandha. They are not, like consciousness, of primary, but of secondary nature and may even be entirely absent in consciousness, as in the case of the 2nd, 3rd and 4th Jhana (see 8th step).


Thus he dwells in contemplation of the mind, either with regard to his own person, or to other persons, or to both. He beholds how the mind arises; beholds how it passes away; beholds the arising and passing away of the mind. "Mind is there": this clear consciousness is present in him, because of his knowledge and mindfulness, and he lives independent, unattached to anything in the world. Thus does the disciple dwell in contemplation of the mind.

4. Contemplation of the Phenomena (dhammanupassana).

But how does the disciple dwell in contemplation of the phenomena?

There the disciple dwells in contemplation of the phenomena, namely of the “Five Hindrances”.

1. He knows when there is “Lust” (kama-cchanda) in him: “In me is lust”; knows when there is "Anger" (vyapada) in him: "In me is anger"; knows when there is "Torpor and Drowsiness” (thina-middha,) in him: "In me is torpor and drowsiness"; knows when there is “Restlessness and Mental Worry” (uddhaccca-kukkucca) in him: “In me is restlessness and mental worry”; knows when there are “Doubts" (vicikiccha) in him: “In me are doubts”. He knows when these hindrances are not in him. "In me these hindrances are not", He knows how they come to arise; knows how, once arisen, they are overcome; knows how, once overcome, they do not rise again in the future.

For example, "Lust" arises through unwise thinking on the agreeable and delightful, and it may be suppressed by the following six methods: fixing the mind upon an idea that arouses disgust; contemplation of the loathsomeness of the body; controlling one’s six senses; moderation in eating; friendship with wise and good men; right instruction. Lust is for ever extinguished upon entrance into Anagami-ship. — "Restlessness" is extinguished by reaching Arahatship, "Mental Worry" by reaching Sotapanship.


And further: the disciple dwells in contemplation of the phenomena, namely of the five "Aggregates of Existence”. He knows, what “Bodily Form” (rupa) is, how it arises, how it passes away; knows what “Feeling” (vedana) is, how it arises, how it passes away; knows what "Perception” (sanna) is, how it arises, bow it passes away; knows what the "Mental Formations” (sankhara) are, how they arise, how they pass away; knows what “Consciousness” (vinnana) is, how it arises, how it passes away.

And further: the disciple dwells in contemplation of the phenomena, namely of the six "Subjective-Objective Sense-Factors”. He knows eye and forms, ear and sounds, nose and odours, tongue and tastes, body and touches, mind and ideas; and the fetter that arises in dependence on them, he also knows. He knows how the fetter comes to arise, knows how the fetter is overcome, and how the abandoned fetter does not rise again in future.

And further: the disciple dwells in contemplation of the phenomena, namely of the seven "Elements of Enlightenment". The disciple knows when there is "Attentiveness” (sati) in him; when there is Investigation of the Law” (dhamma-vicaya) in him; when there is "Enthusiasm" (piti) in him; when there is "Tranquillity" (passaddhi) in him; when there is “Concentration” (samadhi) in him; when there is "Equanimity" (upekkha) in him. He knows when it is not in him; knows how it comes to arise, and how it is fully developed.

And farther; the disciple dwells in contemplation of the phenomena, namely of the “Four Noble Truths.” He knows according to reality, what Suffering is; knows according to reality, what the Origin of suffering is; knows according to reality, what the Extinction of suffering is; knows according to reality, what the Path is, that leads to the extinction of suffering.

Thus he dwells in contemplation of the phenomena, either with regard to his own person, or to other persons, or to both. He beholds how the phenomena arise; beholds how they pass away; beholds the arising and passing away of the phenomena. “Phenomena are there”: this clear consciousness is present in him, because of his knowledge and mindfulness, and he lives independent, unattached to anything in the world. Thus does the disciple dwell in contemplation of the phenomena.

The only way that leads to the attainment of purity, to the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, to the end of pain and grief, to the entering upon the right path and the realisation of Nibbana, is these four fundamentals of attentiveness.

These four contemplations relate to the five Aggregates of existence, namely: 1. The contemplation on bodily form relates to rupakkhandha, 2. the contemplation on feeling to vedana-khandha, 3. the contemplation on mind to vinnanakkhandha, 4 the contemplation on the phenomena to sanna- and sankhara-kkhandha.


"Watching over In- and Out-breathing” (anapana-sati) practised and developed, brings the Four "Fundamentals of Attentiveness" to perfection; the four fundamentals of attentiveness, practised and developed, bring the seven "Elements of Enlightenment" to perfection; the seven elements of enlightenment, practised and developed, bring “Wisdom and Deliverance" to perfection.

But how does Watching over In- and Out-breathing, practised and developed, bring the four “Fundamentals of Attentiveness” (sati patthana) to perfection?

I. Whenever the disciple (1) is conscious in making along inhalation or exhalation, or (2) in making a short inhalation or exhalation, or (3) is training him- self to inhale or exhale whilst feeling the whole [breath-] body, or (4) whilst calming down this bodily function (i.e. the breath)— at such a time the disciple is dwelling in contemplation of the body”, full of energy, clearly conscious, attentive, after subduing worldly greed and grief. For, inhalation and exhalation I call one amongst the bodily things.

II. Whenever the disciple is training himself to inhale or exhale (1) whilst feeling, rapture (piti), or (2) joy (sukha), or (3) the mental functions (citta-sankhara), or (4) whilst calming down the mental functions— at such a time he is dwelling in “contemplation of the feelings", full of energy, clearly conscious, attentive, after subduing worldly greed and grief. For, the full awareness of in- and out-breathing I call one amongst the feelings.

III. Whenever the disciple is training himself to inhale or exhale (1) whilst feeling the mind, or (2) whilst gladdening the mind, or (3) whilst concentrating the mind, or (4) whilst setting the mind free — at such a time he is dwelling in "contemplation of the mind”, full of energy, clearly conscious, attentive, after subduing worldly greed and grief. For, without attentiveness and clear consciousness, I say, there is no Watching over In- and Out-breathing.

IV. Whenever the disciple is training himself to inhale or exhale, whilst contemplating (1) impermanency, or (2) the fading away of passion, or (3) extinction, or (4) detachment — at such a time he is dwelling in “contemplation of the phenomena”, full of energy, clearly conscious, attentive, after subduing worldly greed and grief.

Watching over in- and out-breathing, thus practised and developed, brings the four fundamentals of attentiveness to perfection.

But how do the four fundamentals of attentiveness, practised and developed, bring the seven “Elements of Enlightenment” (bojjhanga) to full perfection?

1. Whenever the disciple is dwelling in contemplation on the body, feelings, mind and phenomena, strenuous, clearly conscious, attentive, after subduing worldly greed and grief— at such a time his attentiveness is undisturbed; and whenever his attentiveness is present and undisturbed, at such a time he has gained and is developing the Element of Enlightenment “Attentiveness” (sati-sambojjhanga); and thus this element of enlightenment reaches fullest perfection.

2. And whenever, whilst dwelling with attentive mind, he wisely investigates, examines and thinks over the ‘Law’ (dhamma) — at such a time he has gained and is developing the Element of Enlightenment “Investigation of the Law" (dhammavicaya-sambojjhanga); and thus this element of enlightenment reaches fullest perfection.

3. And whenever, whilst wisely investigating, examining and thinking over the law, his energy is firm and unshaken — at such a time he has gained and is developing the Element of Enlightenment "Energy” (viriya-sambojjhanga); and thus this element of enlightenment reaches fullest perfection.

4. And whenever in him, whilst firm in energy, arises super-sensuous rapture — at such a time he has gained and is developing the Element of Enlightenment "Rapture” (piti-sambojjhanga); and thus this element of enlightenment reaches fullest perfection.

5. And whenever, whilst enraptured in mind, his body and mind becomes tranquil — at such a time he has gained and is developing the Element of Enlightenment “Tranquillity” (passaddhi-sambojjhanga); and thus this element of enlightenment reaches fullest perfection.

6. And whenever, whilst tranquillised in body and happy, his mind becomes concentrated — at such a time he he has gained and is developing the Element of Enlightenment “Concentration” (samadhi-sambojjhanga); and thus this element of enlightenment reaches fullest perfection.

7. And whenever he thoroughly looks with indifference to his mind thus concentrated — at such a time he has gained and is developing the Element of Enlightenment “Equanimity” (upekhha-sambojjhanga,).

The four fundamentals of attentiveness, thus practised and developed, bring the seven elements of enlightenment to full perfection.

But how do the seven elements of enlightenment, practised and developed, bring Wisdom and Deliverance (vijja-vimutti) to full perfection?

There the disciple is developing the elements of enlightenment: Attentiveness, Investigation of the Law, Energy, Rapture, Tranquillity, Concentration and Equanimity, bent on detachment, absence of desire, extinction and renunciation.

Thus practised and developed do the seven elements of enlightenment bring wisdom and deliverance to full perfection.

Just as the elephant hunter drives a huge stake into the ground and chains the wild elephant to it by the neck, in order to drive out of him his wonted forest ways and wishes, his forest unruliness, obstinacy and violence, and to accustom him to the environment of the village, and to teach him such good behaviour as is required amongst men: — in like manner also has the noble disciple to fix his mind firmly to these four fundamentals of attentiveness, so that he may drive out of himself his wonted worldly ways and wishes, his wonted worldly unruliness, obstinacy and violence, and win to the True and realise Nibbana.
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Re: The Word of the Buddha, by Nyanatiloka Mahathera

Postby admin » Tue Jan 14, 2020 10:09 am

EIGHTH STEP. RIGHT CONCENTRATION (Samma-samadhi).

What now is Right Concentration?

Fixation of the mind to a single object (citt' ekagga-ta, lit. "One-pointedness of mind") this is concentration.

“Right Concentration” (samma-samadhi), in its widest sense, is that kind of mental concentration, which is present in every meritorious state of consciousness (kusala-citta), and is hence accompanied by Right Mindedness (2. step), Right Effort (6. step) and Right Attentiveness (7. step); “Wrong Concentration” is present in demeritorious states of consciousness, and hence is only possible in the sensuous sphere, not in the trances. The Abhidhamma speaks of a Kamavacara-kusala-jhana and a Kamavacara-akusala-jhana, i.e. of absorption in good or evil thought belonging to the sensuous sphere. Samadhi, used alone, always stands for samma-samadhi or Right Concentration.


The four "Fundamentals of Attentiveness" (7. step): — these are the objects of concentration.

The four "Great Efforts" (6. step): — these are the requisites for concentration.

The practising, developing and cultivating of these things: — this is the “Development” (bhavana) of concentration.

Right Concentration or samma-samadhi has two degrees of development: 1. “Neighbourhood-Concentration” (upacara- samadhi), which approaches the first trance, without however attaining it. 2. “Attainment Concentration” (appana-samadhi), which is the concentration present in the four trances. The attainment of the trances, however, is not a requisite for the realisation of the Four Ultramundane Paths of Holiness (see p.27); and neither Neighbourhood-Concentration nor Attainment Concentration, as such, in any way possesses the power of conferring entry into the Four Ultramundane Paths; hence they really have no power to free oneself permanently from evil things. The realisation of the Four Ultramundane Paths is only possible at the moment of deep “Insight” (vipassana) into the Impermanency (anicca-ta). Miserable Nature (dukkha-ta) and Impersonality (anatta-ta) of this whole phenomenal process of existence. This “Insight”, again, is attainable only during Neighbourhood-Concentration, not during Attainment-Concentration.

He who has realised one or other of the Four Ultramundane Paths without having ever attained the Trances, is called Sukkha-vipassaka, a "Dry-visioned One", or one whose passions are “dried up by Insight." He, however, who after cultivating the trances has reached one of the Ultramundane Paths, is called Samatha-Yanaka, or “one who has taken tranquillity (samatha) as his vehicle (yana)”.


Detached from sensual objects, detached from demeritorious things, the disciple enters into the first trance, which is accompanied by "Verbal Thought" and "Rumination", is born of "Detachment", and filled with "Rapture" and "Happiness.”

This first trance is free from five things, and five things are present: when the disciple enters the first trance, there have vanished [the 5 Hindrances]: Lust, Ill-will, Torpor and Dulness, Restlessness and Mental Worry, Doubts; and there are present: Verbal Thought (vitakka), Rumination (vicara), Rapture (piti), Happiness (sukha), and Concentration (citt’ ekaggatti = samadhi).

Vitakka (initial formation of an abstract thought) and vicara (continued thinking) are so-called "verbal functions" (vaci-sankhara) of the mind, hence, as above already stated, something secondary compared with consciousness. In Visuddhi-Magga vitakka is compared with the taking hold of a pot, and vicara with the wiping out of the same.


And further: after the subsiding of verbal thought and rumination, and by the gaining of inward tranquillisation and oneness of mind, he enters into a state free from verbal thought and rumination, the second trance, which is born of "Concentration" (samadhi) and filled with "Rapture" (piti) and "Happiness" (sukha).

And further: after the fading away of rapture, he dwells in equanimity, attentive, clearly conscious, and he experiences in his person that feeling, of which the noble Ones say: "Happy lives the man of equanimity and attentive mind" — thus he enters the third trance.

The third trance is conditioned by (upekkha)-sukha and citt'-ekaggata, i.e. (equanimous) “Happiness” and “Concentration”.


And further: after the giving up of pleasure and pain, and through the disappearance of previous joy and grief, he enters into a state beyond pleasure and pain, into the fourth trance, which is purified by equanimity and attentiveness.

The four Trances may be obtained by means of Anapana-sati, or Watching over In- and Out- breathing, as well as through the 4th sublime meditation, the "Meditation of Equanimity" (upek-kha-bhavana), and others.

The 3 other Sublime Meditations of: “Loving Kindness” (metta-bhavana), “Compassion” (karuna-bhavana) and "Sympathetic Joy" (mudita-bhavana) may lead to the attainment of the first three Trances. The “Cemetery Meditations”, as well as the Meditation on “Loathsomeness” (asubha-bhava-na), will only produce, the First Trance.

The "Analysis of the Body" and the Contemplation on the Buddha, the Law, the Holy Brotherhood, Morality etc will only produce "Neighbourhood-Concentration" (upacara-samadhi).


Develop your concentration; for he who has concentration understands things according to their reality. And what are these things? The arising and passing away of bodily form, of feeling, perception, mental formations and consciousness.

Thus these five "Aggregates" of existence must be wisely penetrated; delusion and craving must be wisely abandoned; "Tranquillity" (samatha) and “Insight” (vipassana) must be wisely developed.

This is the Middle Path which the Perfect One has discovered, which makes one both to see and to know, and which leads to peace, to discernment, to enlightenment, to Nibbana.

And following upon this path you will put an end to suffering.
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Re: The Word of the Buddha, by Nyanatiloka Mahathera

Postby admin » Tue Jan 14, 2020 10:10 am

GRADUAL REALISATION OF THE EIGHTFOLD PATH IN THE PROGRESS OF THE DISCIPLE

Suppose, a householder, or his son, or someone reborn in any family, hears the law, and after hearing the law he is filled with confidence in the Perfect One. And filled with this confidence, he thinks: ‘Full of hindrances is household life, a refuse heap; but pilgrim life is like the open air. Not easy is it, when one lives at home, to fulfill point by point the rules of the holy life. How, if now I were to cut off hair and beard, put on the yellow robe and go forth from home to the homeless life?’ And in a short time, having given up his more or less extensive possessions, having forsaken a smaller or larger circle of relations, he cuts off hair and beard, puts on the yellow robe, and goes forth from home to the homeless life.

Having thus left the world, he fulfills the rules of the monks. He avoids the killing of living beings and abstains from it. Without stick or sword, conscientious, full of sympathy, he is anxious for the welfare of all living beings. — He avoids stealing and abstains from taking what is not given to him. Only what is given to him he takes, waiting till it is given; and he lives with a heart honest and pure. — He avoids unchastity, living chaste, resigned, and keeping aloof from sexual intercourse the vulgar. — He avoids lying and abstains from it. He speaks the truth, is devoted to the truth, reliable, worthy of confidence, is not a deceiver of men. — He avoids tale-bearing and abstains from it. What he has heard here, he does not repeat there, so as to cause dissension there; and what he has heard there, he does not repeat here, so as to cause dissension here. Thus he unites those that are divided, and those that are united he encourages; concord gladdens him, he delights and rejoices in concord; and it is concord that he spreads by his words. — He avoids harsh language and abstains from it. He speaks such words as are gentle, soothing to the ear, loving, going to the heart, courteous and dear, and agreeable to many. — He avoids vain talk and abstains from it. He speaks at the right time, in accordance with facts, speaks what is useful, speaks about the law and the discipline; his speech is like a treasure, at the right moment accompanied by arguments, moderate, and full of sense.

He keeps aloof from dance, song, music and the visiting of shows; rejects dowers, perfumes, ointment, as well as every kind of adornment and embellishment. High and gorgeous beds he does not use. Raw corn and meat he does not accept. Women and girls he does not accept. He owns no male and female slaves, owns no goats, sheep, fowls, pigs, elephants, cows or horses, no land and goods. He does not go on errands and do the duties of a messenger. He keeps aloof from buying and selling things. He has nothing to do with false measures, metals and weights. He avoids crooked ways of bribery, deception and fraud. He keeps aloof from stabbing, beating, chaining, attacking, plundering and oppressing.

He contents himself with the robe that protects his body, and with the alms with which he keeps himself alive. Wherever he goes he is provided with these two things, just as a winged bird, in flying, carries his wings along with him. By fulfilling this noble Domain of Morality (sila-kkhandha) he feels in his heart an irreproachable happiness.

Now, in perceiving a form with the eye — a sound with the ear — an odour with the nose — a taste with the tongue — a touch with the body — an object with his mind, he sticks neither to the whole, nor to its details. And he tries to ward off that, which, by being unguarded in his senses, might give rise to evil and demeritorious states, to greed and sorrow; he watches over his senses, keeps his senses under control. By practising this noble “Control of the Senses” (indriya-samvara) he feels in his heart an unblemished happiness.

Clearly conscious is he in his going and coming; clearly conscious in looking forward and backward; clearly conscious in bending and stretching his body; clearly conscious in eating, drinking, chewing and tasting; clearly conscious in discharging excrement and urine; clearly conscious in walking, standing, sitting, falling asleep and awakening; clearly conscious in speaking and keeping silent.

Now, being equipped with this lofty “Morality” (sila), equipped with this noble “Control of the Senses” (indriya-samvara), and filled with this noble “Attentiveness and Clear Consciousness” (sati-sampajanna), he chooses a secluded dwelling in the forest, at the foot of a tree, on a mountain, in a cleft, in a rock cave, on a burial ground, on a woody table-land, in the open air, or on a heap of straw. Having returned from his alms-round, he, after the meal, sits himself down with legs crossed, body erect, with attentiveness fixed before him.  

He has cast away “Lust” (kama-cchanda); he dwells with a heart free from lust; from lust he cleanses his heart.

He has cast away “Ill-will” (vyapada); he dwells with a heart free from ill-will; cherishing love and compassion toward all living beings, he cleanses his heart from ill-will.

He has cast away “Torpor and Dullness” (thina-middha); he dwells free from torpor and dulness; loving the light, with watchful mind, with clear consciousness, he cleanses his mind from torpor and dulness.

He has cast away “Restlessness and Mental Worry” (uddhacca-kukkucca); dwelling with mind undisturbed, with heart full of peace, he cleanses his mind from restlessness and mental worry.

He has cast away “Doubt” (vicikiccha); dwelling free from doubt, full of confidence in the good, he cleanses his heart from doubt.

He has put aside these five "Hindrances" (nivarana) and learnt to know the paralysing corruptions of the mind. And far from sensual impressions, far from demeritorious things, he enters into the Four Trances (jhana).

But whatsoever there is of feeling, perception, mental formations, or consciousness —: all these phenomena he regards as “impermanent” (anicca), "subject to pain” (dukkha), as infirm, as an ulcer, a thorn, a misery, a burden, an enemy, a disturbance, as empty and "void of an Ego" (anatta); and turning away from these things, he directs his mind towards the abiding, thus: 'This, verily, is the Peace, this is the Highest, namely the end of all formations, the forsaking of every substratum of rebirth, the fading away of craving, detachment, extinction, Nibbana.’ And in this state he reaches the “cessation of passions” (asavakkhaya-Nibbana).

And his heart becomes free from sensual passion, free from the passion for existence, free from the passion of ignorance. 'Freed am I!': this knowledge arises in the liberated one; and he knows: ‘Exhausted is rebirth, fulfilled the Holy Life; what was to be done, has been done; naught remains more for this world to do.'

"For ever am I liberated,
This is the last time that I'm born,
No new existence waits for me.”


This, verily, is the highest, holiest wisdom: to know that all suffering has passed away.

This, verily, is the highest, holiest peace: appeasement of greed, hatred and delusion.

‘I am* is a vain thought; ‘I am not’ is a vain thought; 'I shall be' is a vain thought; '1 shall not be' is a vain thought. Vain thoughts are a sickness, an ulcer, a thorn. But after overcoming all vain thoughts one is called a silent thinker. And the thinker, the silent One, does no more arise, no more pass away, no more tremble, no more desire. For there is nothing in him that he should arise again. And as he arises no more, how should he grow old again? And as he grows no more old, how should he die again? And as he dies no more, how should he tremble? And as he trembles no more, how should he have desire?

Hence, the purpose of the Holy Life does not consist in acquiring alms, honour, or fame, nor in gaining morality, concentration, or the eye of knowledge. That unshakable deliverance of the heart: that, verily, is the object of the Holy Life, that is the essence, that is its goal.

And those, who formerly, in the past, were Holy and Enlightened Ones, also those Blessed Ones have pointed out to their disciples this self-same goal, as has been pointed out by me to my disciples. And those, who afterwards, in the future, will be Holy and Enlightened Ones, those Blessed Ones also will point out to their disciples this self-same goal, as has been pointed out by me to my disciples.

However, disciples, it may be that (after my passing away) you might think: 'Gone is the doctrine of our Master. We have no Master more.' But thus you should not think; for the “Law” (dhamma) and the "Discipline" (vinaya), which I have taught you, will, after my death, be your master.

"The Law be your light,
The law be your refuge!
Do not look for any other refuge!"


Therefore, disciples, the doctrines, which I advised you to penetrate, you should well preserve, well guard, so that this Holy Life may take its course and continue for ages, for the weal and welfare of the many, as a consolation to the world, for the happiness, weal and welfare of heavenly beings and men.
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